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Ancient Nahuatl Poetry by Daniel G. Brinton

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_Chicomoztoc_; "at the Seven Caves," a famous locality in Mexican
legend, and the supposed birthplace of their race.

2. _Colhuacan_ is probably for Acolhuacan; the early rulers of the
latter were of the blood of the Chichimec chiefs of the Tepanecas.

4. _Hueytlalpan_, "at the ancient land," perhaps for Huetlapallan, a
1ocality often referred to in the migration myths of the Nahuas.

5. _Atloyan_; see note to XIII, 6.

9. The ceiba and cypress trees were employed figuratively to indicate
protection and safeguard. See Olmos, _Gram. de la Langue Nahuatl_, p.

12. On _tlailotlaqui_, see note to XIII, 8. The interjectional
appendages to this and the following verse are increased.

15. Tepeyacan was the name of a mountain on which before the Conquest
was a temple dedicated to the "Mother of our Life," Tonantzin.

16. _tlapalcayocan_, "the place of shards," of broken pieces, i.e.,
the field of battle.

19. The word _totomihuacan_, which has already occurred in vv. 3 and
7, I have translated as referring to the war captains of the Mexican
armies, called _otomi_ (see Bandelier, _On the Art of War of the
Ancient Mexicans_, p. 117). I am quite open for correction however.

27. _in ipetl icpal_; in a translation of an ancient song,
Ixtlilxochitl renders the expression _in ipetl icpal in teotl_, "en
el trono y tribunal de Dios," _Historia Chichimeca_, cap. 32.

29. _Mictlan_; the place of departed souls in Aztec mythology.


In this stirring war-song, the poet reproaches his friends for their
lukewarmness in the love of battle. He reminds them that life is
transitory, and the dead rise not again, and that the greatest joy of
the brave is on the ringing field of fray where warriors win renown.
It is in the spirit of the Scotch harper:--

"'Twere worth ten years of peaceful life,

One hour of such a day."

1. Each verse terminates with an interjectional refrain. The frequent
introduction of the particle _on_ is intended to add strength and
gravity to the oration.

2. _oppan piltihua_. Compare this expression with that in v. 22, p.

3. _xochimicohuayan_, should perhaps be translated, "where the
captives to be immolated to the Gods are taken." The _xochimique_,
"those destined to a flowery death" were the captives who were
reserved for sacrifice to the gods. See Joan Bautista, _Sermonario en
Lengua Mexicana_, p. 180.

4. _yaoxochimiquiztica_, "pertaining to the slaughter of the flowery
war." This adjective refers to the peculiar institution of the
"flowery war," _guerra florida_, which obtained among the ancient
Mexicans. It appears to have been a contest without provocation, and
merely for the display of prowess and to take captives to supply the
demand for human sacrifices in the religious rites. On this see
Tezozomoc, _Cronica Mexicana_, cap. 96.


In this long fragment--the closing strophes are missing in my
MS.--the bard represents himself as a stranger appearing before the
nobles of Huexotzinco at some festival. The first two verses appear
to be addressed to him by the nobles. They ask him to bring forth his
drum and sing. He begins with a laudation of the power of music,
proceeds to praise the noble company present, and touches those
regretful chords, so common in the Nahuatl poetry, which hint at the
ephemeral nature of all joy and the certainty of death and oblivion.
An appeal is made to the Master of Life who inspires the soul of the
poet, and whose praises should be ever in mind.

The words _Dios_ and _angelotin_, in verse 26th, indicate that the
poem has received some "recension" by the Spanish copyist; but the
general tone impresses me as quite aboriginal in character.

2. _quauhtlocelotl_, see note to I, 5.

3. In this verse, as frequently elsewhere, the syllable ya is
introduced merely to complete the metre. Ordinarily it is the sign of
the imperfect tense, and has other meanings (see the Vocabulary), but
in many instances does not admit of translation.

8. _noncoati_, for _ni-on-coatl_, I am a guest.

18. The references in this verse are obscure, and I doubt if I have
solved them.

20. "The house of spring;" compare the expression in v. 1, of
Nezahualcoyotl's song, p. 42.

21. A long oration of Xicontecatl, lord of Tizatlan, may be found in
Clavigero, _Hist. Antica di Messico_, Tom. III, p. 40. The expression
in _camaxochitzin_, from _camatl_, mouth, _xochitl_, rose, flower,
and the reverential _tzin_, is noteworthy.

24. _petlacoatl_, the centipede or scolopender; from _petlatl_, mat,
and _coatl_, serpent, as they are said to intertwine with each other,
like the threads of a mat (Sahagun, Lib. XII, cap. 4).


At this portion of the MS. several poems are preceded by a line of
syllables indicating their accompaniment on the teponaztli (see
Introduction, p. 32).

The present number is one of the most noteworthy songs of the
collection. It belongs to the ancient cyclus of Quetzalcoatl myths,
and gives a brief relation of the destruction of Tollan and the
departure and disappearance of the Light God, Quetzalcoatl Ce Acatl.
As I have elsewhere collated this typical myth at length, and
interpreted it according to the tenets of modern mythologic science,
I shall not dwell upon it here (see D.G. Brinton, _American Hero
Myths_, Phila., 1882).

The text of the poem is quite archaic, and presents many
difficulties. But my translation, I think, gives the general sense

1. _huapalcalli_; literally, "the house constructed of beams." This
name was applied to the chief temple of the Toltecs; the ruins of an
ancient structure at Tollantzinco were pointed out at the time of the
Conquest as those of this building (see Sahagun, _Hist. de la Nueva
Espana_, Lib. X, cap. 29).

_coatlaquetzalli_; this edifice, said to have been left incomplete by
Quetzalcoatl, when he forsook Tollan, had pillars in the form of a
serpent, the head at the base, the tail at the top of the pillar.
(See Orozco y Berra, _Hist. Antigua de Mexico_, Tom. III, pp. 30 and
46.) The structure is mentioned as follows in the _Anales de

_Auh iniquac nemia Quetzalcoatl quitzintica, quipeuahtica iteocal
quimaman coatlaquetzali ihuan amo quitzonquixti, amo quipantlaz."_

"And when Quetzalcoatl was living, he began and commenced the temple
of his which is the Coatlaquetzali (Serpent Plumes), and he did not
finish it, he did not fully erect it."

_Nacxitl Topiltzin_, "Our Lord the four-footed." _Nacxitl_ appears to
have been the name of Quetzalcoatl, in his position as lord of the
merchants. Compare Sahagun, ubi supra, Lib. I, cap. 19.

2. _Poyauhtecatl_, a volcano near Orizaba, mentioned by Sahagun.
_Acallan_, a province bordering on the Laguna de los Terminos. The
myth reported that Quetzalcoatl journeyed to the shores of the Gulf
about the isthmus of Tehuantepec and there disappeared.

3. _Nonohualco_; the reference is to the _cerro de Nonoalco_, which
plays a part in the Quetzalcoatl myth. The words of the song are
almost those of Tezcatlipoca when he is introduced to Quetzalcoatl.
Asked whence he came, he replied, "Nihuitz in Nonohualcatepetl
itzintla, etc." (_Anales de Cuauhtitlan_).

4. The occurrences alluded to are the marvels performed by
Quetzalcoatl on his journey from Tulan. See my American Hero Myths,
p. 115.

5. The departure of Quetzalcoatl was because he was ordered to repair
to Tlapallan, supposed to be beyond Xicalanco.

8. _quinti_, for _iquintia_; the reference is to the magic draught
given Quetzalcoatl by Tezcatlipoca.

9. _In tetl, in quahuitl_; literally, "stone and stick;" a very
common phrase in Nahautl, to signify misfortunes.


In this song we have avowedly a specimen of an early chant prepared
probably by Bishop Zummarraga for the native converts. The
accompaniment on the teponaztli is marked at the beginning. The
language is noticeably different from the hymn to Quetzalcoatl just
given (XVIII).


Another song of the antique Quetzalcoatl cyclus. It bewails the loss
of Tulan, and the bard seeks in vain for any joyous theme to inspire
his melody, reflecting on all that has bloomed in glory and now is
gone forever.

3. _Tetl-quahitl_; see note to XVIII, 9.


The occurrence to which this poem alludes took place about the year
1507. The chroniclers state that it was in the early period of the
reign of Montezuma II, that the natives of Huexotzinco, at that time
allies of the Mexicans, were severely harassed by the Tlascallans,
and applied, not in vain, to their powerful suzerain to aid them.
(See Tezozomoc, _Cronica Mexicana_, cap. 97.)

The poet does not appear to make a direct petition, but indirectly
praises the grandeur of Montezuma and expresses his own ardent love
for his native Huexotzinco. The song would appear to be used as a
delicate prelude to the more serious negotiations. It is one of the
few historical songs in the collection. From the references in verses
1 and 3 we infer that this singer held in his hand the painted book
from which he recited the couplets. This may explain the presentation
of the piece.

1. _huetzcani_; one who laughs, a jester, perhaps the designation of
one who sang cheerful songs.

_chalchiuhatlaquiquizcopa_; a. word of difficult analysis. I suspect
an omission of an _l_, and that the compound includes _tlaquilqui_,
one who fastens and puts together, a mason, etc.

5. The sense is that the warriors of Montezuma when on the field of
battle, shine in their deeds like beautiful flowers in a field, and
win lasting fame by their exploits.

_mopopoyauhtoc_. The grammarian Olmos explains the reflexive verb
_mopopoyauhtiuh_ to signify "he leaves an honored memory of his
exploits." See Simeon, _Dictionaire de la Langue Nahuatl_, sub voce.

7. _Huexotzinco atzalan_; "Huexotzinco amid the waters." This
expression, repeated in verse 8, appears inappropriate to the town of
Huexotzinco, which lies inland. In fact, the description in verse 7
applies to Tenochtitlan rather than the singer's own town. But the
text does not admit this translation. Perhaps we should read
"Huexotzinco and Atzalan," as there are yet two villages of that name
in the state of Puebla (which embraced part of ancient Huexotzinco).

10. _petiatolini_, I have derived from _petlatl_, suspecting an error
in transcription. The reference is to the rushes in the mat on which
the singer stood.


The ordinary sad burden of the Nahuatl poets is repeated with
emphasis in this plaint. It is a variation of the Epicurean advice,
"Eat, drink, and be merry, for to-morrow we die." Both the sentiment
and the reference to Mictlan in verse 7, point it out as a production
uninfluenced by Christian teaching.

7. The word _ahuicaloyan_, place of sweetness, would seem to be
identical with _ohuicaloyan_, place of difficulty, in v. 8; I have
regarded the latter as an error of transcription.


Although No. V. is probably one of the lost songs of Nezahualcoyotl,
the present is the only one of the collection which is definitely
attributed to him. The language is very archaic, and in the sentiment
there is every mark of antiquity.

The text is apparently a dialogue, which was chanted as strophe and
antistrophe, the one singer speaking for the King, the other for the
bard himself.

The word _teotl_ is used for divinity, and it is doubtless this word
for which the copyists of some of the other songs have substituted
the Spanish _Dios_, thus conveying an impression that the chants
themselves were of late date.

The last verse, however, seems to be by one who lives after the time
of the great poet-prince, and is calling him to memory.


It will be seen that there is a wearisome sameness in the theme of
most of the short poems. Probably the bards followed conventional
models, and feared for the popularity of their products, did they
seek originality. Here again are the same delight in flowers and
songs, and the same grief at the thought that all such joys are
evanescent and that soon "death closes all."

I consider the poem one of undoubted antiquity and purely native in
thought and language.


