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Baron d'Holbach by Max Pearson Cushing

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Avignon, Niel, 2 vols., 12mo.

13. 1803, Mangold, F. X. von, Unumstossliche Widerlegung des
Materialismus gegen den Verfasser des _Systems der Natur_.
Augsburg, 1803.

Of these and other refutations of materialism such as Saint-Martin's
_Des erreurs et de la vérité_, Dupont de Nemours' _Philosophie de
l'univers_, Delisles de Sales' _Philosophie de la nature_, etc.,
which are not directed explicitly against the _Système de la Nature_,
the works of Voltaire and Frederick the Great are the most interesting
but by no means the most serious or convincing. Morley finds Voltaire
very weak and much beside the point, especially in his discussion of
order and disorder in nature which Holbach had denied. Voltaire's
argument is that there must be an intelligent motor or cause behind
nature (p. 7). This is God (p. 8). He admits at the outset that all
systems are mere dreams but he continues to insist with a dogmatism
equal to Holbach's on the validity of his dream. He repeatedly asserts
without foundation that Holbach's system is based on the false experiment
of Needham (pp. 5, 6), and even goes so far as to ridicule the
evolutionary hypothesis altogether (p. 6). He speaks of the necessity
of a belief in God, by a kind of natural logic. God and matter exist
in the nature of things, "Tout nous announce un Être suprême, rien ne
nous dit ce qu'il est." God himself seems to be a kind of fatalistic
necessity. "C'est ce que vous appellerez Nature et c'est ce que j'appelle
Dieu." At the end he shifts the argument from the base of necessity to
that of utility. Which is the more consoling doctrine? If the idea of
God has prevented ten crimes I hold that the entire world should embrace
it (p. 27). As Morley has said, such arguments could scarcely have
convinced Voltaire himself.

Frederick was surprised that Voltaire and D'Alembert had found anything
good in the book. His refutation was more methodical than that of
Voltaire, who called it a "homage to the Divinity" but wrote to D'Alembert
that it was written in the style of a notary. Two other refutations
emanating from the Academy of Berlin were those of Castillon and Holland.
The first of these is a very heavy and learned work, formidable and
forbidding in its logic. Castillon reduces Holbach's propositions to
three. The self-existence of matter, the essential relation of movement
to it, and the possibility of deriving everything from it or some mode of
it. Castillon concludes after five hundred pages of reasoning that matter
is contingent, movement not inherent in it, and that purely spiritual beings
exist in independence of it. Hence the _Système de la Nature_ is a "long
and wicked error." Holland's is a still more serious work, which the
Sorbonne recommended strongly as an antidote against Holbach's _Système_
which it qualified as "une malheureuse production que notre siècle doit
rougir d'avoir enfantée." But when it was discovered that Holland was a
Protestant his work was condemned forthwith, Jan. 17, 1773.

Bergier's refutation is interesting as an attack from a churchman of
extraordinary keenness and insight into the progress of the new
philosophy. In the _Système de la Nature_ he recognized the hand
of the author of _La Contagion sacrée_ and the _Essai sur les préjugés_
and dealt with it as he did the _Christianisme dévoilé_. Buzonniere,
Rochfort and Fangouse are milder and more naive in their demonstrations
and their works are of no weight or interest. _L'Impie démasqué_ is a
brutal work which qualifies Holbach as a "vile apostle of vice and crime,"
and the _Système de la Nature_ as the most impudent treatise on atheism
that has yet dishonored the globe--one which covers the century with
shame and will be the scandal of future generations.

The work of Paulian is of a different sort. Coming comparatively late,
it attempted to review the hostile opinions of many years and then mass
them in an overwhelming final attack on the _Système de la Nature_. To
this end Paulian rewrites the entire book chapter by chapter, giving the
"true version." He then reviews Holland's outline and Bergier's comments,
together with seven articles directed explicitly against the _Système de
la Nature_ in such works as the _Lettres Helviennes_, of Abbé Barruel,
_Dict. des Philosophes_, _Dict. anti-philosophe_, his own _Dict.
théologique_, etc., besides many other writings against the new philosophy
in general. He then reviews articles by members of the philosophic
school against materialism and then goes back to Holbach's sources,
Diderot, Bayle, Spinoza, Lucretius, Epicurus, etc. The work is not
scholarly but comprehensive and evidently discouraged further formal

The _Système de la Nature_ had many critics in the stormy days that
followed 1789. Delisle de Sales found it a monstrosity--a _fratras_;
La Harpe called it an infamous book, "un amas de bêtises qu'on ose
appeler philosophie, inconcevables inepties, un immense échafaudage
de mensonge et d'invective"; M. Villemain is much more calm and fair;
Lord Brougham, like Damiron, Buzonnière, and many others, found it
seductive but full of false reasoning; Lerminier was so severe that
St.-Beuve was moved to defend Holbach against him. Samuel Wilkinson,
the English translator of 1820, is one of the few whose criticism is
at all favorable. Holbach has always appealed to a certain type of
radical mind and his translators and editors have generally been men
who were often over-enthusiastic. For example, Mr. Wilkinson says of
the _Système de la Nature_, [64:15] "No work, ancient or modern, has
surpassed it in the eloquence and sublimity of its language or in the
facility with which it treats the most abstruse and difficult subjects.
It is without exception the boldest effort the human mind has yet
produced in the investigation of Morals and Theology. The republic
of letters has never produced another author whose pen was so well
calculated to emancipate mankind from all those trammels with which
the nurse, the school master, and the priest have successively locked
up their noblest faculties, before they were capable of reasoning and
judging for themselves."

It seems unnecessary to analyze the _Système de la Nature_. This
has been done by Damiron, Soury, Fabre, Lange, Morley, the historians
of philosophy, and encyclopaedists; and the book itself is easily
available in the larger libraries. The substance of Holbach's philosophy
is susceptible of clearer treatment apart from it or any one of his
books, although it permeates all of them.

M. Jules Soury has said, in describing a certain type of mind: "Il
est d'heureux esprits, des âmes fortes et saines, que n'effraie point
le silence éternel des espaces infinis où s'anéantissait la raison de
Pascal. Naïves et robustes natures, mâles et vigoureux penseurs, qui
gardent toute la vie quelque chose des dons charmants de la jeunesse et
de l'enfance même, une foi vive dans le témoinage immédiat de nos sens
et de notre conscience, une humeur alerte, toute de joyeuse ardeur, et
comme une intrépidité d'esprit que rien n'arrête. Pour eux tout est
clair et uni; ou à peu près, et là où ils soupçonnent quelque bas-bond
insondable, ils se détournent et poursuivent fièrement leur chemin. Comme
cet Epicurien dont parle Cicéron au commencement du _De natura deorum_,
ils ont toujours l'air de sortir de l'assemblée des dieux et de descendre
des intermondes d'Epicure."

Such was Holbach. His philosophy is based on the child-like assumption
that things are as they seem, provided they are observed with sufficient
care by a sufficient number of people. This brings us at once to the
very heart of Holbach's method which was experimental and inductive to
the last degree. Holbach was nourished on what might be called
scientific rather than philosophical traditions. As M. Tourneux has
pointed out, he had been a serious student of the natural sciences,
especially those connected with the constitution of the earth. These
studies led him to see the disparity between certain accepted and
traditional cosmologies and a scientific interpretation of the
terrestrial globe and the forms of life which flourish upon it.
Finding the supposed sacred and infallible records untrustworthy in
one regard, he began to question their veracity at other points.
Being of a critical frame of mind, he took the records rather more
literally than a sympathetic, allegorical apologist would have done,
although it cannot be said that he used much historical insight.
After having studied the sacred texts for purposes of writing or having
translated other men's studies on Moses, David, the Prophets, Jesus,
Paul, the Christian theologians and saints, miracles, etc., he concluded
that these accounts were untrustworthy and mendacious. He knew ancient
and modern philosophy and found in the greater part of it an unwarranted
romantic or theological trend which his scientific training had caused
him to suspect. It must be admitted that however false or illogical
Holbach's conclusions may be considered, he was by no means ignorant of
the subjects he chose to treat, as some of his detractors would have one
believe. His theory of knowledge was that of Locke and Condillac, and
on this foundation he built up his system of scientific naturalism
and dogmatic atheism.

His initial assumption is, as has been suggested, that experience
(application réitérée des sens) and reason are trustworthy guides
to knowledge. By them we become conscious of an external objective
world, of which sentient beings themselves are a part, from which
they receive impressions through their sense organs. These myriad
impressions when compared and reflected upon form reasoned knowledge
or truth, provided they are substantiated by repeated experiences
carefully made. That is, an idea is said to be true when it conforms
perfectly with the actual external object. This is possible unless
one's senses are defective, or one's judgment vitiated by emotion
and passion.

Holbach's contention is that if one applies experience and reason
to the external universe, or nature, "ce vaste assemblage de tout
ce qui existe"; it reveals a _single objective reality_, i. e.,
_matter_, which is in itself essentially active or in a state of motion.

From matter in motion are derived all the phenomena that strike our
senses. All is matter or a function of it. Matter, then, is not
an effect, but a cause. It is not caused; it is from eternity and
of necessity. The cardinal point in Holbach's philosophy is an
inexorable materialistic necessity. Nothing, then, is exempt from
the laws of physics and chemistry. Inorganic substance and organic
life fall into the same category. Man himself with all his differentiated
faculties is but a function of matter and motion in extraordinary
complex and involved relations. Man's imputation to himself of free
will and unending consciousness apart from his machine is an idle tale
built on his desires, not on his experiences nor his knowledge of nature.
This imputation of a will or soul to nature, independent of it or in
any sense above it, is a still more idle one derived from his renunciation
of the witness of his senses and his following after the phantoms of
his imagination. It is ignorance or disregard of nature then that has
given rise to supernatural ideas that have "no correspondence with true
sight," or, as Holbach expressed it, have no counterpart in the external
object. In other words, theology, or poetry about God, as Petrarch
said, is ignorance of natural causes reduced to a system.

Man is a purely natural or physical being, like a tree or a stone.
His so-called spiritual nature (l'homme moral) is merely a phase
of his physical nature considered under a special aspect. He is
all matter in motion, and when that ceases to function in a particular
way, called life, he ceases to be as a conscious entity. He is so
organized, however that his chief desires are to survive and render
his existence happy. By happiness Holbach means the presence of
pleasure and the absence of pain. In all his activity, then, man
will seek pleasure and avoid pain. The chief cause of man's misery
or lack of well being is his ignorance of the powers and possibilities
of his own nature and the Universal Nature. All he needs is to
ascertain his place in nature and adjust himself to it. From the
beginning of his career he has been the dupe of false ideas, especially
those connected with supernatural powers, on whom he supposed he was
dependent. But, if ignorance of nature gave birth to the Gods,
knowledge of nature is calculated to destroy them and the evils
resulting from them, the introduction of theistic ideas into politics
and morals. In a word, the truth, that is, _correct ideas of nature_
is the one thing needful to the happiness and well-being of man.

The application of these principles to the given situation in France
in 1770 would obviously have produced unwelcome results. Holbach's
theory was that religion was worse than useless in that it had
inculcated false and pernicious ideas in politics and morals. He
would do away completely with it in the interest of putting these
sciences on a natural basis. This basis is self-interest, or man's
inevitable inclination toward survival and the highest degree of
well-being, "L'objet de la morale est de faire connaître aux hommes
que leur plus grand intérêt exige qu'ils pratiquent la vertu; le but
du gouvernement doit être de la leur faire pratiquer."

