Full Text Archive logoFull Text Archive — Free Classic E-books

A Social History of the American Negro by Benjamin Brawley

Part 8 out of 9

Adobe PDF icon
Download A Social History of the American Negro pdf
File size: 1.0 MB
What's this? light bulb idea Many people prefer to read off-line or to print out text and read from the real printed page. Others want to carry documents around with them on their mobile phones and read while they are on the move. We have created .pdf files of all out documents to accommodate all these groups of people. We recommend that you download .pdfs onto your mobile phone when it is connected to a WiFi connection for reading off-line.

elements, it is said, even if difficult to assimilate, may gradually be
brought into the body politic, but the Negro is the one element that
may be tolerated but not assimilated, utilized but not welcomed to the
fullness of the country's glory.

However, the Negro has no reason to be discouraged. If one will but
remember that after all slavery was but an incident and recall the
status of the Negro even in the free states ten years before the Civil
War, he will be able to see a steady line of progress forward. After the
great moral and economic awakening that gave the race its freedom, the
pendulum swung backward, and finally it reached its farthest point of
proscription, of lawlessness, and inhumanity. No obscuring of the vision
for the time being should blind us to the reading of the great movement
of history.

To-day in the whole question of the Negro problem there are some matters
of pressing and general importance. One that is constantly thrust
forward is that of the Negro criminal. On this the answer is clear. If a
man--Negro or otherwise--is a criminal, he is an enemy of society, and
society demands that he be placed where he will do the least harm. If
execution is necessary, this should take place in private; and in no
case should the criminal be so handled as to corrupt the morals or
arouse the morbid sensibilities of the populace. At the same time simple
patriotism would demand that by uplifting home surroundings, good
schools, and wholesome recreation everything possible be done for Negro
children as for other children of the Republic, so that just as few of
them as possible may graduate into the criminal class.

Another matter, closely akin to this, is that of the astonishing lust
for torture that more and more is actuating the American people. When in
1835 McIntosh was burned in St. Louis for the murder of an officer, the
American people stood aghast, and Abraham Lincoln, just coming into
local prominence, spoke as if the very foundations of the young republic
had been shaken. After the Civil War, however, horrible lynchings became
frequent; and within the last decade we have seen a Negro boy stabbed in
numberless places while on his way to the stake, we have seen the eyes
of a Negro man burned out with hot irons and pieces of his flesh cut
off, and a Negro woman--whose only offense was a word of protest against
the lynching of her husband--while in the state of advanced pregnancy
hanged head downwards, her clothing burned from her body, and herself so
disemboweled that her unborn babe fell to the ground. We submit that
any citizens who commit such deeds as these are deserving of the most
serious concern of their country; and when they bring their little
children to behold their acts--when baby fingers handle mutilated flesh
and baby eyes behold such pictures as we have suggested--a crime has
been committed against the very name of childhood. Most frequently it
will be found that the men who do these things have had only the most
meager educational advantages, and that generally--but not always--they
live in remote communities, away from centers of enlightenment, so that
their whole course of life is such as to cultivate provincialism. With
not the slightest touch of irony whatever we suggest that these men need
a crusade of education in books and in the fundamental obligations of
citizenship. At present their ignorance, their prejudice, and their lack
of moral sense constitute a national menace.

It is full time to pause. We have already gone too far. The Negro
problem is only an index to the ills of society in America. In our haste
to get rich or to meet new conditions we are in danger of losing all of
our old standards of conduct, of training, and of morality. Our courts
need to summon a new respect for themselves. The average citizen knows
only this about them, that he wants to keep away from them. So far we
have not been assured of justice. The poor man has not stood an equal
chance with the rich, nor the black with the white. Money has been
freely used, even for the changing of laws if need be; and the
sentencing of a man of means generally means only that he will have a
new trial. The murders in any American city average each year fifteen or
twenty times as many as in an English or French city of the same size.
Our churches need a new baptism; they have lost the faith. The same
principle applies in our home-life, in education, in literature. The
family altar is almost extinct; learning is more easy than sound; and
in literature as in other forms of art any passing fad is able to gain
followers and pose as worthy achievement. All along the line we need
more uprightness--more strength. Even when a man has committed a crime,
he must receive justice in court. Within recent years we have heard too
much about "speedy trials," which are often nothing more than legalized
lynchings. If it has been decreed that a man is to wait for a trial one
week or one year, the mob has nothing to do with the matter, and, if
need be, all the soldiery of the United States must be called forth to
prevent the storming of a jail. Fortunately the last few years have
shown us several sheriffs who had this conception of their duty.