The destruction of the Mexican state was heralded by a series of
omens and prodigies which took place at various times during the ten
years preceding the arrival of Cortes. They are carefully recorded by
Sahagun, in the first chapter of the 12th book of his history. They
included a comet, or "smoking star," as these were called in Nahuatl,
and a bright flame in the East and Southeast, over the mountains,
visible from midnight to daylight, for a year. This latter occurred
in 1509. The song before us is a boding chant, referring to such
prognostics, and drawing from them the inference that the existence
of Mexico was doomed. It was probably from just such songs that
Sahagun derived his information.

1. _toztliyan_, I suppose from _tozquitl_, the singing voice, in the
locative; literally, "the quechol in the place of sweet-singing."

2. _iquiapan_, from _i_, possessive prefix, _quiauatl_, door,
entrance, house, _pan_, in.

5. An obscure verse; _tequantepec_, appears to be a textual error;
_tequani_, a ravenous beast, from _qua_ to eat; _tepec_, a mountain;
but _tequantepehua_ occurring twice later in the poem induces the
belief _tequani_ should be taken in its figurative sense of
affliction, destruction, and that _tepec_ is an old verbal form.

7. _Xochitecatl_, "one who cares for flowers," is said by Sahagun to
have been the name applied to a woman doomed to sacrifice to the
divinities of the mountains (_Hist. Nueva Espana_, Lib. II, cap. 13).

8. _amaxtecatl_, or _amoxtecatl_, as the MS. may read, from
_amoxtli_, a book.


This seems to be a song of victory to celebrate an attack upon
Atlixco by the ruler of Tezcuco, the famous Nezahualpilli. This
monarch died in 1516, and therefore the song must antedate this
period, if it is genuine. It has every intrinsic evidence of
antiquity, and I think may justly be classed among those preserved
from a time anterior to the Conquest. According to the chronologies
preserved, the attack of Nezahualpilli upon Atlixco was in the year
XI _tochtli_, which corresponds to 1490, two years before the
discovery by Columbus (see Orozco y Berra, _Hist. Antigua de Mexico_,
Tom. III, p. 399).


My MS. closes with a Christian song in the style of the ancient
poetry. It is valuable as indicating the linguistic differences
between these later productions of the sixteenth century and those
earlier ones, such as XXVI, which I have not hesitated to assign to
an epoch before the Spaniards landed upon the shores of New Spain.


The Roman numerals refer to the songs, the Arabic to the verses, in
which the word occurs. Abbreviations: _lit_., literally; _ref_.,
reflexive; _pret_., preterit; _rev_., reverential; _freq_.,
frequentative; _post_., postposition; _Span_., a Spanish word.

A, _adv_. No, not, in comp.
A, _n_. For atl, water, in comp.; as _acalli_, water-house, _i.e._, a
A, _interj_. Oh! ah! placed after the word on which stress is laid.
AC, _pron., interj_. Who?
ACA, _pron_. Some, any; somebody.
ACALLI, _n_. A boat, of any kind.
ACH, _dubitative particle_. Indeed? is it not? etc.
ACHITZINCA, _adv_. A little while, a short time.
ACHQUEN, _adv_. At what time? When?
ACI, _v_. To reach, to acquire.
ACOHUETZI, _v_. To console, to make glad. I, 3.
ACOQUIZA, _v_. To lift up, to raise, to increase in dignity or power.
ACOTLAZA, _v_. To console.
ACXOYATL, _n_. The wild laurel.
AHAUIA, _v_. To rejoice, take pleasure in; freq. of _ahuia_.
AHUACHIA, _v_. To wet one's self, to bathe. VII, 4.
AHUACHTLI, _n_. Dew, moisture.
AHUEHUETL, _n_. The cypress tree; _Cupressus disticha_.
AHUIA, _v_. To rejoice, to be joyful.
AHUIAC, _adj_. Agreeable, pleasant, sweet.
AHUIAN, _adj_. Content, satisfied.
AHUICPA, _adv_. From one place to another. III, 3.
AIC, _adv_. Never.
ALTEPETL, _n_. Town, city, citadel.
AMECH, _pron. ret_. You, to you.
AMEYALLI, _n_. A fountain, a stream; _lit_., flowing water.
AMILLI, _n_. Watered and arable land. XIV, 6.
AMO, _adv_. No, not; _amo ma_, no other; _amo zannen_, not in vain;
_pron_., you, yours.
AMOXPETLATL, _n_. Book-mat. See XIX, 3.
AMOXTECATL, _n_. See XXV, 8, note.
AN, _pron_. You.
ANA, _v_. To take, to grasp, to seize.
ANAHUIA, _v_. To be dissatisfied.
ANCA, _adv_. Of the kind that. XVII, 12.
ANE, _adv_. Hollo! in calling.
ANGELOTIN, _n_. Angels. Span. XVII, 26.
ANO, _adv_. As little, neither.
ANOZO, _conj_. Or, perhaps.
AOC, _adv_. Not yet.
APANA, _v_. To clothe.
APANO, _v_. To ford, to cross water. XVIII, 2.
AQUEN, _adv_. Nothing, in no manner.
AQUIN, _pron_. Who? _in aquin_, he who.
AT, _adv_. Perhaps, perchance.
ATAYAHUILI, for _at aya ueli_. Not yet, not even.
ATIHUELMATI, _v_. Not to be well. IX, 3.
ATL, _v_. Water.
ATLAMACHTIA, _v_. To praise one; _ref_., to be proud.
ATLE, _pron_. Nothing.
ATLEY, _in atley_. Without.
ATONAUIA, _v_. To have a fever, to be sick.
AUH, _conj_. And, even, also.
AXALLI, _n_. Bar-sand, water-sand.
AY, _v_. pret. _oax_. To do, to make.
AYA, _adv_. Not yet, not now.
AYACACHTLI, _n_. A musical instrument. See p. 24.
AYAHUITL, _n_. Fog, mist, vapor.
AYAUH COZAMALOTL, _n_. The rainbow; _lit_., "mist of water jewels."
AYOC, _adv_. Already not. _Ayoctle_, nothing more.
AYOQUAN, _adv_. Aoc-iuan. Nothing like it, unequaled. XVII, 17.
AYOQUIC, _adv_. Nevermore. V, 6.
AZAN, _adv_. Not a little, not a few.
AZO, _conj_. Or, perhaps, perchance.
AZTLACAPALLI, _n_. The tail feathers of a bird. XVII, 10.

C, _pron. rel_. He, her, it, him; _postpos_., with, by, in, from, at.
CA, _adv_. Already, yes, because, for, truly, only.
CA, _v_. To be (in a place).
_CA_, _postpos_. With, by, by means of.
CACALI, _v_. To discharge arrows.
CACOPA, _post_. Toward, towards.
CAHUA, _v_. To leave, to let, to desert, to stop, to lay down.
CALAQUIA, _v_. To enter, to go in.
CALLI, _n_. A house; in comp. _cal_, as _nocal_, my house.
CALMECAC, _n_. A public school, p. 10.
CAMAPANTLI, _n_. The cheeks, the face. XXVI, 5.
CAMATL, _n_. The mouth.
CAMPA, _adv_. Where, whither.
CAN, _adv_. and _postpos_. Where.
CANAUHTLI, _n_. A duck. XXI, 9.
CANEL, _adv_. Since, as, because.
CAQUI, _v_. To hear, to listen to.
CATLEHUATL, _pron_. Who? which? whoever, whatever.
CATQUI, _v. irreg_. From _ca_, to be (in a place).
CAUHTEHUA, _v_. To leave a place.
CAXTLAUITL, _n_. A kind of ochre. XVII, 10.
CE, _adj_. and _art_. One, a, an.
CECE, or Cecen, _adj_. Each, every.
CECEMELQUIXTIA, _v_. To come forth wholly, perfectly. I, 1.
CECEMELTIA, _v. ref_. To rejoice, to feel glad.
CECEMELTIC, _adj_. Complete, whole, entire.
CECEMMANA, _v_. To disperse, to scatter.
CEHUIA, _v_. To rest, to repose.
CEL, Sole only.
CELIA, _v_. 1. To receive, to obtain. 2. To blossom, to bloom.
CEMANAHUATL, _n_. The world, the universe.
CEMELLE, _adv_. With peace or joy. Usually with a negative _aic
cemelle_, never peacefully. XV, 18; XVI, 1.
CEMILHUILTILIA, _v_. To detain one for a day.
CEMILHUITL, _n_. One day.
CEN, _adv_. Forever, for always; _cen yauh_, to go forever, to die.
CENCA, _adv_. Very much, exceedingly.
CENCI, _adv_. Elsewhere.
CENQUIXTIA, _v_. To select from, to pick from.
CENTZONTLATOLLI, _n_. The mocking bird, _Turdus polyglottus_; _lit_.,
"the myriad-voiced."
CENTZONTLI, _adj. num_. Four hundred, used for any large number.
CEPANOA, _v_. To unite, to join together.
CHALCHIUHITL, _n_. The Mexican jade or green stone; emerald _fig_.,
green; precious.
CHANE, _n_. Inhabitant or resident of a place.
CHANTLI, _n_. A dwelling, a residence; in comp., _chan_.
CHIA, _v_. To wait, to expect.
CHIALONI, _n_. That which is awaited or expected.
CHICAHUAC, _adj_. Strong, powerful.
CHICHIA, _v_. 1. To make bitter. 2. To obey. XIII, 9.
CHICHINA, _v_. To snuff up, imbibe, or suck up, especially the odors
of burning incense, through a tube. VII, 4; XVII, 10.
CHICHINAQUILIZTLI, _n_. Torment, pain, suffering.
CHIHUA, _v_. To make, to do, to happen; _chihua in noyollo_, my heart
is troubled, I am pained.
CHIMALLI, _n_. The native shield or buckler. VI, 4.
CHITONI, _v_. To sparkle, to glitter.
CHITONIA, _v_. To gain, to realize a profit. V, 4.
CHITTOLINI, _v_. To bow down, to sink.
CHOCA, _v_. To cry (of animals and man).
CIAHUI, _v_. To fatigue one's self, to tire.
CIHUACOATL, _n_. A magistrate of high rank; _lit_.,"woman serpent."
CIHUATL, _n_. A woman.
CITLALIN, _n_. A star.
CO, _postpos_. In, from.
COA, or COHUA, _v_. To buy, to purchase.
COCHITIA, _v_. To sleep.
COCOA, _v_. To pain, to give pain.
COCOLIA, _v_. To hate.
COCOYA, _v_. To be sick.
COHUATL, or COATL, _n_. A serpent; a guest; a twin; the navel; a
COHUAYOTL, _n_. Buying, purchasing. V, 2.
COLLI, _n_. Ancestor, forefather.
COLOA, _v_. To twist, to turn, to bend.
COMONI, _v_. To crackle (of a fire); to be turbulent (of people).
CON, _pron_. Some one; comp. of _c_ and _on_.
COPA, _postpos_. By, toward.
COPALLI, _n_. Resin, gum copal.
COYOUA, _v_. To cry, to yell. XIII, 7.
COYOHUACAN, _n_. The place of wolves. XIII, 10.
COYOLTOTOTL, _n_. The coyol bird, _Piranga hepatica_.
COYOTL, _n_. The coyote, the Mexican wolf.
COZCATIA, _v_. To deck with golden chains. IV, 4.
COZCATL, _n_. Jewel, precious stone; a string of such; a chain or
CUECUEXANTIA, _v_. To gather in the folds of the robe.
CUECUEYA, _v_. To move to and fro. XXI, 9.
CUEPA, _v_. To turn, to return, to bring back.
CUEPONI, _v_. To blossom, to bud, to bloom.
CUETLANI, _v_. To wilt, to perish. XV, 15.
CUETZPALTI, _v_. To act as a glutton, to revel in. XVII, 5.
CUEXANTLI, _n_. Gown, robe, petticoat.
CUI, _v_. To take, to gather, to collect.
CUICA, _n_. A song, a poem.
CUICANI, _n_. A singer, a poet.
CUICOYAN, _n_. A place for singing. See note to p. 10.
CUIHUA, _v_. Pass. of _cui_, q. v.
CUILIA, _v_. Rev. of _cui_, q. v.
CUILOA, _v_. To paint, to write.
CUILTONOA, _v_. To be rich; to rejoice greatly; to enrich or cause
joy. XV, 6.
CUITLATL, _n_. Excrement, dung.
CUIX, _adv_. An interrogative particle.