Government then assumes the functions of moral restraint
formally delegated to religion; and punishments render virtue
attractive and vice repugnant. Holbach's theory of social
organization is practically that of Aristotle. Men combine in order
to increase the store of individual well-being, to live the good
life. If those to whom society has delegated sovereignty abuse
their power, society has the right to take it from them. Sovereignty
is merely an agent for the diffusion of truth and the maintenance
of virtue, which are the prerequisites of social and individual
well-being. The technique of progress is enlightenment and good laws.

Nothing could be clearer or simpler than Holbach's system. As
Diderot so truly said, he will not be quoted on both sides of any
question. His uncompromising atheism is the very heart and core
of his system and clarifies the whole situation. All supernatural
ideas are to be abandoned. Experience and reason are once for all
made supreme, and henceforth refuse to share their throne or abdicate
in favor of faith. Holbach's aim was as he said to bring man back to
nature and render reason dear to him. "Il est tempts que cette raison
injustement dégradée quitte un ton pusillamine qui la rendront complice
du mensonge et du délire."

If reason is to rule, the usurper, religion, must be ejected; hence
atheism was fundamental to his entire system. He did not suppose
by any means that it would become a popular faith, because it
presupposed too much learning and reflection, but it seemed to him
the necessary weapon of a reforming party at that time. He defines
an atheist as follows: "C'est un homme, qui détruit des chimères
nuisibles au genre humain, pour ramener les hommes à la nature, à
l'expérience, à la raison. C'est un penseur qui, ayant médité la
matière, ses propriétés et ses façons d'agir, n'a pas besoin, pour
expliquer les phénomènes de l'univers et les opérations de la nature,
d'imaginer des puissances idéales, des intelligences imaginaires, des
êtres de raison; qui loin de faire mieux connaître cette nature, ne
font que la rendre capricieuse, inexplicable, et méconnaissable,
inutile au bonheur des hommes."



The following letters of Holbach are extant:

Holbach to Hume, Aug. 23, 1763.
Holbach to Hume, Mar. 16, 1766.
Holbach to Hume, July 7, 1766.
Holbach to Hume, Aug. 18, 1766.
Holbach to Hume, Sept. 7, 1766.

These were printed in Hume's _Private Correspondence_, London, 1820,
pp. 252-263, and deal largely with Hume's quarrel with Rousseau.

Holbach to Garrick, June 16, 1765.
Holbach to Garrick, Feb. 9, 1766.

These two letters are in manuscript in Lansdowne House,
Coll. Forster, and were published by F. A. Hedgcock,
_David Garrick et ses amis français_. Paris, 1911, pp. 251-253.

Holbach to Wilkes, Aug., 1746, 9 (Brit. Mus. Mss., Vol. 30867, p. 14).
Holbach to Wilkes, Dec. 10, 1746 (Brit. Mus. Mss., Vol. 30867, p. 18).
Holbach to Wilkes, May 22, 1766 (Brit. Mus. Mss., Vol. 30869, p. 39)
Holbach to Wilkes, Nov. 9, 1766 (Brit. Mus. Mss., Vol. 30869, p. 81).
Holbach to Wilkes, Dec. 10, 1767 (Brit. Mus. Mss., Vol. 30869, p. 173).
Holbach to Wilkes, July 17, 1768 (Brit. Mus. Mss., Vol. 30870, p. 59).
Holbach to Wilkes, Mar. 19, 1770 (Brit. Mus. Mss., Vol. 30871, p. 16).
Holbach to Wilkes, April 27, 1775, 9 (Wilkes, _Correspondence_,
London, 1804, Vol. IV, p. 176).

The first seven of these letters are published for the first time
in the present volume, pp. 6-11 and pp. 75-80.

Holbach to Galiani, Aug. 11, 1769 (_Critica_, Vol. I, pp. 488 sq.).

Galiani to Holbach, April 7, 1770 (Galiani, _Correspondence_, Paris,
1890, Vol. I, p. 92).

Galiani to Holbach, July 21, 1770 (Galiani, _Correspondence_, Paris,
1890, Vol. I, p. 199).

Holbach to Galiani, Aug. 25, 1770 (_Critica_, Vol. I, p. 489).

There are references to other letters in _Critica_ which I have not
been able to find.

Holbach to Beccaria, Mar. 15, 1767, published by M. Landry
_Beccaria, Scritte e lettre inediti_, 1910, p. 146.

Holbach to Malesherbes, April 6, 1761 (hitherto unpublished). See
present volume, p. 30.

(Hume, Private Correspondence, London, 1820, pp. 252-263)
PARIS, the 23rd. of August, 1763

I have received with the deepest sense of gratitude your very kind
and obliging letter of the 8th. inst: favors of great men ought to
give pride to those that have at least the merit of setting the value
that is due upon them. This is my case with you, sir; the reading
of your valuable works has not only inspired me with the strongest
admiration for your genius and amiable parts, but gave me the highest
idea of your person and the strongest desire of getting acquainted
with one of the greatest philosophers of my age, and of the best friend
to mankind. These sentiments have emboldened me to send formally,
though unknown to you, the work you are mentioning to me. I thought
you were the best to judge of such a performance, and I took only
the liberty of giving a hint of my desires, in case it should meet
with your approbation, nor was I surprized, or presumed to be
displeased, at seeing my wishes disappointed. The reasons appeared
very obvious to me; not withstanding the British liberty, I conceived
there were limits even to it. However, my late friend's book has
appeared since and there is even an edition of it lately done in
England: I believe it will be relished by the friends of truth,
who like to see vulgar errors struck at the root. This has been
your continued task, sir; and you deserve for it the praises of all
sincere wellwishers of humanity: give me leave to rank myself among
them, and express to you, by this opportunity you have been so kind
as to give me, the fervent desire we have to see you in this country.
Messrs. Stuart, Dempster, Fordyce, who are so good as to favor me
with their company, have given me some hopes of seeing you in this
metropolis, where you have so many admirers as readers, and as many
sincere friends as there are disciples of philosophy. I don't doubt
but my good friend M. Helvétius will join in our wishes, and prevail
upon you to come over. I assure you, sir, you won't perceive much
the change of the country, for all countries are alike for people that
have the same minds.

I am, with the greatest veneration and esteem, sir, your most
obedient and most humble servant.
Rue Royale, butte St. Roch, à Paris.

(Coll. Forster, Vol. XXI; pub., Hedgcock, p. 253)
PARIS, Feb ye 9th, 1766.

I received, my very Dear Sir, with a great deal of pleasure, your
agreeable letter of ye 24th of January, but was very sorry to hear
that you are inlisted in the numerous troup of _gouty_ people. Tho'
I have myself the honour of being of that tribe I dont desire my
friends should enter into the same corporation. I am particularly
griev'd to see you among the invalids for you have, more than any
other, occasion for the free use of your limbs. However, don't be
cross and peevish for that would be only increasing you distemper;
and I charge you especially of not scolding that admirable lady
Mrs Garrick, whose sweetness of temper and care must be a great
comfort in your circumstances. I beg leave to present her with my
respects and ye compliments of my wife, that has enjoyed but an
indifferent state of health, owing to the severity of the winter.
Mr and Made Helvetius desire you both their best wishes and so do
all your friends, for whom I can answer that every one of them
keeps a kind remembrance of your valuable persons. Dr. Gem thinks
you'll do very well to go to Bath, but his opinion is that a thin
diet would be more serviceable to you than anything else; believe
he is in the right. Abbé Morellet pays many thanks for the answers
to his queries, but complains of their shortness and laconism;
however it is not your fault. He is glad to hear you have receiv'd
his translation of Beccaria's book, _Des délits et des peines_ and
the compliments of our friend Dr Gatti to whom I gave your direction
before he went to London. Our friend Suard has entered his neck into
the matrimonial halter; we are all of us very sorry for it for we know
that nothing combin'd with love, will at last make nothing at all.

I was not much surpris'd at the particulars you are pleas'd to mention
about Rousseau. According to the thorough knowledge I have had of
him I look on that man as a mere philosophical quack, full of
affectation, of pride, of oddities and even villainies; the work he
is going to publish justifies the last imputation. Is his memory so
short as to forget that Mr Grimm, for those 9 years past, has taken
care of the mother of his wench or _gouvernante_ whom he left to starve
here after having debauch'd her daughter and having got her 3 or 4
times with child. That great philosopher should remember that
Mr. Grimm has in his hands letters under his own hand-writing that
prove him the most ungrateful dogg in the world. During his last
stay in Paris he made some attempts to see Mr Diderot, and being
refused that favor, he pretended that Diderot endeavoured to see
him, but that himself had refused peremptorily to comply with his
request. I hope these particulars will suffice to let you know what
you are to think of that illustrious man. I send you here a copy of
a letter supposed to come from the King of Prussia, but done by
Mr Horace Walpole, whereby you'll see that gentleman has found out
his true character. But enough of that rascal who deserves not to be
in Mr Hume's company but rather among the bears, if there are any in
the mountains of Wales.

I am surprized you have not receiv'd yet the _Encyclopédie_, for a
great number of copies have been sent over already to England unless
you have left your subscription here, where hitherto not one copy has
been delivered for prudent reasons.

We have had in the French Comedy a new play called _Le Philosophie sans
le savoir_ done and acted in a new stile, quite natural and moving: it
has a prodigious success and deserves it extremely well. Marmontel
will give us very soon upon the Italian stage his comical opera of
_La Bergère des Alpes_. I hope it will prove very agreeable to the
Publick, having been very much delighted by the rehearsal of it; the
music was done by Mr Cohaut who teaches my wife to play on the luth.
We expect a tragedy of the Dutch Barnvelt.

Mr Wilkes is still in this town, where he intends to stay until you
give him leave to return to his native country. We have had the
pleasure of seeing Mr Chanquion, your friend, who seems to be a very
discerning gentleman and to whom in favor of your friendship I have
shown all the politeness I could. I hear that Sr James Macdonald has
been ill at Parma, but is now recovered and in Rome. Abbé Galliani is
still at Naples and stands a fair chance of being employ'd in the
ministry there.

Adieu, very dear Sir and remember your affectionate friend

(Brit. Mus. Mss., Vol. 30869, p. 39)
PARIS the 22d Of May (1766)

_My dear Sir_

I am extremely glad to know your lucky passage and happy arrival
in your native country. I hope you know too well the sincere
dispositions of my heart as to doubt of the friendship I have
vowed to you for life; it has been of too long a duration to be
shaken by any circumstances, and especially by those that do honor
to you. I shall be very happy if your affairs (that seem to be in
a fair way) permit you to drop over very soon to spend some time
in this place along with Miss Wilkes to whom Made D'Holbach and I
pay our best compliments. I can easily paint to my imagination
the pleasure you both felt at your first meeting; everybody that
has any sensibility must be acquainted with the grateful pangs in
those moving circumstances.

Your case with the hawker at your entry in London is very odd and
whimsical you did extremely well to humour the man in his opinion
about Mr. Wilkes. I dare say if you had done otherwise his fist
would have convinc'd you of the goodness of your cause, and then it
would have been impossible for you to pass for a dead man any longer;
which however, I think was very necessary for you in the beginning.
I expect with great eagerness the settlement of your affairs with
the ministry to your own satisfaction; be persuaded, Dear Sir, that
nobody interests himself in your happiness than myself, and nothing
will conduce more to it than your steady attachment to the principles
of honor and patriotism.