In the last analysis this may mean that more responsibility and more
force will have to be lodged in the Federal Government. Within recent
years the dignity of the United States has been seriously impaired.
The time seems now to have come when the Government must make a new
assertion of its integrity and its authority. No power in the country
can be stronger than that of the United States of America.

For the time being, then, this is what we need--a stern adherence to
law. If men will not be good, they must at least be made to behave. No
one will pretend, however, that an adjustment on such a basis is finally
satisfactory. Above the law of the state--above all law of man--is the
law of God. It was given at Sinai thousands of years ago. It received
new meaning at Calvary. To it we must all yet come. The way may be hard,
and in the strife of the present the time may seem far distant; but some
day the Messiah will reign and man to man the world over shall brothers
be "for a' that."


Unless an adequate volume is to be devoted to the work, any bibliography
of the history of the Negro Problem in the United States must be
selective. No comprehensive work is in existence. Importance attaches to
_Select List of References on the Negro Question_, compiled under the
direction of A.P.C. Griffin, Library of Congress, Washington, 1903; _A
Select Bibliography of the Negro American_, edited by W.E.B. DuBois,
Atlanta, 1905, and _The Negro Problem: a Bibliography_, edited by Vera
Sieg, Free Library Commission, Madison, Wis., 1908; but all such lists
have to be supplemented for more recent years. Compilations on the
Abolition Movement, the early education of the Negro, and the literary
and artistic production of the race are to be found respectively in
Hart's _Slavery and Abolition_, Woodson's _The Education of the Negro
prior to 1861_, and Brawley's _The Negro in Literature and Art_, and the
_Journal of Negro History_ is constantly suggestive of good material.

The bibliography that follows is confined to the main question. First of
all are given general references, and then follows a list of individual
authors and books. Finally, there are special lists on topics on which
the study in the present work is most intensive. In a few instances
books that are superficial in method or prejudiced in tone have been
mentioned as it has seemed necessary to try to consider all shades of
opinion even if the expression was not always adequate. On the other
hand, not every source mentioned in the footnotes is included, for
sometimes these references are merely incidental; and especially does
this apply in the case of lectures or magazine articles, some of which
were later included in books. Nor is there any reference to works of
fiction. These are frequently important, and books of unusual interest
are sometimes considered in the body of the work; but in such a study as
the present imaginative literature can be hardly more than a secondary
and a debatable source of information.


I. General References

(Mainly in Collections, Sets, or Series)

Statutes at Large, being a Collection of all the Laws of Virginia from
the first session of the Legislature, in the year 1619, by William
Waller Hening. Richmond, 1819-20.

Laws of the State of North Carolina, compiled by Henry Potter, J.L.
Taylor, and Bart. Yancey. Raleigh, 1821.

The Statutes at Large of South Carolina, edited by Thomas Cooper.
Columbia, 1837.

The Pro-Slavery Argument (as maintained by the most distinguished
writers of the Southern states). Charleston, 1852.

Files of such publications as Niles's _Weekly Register_, the _Genius
of Universal Emancipation_, the _Liberator_, and DeBow's _Commercial
Review_, in the period before the Civil War; and of the _Crisis_,
the _Journal of Negro History_, the _Negro Year-Book_, the _Virginia
Magazine of History_, the _Review of Reviews_, the _Literary Digest_,
the _Independent_, the _Outlook_, as well as representative newspapers
North and South and weekly Negro newspapers in later years.

Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science
(some numbers important for the present work noted below).

Studies in History, Economics, and Public Law edited by the Faculty of
Political Science of Columbia University (some numbers important for the
present work noted below).

Atlanta University Studies of Negro Problems (for unusually important
numbers note DuBois, editor, below, also Bigham).

Occasional Papers of the American Negro Academy (especially note
Cromwell in special list No. 1 below and Grimke in No. 3).

Census Reports of the United States; also Publications of the Bureau of

Annual Reports of the General Education Board, the John F. Slater Fund,
the Jeanes Fund; reports and pamphlets issued by American Missionary
Association, American Baptist Home Mission Society, Freedmen's Aid
Society, etc.; catalogues of representative educational institutions;
and a volume "From Servitude to Service" (the Old South lectures on
representative educational institutions for the Negro), Boston, 1905.