EHECATL, _n_. Wind, air.
EHECAYO, _adj_. Full of wind, stormy.
EHUA, _v_. To lift up, especially to raise the voice in singing.
ELCHIQUIHUITL, _n_. The breast, the stomach.
ELCHIQUIUHEUA, _v_. To fatigue, to tire. VI, 5.
ELCICIHUILIZTLI, _n_. A sigh, a groan.
ELEHUIA, _v_. To desire ardently, to covet.
ELLAQUAHUA, _v_. To animate, to inspire.
ELLELACI, _v_. To suffer great pain.
ELLELLI, _n_. Suffering, pain.
ELLELQUIXTIA, _v_. To cause joy, to make glad.
ELLELTIA, _v. Ref_., to regret, to repent, to abstain; _act_., to
prevent, to hinder, to impede, to cause pain.
EPOALLI, _adj. num_. Sixty.
EZTLI, _n_. Blood.

HUAHUAQUI, _u_. To dry up, to wither wholly. VIII, 1.
HUAL, _adv_. Hither, toward this place.
HUALLAUH, _v. irreg_. To come hither.
HUAN, _postpos_. In company with; also, a plural termination.
HUAPALCALLI, _n_. Houses of planks. See XVIII, 1.
HUAQUI, _v_. To dry up, to wither.
HUECAPAN, _adj_. Lofty.
HUECATLAN, _adj_. Deep, profound.
HUEHUETL, _n_. A drum. See page 22.
HUEHUETZI, _v. freq_. To fall often.
HUEIYOTL, _n_. Greatness, grandeur.
HUEL, _adv_. Well, good, pleasant.
HUELIC, _adj_. Sweet, pleasant, fragrant.
HUELMANA, _v_. To make smooth, or even; to polish, to burnish.
HUETZCANI, _n_. A jester, a laugher. XXI, 1.
HUETZI, _v_. To fall.
HUETZTOC, _v_. To be stretched out, to be in bed.
HUEY, _adj_. Great, large.
HUEYATLAN, _n_. Place of increase, from _hueya_, to grow greater.
HUIC, _postpos_. Toward, against.
HUICA _v_. To accompany; to carry off; to govern, to rule, to direct.
HUIHUICA, _v_. To follow in crowds, or often.
HUIHUITEQUI, _v_. To gather, to pluck.
HUILOHUAYAN, _n_. Bourne, goal, terminus; from _huiloa_, all go.
HUIPANA, _v_. To put in order, to arrange.
HUITOMI, _v_. To split, to fall. XVIII, 4.
HUITZ, _v_. To come.
HUITZITZICATIN, _n_. The humming bird. I, 1.
HUITZITZILIN, _n_. The humming bird, _Trochilus_.
HUITZLI, _n_. A thorn, especially of the maguey.
HUITZTLAN, _n_. The south; _huitztlampa_, from or to the south.

I, _v_. Pret. _oic_. To drink.
I, _pron_. His, her, its, their.
IC, _conj_. For, since, because; _prep_. With, towards, by, in;
_adv_. Where? when? _zan ic_, as soon as, often, only, on
ICA, _post_. With him, her, it, etc.
ICA, _adv_. Sometimes, occasionally.
ICAC, _v_. To stand upright.
ICAHUACA, _v_. To sing (of birds).
ICALI, _v_. To war, to fight. VI, 5.
ICAUHTLI, _n_. Younger brother. VII, 2.
ICELIA, _v_. To incite another, to devote one's self to.
ICNELIA, _v_. To do good, to benefit.
ICNIUHTLI, _n_. A friend, a companion; _tocnihuan_, our friends.
ICNOPILLAHUELILOCATI, _v_. To be ungrateful.
ICNOTLAMACHTIA, _v_. To excite compassion.
ICPAC, _postpos_. Upon, over.
IHUAN, _conj_. And, also.
IHUI, _adv_. Of this kind, in this way.
IHUINTI, _v_. To intoxicate, to make drunk.
IHUITL, _n_. Feather, plumage.
ILACATZIUI, _v_. To twist, to twine.
ILACATZOA, _v_. To twine around, to wind about. XV, 2.
ILCAHUA, _v_. To forget.
ILHUIA, _v_. To speak, to say, to tell.
ILHUICATL, _n_. Heaven, the sky.
ILNAMIQUILIA, _v_. To remember, to call to mind.
ILPIA, _v_. To bind, to fasten.
IM, See _in_.
IMATI, _v_. To be skillful or wise; to prepare or arrange something
IN, _art. and pron_. He, they, the, which, etc.; _in ma oc_,
meanwhile; _in ic_, so that, in order that.
INAYA, _v_. To confer, to hide. X, 2.
INECUI, _v_. To smell something, to perceive an odor. IV, 6.
INIC, _adv_. For, in order that, after that.
ININ, _pron_. These, they.
INIQUAC, _conj_. When.
INNE, _conj_. But.
INOC, _adv_. While, during.
INON, _pron_. Those.
INTLA, _conj_. If.
INTLACAMO, _adv_. Unless, if not.
IPALNEMOANI, _n_. A name of God. See III, 1, note.
IPAMPA, _adv_. Because.
IPOTOCTLI, _n_. Smoke, vapor, exhalation.
ITAUHCAYOTL, _n_. Fame, honor. XVII, 14.
ITHUA, _v_. To see, for _itla_. XV, 6.
ITIA, _v_. 1. To drink; to cause to drink. 2. To suit, to fit.
ITIC, _postpos_. Within, inside of.
ITLANI, _v_. To ask, to solicit, to demand.
ITOA, _v_. To say, to speak, to tell.
ITONALIZTLI, _n_. Sweat; _fig_., hard work. VI, 5.
ITOTIA, _n_. To dance in the native fashion.
ITOTILIZTLI, _n_. Dance.
ITTA, _v_. To see, to behold.
ITTITIA, _v_. To show, to make evident.
ITZMOLINI, _v_. To be born, to sprout, to grow. XX, 4.
ITZTAPALLI, _n_. Paving stone. XV, 8.
ITZTOC, _v_. To watch, to keep awake, to wait for. XVII, 12.
IXAMAYO, _adj_. Known, recognized. XIII, 2.
IXAYOTL, _n_. A tear (from the eyes).
IXCUITIA, _v_. To take example.
IXIMACHOCA, _n_. The knowledge of a person.
IXIMATI, _v_. To know personally.
IXITIA, _v_. To awake, to arouse.
IXPAN, _postpos_. Before the face of, in presence of.
IXQUICH, _adv_. As many as.
IXTIA, _v_. To face a person, especially the enemy; to watch.
IXTLAHUATL, _n_. Open field, savanna, desert.
IXTLAN, _postpos_. Before the face of.
IXTLI, _n_. Face, visage; eye.
IZA, _v_. To awaken, to arouse.
IZCALI, _v_. To arise, to rise up.
IZHUATL, _n_. A leaf of a tree, etc.
IZHUAYO, _adj_. Leafy, with leaves.
IZQUI, _adj., pl_. izquintin. As many, so many, all; _izqui in
quezqui_, as many as.
IZTAC, _adj_. White.
IZTLACAHUIA, _v_. To deceive, to cheat.
IZTLACOA, _v_. To search for; _ref_., to take counsel.

MA, _adv_. Sign of optative, subjunctive and vetative; _ma oc_, yet a
MACA, _v_. To give, to present.
MA CA, _neg_. Do not.
MACAIC, _adv_. Never.
MACAZO TLEIN, _neg_. No matter, for all that. VI, 2.
MACEHUALLOTL, _n_. Servitude, slavery.
MACEUALTI, _v. defect_. To merit; to be happy.
MACEHUALTIA, _v_. 1. _nino_, to make another a vassal, to reduce to
vassalage; _nite_, to give vassals to one; _nita_, to impose a
penance on one.
MACH, _adv_. An intensive particle.
MACHTIA, _v_. To cause to know, to teach, to learn.
MACIUI, _adv_. Although, granted that. XVII, 13.
MACQUAITL, _n_. The native sword. VI, 4.
MACUELE, _adv_. Would that--sign of the optative.
MAHACA, _adv_. Not, no.
MAHUI, _v_. To fear, to have fear.
MAHUIZTI, _v_. To be esteemed, to be honored.
MAITL, _n_. The hand, the arm. In comp. _ma_, as _noma_, my hand.
MALACACHOA, _v_. To twine, to fold. XVI, 4.
MALHUIA, _v_. To regale, to treat well, to take care of.
MALINA, _v_. To twine, to wreathe.
MALINTIUH, _v_. To twine, to twist, to enwreathe.
MAMALIA, _v_. To carry.
MAMALLI, _v_. To enter, to penetrate. XII, 4.
MAMANA, _v_. To arrange a feast, to set in order. XV, 15.
MAMANI, _v_. See Mani.
MANA, _v_. To offer offerings. XVII, 3.
MANCA, _v_. Imp. of _Mani_.
MANEN, _neg_. That not, that it does not happen, etc.
MANI, _v_. To be (of broad or wide things); to be stretched out.
MANOZO, _adv_. Or, if.
MAQUIZTLI, _n_. A bracelet or other ornament of the arm. III, 5.
MATI, _v_. To know. _Ref_., to think, to reflect; _qui-mati noyollo_,
I presume, I doubt; _nonno-mati_, I attach myself to a person
or thing.
MATILOA, _v_. To anoint, to rub.
MAZO, _adv_. Although.
MEYA, _v_. To flow, to trickle.
MIAHUATOTOTL, _n_. A bird. IV, 2.
MICOHUANI, _adj_. Mortal, deadly.
MIEC, _adv_. Much, many.
MILLI, _n_. Cultivated field.
MIQUI, _v_. To die, to kill.
MIQUITLANI, _v_. To desire death. X, 1.
MITZ, _pron_. Thee, to thee.
MIXITL, _n_. A narcotic plant. See _tlapatl_. IX, 2.
MIXTECOMATL, _n_. A dark night, a dark place. III, 4.
MIZQUITL, _n_. The mesquite. XV, 1.
MO, _pron_. 1. Thy, thine; 2. _Pron. ref_. 3 sing., he, him, they,
MOCHI, _adj_. All.
MOCHIPA, _adv_. Always.
MOLINIANI, _n_. One who moves, or agitates. XVI, 3.
MOMOLOTZA, _v_. To cause to foam, to cut to pieces. XII, 3.
MOTELCHIUH, _n_. The governor of Tenochtitlan. XIII, 8.--See
MOTLA, _v_. To throw, to fall. I, 1.
MOTLALI, _adj_. Seated, placed, in repose.
MOYAUA, _v_. To conquer; to become cloudy or troubled (of water); to
talk about; to boast.
MOZTLA, _adv_. To-morrow.