If you don't find a way of disposing of the little packet, you need
not take much trouble about it, and you may bring it back along with
you, when you come to this place, as to the kind offers you are so
good as to make me about commissions, experience has taught me that
it is unsafe to trust you with them, so I beg leave with gratitude
to decline your proposals as that point.

All our common friends and acquaintances desire their best
compliments to you, and believe me, my dear Sir.

Your affectionate oblig'd humble servant

(Brit. Mus. Mss., VOL 30869, p. 81)
PARIS 9ber 10th 1766

_My very Dear Sir_

I receiv'd with the greatest pleasure the news of your lucky arrival
in Engelland. You know the sentiments of my heart, and are undoubtedly
convinc'd how much I wish for the good success of all your enterprises
tho I am to be a great looser by it. I rejoice very heartily at the
fine prospect you have now in view and don't doubt but the persons you
mention will succeed if they are in good earnest: which is allways a
little doubtful in people of that Kidney.

We have had the pleasure of seeing Miss Wilkes three or four times since
your departure, she is extreamly well and longs for the return of her
friend Mlle Helvetius the 20th of this month.

Rousseau will very likely hate the English very cordially for making
him pay so dear for his books, it is however a sign that he told us a
lye when he pretended in his writings to have no books at all, as to
his guitar he should buy a new one to tune his heart a little better
than he did before.

We have no news here, except the Election of Mr Thomas as a member of
the french academy. Marquis Beccaria is going to leave us very soon
being obliged to return to Milan: Count Veri will at the same time set
out for England.

I'll be oblig'd to you for a copy or two of the book printed in holland
you mentioned in your letter you may send it by some private opportunity
to Miss Wilkes, with, proper directions. A gentleman of our Society
should be glad to get 2 copies of Baskervilles' virgil _in octavo_.

Tho Mr Davenport and Rousseau seem to be pleased very much with one
another, I suppose they may very soon be tired of their squabbling,
and the latter like the apostles will shake of against the barbarous
Britons the dust of his feet.

Receive the hearty compliments of my wife and all our friends. You
know the true sentiments of my heart for you,
Dear Sir. I am with great sincerity
your most obedient humble Servant

(Brit. Mus. Mss., Vol. 30869, p. 173)

_Dear Sir_

I receiv'd with a great deal of pleasure your friendly letter from
Ostende of the 26th. nov. I was extreamly glad to hear your happy
arrival at that place, and do not doubt but you met with a lucky
passage to Dover the following day, we are now enjoying the conversation
of your British friends about elections; that will not be tedious for
you if, according to your hopes, you should succeed in your projects.

I see by your letter that instead of coming back directly by Calais
you intend to travel with Miss Wilkes through Antwerp and the Low
countries, which I should think not very advisable in this rigorous
season of the year, for generally at that time the waters are lock'd
up by the frost and travelling is bad et tedious and may be would
prove hurtful to your tender fellow traveler to whom my wife and I
desire our best compliments. Such a scheme will be more advantagious
for you both and more conformable to the wishes of your friends in
this place.

I hope your arrival in London will contribute to reconcile abbé
Galliani to that place, where he complains of having not heard of
the sun since he set his foot on British shore, however he may
comfort himself for we have had very little of it in this country.
The Abbé must be overjoy'd at the news of the Jesuits being expell'd
from his Native country for now he may say _Gens inimica mihi
Tyrrhenum navigat aquor_. We have no material news in this country,
except that the queen continues to be in a very bad state of health.

If there is some good new romance I'll be oblig'd to bring it over
along with you as, well as a couple of french books call'd
_Militaire philosophe_ and _Théologie portative_ in case you may
easily find them in London, for we cannot get them here. I am told
the works of one Morgan have been esteem'd in your country but I don't
know the titles of them, if you should know them and meet with them
with facility, I should be very much oblig'd to you provided you make
me pay a little more than you have done hitherto for your commissions.

All our common friends beg their compliments and I wish for your
speedy return, and I am Sincerely
Dear Sir
Your faithful affectionate humble servant
PARIS the 10th of decemb. 1767

(Brit. Mus. Mss., Vol. 30870, p. 59)
GRANDVAL, 17th of July 1768

_Dear Sir_

I receiv'd with a great deal of pleasure your very agreeable letter
of the 28th of last month. I am extreamly glad that your generous
soul is very far from sinking under the weight of these Misfortunes,
and to see that you don't give up the hopes of carrying triumphantly
your point notwithstanding the discouragements you have met with lately.
I need not tell you how much your friends in Paris and I in particular
interest ourselves in all the events that may befall you. Our old
friendship ought to be a sure pledge of my sincere sentiments for you,
and of my best wishes for your good success in all your undertakings.
I believe you can do no better but to keep strictly to the rules you
have laid down for your conduct, and I don't doubt but you'll find it
will answer the best to your purpose.

I am very much oblig'd to you, Dear Sir, for the kind offers you make
in your friendly letter. I have desir'd already Mr Suard to bring over
a few books lately published in your metropolis. I am very glad to hear
that Gentleman is pleas'd with his journey.

There's no possibility of getting for you a compleat sett of Callots
engravings. Such a collection must be the business of many years; it
is to be found only after the decease of some curious men who have taken
a great deal of trouble to collect them. I found indeed in two shops 8
or 10 of them, but the proofs (les épreuves) were very indifferent and
they wanted to sell them excessively dear; in general 200 guineas would
procure a collection very far from being compleat.

My wife and all our common acquaintence desire their best compliments
to you and to Miss Wilkes and you know the sentiments wherewith I am
for ever
Dear Sir
your affectionate friend and
very humble servant

(Brit. Mus. Mss., Vol. 30871, p. 16)
PARIS the 19th of March 1770

_Dear Sir_

I receiv'd with a due sense of gratitude the favour of your last
letter, and was overjoy'd to hear from yourself that your long
confinement has not been able hitherto to obstruct the lively flow
of your spirits. A little more patience and you'll reach the end
of all your misfortunes, that have been faithfully partaken by your
friends in England and abroad, for my own part I wish most sincerely
that everything for the future may turn to your profit and welfare,
without hurting that of your country, to whom, as a lover of mankind,
I am a well wisher.

My wife desires her best compliments to you and your beloved Daughter,
whom we both expect to see again with a great deal of pleasure in
this country next month. Notwithstanding our bad circumstances we
are making very great preparations for the Wedding of the Dauphin,
and our metropolis begins already to be filled with foreigners that
flock hither from all parts of the world. Our friend Mr D'Alainville
is to set out at the end of April to fetch the Archdutchess at
Strasbourg and bring mask (ed) (?) her different stages on the road
to Versailles.

We have no news in the literary world except that Voltaire
is become lately _le père temporal_, that is to say the benefactor
of the _Capucins du pays de Gex_ where he lives, a title of which
all his pranks seemd to exclude him, but grace you know, is omnipotent,
and monks are not over nice when there is something to be got by
their condescension.

If the hurry of affairs whould leave you any moments to read
curious books I would advise you to peruse two very strange
works lately publish'd viz _Recherches philosophiques sur les
américains_, le _Système de la Nature_ par Mirabaud. I suppose
you'll find them cheaper and more easily in London that at

All your late acquaintances in this Town desire me to present
you with their sincere compliments and best wishes; as to mine
you know that they have no other object but your Welfare.

I am, Dear Sir, for ever
your most affectionate friend
and humble servant

P. S. I'll be very much oblig'd to you for sending over to me in
2 vol. small octavo.

(Wilkes, Correspondence, London, 1805, Vol. 4, p. 176)
PARIS, April 27; 1775

"_My Lord_,

"I received with the utmost gratitude your lordship's friendly
letter of the 28th of March. (1775?) I should have done
myself the honor of answering sooner to your kind propositions,
if I had not been prevented by some gouty infirmities that have
assailed in the beginning of this spring. I esteem myself very
happy to find that the hurry of business, and your exhaltation
to the rank of chief-magistrate, could not make you forget your
friendship to me; though my present circumstances do not permit
me to make use of your friendly invitation, be persuaded my very
dear lord that Madame D'Holbach and myself shall forever keep
these signs of your kindness, in very grateful remembrance.

We both desire our best compliments to your very amiable
lady-mayoress: who acted so well her part lately in the Egyptian
hall, to the satisfaction of that prodigious crowd you have
been entertaining there. All members of our society that have
had the happiness of being acquainted with you, desire to be
kindly remembered; and a continuation of your valuable friendship
shall for ever be the utmost ambition
my lord
of your most sincerely devoted

(Galiani, Corresp., Vol. I, p. 199)
NAPLES, le 21 juillet, 1770

_Bonjour, mon cher Baron,_

J'ai vu le _Système de la Nature_. C'est la ligne où finit la
tristesse de la morne et sèche vérité, au-delà commence la gaieté
du roman. Il n'y a rien de mieux que de se persuader que les dés
sont pipés: cette idée en enfante milles autres, et un nouveau
monde se régénère. Le M. Mirabaud est un vrai abbé Terray
de la métaphysique. Il fait des réductions, des suspensions,
et cause la banqueroute du savoir, du plaisir et de l'esprit
humain. Mais vous allez me dire qu'aussi il y avait trop de
nonvaleurs: on était trop endetté, il courait trop de papiers non
réels sur la place. C'est vrai aussi, et voilà pourquoi la crise
est arrivée.

Adieu, mon cher baron. Ecrivez-moi de longues lettres, pour que
le plaisir en soit plus grand. Embrassez moi longuement la
baronne, et soyez longue dans tout que vous faites, dans tout
ce que vous patientez, dans tout ce que vous espérer. La
longanimité est une belle vertu; c'est elle qui me fait espérer
de revoir Paris.

(Critica, Vol. I, 1903, p. 489)

GRANDVAL, le 25 d'août 1770

_Bonjour, mon très délicieux abbé,_

J'ai bien reçu votre très-précieuse lettre du 21 de juillet qui
m'accuse la réception de celle que je vous avais écrite le 3 de
juin. Je vois que celle-ci a été longtemps en route, attendu
que M. Torcia à qui M. Diderot s'était chargé de la remettre, a
encore traînassé quelque temps à Paris, suivant la louable
coutume des voyageurs qui nous quittent toujours avec peine.

Je suis bien aise que vous ayez lu le livre de Mirabaud qui fait
un bruit affreux dans ce pays. L'abbé Bergier l'a déjà
réfuté très-longuement et sa réponse paraîtra cet hiver. La
Sorbonne est, dit-on, occupée à détruire ce maudit _Système_ qui
lui paraît au moins hérétique. Voltaire lui-même se prépare
à le pulvériser; en attendant nos seigneurs du Parlement y
viennent d'y répondre par des fagots, ainsi qu'à quelque autres
ouvrages de même trempe. Ce qu'il y a de fâcheux c'est que
l'ouvrage de V. qui a pour titre _Dieu et les hommes_ a été
enveloppé dans la même condamnation, ce qui doit déplaire
souverainement à l'auteur. Je me rappelle à cette occasion ce
que M. Hume dit d'un catholique que Henri VIII fit conduire au
bûcher avec quelques hérétiques, et dont le seul chagrin était
d'être brûlé en si mauvaise compagnie. Nonobstant toutes ces
réfutations, il parait tous les jours quelques nouveaux ouvrages
impies, au point que je suis très surpris que la récolte ait été
si bonne dans le royaume. En dernier lieu on vient de publier un
ouvrage sous le titre de _Droit des souverains sur les biens du
clergé_, qui, sans contenir des impiétés n'en est pas moins déplaisant
pour cela: Il va droit à la cuisine, et veut que pour liquider
la dette nationale on vende tous les biens ecclésiastiques et
que l'on met nos pontifes à la pension. Vous sentez qu'une
proposition si mal sonnante n'a pu manquer de mettre le ciel en
courroux; sa colère s'est déchargé sur cinq ou six libraires et
colporteurs qui ont été mis en prison.