Pamphlets and reports of National Association for the Advancement of
Colored People, the National Urban League, the Southern Sociological
Congress, the University Commission on Southern Race Questions, Hampton
Conference reports, 1897-1907, and Proceedings of the National Negro
Business League, annual since 1900.

The American Nation: A History from Original Sources by Associated
Scholars, edited by Albert Bushnell Hart. 27 vols. Harper & Bros., New
York, 1907. (Volumes important for the present work specially noted

The Chronicles of America. A Series of Historical Narratives edited
by Allen Johnson. 50 vols. Yale University Press, New Haven, 1918--.
(Volumes important for the present work specially noted below.)

The South in the Building of the Nation. 12 vols. The Southern
Publication Society. Richmond, Va., 1909.

Studies in Southern History and Politics. Columbia University Press, New
York, 1914.

New International and Americana Encyclopedias (especially on such topics
as Africa, the Negro, and Negro Education).


(Note pamphlets at end of list; also special lists under III below.)

Adams, Alice Dana: The Neglected Period of Anti-Slavery in
America (1808-1831), Radcliffe College Monograph No. 14.
Boston, 1908 (now handled by Harvard University Press).

Adams, Henry: History of the United States from 1801 to 1817. 9
vols. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1889-90.

Alexander, William T.: History of the Colored Race in America.
Palmetto Publishing Co., New Orleans, 1887.

Armistead, Wilson: A Tribute for the Negro, being a Vindication
of the Moral, Intellectual, and Religious Capabilities of the Colored
Portion of Mankind, with particular reference to the African
race, illustrated by numerous biographical sketches, facts,
anecdotes, etc., and many superior portraits and engravings.
Manchester, 1848.

Baker, Ray Stannard: Following the Color Line. Doubleday, Page
& Co., New York, 1908.

Ballagh, James Curtis: A History of Slavery in Virginia. Johns
Hopkins Studies, extra volume 24. Baltimore, 1902.

White Servitude in the Colony of Virginia. Johns Hopkins Studies,
Thirteenth Series, Nos. 6 and 7. Baltimore, 1895.

Bassett, John Spencer: Anti-Slavery Leaders of North Carolina.
Sixth Series, No. 6. Baltimore, 1898.

Slavery and Servitude in the Colony of North Carolina. Johns Hopkins
Studies, Fourteenth Series, Nos. 4 and 5. Baltimore, 1896.

Slavery in the State of North Carolina. Johns Hopkins Studies, XIV:
179; XVII: 323.

Bigham, John Alvin (editor): Select Discussions of Race Problems,
No. 20, of Atlanta University Publications. Atlanta, 1916.

Birney, William: James G. Birney and His Times. D. Appleton &
Co., New York, 1890.

Blake, W.O.: The History of Slavery and the Slave-Trade. Columbus,
O., 1861.

Blyden, Edward W.: Christianity, Islam, and the Negro Race. London,

Bogart, Ernest Ludlow: The Economic History of the United States.
Longmans, Green & Co., New York, 1918 edition.

Bourne, Edward Gaylord: Spain in America, 1450-1580. Vol. 3 of
American Nation Series.

Brackett, Jeffrey Richardson: The Negro in Maryland: A Study of
the Institution of Slavery. Johns Hopkins Studies, extra volume
6. Baltimore, 1889.

Bradford, Sarah H.: Harriet, the Moses of Her People. New York,

Brawley, Benjamin: A Short History of the American Negro. The
Macmillan Co., New York, 1913, revised 1919.

History of Morehouse College. Atlanta, 1917.

The Negro in Literature and Art. Duffield & Co., New York, 1918.

Your Negro Neighbor (in Our National Problems series). The
Macmillan Co., New York, 1918.

Africa and the War. Duffield & Co., New York, 1918.

Women of Achievement (written for the Fireside Schools under
the auspices of the Woman's American Baptist Home Mission
Society). Chicago and New York, 1919.

Brawley, Edward M.: The Negro Baptist Pulpit. American Baptist
Publication Society, Philadelphia, 1890.

Bruce, Philip Alexander: Economic History of Virginia in the
Seventeenth Century. 2 vols. The Macmillan Co., New York,

Cable, George Washington: The Negro Question. Charles Scribner's
Sons, New York, 1890.