NAHUAC, _postpos_. Toward, by, along, near to.
NAHUI, _adj. num_. Four.
NALQUIXTIA, _v_. To cause to penetrate, causative of _nalquiza_, to
NANANQUILIA, _v_. To answer, to reply to.
NANTLI, _n_. Mother, _tonan_, our mother, etc.
NAUHCAMPA, _adv_. In four directions, to four places.
NE, _pron_. Reflexive pronoun 3d person in verbal substantives and
impersonal verbs.
NE, _pron_. for _nehuatl_. I, me.
NECALIZTLI, _n_. Battle, combat.
NECH, _pron_. Me, to me.
NECHCA, _adv_. There, down there; like the French _la-bas; ocye
nechca_, formerly, once.
NECI, _v_. To appear, to show one's self or others.
NECO, _v_. Pass, of _nequi_, q. v.
NECTIA, _v_. To desire, to wish for.
NECUILTONOLLI, _n_. Riches, possessions.
NEICALOLOYAN, _n_. The field of battle.
NEIXIMACHOYAN, _n_. A place where one is taught. XIII, 1.
NEL, _adv_. But.
NELHUAYOTL, _n_. A root; _fig_., principle, foundation, essence.
NELIHUI, _adv_. It is thus, even thus; _mazo nelihui_, though it be
NELLI, _adv_. Truly, verily.
NELOA, _v_. To mingle, to shake, to beat.
NELTIA, _v_. To verify, to make true.
NEMACTIA, _v_. 1. To receive, to obtain. 2. To give, to grant.
NEMAYAN, _adv_. In the course of the year. XII, 3.
NEMI, _v_. To live, to dwell, to walk.
NEMOA, _v. impers_. To live, to dwell.
NEN, _adv_. Vainly, in vain.
NENCHIUA, _v_. To do in vain.
NENECTIA, _v_. To obtain by effort. XII, 4.
NENELIUHTICA, _adj_. Mixed up, mingled together.
NENELOA, _v_. To mix, to mingle.
NENEPANOA, _v. freq_. To mix, to mingle. XVII, 1.
NENEQUI, _v_. To act tyrannically; to feign; to covet. XI, 7.
NENNEMI, _v_. To wander about.
NENONOTZALCUICATL, _n_. A song of exhortation.
NENTACI, _v_. To fail, to come to naught. XVII, 13, 14.
NENTLAMACHTIA, _v. ref_. To afflict one's self, to torment one's
NENTLAMATI, _v_. To be afflicted, disconsolate.
NEPA, _adv_. Here, there. _Ye nepa_, a little further, beyond. XXI,
6. _Oc nepa_, further on.
NEPANIUI, _v_. To join, to unite.
NEPANTLA, _postpos_. In the midst of.
NEPAPAN, _adj_. Various, diverse, different.
NEPOHUALOYAN, _n_. The place where one is reckoned, read, or counted.
VI, 2.
NEQUI, _v_. To wish, to desire.
NETLAMACHTILIZTLI, _n_. Riches, property.
NETLAMACHTILOYAN, _n_. A prosperous place. IV, 6; VII, 4.
NETLANEHUIHUIA, _v_. To have an abundance of all things. XXVI, 1.
NETOTILIZTLI, _n_. Dance, dancing.
NETOTILOYAN, _n_. Place of dancing.
NI, _pron. pers_. I. Before a vowel, _n_.
NICAN, _adj_. Here, hither.
NIHUI, _adv_. From _no-ihui_, thus, of the same manner. XVIII, 3.
NIMAN, _adv_. Soon, promptly.
NINO, _pron. ref_. I myself.
NIPA, _adv_. Here, in this part, there.
NO, _adv_. Also, like, _no yuh_, in the same way, thus. _Pron_. My,
NOCA, _pron_. For me, for my sake, by me.
NOHUAN, _pron_. With me.
NOHUIAMPA, _adv_. In all directions, on all sides.
NOHUIAN, _adv_. Everywhere, on all sides.
NONOYAN, _n_. Place of residence. V, 2.
NONOTZA, _v_. To consult, to take counsel, to reflect.
NOTZA, _v_. To call some one.
NOZAN, _adv_. Even yet, and yet, to this day.

OBISPO, _n_. Bishop. _Span_. XIX, 4.
OC, _adv_. Yet, again; _oc achi_, yet a little; _oc achi ic_, yet
more, comparative; _oc pe_, first, foremost.
OCELOTL, _n_. The tiger; a warrior so called. See note to I, 5.
OCOXOCHITL, _n_. A fragrant mountain flower. III, 2.
OCTICATL, _n_. See note to VII, 1.
OCTLI, _n_. The native wine from the maguey. In comp., _oc_.
OHUAGA, _interj_. Oh! alas!
OHUI, _adj_. Difficult, dangerous.
OHUICALOYAN, _n_. A difficult or dangerous place. XXII, 7.
OHUICAN, _n_. A difficult or dangerous place.
OME, _adj_. Two.
OMITL, _n_. A bone.
OMPA, _adv_. Where.
ON, _adv_. A euphonic particle, sometimes indicating action at a
distance, at other times generalizing the action of the verb.
ONCAN, _adv_. There, thither.
ONOC, _v_. To be lying down.
OPPA, _adv_. A second time, twice.
OQUICHTLI, _n_. A male, a man.
OTLI, _n_. Path, road, way.
OTOMITL, _n_. An Otomi; a military officer so called.
OTONCUICATL, _n_. An Otomi song. II, 1.

PACHIUI NOYOLLO, _v_. I am content, satisfied. IX, 2.
PACQUI, _v_. To please, to delight.
PACTLI, _n_. Pleasure, joy.
PAL, _postpos_. By, by means of.
PAMPA, _postpos_. For, because.
PAN, _postpos_. Upon; _apan_, upon the water.
PAPALOTL, _n_. The butterfly.
PAPAQUI, _v_. To cause great joy.
PATIUHTLI, _n_. Price, wages, reward.
PATLAHUAC, _adj_. Large, spacious.
PATLANI, _v_. To fly.
PEHUA, _v. Pret., opeuh_, to begin, to commence.
PEPETLACA, _v_. To shine, to glitter.
PEPETLAQUILTIA, _v_. To cause to shine.
PETLACOATL, _n_. The scolopender, the centipede. XVII, 24.
PETLATL, _n_. A mat, a rug (of reeds or flags); _fig_., power,
PETLATOTLIN, _n_. A rush suitable to make mats. XXI, 10.
PETLAUA, _v_. To polish, to rub to brightness.
PEUHCAYOTL, _n_. Beginning, commencement.
PILIHUI, _v_. To fasten to, to mingle with. XXI, 6.
PILIHUITL, _n_. Beloved child. XII, 3.
PILLI, _n_. Son, daughter, child. A noble, a chief, a ruler, a lord.
_Tepilhuan_, the children, the young people. _Nopiltzin_, my
PILOA, _v_. To hang down, to suspend.
PILTIHUA, _v_. To be a boy, to be young.
PIPIXAUI, _v_. To snow, to rain heavily.
PIXAUI, _v_. To snow, to rain.
POCHOTL, _n_. The ceiba tree; _fig_., protector, chief.
POCTLI, _n_. Smoke, vapor, fog, mist.
POLOA, _v_. To destroy; to perish.
POPOLOA, _v_. Freq. of _poloa_.
POPOYAUHTIUH, _v_. To leave a glorious memory. XXI, 5.
POXAHUA, _v_. To work the soil, to labor.
POYAUA, _v_. To color, to dye. XVII, 21.
POYAUI, _v_. To become clear, to clear off.
POYOMATL, _n_. A flower like the rose. IV, 6.
POZONI, _v_. To boil, to seethe; fig., to be angry.

QUA, _v_. To eat.
QUAHTLA, _n_. Forest, woods.
QUAHUITL, _n_. A tree; a stick; _fig_., chastisement.
QUAITL, _n_. Head, top, summit.
QUALANI, _v_. To anger, to irritate.
QUALLI, _adj_. Good, pleasant.
QUATLAPANA, _v_. To break one's head; to suffer much.
QUAUHTLI, _n_. The eagle; a warrior so called; bravery, distinction.
I, 5.
QUEMACH, _adv_. Is it possible!
QUEMMACH AMIQUE, _rel_. Those who are happy, the happy ones. IX, 2.
QUENAMI, _adv_. As, the same as.
QUENAMI CAN, _adv_. As there, the same as there, sometimes with _on_
euphonic inserted, _quenonami_.
QUENIN, _adj_. How, how much.
QUENNEL, _adv_. What is to be done? What remedy?
QUENNONAMICAN, See under _quenami_.
QUEQUENTIA, _v_. To clothe, to attire.
QUETZA, _v. Nino_, to rise up; to unite with; to aid; _nite_, to lift
QUETZALLI, _n_. A beautiful feather; _fig_., something precious or
QUETZALTOTOTL, _n_. A bird; _Trogon pavoninus_.
QUEXQUICH, _pron_. So many as, how much.
QUI, _pron. rel_. He, her, it, they, them.
QUIAUATL, _n_. Entrance, door. XVII, 18.
QUIAUITL, _n_. Rain, a shower.
QUIMILOA, _v_. To wrap up, to clothe, to shroud the dead. XI, 6.
QUIN, _pron. rel_. They, then.
QUIQUINACA, _v_. To groan, to buzz, etc.
QUIQUIZOA, _v_. To ring bells. IV, 3.
QUIZA, _v_. To go forth, to emerge.
QUIZQUI, _adj_. Separated, divided.
QUIZTIQUIZA, _v_. To go forth hastily. XXII.