[1:1] Diderot, _Oeuvres_, ed. Assézat et Tourneaux, Vol. XX, p. 28.

[2:2] Grimm, _Corr. Lit._, Vol. XV, p. 421.

[3:3] Diderot, _Oeuvres_, Vol. XX, p. 95.

[3:4] Among the most important are Damiron J. P., _Mémoires pour
servir à l'histoire de la philosophie au dix-huitième siècle_ (Paris,
1858, 3 vols., 8vo); Lange, _Geschichte des Materialismus_ (Eng. tr.,
Boston, 1877); Morley, _Diderot and the Encyclopedists_ (N. Y., 1891,
2 vols., 12mo); Plekhanow, G., _Beiträge zur Geschichte des Materialismus_
(Stuttgart, 1896) ; Hancock, A. E., _The French Revolution and the
English Poets_ (N. Y., 1899); Tallentyre, _The Friends of Voltaire_
(London, 1906); Fabre, _Les Pères de la Révolution_ (Paris, 1910), etc.

[5:5] Confessions, _Oeuvres_, Vol. XXIV, p. 338.

[5:6] Bib. Nat. mss. _Pièces originales,_ 1529, d'Holbach, 34, 861.

[6:7] Carlyle, Rev. Dr. A., _Autobiography_, ed. Burton, Boston, 1861,
p. 137 sq. for Holbach's English friends mentioned in his letters to

[12:9] See Chap. II and Bibliography, Pt. I, for these and his other works.

[12:10] Grimm _Cor. Lit._, Vol. II, p. 283.

[12:11] _Gazette de France_, Aug. 10, 1754.

[12:12] Jal, _Dict. Critique_, p. 685.

[13:13] His career is somewhat doubtful. He travelled in Italy in 1779
and Abbé Galiani, an old friend of Holbach's, got a very agreeable
impression of him. John Wilkes, in a letter to his daughter in 1781,
seems to imply that he had not turned out very well, and hopes that the
baron's second son will make good the deficiencies of the first. In
1806 he published a translation of Weiland's _Oberon_ or _Huon de
Bordeaux_ which went thru another edition in 1825, but those are the
only details that have come to light.

[13:14] Diderot, in writing to Mlle Volland Sep. 17, 1760 says: "On
nourrit, à Chenvières, les deux filles de Madame d'Holbach. L'aînée
est belle comme un chérubin; c'est un visage rond, de grands yeux
bleus, des levres fines, une bouche riante, la peau la plus blanche
et la plus animée, des cheveux châtains qui ceignent un très joli
front. La cadette est un peloton d'embonpoint où l'on ne distingue
encore que du blanc et du vermillon."

[13:15] Gazette de France, June 1, 1781.

[14:16] Holbach's intendant was [a] Jew, Berlise. After his death several
of his old servants Vincent, David, and Plocque, contested Holbach's will,
in which they thought they were legatees. The case was in the courts
for several years and was finally decided against them. Douarche,
_Les tribunaux civil de Paris pendant la révolution_, Paris, 1905, Vol. I.,
pp. 141, 261, 325, 689.

[14:17] Avézac-Lavigne, _Diderot_, p. 5.

[15:18] _Critica_, Vol. I, p. 48, note.

[15:19] He met Voltaire in Paris in 1778, however, and Naigeon relates
that Voltaire greeted him very cordially and said that he had long
desired to make his acquaintance.

[15:20] Collignon, _Diderot_, p. 1.

[16:21] Avézac-Lavigne, _Diderot_, p. 75, note.

[16:22] Romilly, _Memoirs_, Vol. I, p. 179.

[16:23] Diderot, _Oeuvres_, Vol. I, p. lxvi, note.

[17:24] Journal de Paris, Dec. 2, 1789.

[17:25] See appendix, p. 73, p. 77.

[18:26] See appendix, p. 71.

[19:27] See appendix, p. 72.

[19:28] See p. 6 sq. and appendix pp. 75 sq.

[39:2] Barbier, _Dict._, Vol. I, p. 175 sq.

[40:3] Barbier, Vol. I, p. xxxiii, note.

[40:4] _Oeuvres_, Vol. XVIII, p. 265.

[44:5] _Oeuvres_, Vol. XIV, p. 352.

[47:7] Middleton's translation, preface.

[47:8] Cf. p. 94. [Bibliography Part I]

[54:1] Morley, _Diderot_, Vol. II, p. 155.

[55:2] Later _Bon-sens_ and _Théologie portative_ were doomed to the
flames by the condemnations of Jan. 10, 1774, and February 16, 1776.

[55:3] _Système de la Nature_, ed. 1771, Vol. II, p. 496.

[56:4] Grimm, _Cor. Lit._, Vol. IX, p. 167.

[56:5] Voltaire, _Oeuvres_, ed. Beuchot, Vol. LXVI, p. 404. Subsequent
references to Voltaire are from this edition.

[56:6] Vol. LXVII, p. 265.

[56:7] Grimm, _Cor. Lit._, Vol. IX, p. 90.

[57:8] Vol. LXVI, p. 432.

[57:9] Vol. LXVI, p. 563.

[57:10] Vol. LXVI, p. 386.

[58:11] Vol. LXVI, p. 394.

[58:12] Vol. XXVIII, p. 493.

[58:13] Vol. LXVI, p. 469.

[58:14] Goethe, _Wahrheit und Dichtung_, 11th Book, Goethe's _Werke_,
Stuttgart, Vol. 19, p. 55.

Auf philosophische Weise erleuchtet und gefödert zu werden, hatten
wir keinen Trieb noch Hang: über religiöse Gegenstände glaubten wir
uns selbst aufgeklärt zu haben, und so war der heftige Streit
französischer Philosophen mit dem Pfafftum uns ziemlich gleichgültig.
Verbotene, zurn Feuer verdaminte Bücher, welche damals grossen Lärmen
machten, übten keine Wirkung auf uns. Ich gedenke statt aller des
_Système de la Nature_, das wir aus Neugier in die Hand nahmen. Wir
begriffen nicht, wie ein solches Buch gefährlich sein könnte. Es kam
uns so grau, so cimmerisch, so totenhaft vor, das wir Mühe hatten,
seine Gegenwart auszuhalten, dass wir davor wie vor einern Gespenste
schauderten. Der Verfasser glaubt sein Buch ganz eigens zu empfehlen,
wenn er in der Vorrede versichert, dass er, als ein abgelebter Greis,
soeben in die Grube stiegend, der Mit- und Nachwelt die Wahrheit verkünden
wolle. Wir lachten ihn aus: denn wir glaubten bemerkt zu haben, dass
von alten Leuten eigentlich an der Welt nichts geschätzt werde, was
liebenswürdig und gut an ihr ist. "Alte Kirchen haben dunkle Gläser"
"Wie Kirschen und Beeren schmecken, muss mann Kinder und Sperlinge
fragen"--dies waren unsere Lust und Leibworte: und so schien uns jenes
Buch, als die rechte Quintessenz der Greisenheit, unschmachhaft, ja
abgeschmackt Alles sollte notwendig sein und deswegen kein Gott.
"Könnte es denn aber nicht auch notwendig einen Gott geben?" fragten
wir. Dabei gestanden wir freilich, das wir uns den Notwendigkeiten der
Tage und Nächte, der Jahrszeiten, der klirnatischen Einflusse, der
physichen und animalischen Zustände nicht wohl entziehen könnten: doch
fühlten wir etwas in uns, das als vollkommene Willkür erschien, und
wieder etwas, das sich mit dieser Willkür ins Gleichgewicht zu setzen
suchte. Die Hoffnung, immer vernünftiger zu werden, uns von den aussern
Dingen, ja von uns selbst immer unabhängiger zu machen, konnten wir
nicht aufgeben. Das Wort Freiheit klingt so schon, dass mann es nicht
entbehren könnte und wenn es einen Irrtum bezeichnete.

Keiner von uns hatte das Buch hinausgelesen; denn wir fanden uns in
der Erwartung getäuscht, in der wir es auf geschlagen hatten.
_System der Natur_ ward angekündigt und wir hofften also wirklich
etwas von der Natur, unsere Abgötten, zu erfahren. Physik und Chemie,
Himmels- und Erdbeschriebung, Naturgeschichte und Anatomie und so
manches andere hatte nun zeit Jahren und bis auf den letzten Tag uns
immer auf die geschmüchte grosse Welt hingeweisen, und wir hatten gern
von Sonnen und Sternen, von Planeten und Monden, von Bergen, Thälern,
Flüssen und Meeren und von allem, was dann lebt und webt, das Nähere
sowie das Allgemeinere erfahren. Das hierbei wohl manches vorkommen
müsste, was dem gemeinen Menschen als schädlich, der Geistlichkeit als
gefährlich, dem Staat als unzulässig erschienen möchte, daran hatten wir
keinen Zweifel, und wir hofften, dieses Büchlein sollte nicht unwürdig
die Feuerprobe bestauden haben. Allein wie hohl und leer ward uns in
deiser tristen Atheistischen Halbnacht zu Mute, in welcher die Erde mit
allen ihren Gebilden, der Himmel mit allen seinen Gestirnen verschwand!
Eine Materie sollte sein von Ewigkeit und von Ewigkeit her bewegt, und
sollte nun mit dieser Bewegung rechts und links und nach allen Seiten
ohne weiteres die unendlichen Phänomene des Daseins hervorbringen.
Dies alles wären wir sogar zufrieden gewesen, wenn der Verfasser
wirklich aus seiner bewegten Materie die Welt vor unsern Augen
aufgebaut hätte. Aber er mochte von der Natur so wenig wissen als wir;
denn indem er einige allgemeine Begriffe hingepfahlt, verlässt er sie
sogleich, um dasjenige, was höher als die Natur oder als höhere
Natur in der Natur erschient, zur materiellen schweren, zwar bewegten,
aber doch richtungs- und gestaltlosen Natur zu verwandeln, und glaubt
dadurch recht viel gewonnen zu haben. Wenn uns jedoch dieses Buch
einigen Schaden gebracht hat, so war es der, das wir allen
Philosophie, besonderers aber der Metaphysick recht herzlich gram
wurden, und bleiben, dagegen aber auf lebendige Wissen, Erfahren,
Thun und Dichten uns nur desto lebhafter und leidenschaftlicher hinwarfen.

[64:15] Vol. II, p. 261, ed. 1820.



As the works of Holbach are not yet cataloged in the Bibliothèque
Nationale, the following list is doubtless incomplete. The numbers
given are those of the Bibliothèque Nationale and the British Museum
where the books were used, except in cases where they were available
in Boston, New York or Washington.


B. N., Bibliothèque Nationale.
B. M., British Museum.
L. C., Library of Congress.
C. U., Columbia University.
H. U., Harvard University.
U. T. S., Union Theological Seminary.
G. T. S., General Theological Seminary.
A. T. S., Andover Theological Seminary.
N. Y., New York Public Library.
B. P., Boston Public Library.