Calhoun, William Patrick: The Caucasian and the Negro in the
United States. R.L. Bryan Co., Columbia, S. C, 1902.

Chamberlain, D.H.: Present Phases of Our So-Called Negro Problem
(open letter to the Rt. Hon. James Bryce of England), reprinted
from _News and Courier_, Charleston, of August 1, 1904.

Cheyney, Edward Potts: European Background of American History.
Vol. I of American Nation Series.

Child, Lydia Maria: An Appeal in Favor of That Class of Americans
Called Africans. Boston, 1833.

The Oasis (edited). Boston, 1834.

Clayton, V.V.: White and Black under the Old Regime. Milwaukee,

Clowes, W. Laird: Black America: A Study of the Ex-Slave and
His Late Master. Cassell & Co., London, 1891.

Coffin, Joshua: An Account of Some of the Principal Slave Insurrections,
and others, which have occurred, or been attempted, in the
United States and elsewhere, during the last two centuries,
with various remarks. American Anti-Slavery Society, New
York, 1860.

Collins, Winfield H.: The Domestic Slave Trade of the Southern
States. Broadway Publishing Co., New York, 1904.

Coman, Katherine: The Industrial History of the United States.
The Macmillan Co., New York, 1918 edition.

The Negro as a Peasant Farmer. American Statistical Association
Publications, 1904:39.

Commons, John R.: Races and Immigrants in America. The Macmillan
Co., 1907.

Coolidge, Archibald Cary: The United States as a World Power.
The Macmillan Co., New York, 1918.

Cooper, Anna Julia: A Voice from the South, by a black woman
of the South. Xenia, O., 1892.

Corey, Charles H.: A History of the Richmond Theological Seminary.
Richmond, 1895.

Cornish, Samuel E., and Wright, T.S.: The Colonization Scheme
Considered in Its Rejection by the Colored People. Newark,

Cromwell, John W.: The Negro in American History. The American
Negro Academy, Washington, 1914.

Culp, Daniel W. (editor): Twentieth Century Negro Literature.
Nichols & Co., Toronto, 1902.

Cutler, James E.: Lynch Law, an Investigation into the History of
Lynching in the United States. Longmans, Green & Co., New
York, 1905.

Daniels, John: In Freedom's Birthplace: A Study of the Boston
Negroes. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston and New York, 1914.

Dewey, Davis Rich: National Problems, 1885-1897. Vol. 24 in
American Nation Series.

Dill, Augustus Granville. See DuBois, editor Atlanta University

Dodd, William E.: The Cotton Kingdom. Vol. 27 of Chronicles of

Expansion and Conflict. Vol. 3 of Riverside History of the United
States. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, 1915.

Dow, Lorenzo ("Cosmopolite, a Listener"): A Cry from the Wilderness!
A Voice from the East, A Reply from the West--Trouble in the
North, Exemplifying in the South. Intended as a timely and
solemn warning to the People of the United States. Printed
for the Purchaser and the Public. United States, 1830.

DuBois, W.E. Burghardt: Suppression of the African Slave-Trade.
Longmans, Green & Co., New York, 1896 (now handled by Harvard
University Press).

DuBois, W.E. Burghardt: The Philadelphia Negro. University of
Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, 1899.

The Souls of Black Folk. A.C. McClurg & Co., Chicago, 1903.
The Negro in the South (Booker T. Washington, co-author).

George W. Jacobs & Co., Philadelphia, 1907.

John Brown (in American Crisis Biographies). George W. Jacobs
& Co., Philadelphia, 1909.

The Negro (in Home University Library Series). Henry Holt &
Co., New York, 1915.

Darkwater: Voices from within the Veil. Harcourt, Brace &
Co., New York, 1920.

(Editor Atlanta University Publications).

The Negro Church, No. 8.

The Health and Physique of the Negro American, No. II.

Economic Co-operation among Negro Americans, No. 12.

The Negro American Family, No. 13.

Efforts for Social Betterment among Negro Americans, No. 14.
The College-Bred Negro American, No. 15. (A.G. Dill, co-editor.)

The Negro American Artisan, No. 17. (A.G. Dill, co-editor.)

Morals and Manners among Negro Americans, No. 18. (A.G.
Dill, co-editor.)

Dunbar, Alice Ruth Moore: Masterpieces of Negro Eloquence. The
Bookery Publishing Co., New York, 1914.