TAPALCAYOA, _v_. To be full of potsherds and broken bits. XV, 16.
TATLI, _n. and v_. See p. 19.
TE, _pron. pers_. 1. Thou. 2. _Pron. rel. indef_. Somebody.
TEAHUIACA, _adj_. Pleasing, agreeable.
TECA, _pron_. Of some one; _te_ and _ca_.
TECA, _v_. To stretch out, to sleep; to concern one's self with.
_Moteca_, they unite together.
TECH, _postpos_. In, upon, from. _Pron_. Us.
TECOCOLIA, _n_. A hated person, an enemy.
TECOMAPILOA, _n_. A musical instrument. See p. 23.
TECPILLI, _n_. Nobleman, lord.
TECPILLOTL, _n_. The nobility; noble bearing, courtesy.
TEHUAN, _pron_. 1. We. 2. With some one.
TEHUATL, _pron_. Thou.
TEINI, _v_. To break, to fracture.
TEL, _conj_. But, though.
TELCHIHUA, _v_. To detest, to hate, to curse.
TEMA, _v_. To place something somewhere.
TEMACHIA, _v_. To have confidence in, to expect, to hope for.
TEMI, _v_. To be filled, replete; to be stretched out. XXVI, 4.
TEMIQUI, _v_. To dream.
TEMO, _v_. To descend, to let fall.
TEMOA, _v_. To search, to seek.
TENAMITL, _n_. A town; the wall of a town.
TENAUAC, _post_. With some one, near some one.
TENMATI, _v_. To be idle, negligent, unfortunate.
TENQUIXTIA, _v_. To speak forth, to pronounce, to declare.
TENYOTL, _n_. Fame, honor.
TEOATL, _n_. Divine water. See VI, 4, note.
TEOCUITLA, _n_. Gold, of gold.
TEOHUA, _n_. A priest. XVII, 19.
TEOQUECHOL, _n_. A bird of beautiful plumage.
TEOTL, _n_. God, divinity.
TEOXIHUITL, _n_. Turquoise; _fig_., relation, ruler, parent.
TEPACCA, _adj_. Causing joy, pleasurable.
TEPEITIC, _n_. Narrow valley, glade, glen.
TEPETL, _n_. A mountain, a hill.
TEPEUA, _v_. To spread abroad, to scatter, to conquer. XV, 3.
TEPONAZTLI, _n_. A drum. See p. 22.
TEPOPOLOANI, _v_. To slay, to slaughter.
TEQUANI, _n_. A wild beast, a savage person.
TEQUI, _v_. To cut.
TETECUICA, _v_. To make a loud noise, to thunder. XXI, 7.
TETL, _n_. A stone, a rock. In comp., _te_.
TETLAMACHTI, _n_. That which enriches, glorifies, or pleases.
TETLAQUAUAC, _adj_. Hard or strong as stone. Comp. of _tetl_ and
TETOZCATEMO, _v_. To let fall or throw forth notes of singing. I, 2.
TETZILACATL, _n_. A copper gong. XVII, 21. See p. 24.
TEUCTLI, _n_., pl. _teteuctin_. A noble, a ruler, a lord; _in
teteuctin_, the lords, the great ones.
TEUCYOTL, _n_. Nobility, lordship.
TEUH, _postpos_. Like, similar to.
TEUHYOTL, _n_. Divinity, divineness.
TEYOLQUIMA, _adj_. Pleasing, odorous, sweet.
TEYOTL, _n_. Fame, honor.
TI, _pron_. 1. thou; _timo_, ref.; _tic_, act. 2. we; _tito_, ref.;
_tic_, act.
TILANI, _v_. To draw out.
TILINI, _v_. To crowd, to press. XVII, 19.
TIMALOA, _v_. To glorify, to exalt, to praise.
TIMO, _pron. ref_. Thou thyself.
TITO, _pron. ref_. We ourselves.
TIZAITL, _n_. Chalk; anything white; an example or model.
TIZAOCTLI, _n_. White wine. See VII, 2.
TLA, _adv_., for _intla_, if; _pron. indef_., something, anything;
_postpos_. in abundance.
TLACACE, _interj_. Expressing astonishment or admiration. XVII, 3.
TLACAQUI, _v_. To hear, to understand.
TLACATEUCTLI, _n_. A sovereign, a ruler.
TLACATI, _v_. To be born.
TLACATL, _n_. Creature, person.
TLACAZO, _adv_. Truly, certainly.
TLACHIA, _v_. To see, to look upon.
TLACHIHUAL, _n_. Creature, invention.
TLACHINOLLI, _n_. Battle, war; from _chinoa_, to burn.
TLACOA, _v_. To injure, to do evil, to sin.
TLACOCHTLI, _n_. The arrow.
TLACOCOA, _v_. To buy, to purchase. X, 1.
TLACOHUA, _v_. To buy, to purchase.
TLACOHUA, _v_. To beat, to chastise.
TLACOTLI, _n_. A servant, slave.
TLACOUIA, _v_. To split, to splinter.
TLACUILOA, _v_. To inscribe, to paint in, to write down.
TLAELEHUIANI, _adj_. Desirous of, anxious for.
TLAHUELLI, _n_. Anger, ire.
TLAHUICA, _n_. Servant, page; also, a native of the province of
Tlahuican. (See _Index_.}
TLAILOTLAQUI, _n_. "Workers in filth;" scum; a term applied in
contempt. XIII, 8; XV, 12, 14. Also a proper name.
(See _Index_.)
TLALAQUIA, _v_. To bury, to inter.
TLALLI, _n_. Earth, ground; _tlalticpac_, on the earth.
TLALNAMIQUI, _v_. To think of, to remember.
TLALPILONI, _n_. An ornament for the head. VI, 4, from _ilpia_.
TLAMACHTI, _v. ref_. To be rich, happy, prosperous.
TLAMAHUIZOLLI, _n_. Miracle, wonder.
TLAMATILLOLLI, _n_. Ointment; anything rubbed in the hands. XI, 9.
TLAMATQUI, _adj_. Skillful, adroit.
TLAMATTICA, _adj_. Calm, tranquil.
TLAMELAUHCAYOTL, _n_. A plain or direct song. II, 1.
TLAMI, _v_. To end, to finish, to come to an end.
TLAMOMOYAUA, _v_. To scatter, to destroy. XV, 21.
TLAN, _postpos_. Near to, among, at.
TLANECI, _v_. To dawn, to become day. _Ye tlaneci_, the day breaks.
TLANEHUIA, _v. Nicno_. To revel, to indulge one's self in. XXI, 8.
TLANELTOCA, _v_. To believe in, to have faith in.
TLANIA, _v_. To recover one's self, to return within one's self.
TLANIICZA, _v_. To abase, to humble. IX, 3.
TLANTIA, _v_. To terminate, to end.
TLAOCOL, _adj_. Sad, melancholy, pitiful, merciful.
TLAOCOLIA, _v_. To be sad, etc.
TLAOCOLTZATZIA, _v_. To cry aloud with grief. I, 3.
TLAPALHUIA, _v., rel_. To be brilliant or happy; act_., to salute a
person; to paint something.
TLAPALLI, _n_. and _adj_. Colored; dyed; red.
TLAPALOA, _v_. To salute, to greet.
TLAPANAHUIA, _adj_. Surpassing, superior, excellent; used to form
TLAPANI, _v_. To dye, to color. XVII, 10.
TLAPAPALLI, _adj_. Striped, in stripes.
TLAPATL, _n_. The castor-oil plant; the phrase _mixitl tlapatl_ means
stupor, intoxication. IX, 2.
TLAPEPETLANI, _v_. To sparkle, to shine forth.
TLAPITZA, _v_. Fr. _pitza_, to play the flute. XVII, 26.
TLAQUALLI, _n_. Food, eatables.
TLAQUAUAC, _adj_. Strong, hard.
TLAQUAUH, _adj_. Strongly, forcibly.
TLAQUILLA, _adj_. Stopped up, filled. XX, 4.
TLAQUILQUI, _n_. One who plasters, a mason. XXI, 1.
TLATEMMATI, _v_. To suffer afflictions.
TLATENEHUA, _v_. To promise.
TLATHUI, _v_. To dawn, to become light.
TLATIA, _v_. 1. To hide, to conceal; 2. to burn, to set on fire.
TLATLAMANTITICA, _adj_. Divided, separated.
TLATLATOA, _v_. To speak much or frequently. XVII, 11.
TLATLAUHTIA, _v_. To pray. XVI, 3.
TLATOANI, _n_. Ruler, lord.
TLATOCAYOTL, _n_. The quality of governing or ruling.
TLATOLLI, _n_. Word, speech, order.
TLATZIHUI, _v_. To neglect, to be negligent; to be abandoned, to lie
fallow; to leave, to withdraw.
TLAUANTLI, _n_. Vase, cup. XXVI, 4.
TLAUHQUECHOL, _n_. A bird, the red heron, _Platalea ajaja_.
TLAUILLOTL, _n_. Clearness, light. X, 1.
TLAXILLOTIA, _v_. To arrange, sustain, support. IX, 4.
TLAXIXINIA, _v_. To disperse, to destroy.
TLAYAUA, _v_. To make an encircling figure in dancing.
TLAYAUALOLLI, _adj_. Encircled, surrounded. XXI, 6.
TLAYOCOLIA, _v_. To make, to form, to invent. XIV.
TLAYOCOYALLI, _n_. Creature, invention.
TLAZA, _v_. To throw away; _fig_., to reject, to despise.
TLAZOTLA, _v_. To love, to like.
TLE, _pron. int_. and _rel_. What? That.
TLEAHUA, _v_. To set on fire, to fire.
TLEIN, _pron., int_. and _rel_. What? That.
TLEINMACH, _adv_. Why? For what reason?
TLENAMACTLI, _n_. Incense burned to the gods. III, 1.
TLEPETZTIC, _adj_. Shining like fire, _tletl_, _petzlic_. XV, 26.
TLETL, _n_. Fire.
TLEYMACH, _adv_. Why? Wherefore?
TLEYOTL, _n_. Fame, honor.
TLEZANNEN, _adv_. To what good? Cui bono?
TLILIUHQUI, _adj_. Black, brown.
TLILIUI, _v_. To blacken, to paint black. XII, 6.
TLOC, _postpos_. With, near to.
TLOQUE NAHUAQUE, _n_. A name of divinity. See I, 6, note.
TO, _pron. posses_. Our, ours.
TOCA, _v_. To follow.
TOCI, _n_. "Our ancestress," a divinity so called.
TOCO, _v_. Impers. of _toca_.
TOHUAN, _pron_. With us.
TOLINIA, _v_. To be poor, to be unfortunate.
TOLQUATECTITLAN, _n_. The place where the head is bowed for
lustration. III, 1.
TOMA, _v_. To loosen, to untie, to open. XVII, 3.
TOMAHUAC, _adj_. Great, heavy, large.
TONACATI, _v_. To be prosperous or fertile.
TONACATLALLI, _n_. Rich or fertile land.
TONAMEYO, _adj_. Shining like the sun, glittering.
TONAMEYOTL, _n_. Ray of the sun, light, brilliancy.
TONATIUH, _n_. The sun.
TONEUA, _v_. To suffer pain; _nite_, to inflict pain.
TOQUICHPOHUAN, _n_. Our equals. I, 3.
TOTOTL, _n_. A bird, generic term.
TOZMILINI, _adj_. Sweet voiced. XXI, 3.
TOZNENETL, _n_. A parrot, _Psittacus signatus_.
TOZQUITL, _n_. The singing voice, p. 21.
TZALAN, _postpos_. Among, amid.
TZATZIA, _v_. To shout, to cry aloud.
TZAUHQUI, _v_. To spin. XVII, 22.
TZETZELIUI, _v_. To rain, to snow; _fig_., to pour down.
TZIHUAC, _n_. A species of bush. XV, 1.
TZIMIQUILIZTLI, _n_. Slaughter, death. XVI, 5.
TZINITZCAN, _n_. A bird, _Trogon Mexicanus_.
TZITZILINI, _n_. A bell.
TZOTZONA, _v_. To strike the drum.

UALLAUH, _v_. To come. See _huallauh_.
UITZ, _v_. To come.
ULLI, _n_. Caoutchouc. See p. 22.

XAHUA, _v_. To paint one's self, to array one's self in the ancient
manner. XXIV, 1.
XAMANI, _v_. To break, to crack.
XAXAMATZA, _v_. To cut in pieces, to break into bits.
XAYACATL, _n_. Face, mask.
XELIHUI, _v_. To divide, to distribute.
XEXELOA, _v_. To divide, to distribute.
XILOTL, _n_. Ear of green corn.
XILOXOCHITL, _n_. The flower of maize. XVII, 10.
XIMOAYAN, _n_. A place of departed souls. See I, 8.
XIMOHUAYAN, _n_. Place of departed spirits. VIII, 1.
XIUHTOTOTL, _n_. A bird, _Guiaca cerulea_.
XIUITL, _n_. A leaf, plant; year; anything green.
XOCHICALLI, _n_. A house for flowers, or adorned with them.
XOCHIMECATL, _n_. A rope or garland of flowers.
XOCHIMICOHUAYAN, _n_. See XVI, 3, note.
XOCHITECATL, _n_. See XXV, 7, note.
XOCHITL, _n_. A flower, a rose.
XOCHIYAOTL, _n_. Flower-war. See XVI, 4, note.
XOCOMIQUI, _v_. To intoxicate, to become drunk.
XOCOYA, _v_. To grow sour. XIII, 4.
XOPALEUAC, _n_. Something very green.
XOPAN, _n_. The springtime.
XOTLA, _v_. To blossom, to flower; to warm, to inflame; to cut, to
scratch, to saw.
XOXOCTIC, _adj_. Green; blue. XVI, 6.
XOYACALTITLAN, _n_. The house or place of decay. III, 1.