Of about 120 editions consulted, C. U. had 13; U. T. S. 7; N. Y. 7;
H. U. 6; B. P. 5; L. C. 4; A. T. S. 3; G. T. S. I. There are 20 or more
editions in existence that were not to be found in the library catalogs

1752. Lettre à une dame d'un certain âge sur l'état présent de l'Opéra.
En Arcadie aux dépens de l'Académie Royale de Musique, (Paris, 8vo, pp. 11.)
B. M. 1103 b 21 (2).

1752. Arrêt rendu à l'amphithéâtre de l'Opéra, sur la plainte du
milieu du parterre intervenant dans la querelle des deux coins.
(Paris, 1752, 8vo, pp. 16.)
B. N. Yf 7726 (attributed to Diderot).

1752. Art de la Verrerie, De Neri, Merret et Kunckel; auquel on a
ajouté Le _Sol Sine Veste_ D'Orschall; _L'Helioscopium videndi sine
veste solem Chymicum_; Le _Sol Non Sine Veste_: Le Chapitre XI du
_Flora Saturnizans_ de Henckel, Sur la Vitrification des Végétaux;
Un Mémoire sur la manière de faire le Saffre; Le Secret des vraies
Porcelaines de la Chine et de Saxe; Ouvrages où l'on trouvera la
manière de faire le Verre et le Crystal, d'y porter des Couleurs,
d'imiter les Pierres Précieuses, de préparer et colorer les Emaux,
de faire la Potasse, de peindre sur le Verre, de préparer des Vernis,
de composer de Couvertes pour des Fayances et Poteries, d'extraire la
Couleur Pourpre de l'Or, de contrefaire les Rubis, de faire le Soffre,
de faire et peindre les Porcelaines, etc. Traduits de l'Allemand Par
M. D... A Paris Durand, rue St. Jacques, au Griffon. Pissot, Quai des
Augustins, à la Sagesse. Avec Approbation et Privilège du Roi (in quarto).
B. N. V. 11028.
C. U. A. n H 35 (Avery Library).

1753. Minéralogie, ou description générale des substances du règne
minéral. Par Mr. Jean Gotshalk Wallerius, Professeur Royale de
Chymie, de Métallurgie et de Pharmacie dans l'Université d'Upsal,
de l'Académie Impériale des Curieux de la Nature. Ouvrage traduit
de l'Allemand, A Paris, Chez Durand, rue S. Jacques, au Griffon.
Pissot, Quai de Conti, à la Croix d'Or, MDCCLII. Avec Approbation
et Privilège du Roi (2 vols., 8vo, pp. xlvii + 569 + 284). Followed
by (second title page) Hydrologie, ou description du règne aquatique,
divisés par classes, gendres, espèces et variétés, avec la manière de
faire l'essai des eaux (256 p.).
B. N., S. 1992 (2).
B. M. 987 h. 9-10.

--Ibid. (Paris, Herissant, Durand, 1759, 2 vols., 8vo.) N. Y., P. W. D.
H. U. Geol. 7257-59.
B. M. 970 h.l.

1756. Introduction à la Minéralogie; ou connoissance des eaux, des
sucs terrestres, des sels, des terres, des pierres, des minéraux, et
des métaux: avec une description abrégée des opérations de métallurgie.
Ouvrage posthume de M. J. F. Henckel, publié sous le titre de _Henckelius
in Mineralogiâ redivivus_ et traduit de l'Allemand. A Paris, Chez Guillaume
Cavelier, Libraire, rue S. Jacques, au Lys d'Or. MDCCLVI. Avec Approbation
et Privilège du Roi. (2 vols., 12vo, pp. lxxi + 204 + 371.)
B. N. 19930 (1).

1758. Chimie métallurgique, Dans laquelle on trouvera la Théorie et
la Pratique de cet Art. Avec des Experiences sur la Densité
des Alliages des Métaux, et des demi-Métaux; et un Abrégé de
Docimastique. Avec Figures. Par M. C. E. Gellert, Conseiller
des Mines de Saxe et de l'Académie Imperiale de Petersbourg.
Ouvrages traduits de l'Allemand. A Paris, Chez Briasson, rue
Saint Jacques; Avec Approbation et Privelège. (2 vols., 12mo,
pp. xii + 296 + xvii + 351.)
B. N., R. 37032 (3).

1759. Traités de physique, d'histoire naturelle, de minéralogie et de
métallurgie. (Paris, 1759, 3 vols., 12mo.) (General title.)
Tome I. L'Art des Mines, ou Introduction aux connoissances
nécessaires pour l'exploitation des mines métalliques avec un traité
des exhalaisons minérales ou moufettes, et plusieurs mémoires sur
differens sujets d'Histoire Naturelle-Avec figures. Par
M. Jean Gotlob Lehmann, Docteur en Médecine, Conseiller des
Mines de Sa Majesté Prussienne, de l'Académie Royale des
Sciences de Berlin et de celle des Sciences utiles de Mayence.
Traduit de l'Allemand. A Paris, Chez Jean Thomas Herrisant
MDCCLIX. Avec Approbation et Privilège du Roi.
Tome II. Traité de la formation des métaux et de leurs
matrices ou minières, ouvrage fondé sur les principes de la
physique et de la minéralogie et confirmé par des expériences
chymiques. Par M. J. G. Lehmann, etc. Traduit de l'Allemand.
Tome III. Essai d'une Histoire Naturelle des couches de la
terre. Dans lequel on traite de leur formation, de leur situation,
des minéraux, des métaux et des fossiles qu'elles contiennent.
Avec des considerations physiques sur les causes des Tremblements
de Terre et de leur propagation. Ouvrages traduits de l'Allemand,
et augmentés de Notes du Traducteur etc.
H. U., M, Z.
B. M. 990 c. 16-18.

1759. Les plaisirs de l'imagination, poème en trois chants, par
M. Akenside. Traduit de l'anglais. A Amsterdam, Arkstée et Merkus,
et se trouve à Paris chez Pissot, Quai de Conti MDCCLIX (8vo).
B. N. 2 ex. Yk 2362 et 2498.
B. M. 1162 f 20.

--Ibid. Les plaisirs de l'imagination, poème en trois chants, Par
Akenside, traduit de l'Anglais par le baron d'Holbach, augmenté de
Notes historiques et littéraires, de la vie de l'auteur et du Traducteur,
par Pissot. Paris, Hubert MDCCCVI (1806-18vo).
B. N. Yk 2363.
B. M. 1065 b 20 (2).

1760. Pyritologie, ou Histoire Naturelle de la Pyrite, ouvrage dans
lequel on examine l'origine, la nature, les propriétés et les usages
de ce Minéral important, et de la plupart des autres Substances du même
Règne: on y a joint le Flora Saturnisans où L'Auteur dèmontre l'Alliance
qui se trouve entre les Végétaux et les Minéraux; et les Orpuscules
Minéralogiques, Qui comprennent un Traité de l'Appropriation, un Traité
de L'Origine des Pierres, plusieurs Mémoires sur la Chymie et l'Histoire
Naturelle, avec un Traité des Maladies des Mineurs et des Fondeurs.
Par M. Jean-Frederic Henkel, Docteur en Médicine, Conseiller des Mines
du Roi de Pologne, Electeur de Saxe; de l'Académie Imperiale des Curieux
de la Nature et de celle de Berlin. Ouvrages Traduit de l'Allemand [by
Baron d'Holbach and M., Charas] à Paris, Chez jean Thomas Hérissant,
Libraire, Rue S. Jacques, à S. Paul et à S. Hilaire. MDCCLX. Avec
Approbation et Privilège du Roi. (Paris, 1760, quarto, pp. xvi + 524.)
B. N. 5324.
B. M. 34 c 15.

1760. Oeuvres Métallurgiques de M. Jean-Christian Orschall, Inspecteur
des Mines de S. A. S. le Land-grave de Hesse-Cassel. Contenant
I. L'Art de la Fonderie; II. Un Traité de la Siquation;
III. Le Traité de la Macération des Mines; IV. Le Traité
des Trois Merveilles; (Traduit de l'Allemand) Le prix est de 50
sols broché et de 3 liv. relié. A Paris, Chez Hardy, Libraire, rue
S. Jacques au dessus de celle de la Parcheminerie à la Colonne
d'Or. MDCCLX. Avec Approbation et Privilège du Roi.
(12mo, pp. + 394.)
B. N., S 19,992.

1764. Recueil des mémoires les plus intéressants de chymie, et d'histoire
naturelle, contenus dans les actes de l'Académie d'Upsal, et dans les
Mémoires de l'Académie Royale des Sciences de Stockholm; Publiés depuis
1720 jusqu'en 1760. Traduits du Latin et de l'Allemand. A Paris, Chez
Pierre-Fr. Didot, le jeune, Quai des Augustins, à S. Augustin. MDCCLXIV.
Avec Approbation et Privilège du Roi. (2 vols., 12mo, pp. viii + 687.)
B. N. R 15483 (4).

1765. Histoire du règne de la Reine Anne d'Angleterre, contenant Les
Négociations de la paix d'Utrecht, et les démêlés qu'elle occasionna
en Angleterre. Ouvrage posthume du Docteur Jonathan Swift. Doyen de
S. Patrice en Irelande: Publié sur un Manuscrit corrigé de la propre
main de l'Auteur, et traduit de l'Anglais par M... [d'Holbach and Eidous].
A Amsterdam, Chez Marc-Michel Rey, et Arkstée et Merkus. MDCCLXV.
(12mo, pp. xxiv + 416.)
B. N. 8vo Nc 1718.

1766. Traité du Soufre, ou Remarques sur la dispute qui s'est élevée
entre les chymistes, au sujet du Soufre, tant commun, combustible
ou volatil, que fixe, etc. Traduit de l'Allemand de Stahl.
A Paris, Chez Pierre-Francois Didot, le jeune. Quai de
Augustins à Saint-Augustin. MDCCLXVI. Avec Approbation
et Privilège du Roi. (12mo, pp. 392.)
B. N., R 51709.
B. M. 233 b 15.

1766. L'Antiquité dévoilée par ses usages, ou Examen critique des
principales Opinions, Cérémonies et Institutions réligieuses et
politiques des différens Peuples de la Terre. Par feu M., Boulanger.
Homo, quod rationis est particeps, consequentiam cernit causas rerum
videt, earumque progressus et quasi antecessiones non ignorat,
similitudines compare, rebus praesentibus adjungit at anectit futuras.
--Cicero, De Offic. Lib. I. C. 4.
A Amsterdam, Chez Marc-Michel Rey, MDCCLXVI. (Quarto pp. viii + 412.)
B. N., E 690.
C. U., A P. B 66 (Avery Library).

--Ibid. (1766, 3 vols., 12mo.)
B. N. *E 2446-2448.

--Ibid. (1772, 3 Vols., (12mo.)
B. N. *E 2445 (VIII).
B. M. 4506 a 1.

--Ibid. (Amsterdam, 1777, 3 vols., 12mo, pp. lx + 355 + 391 + 396.)
B. M. 696 b 35.

--Ibid. In Oeuvres de Boulanger T. I-IV En Suisse.
De l'Imprimerie Philosophique MDCCXCI. (4 vols., (12mo.)
B. N., Z 24316-24319.

--Ibid. In _Oeuvres de Boulanger_ T. I-II Amsterdam.
(Paris, 2 vols., 8vo.) (Quérard.)