Dunbar, Paul Laurence: Complete Poems. Dodd, Mead & Co., New
York, 1913.

Dunning, William Archibald: Reconstruction, Political and Economic.
Vol. 22 of American Nation Series.

Earnest, Joseph B., Jr.: The Religious Development of the Negro
in Virginia (Ph.D. thesis, Virginia). Charlottesville, 1914.

Eckenrode, Hamilton James: The Political History of Virginia
during the Reconstruction. Johns Hopkins Studies. Twenty-second
Series, Nos. 6, 7, and 8. Baltimore, 1904.

Ellis, George W.: Negro Culture in West Africa. The Neale Publishing
Co., New York, 1914.

Ellwood, Charles A.: Sociology and Modern Social Problems. American
Book Co., New York, 1910.

Elwang, William W.: The Negroes of Columbia, Mo. (A.M. thesis,
Missouri), 1904.

Epstein, Abraham: The Negro Migrant in Pittsburgh (in publications
of School of Economics of the University of Pittsburgh).

Evans, Maurice S.: Black and White in the Southern States: A
Study of the Race Problem in the United States from a South
African Point of View. Longmans, Green & Co., London, 1915.

Ferris, William Henry: The African Abroad. 2 vols. New Haven,

Fleming, Walter L.: Documentary History of Reconstruction. 2
vols. Arthur H. Clark Co., Cleveland, O., 1906.

The Sequel of Appomattox. Vol. 32 of Chronicles of America.

Fletcher, Frank H.: Negro Exodus. Report of agent appointed by
the St. Louis Commission to visit Kansas for the purpose of
obtaining information in regard to colored emigration. No

Furman, Richard: Exposition of the Views of the Baptists Relative
to the Colored Population in the United States, in a communication
to the Governor of South Carolina. Second edition, Charleston,
1833. (Letter bears original date December 24, 1822; Furman
was president of State Baptist Convention.)

Garrison, Wendell Phillips, and Garrison, Francis Jackson: William
Lloyd Garrison; Story of His Life Told by His Children. 4
vols. Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1894.

Garrison, William Lloyd: Thoughts on African Colonization: or
An Impartial Exhibition of the Doctrines, Principles, and Purposes
of the American Colonization Society, together with the
Resolutions, Addresses, and Remonstrances of the Free People
of Color. Boston, 1832.

Gayarre, Charles E.A.: History of Louisiana. 4 vols. New Orleans,
1885 edition.

Grady, Henry W.: The New South and Other Addresses, with
biography, etc., by Edna H.L. Turpin. Maynard, Merrill & Co.,
New York, 1904.

Graham, Stephen: The Soul of John Brown. The Macmillan Co.,
New York, 1920.

Hallowell, Richard P.: Why the Negro was Enfranchised--Negro
Suffrage Justified. Boston, 1903. (Reprint of two letters in the
_Boston Herald_, March 11 and 26, 1903.)

Hammond, Lily Hardy: In Black and White: An Interpretation of
Southern Life. Fleming H. Revell Co., New York, 1914.

Harris, Norman Dwight: Intervention and Colonization in Africa.
Houghton, Mifflin Co., Boston, 1914.

Hart, Albert Bushnell: National Ideals Historically Traced. Vol.
26 in American Nation Series.

Slavery and Abolition. Vol. 16 in American Nation Series.

The Southern South. D. Appleton & Co., New York, 1910.

Hartshorn, W.N., and Penniman, George W.: An Era of Progress
and Promise, 1863-1910. The Priscilla Publishing Co., Boston,

Haworth, Paul Leland: America in Ferment. Bobbs-Merrill Co.,
Indianapolis, 1915.

Haynes, George E.: The Negro at Work in New York City Vol
49, No. 3, of Columbia Studies, 1912.

Helper, Hinton Rowan: The Impending Crisis of the South: How
to Meet It. New York, 1857.

Hickok, Charles T.: The Negro in Ohio, 1802-1870. (Western
Reserve thesis.) Cleveland, 1896.

Higginson, Thomas Wentworth: Army Life in a Black Regiment
Boston, 1870. (Latest edition, Houghton, Mifflin Co., 1900.)

Hoffman, Frederick L.: Race Traits and Tendencies of the American
Negro. American Economics Association Publications, XI,
Nos. 1-3, 1896.