Y., Abbrev. for _ihuan_, and _in_, q. v.
YA, _adv_. Already, thus; same as _ye_; _v_., to suit, to fit. Part.
euphonic or expletive. See note to XVII, 3.
YAN, _postpos_. Suffix signifying place.
YANCUIC, _adj_. New, fresh, recent.
YANCUICAN, _adv_. Newly, recently.
YAOTL, _n_. War, battle.
YAOYOTL, _n_. Warfare.
YAQUI, _adj_. Departed, gone, left for a place.
YAUH, _v., irreg_. To go.
YE, _adv_. Already, thus; _ye no ceppa_, a second time; _ye ic_,
already, it is already.
YE, _pron_. He, those, etc.
YE, _adj. num_. Three.
YECE, _adv_. But.
YECEN, _adv_. Finally, at last.
YECNEMI, _v_. To live righteously.
YECOA, _v_. To do, to finish, to conclude.
YECTENEHUA, _v_. To bless, to speak well of.
YECTLI, _adj_. Good, worthy, noble.
YEHUATL, _pron_. He, she, it. Pl. _yehuan, yehuantin_.
YEHUIA, _v_. To beg, to ask charity.
YEPPA YUHQUI. Formerly, it was there. VII, 2.
YHUINTIA. See _ihuinti_.
YOCATL, _n_. Goods, possessions; _noyocauh_, my property. XV, 26.
YOCAUA, _n_. Master, possessor, owner.
YOCOLIA, _v_. To form, to make.
YOCOYA, _v_. To make, to invent, to create.
YOHUATLI, _n_. Night, darkness.
YOLAHUIA, _v_. To rejoice greatly.
YOLCIAHUIA, _v_. To please one's self, to make glad.
YOLCUECUECHOA, _v_. To make the heart tremble. IV, 6.
YOLEHUA, _v_. To excite, to animate.
YOLIHUAYAN, _n_. A place of living III, 5.
YOLLO, _adj_. Adroit, skillful; also for _iyollo_, his heart.
YOLLOTL, _v_. Heart, mind, soul.
YOLNONOTZA, _v_. See note to I, 1.
YOLPOXAHUA, _v_. To toil mentally.
YUHQUI, _adv_. As, like.
YUHQUIMATI, _v_. To understand, to realize.

ZACATL, _n_. Herbage, straw, hay. XXI, 5.
ZACUAN, _n_. Feather of the zacuan bird; _fig_., yellow; prized.
ZACUAN TOTOTL, _n_. The zacuan bird, _Oriolus dominicensis_.
ZAN, _adv_. Only, but; _zan cuel_, in a short time; _zanen_, perhaps;
_Zan nen_, in vain.
ZANCUEL ACHIC, _adv_. A moment, an instant; often; _zan ye_, but
again, but quickly.
ZANIO, _pron_. I alone, he or it alone.
ZOA, _v_. To pierce; to spread out; to open; to sew; to string
together; to put in order.
ZOLIN TOTOTL, _n_. The quail.
ZOMA, _v_. To become angry.
ZOMALE, _adj_. For _comalli_, vase, cup. XXVI, 4.


ACALLAN, 105. "The place of boats," from _acalli_, boat. An ancient
province at the mouth of the Usumacinta river; but the name was
probably applied to other localities also.

ACATLAPAN, 41. A village southeast of Chalco. From _acatla_, a place
of reeds, and _pan_, in or at.

ACHALCHIUHTLANEXTIN, 46. The first chief of the Toltecs; another form
of _chalchiuhtonac_. Both names mean "the gleam of the precious
jade." Compare Torquemada, _Monarquia Indiana_. Lib. III., cap. 7;
Orozco y Berra, _Hist. Antigua de Mexico_, Tom. III., p. 42. The date
of the beginning of his reign is put at A.D. 667 or 700.

ACOLHUACAN, 40, 91, 119. A compound of _atl_, water, and _colhuacan_,
(q. v.) = "Colhuacan by the water," the name of the state of which
Tetzcuco was the capital, in the valley of Mexico.


ACOLMIZTLI, 35. A name of Nezahualcoyotl (see p. 35), also of other

ANAHUAC, 125. From _atl_, water, _nahuac_, by, = the land by the
water. The term was applied first to the land by the lakes in the
Valley of Mexico, and later to that along both the Gulf of Mexico and
the Pacific Ocean.

ATECPAN, 77. "The royal residence by the water" (_atl, tecpan_). I do
not find this locality mentioned elsewhere.

ATLIXCO, 125. "Where the water shows its face" (_atl, ixtli, co_). A
locality southeast of Tezcuco, near the lake, so called from a large
spring. See Motolinia, _Historia de los Indios_, Trat. III, cap. 18.

ATLOYANTEPETL, 85, 89, 91. Perhaps for _atlauantepetl_, "the mountain
that rules the waters." But see note to XIII, v. 6.

ATZALAN, 114. "Amid the waters" (_atl, tzalan_). Perhaps not a proper
name; but two villages in the present State of Puebla are called
Atzala (see Orozco y Berra, _Geografia de las Lenguas de Mexico_, pp.
212, 213).

AXAXACATZIN, 43. Probably for _axayacatzin_, reverential of
_axayacatl_, the name of a species of marsh fly. It was also the name
of the sixth ruler of Mexico (flor. about 1500), and doubtless of
other distinguished persons. See Ixtlilxochitl, _Historia
Chichimeca_, cap. 51.

AZCAPOTZALCO, 50, 51. An ancient town in the valley of Mexico, once
the capital city of the Tepanecas (q. v.). The word means "place of
the ant-hills," from _azcaputzalli_.

AZTECS, 25. A Nahuatl tribe who derived their name from their
mythical ancient home, Aztlan. The derivation is obscure, but
probably is from the same radical as _iztac_, white, and, therefore,
Father Duran was right in translating Aztlan, "place of whiteness,"
the reference being to the East, whence the Aztecs claim to have
come. See Duran, _Historia de las Indias_, cap. II.

CACAMATL, 94, 95. The reference appears to be to Cacamatzin (the
_Noble Sad One_, from _cacamaua_, fig. to be sad), last ruler of
Tezcuco, son and successor, in 1516, of Nezahualpilli. He was put to
death by Cortes.

CATOCIH, 89. A doubtful word, which may not be a proper name.

CHALCO, 16, 69, 95. A town and lake in the valley of Mexico. The
people were Nahuas and subject to Mexico. The word is probably
derived from _Challi_, with the postpos. _co_, meaning "at the mouth"
(of a river). See Buschmann, _Ueber die Aztekischen Ortsnamen_, s.
689, and comp. _Codex Ramirez_, p. 18.

CHIAPA, CHIAPANECA, 70, 71. The province and inhabitants of Chiapas,
in Southern Mexico. There were colonies of Nahuas in Chiapas, though
most of the natives spoke other tongues. The derivation is probably
from _chia_, a mucilaginous seed highly esteemed in Mexico.

CHICHIMECATL or CHICHIMECS, 88, 89, 91, 101. A rude hunting tribe,
speaking Nahuatl, who settled, in early times, in the valley of
Mexico. The name was said to be derived from _chichi_, a dog, on
account of their devotion to hunting (_Cod. Ramirez_). Others say it
was that of their first chieftain.

CHICOMOZTOC, 88, 89. "At the seven caves," the name of the mythical
locality from which the seven Nahuatl tribes derived their origin.
The _Codex Ramirez_ explains the seven caves to mean the seven houses
or lineages (totems) of which the nation consisted.

CHILILITLI, 36. Name of a tower of sacred import. It is apparently a
compound of _chia_ or _chielia_, to watch, and _tlilli_, blackness,
obscurity, hence "a night watch-tower." It was probably used for the
study of the sky at night.

CHIMALPOPOCA, 43. "The smoking shield," from _chimalli_, shield, and
_popoca_. The name of several distinguished warriors and rulers in
ancient Mexico.

CHOLULA or CHOLOLLAN, 105. Name of a celebrated ancient state and
city. From _choloa_, with the probable meaning, "place of refuge,"
"place of the fugitives."

CIHUAPAN, 41. Name of a warrior, otherwise unknown. From _cihuatl_,
woman, _pan_, among, with.

COATZITEUCTLI, 89. A name compound of _coatzin_, reverential form of
_coatl_, serpent, and _teuctli_, lord.

COLHUA, A people of Nahuatl affinity, who dwelt in ancient times in
the valley of Mexico. See _Colhuacan_.

COLHUACAN, 88, 89, 91. A town in the valley of Mexico. In spite of
the arguments to the contrary, I believe the Colhua were of Nahuatl
lineage, and that the name is derived from _colli_, ancestor;
_colhuacan_, the residence of the ancestors; with this signification,
it was applied to many localities. It must be distinguished from
_Acolhuacan_. Its ikonomatic symbol was a hill bent over at the top,
from _coloa_, to bend.

COLZAZTLI, 39. Probably for Coltzatztli, one who cries out or calls
to the ancestors (_colli, tzatzia_). A chief whom I have not found
elsewhere mentioned.

CONAHUATZIN, 41. A warrior not elsewhere mentioned. By derivation it
means "noble son of the lord of the water" (_conetl, ahua, tzin_).

CUETZPALTZIN, 89. A proper name, from _cuetzpalli_, the 4th day of
the month.

CUEXTLA, 33. A province of ancient Mexico. See Torquemada, _Monarquia
Indiana_. Lib. II, caps. 53, 56.

CULTEPEC, 42. A village five leagues from Tezcuco, at the foot of the
mountains. Deriv., _colli_, ancestor, _tepetl_, mountain or town,
with post-pos. _c_; "at the town of the ancestors."

HUETLALPAN or HUETLAPALLAN, 89. The original seat of the mythical
Toltecs. The name is a compound of _hue_, old, and _Tlapallan_, q. v.

HUEXOTZINCO, 50, 83, 91, 99, 113. An independent State of ancient
Anahuac, south of Tlascala and west of Cholula. The name means "at
the little willow woods," being a diminutive from _huexatla_, place
of willows.

HUITLALOTZIN, 89. From _huitlallotl_, a species of bird, with the
reverential termination. Name of a warrior.

HUITZILAPOCHTLI, 16. Tribal god of the Mexicans of Tenochtitlan. The
name is usually derived from _huitzitzilin_, humming bird, and
_opochtli_, left (_Cod. Ramirez_, p. 22), but more correctly from
_huitztli_, the south, _iloa_, to turn, _opochtli_, the left hand,
"the left hand turned toward the south," as this god directed the
wanderings of the Mexicans southward. The humming bird was used as
the "ikonomatic" symbol of the name.

HUITZILIHUITL, 89. "Humming-bird feather." Name of an ancient ruler
of Mexico, and of other warriors.

HUITZNAHUACATL, 91. A ruler of Huexotlan (Clavigero); a member of the
Huitznahua, residents of the quarters so called in Tezcuco and
Tenochtitlan (Ixtlilxochitl, _Hist. Chichimeca_, cap. 38).

IXTLILXOCHITL, 35, 46, 89. A ruler of Acolhuacan, father of
Nezahualcoyotl. Comp. _ixtli_, face, _tlilxochitl_, the vanilla
(literally, the black flower).