1767. Le Christianisme dévoilé, ou Examen des principes et des effets
de la religion Chrétienne. Par feu M. Boulanger. Superstitio error
infanus est, amandos timet, quos colit violat; quid enim interest,
utrum Deos neges, an infames? Senec. Ep. 12.
A Londres, MDCCLVI (Nancy, Leclerc, 1761, 8vo, pp. xxviii + 295).
B. N., D2 5305.
B. M. 4016 bb 6.
B. M., C 2863 (another copy with MS. notes by Voltaire).

--Ibid. (Londres, 1767, 8vo, pp. xx + 236.) Printed at John Wilkes'
private press in George St. Westminster, according to MS. note in
title page.
B. M. 4017 de. 13.

--Ibid. (Londres, 1767, 8vo, pp. 244.)
A. T. S. 6 11.

--Ibid. (A Paris, Chez les Libraires Associés, 1767, 8vo,
pp. xvii + 218.)
B. N., D2 8364.

--Ibid. (Londres [Amsterdam], 1767, 12mo.)
B. M. 696 b 34

--Ibid. Oeuvres de Boulanger T. VII. (En Suisse de l'Imprimerie
philosophique, 1791, 12mo.)
B. N., Z 23421.

--Ibid. Oeuvres de Boulanger T. V, 1793.

--Christianity Unveiled; being an examination of the principles and
effects of the Christian Religion, from the French of Boulanger,
Author of _Researches into the Origin of Oriental Despotism_, by
W. M. Johnson. New York, 1795, printed at the Columbian Press by
Robertson and Gowan for the editor and sold by the principal book
sellers in the United States. (12mo, pp. ix + 238.)
B. M. 4017 de 4.
B. M. 900 i. 1, (7) another copy with MS. Notes.
B. P.... 7490 a 22.

--Ibid. London, printed and published by R. Carlile, 55 Fleet St.
1819 (8vo, pp. 98.)
B. M. 4016 d. 13.

--Ibid. The Deist, etc. Vol. II, published by R. Carlile, 1819.
(8vo, pp. vii + 125.)
B. M. 4015 f 11.

--El Cristianismo a descurbierto, ó examen de los principios y efectos
de la religion cristiana. Escrito en Francés por Boulanger y traducido
al castellano por S. D. V.... Londres en la emprenta de Davidson, 1821.
(12mo, pp. xxvi + 246.)
B. M. 4016 df 6.

1767. L'Esprit du clergé, ou Le Christianisme primitif vengé des
entreprises et des excès de nos Prêtres modernes. Traduit de
l'Anglois à Londres (Amsterdam) MDCCLXVII (2 vols. 8vo,
pp. 2 + 10 + 240).
B. M. pp. 54.

1767. De l'imposture sacerdotale, ou Recueil de Pièces sur le Clergé.
Traduites de l'Anglois. Londres (Amsterdam) MDCCLXVII.
(12mo, pp. 144.)
B. N., D2 8368 (7).

Contains, Tableau fidèle des papes. _Traduit d'une Brochure
Anglaise_ de M. Davisson, Publie sous le titre de _a true picture
of Popery_, pp. 1-35.

De l'insolence pontificale, ou des Prétentions ridicules du
Pape et des Flatteurs de la Cour de Rome. _Extrait de la
Profession de Foi du célèbre Giannone_, par. M. Davisson, pp. 36-54.

Sermon. Sur les fourberies et les impostures du Clergé
Romain, _Traduit de l'Anglois sur une Brochure publiée à
Londres en 1735_ par M. Bourn Birmingham, Sous le titre de
_Popery a Craft_, pp. 55-84.

Le Prêtrianisme opposé au Christianisme. Ou la Religion
des Prêtres comparée à celle de Jésus-Christ, ou examen de la
différence qui se trouve entre les Apôtres et les Membres du
Clergé moderne. _Publié en Anglois en 1720 sous le titre de_
Priestanity. Or a View of the disparity between the Apostles
and the Modern Clergy, pp. 85-108.

Des Dangers de l'Eglise, _Traduit de Anglois sur une Brochure
Publiée eu 1719_. Par M., Thomas Gordon, Sous le titre
d'_Apology for the danger of the Church_, etc., pp. 109-128.

Le Simbole d'un Laïque, ou Profession de Foi d'un homme
désintéressé. Traduit de l'Anglois de M. Gordon, Sur une
brochure publiée en 1720. Sous le titre de _the creed of an
independent Whig_, pp. 129-144.

--Ibid. Published under title De La Monstruosité pontificale, ou
Tableau fidèle des Papes. _Traduit de l'Anglois_ Londres
MDCCLXXII. (16vo, pp. 55.)
B. N., H. 19859.

1768. Examen des Prophéties qui servent de fondement à la religion
chrétienne, avec un Essai de critique sur les Prophètes et les
Prophéties en général. Ouvrages traduits de l'Anglois.
Londres MDCCLXVIII. (8vo, pp. 234.)
B. N., D2 5190.
B. M. 4017 de 18.

Contains, Discours sur les fondements de la religion chrétienne, pp. 1-111.

Extrait De l'Ouvrage qui a pour titre: Examen du Septème de ceux
qui prétendent que les Prophéties se sont accomplies à la lettre.
The Scheme of literal Prophecy considered, etc., 1727. (8vo, pp. 118-234.)

1768. David, ou l'Histoire de l'homme selon le coeur de Dieu, ouvrage
traduit de l'Anglois. Saül, et David, tragédie en 5 actes d'après
l'Anglois.... (Londres, 1768, 8vo.)
B. N. 3 ex. LD2 5194, Hz 1542, et Rès Z. Beuchot 798 (2).
B. M. 4014 a 67 (1).

1768. Les Prêtres démasqués, ou des iniquités du clergé chrétien.
Ouvrage traduit de l'Anglois. Londres. MDCCLXVIII.
(16vo, pp. 180.)
B. N., D2 4639.
B. M. 4017 de 29.

1768. Lettres philosophiques, sur l'origine des Préjugés, du Dogme de
l'Immortalité de l'Ame, de l'Idolâtrie et de la Superstition; sur
le Système de Spinoza et sur l'origine du mouvement dans la
matière. Traduites de l'Anglois de J. Toland.

Opinionum commenta delet dies, naturae judicia confirmat.
Cicero, de Nat. Deor. lib. II. A Londres (Amsterdam). 1768.
MDCCLXVIII. (8vo, pp. 267.)
B. N., D2 5203.
B. M. 4015 de 48.

Containing, Préface ou Lettre à un ami, en lui envoyant les
Dissertations suivantes, dans laquelle l'Auteur rend compte des
motifs qui les ont fait écrire. (pp. 12-26.)

Première Lettre. De L'origine et de la Force de ces Préjugés.
(pp. 27-44.)

Seconde Lettre. Histoire du dogme de l'Immortalité de
l'Ame Chez les Payens. (pp. 45-93.)

Troisième Lettre. Sur l'origine de l'Idolâtrie et sur les
fondements de la Religion Payenne. (pp. 94-152.)

Quartrième Lettre. A un Gentilhomme Hollandois pour lui
prouver que le système de Spinoza est dépourvu de fondements
et pèche dans ses principes. (pp. 154-186.)

Cinquième Lettre. Dans laquelle on prouve que le mouvement
est essentiel à la Matière; en réponse à quelques remarques
qui ont été faites à l'Auteur au sujet de sa réfutation du
Système de Spinoza.

Nunc quae mobilitas fit reddita Materiaë Corporibus paucis
licet hinc cognoscere, Memmi. Lucret., lib. II, vers 142.
(pp. 187-267.)

1768. Théologie portative, ou Dictionnaire Abrégé de la Religion
Chrétienne. Par Mr. l'Abbé Bernier, Licencié en Théologie.

Audite hoc Sacerdotes, et attendite Domus Israël, et Domus
Regis auscultate; quia vobis Judicium est, quoniam Laquens
facti estis Speculationi et rete expansum super Thabor. Osée,
Chap. V, Vers. I. Londres (Amsterdam), MDCCLXVIII (1767),
(12mo, pp. 243).
B. N., D2 14334.
B. M. 703 a 25.

--Ibid. Londres (Suisse), 1768.

--Ibid. A Rome, MDCCLXXV (8vo, pp. 213).
B. N., D2 8370.

--Ibid. Augmentée d'un Volume. A Rome, avec permission et privilège
du Conclave. (2 vols., 12mo (1776).)
B. N., D2 8371.

--Ibid. Under title. Manuel Théologique, en form de Dictionnaire.
Ouvrage très utile aux personnes des deux sexes pour le salut de leurs
âmes, par l'abbé Bernier etc. Rome, 1785 Au Vatican de l'Imprimerie du
Conclave. (2 vols., 8vo.)

--Ibid. 1802.

1768. Le Militaire philosophe, ou Difficultés sur la Religion,
proposées au R. P. Malebranche, Prêtre de l'Oratoire. Par un ancien
Officier. Londres (Amsterdam) MDCCLXVIII. (8vo, pp. 193.)
C. U. 201 N 14.

--Ibid. 1770 (8vo) .
B. M. 4015 bb 32.

--Ibid. 1776 (8vo).
B. M. 4015 de 34.
(Last chapter by d'Holbach.)

1768. La Contagion sacrée, ou Histoire Naturelle de la Superstition.
Ouvrage traduit de l'Anglois. _Prima mali labes_. Londres
(Amsterdam), MDCCLXVII. (2 vols. in 1, 8vo.)
B. N., D2 5195.
C. U. 194 H 69 P.

--Ibid. Avec des notes relatives aux Circonstances. Nouvelle
Edition. A Paris, de l'Imprimerie de Lemaire, rue d'Enfer no. 141,
An 5 de la Republique (1797). (2 vols. in 1, 8vo, pp. 179-190.)
U. T. S. 441
B. H. 723 C.

--El Contagion sagrado, ó Historia natural de la supersticion.
Paris, Rodriguez, 1822. (2 vols., 8vo.) (Quérard.)

1768. Lettres à Eugénia, ou Préservatif contre les préjugés ... arctis
Relligionum animos nodis exsolvere pergo.--Lucret. de rer. nat., Lib. 4,
v. 6-7. A Londres, MDCCLXVIII. (2 vols., 8vo, pp. xii + 188 + 167)

--Ibid. Oeuvres de Nicolas Fréret, T. I, pp. 1-359. Paris, 1792. (8vo.)
H. U. 19-30, vol. I.

--Cartas á Eugenia, por Mr. Freret. Paris. Imprenta de F. Didot,
1810 (8vo, pp. viii + 358).
B. M. 4015 de 23.

--Letters to Eugenia on the absurd, contradictory and demoralizing
Dogmas and Mysteries of the Christian Religion. Now first translated
from the French of Fréret, but supposed to be written by Baron Holbach,
author of the System of Nature, Christianity Unveiled, Common Sense,
Universal Morality, Natural Morality. R. Carlile, The Deist, etc.,
Vol. II, 1819, etc. (8vo, pp. 185.)
B. M. 4015 f. 11.

--Cartas à Eugenia. Madrid, 1823, por Don Benito Cano. 2v.
N. Y., Z F F.

--Letters to Eugenia on the absurd, contradictory and demoralizing
Dogmas and Mysteries of the Christian Religion, by Baron d'Holbach,
New York, published by H. M. Dubecquet, No. 190
William Street, 1833. (12vo, pp. 236.)
U. T. S. 326 B.