Hodge, Frederick W. (editor): Spanish Explorers in the Southern
United States, 1528-1543 (in Original Narratives of Early American
History), esp. The Narrative of Alvar Nunez Cabeca de Vaca.
Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1907.

Holland, Edwin C.: A Refutation of the Calumnies circulated
against the Southern and Western States, respecting the institution
and existence of slavery among them; to which is added a minute
and particular account of the actual condition and state of
their Negro Population, together with Historical Notices of
all the Insurrections that have taken place since the settlement
of the country. By a South Carolinian. Charleston, 1822.

Horsemanden, Daniel (Judge): A Journal of the Proceedings in
the Detection of the Conspiracy Formed by Some White People,
in conjunction with Negro and Other Slaves, for Burning the
City of New York in America, and Murdering the Inhabitants.
New York, 1744.

Hosmer, James K.: The History of the Louisiana Purchase. D.
Appleton & Co., New York, 1902.

Hurd, John C.: The Law of Freedom and Bondage. 2 vols. Boston,

Jay, William: Inquiry into the Character and Tendency of the American
Colonization and Anti-Slavery Societies. New York, 1835.

Jefferson, Thomas: Writings, issued under the auspices of the
Thomas Jefferson Memorial Association. 20 vols. Washington,

Jervey, Theodore D.: Robert Y. Hayne and His Times. The Macmillan
Co., New York, 1909.

Johnson, Allen: Union and Democracy. Vol. 2 of Riverside History
of the United States. Houghton, Mifflin Co., Boston, 1915.

Johnson, James W.: Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man (published
anonymously). Sherman, French & Co., Boston, 1912.

Fifty Years and Other Poems. The Cornhill Co., Boston, 1917.

Hayti. Four articles reprinted from the _Nation_, New York, 1920.

Johnston, Sir Harry Hamilton: The Negro in the New World. The
Macmillan Co., New York, 1910.

Kelsey, Carl: The Negro Farmer (Ph.D. thesis, Pennsylvania).
Jennings & Pye, Chicago, 1903.

Kemble, Frances A.: Journal of Residence on a Georgia Plantation,
1838-1839. Harper & Bros., 1863.

Kerlin, Robert T. (editor): The Voice of the Negro, 1919. E.P.
Dutton & Co., New York, 1920.

Kimball, John C.: Connecticut's Canterbury Tale; Its Heroine Prudence
Crandall, and Its Moral for To-Day. Hartford, Conn. (1886).

Krehbiel, Henry E.: Afro-American Folk-Songs. G. Schirmer, New
York and London, 1914.

Lauber, Almon Wheeler: Indian Slavery in Colonial Times within
the Present Limits of the United States. Vol. 54, No. 3, of
Columbia University Studies, 1913.

Livermore, George: An Historical Research Respecting the Opinions
of the Founders of the Republic on Negroes as Slaves, as
Citizens, and as Soldiers. Boston, 1863.

Locke, Mary Stoughton: Anti-Slavery in America from the Introduction
of African Slaves to the Prohibition of the Slave-Trade,
1619-1808. Radcliffe College Monograph No. 11. Boston, 1901
(now handled by Harvard University Press).

Lonn, Ella: Reconstruction in Louisiana. G.P. Putnam's Sons,
New York, 1919.

Lugard, Lady (Flora L. Shaw): A Tropical Dependency. James
Nisbet & Co., Ltd., London, 1906.

Lynch, John R.: The Facts of Reconstruction: The Neale Publishing
Co., New York, 1913.

McConnell, John Preston: Negroes and Their Treatment in Virginia
from 1865 to 1867 (Ph.D. thesis, Virginia, 1905). Printed by
B.D. Smith & Bros., Pulaski, Va., 1910.

MacCorkle, William A.: Some Southern Questions. G.P. Putnam's
Sons, New York, 1908.

McCormac, E.I.: White Servitude in Maryland. Johns Hopkins
Studies, XXII, 119.

McDougall, Marion Gleason: Fugitive Slaves, 1619-1865. Fay
House (Radcliffe College) Monograph, No. 3. Boston, 1891
(now handled by Harvard University Press).

McLaughlin, Andrew Cunningham: The Confederation and the
Constitution, 1783-1789. Vol. 10 in American Nation Series.

McMaster, John Bach: A History of the People of the United States,
from the Revolution to the Civil War. 8 vols. D. Appleton &
Co., New York, 1883-1913.