IZTACCOYOTL, 89, 93. "The white wolf." Name of a warrior otherwise

MEXICANS, 67, 83, 85, 87, 123, 125. See

MEXICO, 83, 123. Name of the town and state otherwise called
Tenochtitlan. _Mexitl_ was one of the names of the national god
Huitzilopochtli, and Mexico means "the place of Mexitl," indicating
that the city was originally called from a fane of the god.

MICTLAN, 95, 117, 119. The Mexican Hades, literally, "the place of
the dead."

MONTEZUMA, 14, 41, 113. The name of the ruler of Mexico on the
arrival of Cortes. The proper form is _Moteuhzomatzin_ or
_Motecuhzomatzin_, and the meaning, "he who is angry in a noble
manner." ("senor sanudo," _Cod. Ramirez_, p. 72; "qui se fache en
seigneur," Simeon, _Dict. de la Langue Nahuatl_, s. v.).

MOQUIHUIX, 33. The fourth ruler of Tlatilolco. He assumed the power
in 1441, according to some writers (Bustamente, _Tezcoco, en los
Ultimas Tiempos de sus Antiguos Reyes_, p. 269). The name probably
means "He who comes forth a freeman." See Ixtlilxochitl, _Historia
Chichimeca_, caps. 36, 51.

NACXITL TOPILTZIN, 105, 107. Nacxitl, "the four footed" (_nahui,
ixitl_), was the name of one of the gods of the merchants (Sahagun,
_Hist, de Nueva Espana_, Lib. I, c. 19). In the song it is applied to
Quetzalcoatl, who was also regarded as a guardian of merchants.

NAHUATL, (9, etc.). A term applied to the language otherwise known as
Aztec or Mexican. As an adjective it means "well-sounding," or,
pleasant to the ear. From this, the term _Nahua_ is used collectively
for all tribes who spoke the Nahuatl tongue. _Nahuatl_ also means
clever, skillful, and the derivation is probably from the root _na_,
to know.

NECAXECMITL, 46. Name of uncertain meaning of a person otherwise

NEZAHUALCOYOTL, 35, 67, 119. Chief of the Acolhuas, and ruler in
Tezcuco from 1427 to 1472, or thereabouts. He was a distinguished
patron of the arts and a celebrated poet. See p. 35, et seq.

NEZAHUALPILLI, or NEZAHUALPIZINTLI, 14, 125. Ruler of Acolhuacan, son
of Nezahualcoyotl. His accession is dated in 1470 or 1472.

NONOHUALCO, 105, 125. Name of one of the quarters of the ancient city
of Mexico; also of a mountain west of the valley of Mexico. The
derivation is probably from _onoc_, to lie down; _onohua_, to sleep;
_onohuayan_, a settled spot, an inhabited place. The _co_ is a

NOPAL or NOPALTZIN, 46. Ruler of Acolhuacan, A. D. 1260-1263,
according to some chronologies. The name is from _nopalli_, the
cactus or opuntia.

NOPILTZIN, 67, 91. "My son," or "my lord," a term of deference
applied to superiors, from _pilli_, which means son and also lord,
like the old English _child_. Cf. _Topiltzin_.

OTOMIS, 16, 49, 58, 64, 71, 95. A nation which inhabited a portion of
the valley of Mexico and region adjacent, entirely dissimilar in
language and appearance from the Nahuas. The etymologies suggested
are unsatisfactory.

POPOCATEPETL, 46. "The smoking mountain," the name of a famous
volcano rising from the valley of Mexico.

POYAUHTECATL, 105. A volcano near Orizaba (Sahagun. _Hist. de Nueva
Espana_, Lib. I, cap. 21). Derived from _poyaua_, to color, to

QUANTZINTECOMATZIN, 41. A warrior not otherwise known. The name is a
double reverential, from _quani_, eater, and _tecomatl_, vase, "The
noble eater from the royal dish."

QUAUHQUECHOLLAN, 95. A village and plain near the southern base of
Popocatepetl. It means "the place of the quechol woods," or the trees
among which quechol birds are found. See Motolinia, _Historia de los
Indios_, Trat. III, cap. 18.

QUAUHXILOTL, 89. Name of a large tree, and applied to a warrior,
ruler of Iztapallocan, whom Ixtlilxochitl, King of Tezcuco, placed at
the head of his troops in his war with Tezozomoc. See Clavigero,
_Storia Antica di Messico_, Tom. I, p. 185.

QUETZALCOATL, 32, 143, 144. See note on p. 143.

QUETZALMAMATZIN, 91. Name of a warrior, "the noble one of the
beautiful hands" (_quetzalli, mama_, pl. of _maitl_, and rev. term,
_tzin_). Perhaps the same as Quetzalmemalitzin, ruler of Teotihuacan,
mentioned by Ixtlilxochitl, _Historia Chichimeca_, cap. 35.

QUIAUHTZIN, 93. Name of a warrior, "The noble rain" (_quiauitl,

TENOCHTITLAN, 85. The current name for the City of Mexico; literally,
"at the stone-nopal," from _tetl_, stone, _nochtli_, nopal, and
postpos., _tlan_. The term refers to an ancient tradition.

TEPANECAS or TECPANECAS, 35. A powerful nation of Nahuatl lineage,
who dwelt in the valley of Mexico. They were destroyed in 1425 by the
Acolhuas and Mexicans, and later the state of Tlacopan was formed
from their remnants. Comp. probably from _tecpan_, a royal residence,
with the gentile termination.

TEPEYACAC, TEPEYACAN, 93. From _tepetl_, mountain, _yacatl_, nose,
point, and postpos, _c_. 1. A small mountain on which the celebrated
church of the Virgin of Guadalupe now stands. 2. A large town and
state subject to ancient Mexico, now Tepeaca in the province of

TETLAPAN QUETZANITZIN, 68, 69. A ruler of Tlatilolco, contemporary of
the conquest. See Note to Song VI.

TETZCOCO, now TEZCUCO, 14, 35, 36, 77. Capital city of Acolhuacan,
and residence of Nezahualcoyotl. It has been called "the Athens of
Anahuac." The derivation of the name is from a plant called
_tetzculli_ (_Cod. Ramirez_).

TEZOZOMOC, TEZOZOMOCTLI, 35, 39, 67, 88, 89. A ruler of the
Tepanecas, celebrated for his warlike skill and severity. His death
is placed in the year 1427. The name, like Montezuma, is derived from
_zoma_, to be angry, in this case from the reduplicated frequentative
form, _zozoma_.

TIZATLAN, 103. "The place of white varnish" (_tizatl_), the name of
one of the four quarters of the city of Tlascala.

TLACOMIHUATZIN, 93. "The noble cousin of the lynx" (_tlacomiztli_,
lynx, huan, postpos., denoting affinity, _tzin_, reverential). The
name of a warrior.

TLACOPAN, now TACUBA, 135. A small state west of Mexico and subject
to it, built up on the ruins of the ancient Tepanecas. Comp. from
_tlacotli_, a slave.

TLAHUICAN, 118. A Nahuatl province south of the valley of Mexico, so
called from the cinnabar, _tlahuitl_, there obtained (Buschmann; but
the _Cod. Ramirez_ gives the meaning "toward the earth," from
_tlalli_ and _huic_). [*Transcriber's note: TLAHUICAN not found in
text. See Tlahuica in Vocabulary.]

TLAILOTLACAN, 140. One of the seven divisions of the city of Tezcuco
(_Ixtlilxochitl_, _Hist. Chichimeca_, cap. 38). [*Transcriber's note:
TLAILOTLACAN not found in text.]

TLAILOTLAQUI, 84. Literally, "workers in refuse," or "scavengers."
Said by M. Aubin to have been a tribe who settled in Tezcuco in the
reign of Quinantzin. The term is apparently one of contempt.
[*Transcriber's note: TLAILOTLAQUI not found on page 84 in text. See
Tlailotlaqui in Vocabulary.]

TLALMANALCO, 42. A village near the foot of the volcano Popocatepetl.
Derived from _tlalmanalli_, level ground, with postpos. _co_.

TLALNAHUACATL, 89. "Dweller on the land;" name of a warrior.

TLALOC, 45. God of rain and the waters; a famous divinity among the
ancient Mexicans. The word means "stretched on the earth," and the
idol of the god represented a man extended on his back holding a

TLAPALLAN, 105. A mythical land from which the Toltecs were fabled to
have come and to which Quetzalcoatl returned. The derivation is from
_tlapalli_, color, especially red.

TLATETOLCO, TLATILULCO, 33, 83, 85. A suburb of the ancient city of
Mexico, founded in 1338; from _tlatelli_, a mound, _ololoa_, to make
round, the sense being "an island." See Motolinia, _Historia de los
Indios_, Trat. III, cap. 7.

TLAXCALLAN, now TLASCALA, 89, 93, 103. "The place of bread," from
_tlaxcalli_, bread. Site of a warlike tribe of Nahuatl descent, east
of the valley of Mexico.

TLATZIN, 46. Chief of a town of the Chichimecs, situated on Lake
Chalco. He flourished toward the close of the 14th century. From
_tlatli_, a falcon.

TOCHIN, 89. From _tochtli_, rabbit; name of the brother of the
Tezcucan ruler Quinantzin, and of many other personages.

TOLLAN, or TULAN, 46, 105, 107. The ancient mythical capital of the
Toltecs. The common derivation from _tolin_, a rush, is erroneous.
The name is a syncopated form of _tonatlan_, "the place of the sun."

TOLTEC, properly TOLTECATL, 46, 111. An inhabitant of Tollan. The
Toltecs were a mythical people, whose civilization was supposed to
have preceded that of the Aztecs.

TOPILTZIN, 46, 105. "Our son" or "Our lord" (see Nopiltzin). The term
was especially applied to Quetzalcoatl, q. v. See Orozco y Berra,
_Hist. Antig. de Mexico_, Tom. III, p. 54.

TOTOQUILHUATLI, 41. From _totoquilia_, to act as agent or lieutenant.
Ruler of Tlacopan. The verse of the song in which this name occurs is
given in the original Nahuatl by Ixtlilxochitl, who says it was very
popular throughout New Spain. See his _Historia Chichimeca_, cap. 32.

XICALANCO, 107. A locality on the borders of the province Tabasco.
The people spoke Nahuatl. Deriv. _xicalli_, gourd or jar, and
postpos. _co_.

XICOMATZINTLAMATA, 43. Name of a warrior not otherwise known. The
compound seems to mean "skillful with angry hand" (_xicoa, maitl,

XICONTECATL, 103. Name of several distinguished Tlascalan warriors,
lords of Tizatlan. See Clavigero, _Hist. Antica di Messico_, Tom.
III, pp. 38 and 40, One was a favorite of Nezahualcoyotl. See
Ixtlilxochitl, _Historia Chichimeca_, cap. 40.

XIUHTEUCTLI, 15. The god of fire, literally, "the lord of the year,"
or "of the foliage."

XIUHTZAL, 46. A queen of ancient Tollan, said by Clavigero to have
ruled from A. D. 979 to 984. Other writers give the name more
correctly Xiuhtlaltzin, "Lady of the Green Fields," and place her
death in 987. (Orozco y Berra, _Hist. Antig. de Mexico_, Tom. III, p.

XOLOTL, 46. An early if not the first king of the Chichimecs. His
death occurred in 1232.

YOHUALLATONOC, 89. "Shining at night." Name of a warrior.