--Letters to Eugenia etc., translated by Anthony C. Middleton,
M.D. Boston, Josiah P. Mendum, 1857.
B. P. 5484 2.

1769. De la Cruauté religieuse. A Londres, MDCCLXIX. (16vo, pp. 228.)
B. N., D2 8365.
B. M. 4017 aa 25.
U. T. S. H 723.

--Ibid. Amsterdam, 1775, 12vo.

1769. Le la Tolérance dans la Religion, ou de la Liberté de conscience
par Crellius. L'Intolérance convaincue de crime et de folie.
Ouvrage traduit de l'Anglois, Londres, MDCCLXIX. (12vo, pp. 174.)

Contains De la Tolérance dans la religion, ou de la liberté de
conscience (Crellius).

De l'Intolérance dans la Religion (d'Holbach), p. 88.

Enfer détruit ou Examen Raisonné du Dogme de l'Eternité
des peines. Ouvrages, tr. de L'Anglois à Londres, MDCCLXIX, p. 1.

Dissertation critique sur les tourmens de l'enfer. Traduit de
L'Anglois, p. 96 (by Whitefoot).
B. N., D2 5154.

--Ibid. Hell destroyed! Now first translated from the French of
d'Alembert without any mutilations. London. Printed and published
by J. W. Trust, 126 Newgate St., 1823. (8vo, pp. 47.)
(Followed by Whitefoot's Torments of Hell, "now first translated
from the French," to p. 83.)

1770. L'Esprit du judaïsme, ou Examen raisonné de la Loi de Moyse,
et de son influence sur la Religion Chrétienne.
Atque utinam nunquam Judaea sub acta fuisset Pompeii
bellis, imperioque Titi.
Latius excisae pestes contagie serpunt, Victoresques suos
natio victa premit. Rutilius, Itinerar. Lia I, vs. 394, Londres,
MDCCLXX. (12mo, pp. xxii + 201.)
B. N., D2 5191.
B. M. 4034 bb 38.

1770. Examen critique de la vie et des ouvrages de saint Paul, Avec
une dissertation sur saint Pierre par feu M. Boulanger.
Londres, 1770 (8vo), (by Peter Annet).
B. N. 3ex. [D2 5349 (2) 8367 et H. 7551].
B. M. 48o8 aa 7.

--Ibid. Nouvelle Edition, Londres, 1790. (8vo.)
B. N. [H 13032].

--Critical Examination of the Life of St. Paul. Translated from
the French of Boulanger. "Paul, thou art beside thyself, much
learning doth make thee mad." Acts, chap, 26, v 24. London.
Printed and published by R. Carlile, 5 Water Lane, Fleet St.,
1823. (8vo, pp. 72.)
B. M. 4372 h g (4).

1770. Histoire critique de Jésus-Christ, ou Analyse raisonnée
des Evangiles. Ecce Homo.
Pudet me humani generis, cuius mentis et aures talia ferre
potuerunt. S. Augustin. (No date [Amsterdam, 1770?], 16mo,
pp. viii + xxxii + 298.)
B. N, 7,549.
B. M. 4017 a. 45.
U. T. S. 465 H 723.

--Ecce Homo! or a critical enquiry into the history of Jesus Christ,
being a Rational Analysis of the Gospels. Edinburg, 1799.

--Ecce Homo! or a critical enquiry into the history of Jesus Christ,
being a Rational Analysis of the Gospels. (2d ed.) London, 1813.
Printed, published and sold by D. I. Easton.
G. T. S. 232 G. H. 69.

--Historia critica de Jesus Christo, o anáilisis razonado le los
evangelios. Traducida del Frances, por el P. F. de T, ex-jesuita.
Ecce Homo. Vel. aqui el hombre. S. Juan, cap. 19,

v. 5. Londres, en la imprenta de Davidson, 1822. (2 vols., 12mo,
pp. xiii + 200 + 280.)

Contains Advertencia del Traductor.

1770. Tableau des Saints, ou examen de l'esprit, de la conduite, des
maximes, et du mérite des personnages que le Christianisme révère et
propose pour modèles.
Hoc admonere simplices etiam potest,
Opinione alterius ne quid ponderent;
Ambitio namque diffidens mortalium
Aut gratiae subscribunt, aut odio suo;
Erit ille nottis, quem per te cognoveris.
Phaed., Lib. III, Fab. 10.

A Londres, MDCCLXX. (2 Vols., 12mo, pp. xxviii + 280 + 286.)
B. N., H 7,552.
B. M. 4,824 a a a a 27.

1770. Recueil philosophique, ou Mélange de Pièces sur la Religion et
la Morale. Par différents Auteurs (ed. Naigeon).

Ovando enim ista observans quieto et libero animo esse poteris,
ut ad vem gerendam non Superstionem habeas, sed Rationem ducem.
--Cicero, de Divinat., Lib. 2. Londres, MDCCLXX. (2 vols., 12mo.)
B. N., D2 5309.

Vol. I, p. 129 (VI), Réflexions sur les Craintes de la Mort.

Vol. II, p. 34 (IX), Dissertation sur l'Immortalité de l'âme.
Traduite de l'Anglais.

Vol. II, p. 50 (X), Dissertation sur le suicide. Traduit de l'Anglais.

Vol. II, p. 70 (XI). Problème important. La Religion est
elle nécessaire à la Morale et utile à la Politique? Par M.

Vol. II, p. 125 (XIII). Extrait d'un Ecrit Anglais qui a pour
titre _le christianisme aussi ancien que le monde_.

1770. Essai sur les préjugés, ou, De l'influence des opinions sur les
moeurs et sur le bonheur des hommes. Ouvrage contenant l'apologie
de la philosophie par Mr. D. M.

Assiduite quotidiana et consuetudine oculorum assuescunt animi,
neque admirantur, neque requerunt rationes earum rerum quas vident.
--Cicero de Nat. Deorum, Lib. II. Londres, MDCCLXX. (8vo, pp. 394.)
B. N., R 20 553.
B. M. 8463 b b b 16.
H. U. Phil. 264840.

--Ibid. Paris Desray an 1 (1792). (2 vols., 8vo, Cortina.)

--Ibid. Oeuvres de Dumarsais. Paris, Pougin, 1797. T. VI
8vo, pp. 43-352.
B. N., Z 23766-72.
H. U. 9578 13 VI.

--Ibid. Paris, Niogret, 1822.
C. U. 3045 D 89.

--Essayo sobre las preocupaciones ó del influjo de las opiniones
en las costumbres y felicidad de las hombres. Por Dumarsais.
En Paris. Hallase en la casa de Rosa, Librero. Gran pacio del
Palacio Real. 1823. (8vo, pp. 391.)
B. N., R 34,366.

--(Bibliothèque Nationale. Collection des meilleurs auteurs
anciens et modernes.) Dumarsais. Essai sur les Préjugés.
Précédé d'un Discours préliminaire et d'un Précis historique de
la vie de Dumarsais par le citoyen Daube. Paris. Librairie de
la Bibliothèque Nationale. Rue de Richelieu 8, Près le
Théâtre Francais. Ci-devant rue de Valois 1886. Tous droits
resérvés (25 centimes).
B. N. 8vo R. 15952.

1770. Système de la Nature, ou Des Loix du Monde Physique et du
Monde Moral. Par M. Mirabaud, Secrétaire Perpétuel et l'un
des Quarante de l'Académie Française.

Natura rerum vis atque majestas in omnibus momentis fide
caret, si quis modè partes ejus, ac non totam complectatur
animo.--Plin. Hist., Lib. VII. Londres, MDCCLXX.
(2 vols., 8vo, pp. 370 + 412.)
B. M. 4017 f 32
U. T. S. 321 H 7235.

--Ibid, Londres, MDCCLXX. (Second edition, 2 Vols., in 8vo,
pp. 366 + 408.)
B. M., D2 5166-5167.
Contains Discours préliminaire de l'Auteur (pp. 16). Avis de
l'Editeur. Préface de l'Auteur, etc.

--Abrégé du Code de la Nature, par M., Mirabaud, Secrétaire
Perpétuel et l'un des Quarante de l'Académe Française.
Londres. MDCCLXX. (8vo, 16 p.)

--Ibid. Nouvelle Édition augmentée par l'auteur à laquelle on a
joint plusieurs pièces des meilleurs Auteurs relatives aux
mêmes objets, etc. (Ed. Naigeon.) Londres, MDCCLXXI.
(2 vols. in 8vo, pp. 397-500.)

Contains Vol. II, p. 455, Réquisitoire, sur lequel est intervenu
l'Arrêt du Parlement du 18 Août 1770 qui condamne à
être brûlés, differens Livres ou Brochures, intitulés.

1. La Contagion sacrée...
2. Dieu et les hommes.
3. Discours sur les Miracles.
4. Examen des Apologistes.
5. Examen impartial des principales religions du Monde.
6. Christianisme dévoilé.
7. Système de la Nature.
Imprimé par ordre exprès du Roi.
B. M., D2 5168.
Reprinted in 1774, 1775-1777.

--Ibid. Nouvelle Édition. Londres, 1780, 8vo, pp. xii + 371 + 464.

Contains _Sentiments de Voltaire sur le Système de la Nature_.
Séguier's _Réquisitoire_ and Holbach's _Réplique_.
B. M. 528 1. 2526.

--Ibid. Nouvelle Édition. Londres, 1781. (2 vols. in 8vo, pp. 316 + 385.)
B. N., D2 516g.

--Ibid. German Translation, Schreiter. Leipzig and Frankfort, 1783.

--Ibid. Paris, An. III (1795). (3 vols. in 8vo.)

--The System of Nature. Translated from the French of M. Mirabeau.
London, 1797. Printed for G. Kearsley.
L. of C. B 2053-S G E-12 11-15959.

--Ibid. Philadelphia, 1808. Pub. by R. Benson.
L. of C., B 2053-S G 3 E 13-11-1595 G.

--Nature and Her Laws, as Applicable to the Happiness of Man Living
in Society, Contrasted with Superstitions and Imaginary Systems.
Done from the French of M. Mirabaud. London in 1816. W. Hodgson.
C. U. 194 H 69 S.
L. of C., B 2053 S g 3 E 14-11.15960

--Système de la Nature,... Avec notes de Diderot. Nouvelle édition.
Ed. Lemonnier, Paris, 1820. B. Roquefort. (2 vols. in 8vo.)

--The System of Nature, or the Laws of the Moral and Physical World.
Translated by Samuel Wilkinson from the original French of M. Mirabaud.
Printed and published by Thomas Davison. (Vols. 2, 3, R. Helder, 1821.)
London, 1820.
3 vols in 8vo, pp. xi + 348-311-273.) Contains Life of Mirabaud,
Vol. 3, pp. 263-273.
B. M. 804. de 20?
U. S. 321. H 723.

--Système de la Nature... par le Baron d'Holbach.
Nouvelle Edition avec des notes et des corrections par Diderot.
Paris, Etienne Ledoux, 1821. (2 vols. in 8vo, pp. xvi + 507 +502.)
B. N., D2 5170.
B. M. 124 9 i. 26.
C. U, 194 H 69. R.
N. Y., Y C O.
Contains extract of Grimm's Literary Correspondence, Aug. 10, 1789.

--Système de la Nature, ou des lois du monde physique et du monde
morale, par le Baron d'Holbach. Nouvelle Édition avec des notes et
des corrections par Diderot etc. Paris, Domère, 1822. (4 vols. in 12mo.)
Contains Avis de Naigion. Avertissement du nouvel éditeur, pp. 11-29.
Pièces diverses, pp. 30-46.