Macy, Jesse: The Anti-Slavery Crusade. Vol. 28 in Chronicles of

Marsh, J.B.T.: The Story of the Jubilee Singers, with their songs.
Boston, 1880.

Miller, Kelly: Race Adjustment. The Neale Publishing Co., New
York and Washington, 1908.

Out of the House of Bondage. The Neale Publishing Co., New
York, 1914.

Appeal to Conscience (in Our National Problems Series). The
Macmillan Co., New York, 1913.

Moore, G.H.: Historical Notes on the Employment of Negroes in
the American Army of the Revolution. New York, 1862.

Morgan, Thomas J.: Reminiscences of Service with Colored Troops
in the Army of the Cumberland, 1863-65. Providence, 1885.

Moton, Robert Russa: Finding a Way Out: An Autobiography.
Doubleday, Page & Co., Garden City, N.Y., 1920.

Murphy, Edgar Gardner: The Basis of Ascendency. Longmans,
Green & Co., London, 1909.

Murray, Freeman H.M.: Emancipation and the Freed in American
Sculpture. Published by the author, 1733 Seventh St., N.W.,
Washington, 1916.

Odum, Howard W.: Social and Mental Traits of the Negro. Columbia
University Studies, Vol. 37, No. 3. New York, 1910.

Olmsted, Frederick Law: The Cotton Kingdom. 2 vols. New York,

A Journey in the Seaboard Slave States. New York, 1856.

Page, Thomas Nelson: The Old South. Charles Scribner's Sons,
New York, 1892.

The Negro: the Southerner's Problem. Charles Scribner's Sons,
New York, 1904.

Palmer, B.M. (with W.T. Leacock): The Rights of the South
Defended in the Pulpits. Mobile, 1860.

Penniman, George W. See Hartshorn, W.N.

Phillips, Ulrich B.: American Negro Slavery. D. Appleton & Co.,
New York, 1918.

Plantation and Frontier. Vols. I and II of Documentary History
of American Industrial Society. Arthur H. Clark Co., Cleveland,

Pike, G.D.: The Jubilee Singers and Their Campaign for $20,000.
Boston, 1873.

Pike, J.S.: The Prostrate State: South Carolina under Negro Government.
New York, 1874.

Pipkin, James Jefferson: The Negro in Revelation, in History, and
in Citizenship. N.D. Thompson Publishing Co., St. Louis, 1902.

Platt, O.H.: Negro Governors. Papers of the New Haven Colony
Historical Society, Vol. 6. New Haven, 1900.

Reese, David M.: A Brief Review of the First Annual Report of
the American Anti-Slavery Society. New York, 1834.

Rhodes, James Ford: History of the United States from the Compromise
of 1850 (1850-1877 and 1877-1896). 8 vols. The Macmillan
Co., New York, 1893-1919.

Roman, Charles Victor: American Civilization and the Negro. F.A.
Davis Co., Philadelphia, 1916.

Russell, John H.: The Free Negro in Virginia, 1619-1865. Johns
Hopkins Studies, Series XXXI, No. 3. Baltimore, 1913.

Sandburg, Carl: The Chicago Race Riots, July, 1919. Harcourt,
Brace & Howe, New York, 1919.

Schurz, Carl: Speeches, Correspondence, and Political Papers, selected
and edited by Frederic Bancroft. 6 vols. G.P. Putnam's Sons,
New York and London, 1913.

Scott, Emmett J.: Negro Migration during the War (in Preliminary
Economic Studies of the War--Carnegie Endowment for International
Peace: Division of Economics and History). Oxford University
Press, American Branch. New York, 1920.

Official History of the American Negro in the World War. Washington,

Seligman, Herbert J.: The Negro Faces America. Harper Bros.,
New York, 1920.

Shaler, Nathaniel Southgate: The Neighbor: the Natural History
of Human Contacts. Houghton, Mifflin Co., Boston, 1904.

Siebert, Wilbur H.: The Underground Railroad from Slavery to
Freedom. The Macmillan Co., New York, 1898.

Sinclair, William A.: The Aftermath of Slavery. Small, Maynard
& Co., Boston, 1905.

Smith, Justin H.: The War with Mexico. 2 vols. The Macmillan
Co., New York, 1919.

Smith, Theodore Clarke: Parties and Slavery. Vol. 18 of American
Nation Series.