YOPICO, 22. A division of the ancient city of Mexico, containing a
temple of this name. The word means "the place of the tearing out of
hearts" (_yolltol, pi, co_), from the form of sacrifice there carried

YOYONTZIN, 35, 40, 66, 67. A name of Nezahualcoyotl. See p. 35.


[Footnote 1: Diego Duran, _Historia de las Indias de Nueva Espana_,
Tom. I, p. 233; and compare Geronimo de Mendieta, _Historia
Eclesiastica Indiana_, Lib. II, cap. 31.]

[Footnote 2: Sahagun, _Historia de Nueva Espana_, Lib. VIII, cap.

[Footnote 3: Sahagun, _Historia de Nueva Espana_, Lib. III, cap. 8.]

[Footnote 4: _Cuicoyan_, from _cuica_, song, and the place-ending
_yan_, which is added to the impersonal form of the verb, in this
instance, _cuicoa_. Mr. Bancroft entirely misapprehends Tezozomoc's
words about these establishments, and gives an erroneous rendering of
the term. See his _Native Races of the Pacific Coast_, Vol. II, p.
290, and Tezozomoc, _Cronica Mexicana_, cap. 18.]

[Footnote 5: Juan de Torquemada, _Monarquia Indiana_, Lib. VI, cap.

[Footnote 6: Torquemada, _Monarquia Indiana_, Lib. XVII, cap. 3.
Didacus Valades, who was in Mexico about 1550, writes of the natives:
"Habent instrumenta musica permulta in quibus semulatione quadam se
exercent." _Rhetorica Christiana_, Pars. IV, cap. 24.]

[Footnote 7: Descriptions are given by Edward Muehlenpfordt, _Die
Republik Mexico_, Bd. I, pp. 250-52 (Hannover, 1844).]

[Footnote 8: Molina translates _piqui_, "crear o plasmar Dios alguna
cosa de nuevo." _Vocabulario de la Lengua Mexicana_, s.v.]

[Footnote 9: Sahagun, _Historia de Nueva Espana_, Lib. X, cap. 8.]

[Footnote 10: Boturini, _Idea de una Nueva Historia General_, p. 97.]

[Footnote 11: Clavigero, _Storia antica di Messico_, Lib. VII, p.

[Footnote 12: Torquemada, _Monarquia Indiana_, Lib. X, cap. 34.]

[Footnote 13: Duran, _Hist. de la Indias de Nueva Espana_, Tom. I, p.

[Footnote 14: Tezozomoc, _Cronica Mexicana_, cap. 64.]

[Footnote 15: Ixtlilxochitl, _Historia Chichimeca_, cap. 47.]

[Footnote 16: Boturini, _Idea de una Nueva Historia General_, p. 90.]

[Footnote 17: Tezozomoc, _Cronica Mexicana_, cap. 53.]

[Footnote 18: See Sahagun, _Historia de Neuva Espana_, Lib. IV, chap.
17, and Tezozomoc, _Cronica Mexicana_, cap. 64.]

[Footnote 19: _Cuitlaxoteyotl_, from _cuitatl_, mierda;
_tecuilhuicuicatl_, from _tecuilhuaztli_, sello, _tecuilonti_, el que
lo haze a otro, pecando contra natura. Molina, _Vocabulario_.]

[Footnote 20: William A. Hammond, _The Disease of the Scythians
(morbus feminarum) and Certain Analogous Conditions_, in the
_American Journal of Neurology and Psychiatry_, 1882.]

[Footnote 21: _Cronica Mexicana_, cap. 2.]

[Footnote 22: On this subject the reader may consult Parades,
_Compendio del Arte de la Lengua Mexicana_, pp. 5, 6, and Sandoval,
_Arte de la Lengua Mexicana_, pp. 60, 61. Tapia Zenteno whose _Arte
Novissima de la Lengua Mexicana_ was published in 1753, rejects
altogether the saltillo, and says its invention is of no use except
to make students work harder! (pp. 3, 4.) The vowels with saltillo,
he maintains, are simply to be pronounced with a slight aspiration.
Nevertheless, the late writers continue to employ and describe the
saltillo, as Chimalpopoca, _Epitome a Modo Facil de aprender el
Idioma Nahuatl_, p. 6. (Mexico, 1869.)]

[Footnote 23: _Arte Novissima de la Lengua Mexicana_, pp. 3, 4.]

[Footnote 24: Duran, _Historia de Nueva Espana_, Tom. I, p. 230.]

[Footnote 25: The singer who began the song was called _cuicaito_,
"the speaker of the song."]

[Footnote 26: The most satisfactory description of these concerts is
that given by Geronimo de Mendieta, _Historia Eclesiastica Indiana_,
Lib. II, cap. 31. I have taken some particulars from Boturini and

[Footnote 27: Literally, "the broken drum," from _tlapana_, to break,
as they say _tlapanhuimetzli_, half moon. It is described by
Tezozomoc as "un atambor bajo." _Cronica Mexicana_, cap. 53.]

[Footnote 28: From _yollotl_, heart, and _pi_, to tear out. The
instrument is mentioned by Tezozomoc, _Cronica Mexicana_, cap. 48. On
the Yopico, and its ceremonies, see Sahagun, _Historia de Nueva
Espana_, Lib. II, cap. 1, and Appendix.]

[Footnote 29: Simeon, however, thinks the name arose from the growing
and swelling of the sound of the instrument (notes to Jourdanet's
translation of Sahagun, p. 28). Mr. H.H. Bancroft gives the
astonishing translation of teponaztli, "wing of stone vapor!"
(_Native Races of the Pacific States_, Vol. II, p. 293.) Brasseur
traced the word to a Maya-Quiche root, _tep_. In both Nahuatl and
Maya this syllable is the radicle of various words meaning to
increase, enlarge, to grow strong or great, etc.]

[Footnote 30: Sahagun, _Hist. de Nueva Espana_, Lib. II, cap. 27.]

[Footnote 31: See _The Gueegueence, a Comedy ballet in the Nahuatl
Spanish dialect of Nicaragua_, Introd., p. 29. (Philadelphia, 1883.)]

[Footnote 32: Theodor Baker, _Ueber die Musik der Nord-Amerikanischen
Wilden._, pp. 51-53. (Leipzig, 1882.)]

[Footnote 33: _Omitl_, bone, _chicahuac_, strong. A specimen made of
the bone of a fossil elephant is possessed by Senor A. Chavero, of
Mexico. See Tezozomoc, _Cronica Mexicana_, cap. 55, and the note of
Orozco y Berra to that passage in the Mexican edition. Also Sahagun,
_Hist. de Nueva Espana_, Lib. VIII, cap. 20, who likewise describes
most of the instruments referred to in this section.]

[Footnote 34: H.T. Cresson, _On Aztec Music_, in the _Proceedings of
the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia_, 1883.]

[Footnote 35: Sahagun, _Historia de Nueva Espana_, Lib. II,

[Footnote 36: Duran, _Historia de las Indias de Nueva Espana_, Tom.
I, p. 233.]

[Footnote 37: Boturini, _Idea de una Nueva Historia General_,
Appendice, p. 95.]

[Footnote 38: Echevarria, _Historia del Origen de las Gentes de Nueva
Espana_, Discurso Preliminar.]

[Footnote 39: Clavigero, _Storia Antica di Messico_, Lib. VII, p.

[Footnote 40: "Ihre Sprachen sind ueberreich an doppelsinnigen
Ausdruecken die sie absichtlich anwenden um ihre Gedanken zu
verbergen. Geistliche haben mir versichert, dass sie obgleich der
Aztekischen Sprache vollstaendig maechtig, oft den wahren Sinn einer
Beichte nicht zu verstehen vermochten, weil die Beichtende sich in
raethselhafter und metaphorreicher Weise auszudruecken pflegten."
Carlos von Gagern, _Charakteristik der Indianischen Bevoelkerung
Mexico's_, p. 17 (in the _Mit. der Geog. Gesell._, Wien. 1837).]

[Footnote 41: Carochi's translations are not quite literal. The
following notes will explain the compounds:--

1. _Tlauitl_, red ochre, _quecholli_, a bird so called, _aztatl_, a
heron, _ehualtia_, reverential of _ehua_, to rise up; hence, "It (or
he) shone like a noble red-winged heron rising in flight."

2. _Ayauitl_, mist; _cocamalotl_, rainbow; _tonameyotl_, shining,
brightness; _ti_, connective; _mani_, substantive verb. "The
brightness of the rain bow is there." There is no conjunction "and";
Father Carochi seems to have carelessly taken _ayauh_, which is the
form of _ayauitl_ in composition, for the conjunction _auh_, and.
Each of the lines given is a detached fragment, without connection
with the others.

3. _xiuitl_, something blue or green; _coyolli_, bells;
_tzitzilicaliztli_, tinkling. "The golden drum's

4. _xiuhtic_, blue or green; _tlapalli_, red; _cuiloa_, to paint or
write; _amoxtli_, book; _manca_, imperf. of _mani_. "There was a book
painted in red and green." 5. _chalchiuhuitl_, the jade; _cozcatl_,
a jewel; _mecatl_, a string; _totoma_, frequentative of _toma_, to
unfold, unwind. "I unwind my song like a string of precious jewels."]

[Footnote 42: See above, page 10]

[Footnote 43: _On the Ikonomatic Method of Phonetic Writing, with
special reference to American Archeology_. By D. G. Brinton, in
Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, for October,

[Footnote 44: This fact is mentioned by Lord Kingsborough in his
great work on Mexico, Vol. VI, p. 533.]

[Footnote 45: It is described in the _Anales del Museo Nacional_,
Tom. III, p. 262.]

[Footnote 46: Echevarria's words are "los pongo en su idioma." _Hist.
del Origen de las Gentes que poblaron la Nueva Espana, Discurso
Preliminar_, in Kingsborough's _Mexico_, Vol. VIII.]

[Footnote 47: See his _Tezcuco en los Ultimas Tiempos de sus Antiguos
Reyes_. Parte IV (Mexico, 1826).]

[Footnote 48: See the description of this fragment of Boturini by
Senor Alfredo Chavero in the _Anales del Museo Nacional_, Tom. III,
p. 242.]

[Footnote 49: M. Aubin, _Notice sur une Collection d'Antiquites
Mexicaines_, pp. 8, 9. (Paris, 1851.)]

[Footnote 50: Printed very incorrectly in Lord Kingsborough's edition
of Ixtlilxochitl's _Relaciones Historicas_ (Rel. X, Kingsborough,
_Antiquities of Mexico_, Vol. IX, p. 454).]

[Footnote 51: See Sahagun, _Historia de Nueva Espana_, Lib. II,

[Footnote 52: Bustamente puts the number of the songs of
Nezahualcoyotl at eighty, of which he could find only one extant, and
this, as I understand his words, in Spanish only. See his _Tezcuco en
los Tiempos de sus Antiguous Reyes_, p. 253 (Mexico, 1826). When
Alexander von Humboldt visited Mexico he sought in vain for any
fragment of the songs of the royal bard. _Vues lies Cordilleres_,
etc., Tom. II, p. 391.]

[Footnote 53: _Tardes Americanas_, pp. 90-94. (Mexico, 1778.)]

[Footnote 54: Torquemada, _Monarquia Indiana_, Lib. II, cap. 45. The
word _huehuetitlan_, seems to be a misprint for _ahuehuetitlan_, from
_ahuehuetl_, with the ligature _ti_, and the postposition _tlan_,
literally "among the cypresses."]

[Footnote 55: _Op. cit._ Tom. I, p. 795.]

[Footnote 56: _Grammatica del Idioma Mexicano_, p. 180. (Mexico,

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