--Sistema de la Naturaleza, con notas y correcciones por Diderot;
trad, al castell. por F. A. F.... Paris, Masson hijo, 1822,
4 vols. in 18mo.
B. N., D2 5172.

--Selections from Mirabaud's System of Nature in the Law of Reason, etc.
London, 1831. (16mo, pp. 231.)
Selections from Bon-Sens, pp. 39-81, 82-112.
B. M. 1387. b. 3.

--Nature and her Laws, as Applicable to the Happiness of Man Living
in Society, Contrasted with Superstitions and Imaginary Systems.
From the French of M. de Mirabaud. James Watson. London, 1834.
(2 vols. in 12mo, pp. xxiv + 287 + 320.)
Sold for 7 s. 6 d.
B. M. 1133 b 29.
1. Publisher's Preface (by James Watson).
2. Preface.
3. A short account of the life and writings of the Baron d'Holbach
(by Julian Hibbert).

--System of Nature, new and improved edition with notes by Diderot.
Translated by H. D. Robinson. New York, 1835, published by Matsell.
N. Y., Y B X.

--System of Nature, or the laws of the moral and physical world,
from the French of M. Mirabaud. (New edition, pp. 8 + 520.)
London, 1840.
C. U. 194 H 69. R 1.

--System der Natur von Mirabaud. Deutsch bearbeitet und mit Anmerkungen
versehen von Biedermann. Leipzig, 1841.
(8vo, pp. 604.) Georg. Wigands Verlag.
T. S. (Andover 23).

--System der Natur.... Translated by Schreiter, 1843.

--System of Nature, new and improved edition with notes by Diderot,
translated by H. D. Robinson. Stereotype edition, Boston, 1848,
in 8vo. Published by J. P. Mendum.
B. P. 00.80-6105.5.

--System der Natur..., tr. Allhusen, 1851.

--System of Nature..., tr. Robinson, Boston. 1853. Published by
J. P. Mendum.
B. P. 3600.48.
N. Y., Y C O 11-15957/
L. of C., B. 2053. S g 3 E 6.

--The System of Nature; or, The Laws of the Moral and Physical World,
by the baron d'Holbach, originally attributed to M. de Mirabaud with
memoir by Charles Bradlaugh. Reprinted verbatim from the best edition.
London. Published by E. Truelove, 256 High Holborn, 1884. In 8vo,
pp. xi + 520.
B. M. 8467 a a 33.

1772. Le Bon-sens ou idées naturelles opposées aux idées surnaturelles.
Detexit quo doloso vaticinandi furore Sacerdotes
mysteria, illis saepe ignota, audacter publicant.
--Petronii Satyricon.
Londres (Amsterdam) 1772, 8vo, pp. xii - 515.
U. T. S. 321 H. 7236.

--Ibid. Le Bon-sens du curé J. Meslier d'Etrépigny. Rome
(Paris), 1791, 8vo.

--Ibid. Another edition, 1772, 8vo, pp. x-250.

--Ibid. Londres (Amsterdam), 1774, 16mo, pp. xii-302.
U. T. S. 321 H. 7236.

--Ibid. Le Bon-sens du curé Meslier d'Etrépigny. Rome
(Paris), 1791, 8vo.

--Ibid. Nouvelle édition, suivi du Testament du curé Meslier.
Paris, Bouqueton, l'an I de la République. (1792, 2 vols., 12mo.)

--Ibid. Le Bon-sens du curé J. Meslier suivi de son Testament.
Paris, 1802, 8vo, pp. 380.
C. U. 843 M 56 D 1.

--Ibid. Paris, Palais des Thermes de Julien, 1802 (1822), 12mo.

--Ibid. Paris, Guillaumin, 1830, 12mo.

--Ibid. Paris, Guillaumin, 1831, 12mo.

--Common Sense, H. D. Robinson, New York, circa 1833.

--Le Bon-sens du curé J. Meslier, etc. Paris, Bacquenois, 1833, 12mo.

--Ibid. Paris, Guillaumin, 1834, 12mo.

--Ibid. Nancy, Haener, 1834, 12mo.

--Der gesunde Menschenverstand. Baltimore, 1857.

--Ibid. Baltimore, 1859 (second edition), H. U.

--Ibid. Tr. into German by Miss Anna Knoop. circa 1878.

--Ibid., under title, Superstition in all ages; by Jean Meslier...
who left to the world the following pages entitled _Common Sense_.
Translated from the French original by Miss Anna Knoop, New York, 1878.
C. U. L. 211 M.

--Ibid. New York, Peter Eckler, 1890, pp. vi-339.
U. T. S.

--Le Bon-sens du curé J. Meslier, Paris, Palais des Thermes de
Julien, 1802. (Garnier Frères, 1905.)
H. U.

--Superstition in all ages, etc. Translated from the French original
by Miss Anna Knoop; arranged for publication in its present form and
manner with new title-page and preface by Dr. L. W. deLaurence. Same
to now serve as "text-book" number five for "the congress of ancient,
divine, mental and Christian masters," Chicago, Ill., DeLaurence,
Scott & Co., 1910, pp. xx-17-339.
L. of C. 1910, A 26880. L. W. de Laurence.

1772. De la nature humaine, ou Exposition des facultés, des actions
et des passions de l'âme, et de leurs causes, déduites d'après des
principes philosophiques qui ne sont communément ni reçus ni connus.
Par Thomas Hobbes; Ouvrage traduit de l'Anglois.
Londres (Amsterdam), MDCCLXXII. (8vo, pp. iv + 171.)
B. M. 8403 c c 15.
(Bookmark of Richard Chase Sidney.)

--Ibid. Oeuvres philosophiques et politiques de Thomas Hobbes.
1787. (2 vols., 8vo.) (Tr. by Sorbière and Holbach.)
B. M. 528 2223.

1773. Recherches sur les Miracles. Par l'auteur de l'Examen des
Apologistes de la Religion Chrétienne. A Genus attonitum.
Ovid. Metam. Londres, MDCCLXXIII. (8vo. pp. 172.)
B. M. 4015 de 44.

1773. La politique naturelle, ou, Discours sur les vrais principes du
Governement. Par un ancien Magistrat.
Vis consili expers mole ruit suâ. --Horat., Ode IV, lib. III, vers. 65
Londres (Amsterdam), MDCCLXXIII. (2 vols. in 8vo.
pp. vii + 232 + 280.)
B. M. 521 h. 8.
U. S. 269 E. H. 723 (ex libris Baron Carl de Vinck, Ministre de Belgique).
C. U. 320 H. 691.
(Ascribed also to C. G. Lamoignon de Malesherbes.)

--Ibid. Londres, 1774. (2 vols, in 8vo.)

--La Politica Naturale: discorsi sui veri principi di governo.
Traduzione di Luigi Salvadori. Mantova, Balbiani e Donelli,
'78-80. (2 vols., 16 (L. 5).)

1773. Système Social, ou principes naturels de la moral et de la
politique, avec un examen de l'influence du governement sur les moeurs.
Discenda virtus est, ars est bonum fieri; erras si existimas
vitia nobiscum nasci; supervenerunt in gesta sunt. --Seneca, Epis. 124.
Londres, MDCCLXXIII. (8vo, pp. 218 + 174 + 166, in three parts.)
B. N., R 20275.76 E 1919.
C. U. 320. H. 69.
N. Y. SC.

--Ibid. Par l'auteur du Système de la Nature, Londres, 1774.
(3 vols., 8vo, pp. 208 + 174 + 167.)
B. M. 8403. h 23.

--Ibid. A Paris, Servière, 1795. (2 vols., 8vo, pp. 472 + 403.)
B. M. 8404 dc. 25 (ex libris J. Gomez de la Cortina et amicorum.
Fallitur hora legendo).

--Ibid. ...par le baron d'Holbach. Paris, Niogret, 1882.
(2 vols, 8vo.)
C. U. 320. H. 690.

1774. Agriculture réduit à ses vrais principes par Jean Gottschalk
Wallerius, Paris, Lacombe, 1774. (12mo.)

1776. Ethocratie ou le gouvernement fondé sur la morale.
Constituit bonos mores civitati princips. --Seneca, de Clementia, Lib. I.
A Amsterdam. Chez Marc Michel Rey. MDCCLXXVI.
(8vo, pp. 10 + 293 + 2.)
C. U. 320. 1 H 69.

1776. Morale universelle, ou Les devoirs de l'homme fondés sur la nature.
Naturâ duce utendum est: hanc ratio observe, hanc
consulit, idem est ergo beatè vivere et secundum naturam. --Seneca
de Vita beata, Cap. VIII init.
A Amsterdam. Chez Marc-Michel Rey, MDCCLXXVI.
(3 vols., 8vo, pp. 416 + 334 + 364.)
B. N., R 18596-7-8..
B. M. 231 h-3

--Ibid. A Tours, Chez Letourmy le jeune et compagnie, A Angers,
De l'Imprimerie de Jahyer et Geslin. Imprimeurs-Libraries, rue
Milton, 1792. (8vo.)
B. M. 527. K. 1-3H.
U. Phil. 2648.50.

--Ibid. Paris, Smith (Rey et Gravier), an 6, 1798. (3 vols., 8vo.)

--Ibid. Par le baron d'Holbach. Paris, Masson et fils. Libraires,
Rue de Tournon, No. 6, 1820. (3 vols., 8vo, pp. xxxii + 314 + 266 + 300.)
C. U. 170 H 2.
B. M. 8411 k 7.

--Moral universal ódeberes del hombre, fundatos en su naturaleza.
Obra escrita en francès por el baron de Holbach y traducida al
castellano por D. Manuel Diaz Moreno Zaragoza, 1838, imp. de
M. Heras. (3 vols., 8vo.)

--La moral universel por el baron de Holbach. Madrid, 1840,
imp. y lib. del Establecimiento Central. (2 vols. in 4to.)

--Ibid. Translated into German by Johann Umminger. Leipzig, 1898.

1790. Elements de la morale universelle, ou catechisme de la nature.
Par feu M., le Baron d'Holbach des académies de Pétersbourg de Manheim
et de Berlin.
Numquam aliud natura aliud sapientia dicit.--Juvenal.
A Paris. Chez G. de Bure. Rue Serpente, No. 6, MDCCXC.
(24vo, pp. vi + 208.)
B. M. 528. a. 27.
B. P., G. 3537.14.

--Elementos de la moral universel, ó catecismo de la naturaleza,
por el baron de Holbach. Madrid, 1820, imp. que fué de Fuentenebro,
lib de Sanchez en 8vo past.

--Principios de moral, ó manuel de los deberes del hombre fundados
en la naturaleza. Obra póstuma de baron de Holbach. Traducida al
espanol por D. L. M. G. adoptada en su mayor parte de la escuelas
de primera educacion para instruccion de los ninos. Madrid, 1837,
imp. de Ferrer y compania lib de J Sanz. (In 16mo.)



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Barbier, Dictionnaire des ouvrages anonymes et pseudonymes. Paris, 1822.

Barni, Histoire des idées morales et politiques en France au
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Barruel, Mémoire pour servir à l'histoire de Jacobinisme. Hamburg, 1798.

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Bartholmess, Histoire philosophique de l'Académie de Prusse. Paris, 1851.

Bergier, Apologie de la Religion Chrétienne contre l'auteur du
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Camuset, Principes contre l'incrédulité, à l'occasion du
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