Smith, T.W.: The Slave in Canada. Vol. 10 in Collections of the
Nova Scotia Historical Society. Halifax, N.S., 1889.

Stephenson, Gilbert Thomas: Race Distinctions in American Law.
D. Appleton & Co., New York, 1910.

Steward, T.G.: The Haitian Revolution, 1791-1804. Thomas Y.
Crowell Co., New York, 1914.

Stoddard, Lothrop: The Rising Tide of Color against White World-Supremacy,
with an Introduction by Madison Grant. Charles Scribner's Sons.
New York, 1920.

Stone, Alfred H.: Studies in the American Race Problem. Doubleday,
Page & Co., New York, 1908.

Storey, Moorfield: The Negro Question. An Address delivered
before the Wisconsin Bar Association. Boston, 1918. Problems
of To-Day. Houghton, Mifflin Co., Boston, 1920.

Thompson, Holland: The New South. Vol. 42 in Chronicles of

Tillinghast, Joseph Alexander: The Negro in Africa and America.
Publications of American Economics Association, Series 3 Vol 3,
No. 2. New York, 1902.

Toombs, Robert: Speech on The Crisis, delivered before the Georgia
Legislature, Dec. 7, 1860. Washington, 1860.

Tucker, St. George: A Dissertation on Slavery, with a Proposal for
the Gradual Abolition of it in the State of Virginia. Philadelphia,

Turner, Frederick Jackson: The Rise of the New West. Vol. 14
in American Nation Series.

Turner, Edward Raymond: The Negro in Pennsylvania, 1639-1861
(Justin Winsor Prize of American Historical Association, 1910).
Washington, 1911.

Washington, Booker T.: The Future of the American Negro. Small,
Maynard & Co., Boston, 1899.

The Story of My Life and Work. Nichols & Co., Naperville, Ill.,

Up from Slavery: An Autobiography. Doubleday, Page & Co.,
New York, 1901.

Character Building. Doubleday, Page & Co., New York, 1902.

Working with the Hands. Doubleday, Page & Co., New York,

Putting the Most into Life. Crowell & Co., New York, 1906.

Frederick Douglass (in American Crisis Biographies). George W.
Jacobs & Co., Philadelphia, 1906.

The Negro in the South (with W.E.B. DuBois). George W.
Jacobs & Co., Philadelphia, 1907.

The Negro in Business. Hertel, Jenkins & Co., Chicago, 1907.

The Story of the Negro. 2 vols. Doubleday, Page & Co., New
York, 1909.

My Larger Education. Doubleday, Page & Co., Garden City, N.Y.,

The Man Farthest Down (with Robert Emory Park). Doubleday,
Page & Co., Garden City, N.Y., 1912.

Weale, B.L. Putnam: The Conflict of Color. The Macmillan Co.,
New York, 1910.

Weatherford, W.D.: Present Forces in Negro Progress. Association
Press, New York, 1912.

Weld, Theodore Dwight: American Slavery as It Is: Testimony
of a Thousand Witnesses. Published by the American Anti-Slavery
Society, New York, 1839.

Wiener, Leo: Africa and the Discovery of America, Vol. I. Innes
& Sons, Philadelphia, 1920.

Williams, George Washington: History of the Negro Race in America
from 1619 to 1880. 2 vols. G.P. Putnam's Sons, New York,

Wise, John S.: The End of an Era. Houghton, Mifflin Co., 1899.
Woodson, Carter G.: The Education of the Negro Prior to 1861.
G.P. Putnam's Sons, New York, 1915.

A Century of Negro Migration. Association for the Study of
Negro Life and History, Washington, 1918.

Woolf, Leonard: Empire and Commerce in Africa: A Study in
Economic Imperialism. London, 1920. The Macmillan Co., New

Wright, Richard R.: Negro Companions of the Spanish Explorers.
(Reprinted from the _American Anthropologist_, Vol. 4, April-June,

Wright, Richard R., Jr.: The Negro in Pennsylvania: A Study in
Economic History. (Ph.D. thesis, Pennsylvania.) A.M.E. Book
Concern, Philadelphia.

Wright, T.S. See Cornish, Samuel E.

Zabriskie, Luther K.: The Virgin Islands of the United States of
America. G.P. Putnam's Sons, New York, 1918.

* * * * *

An Address to the People of the United States, adopted at a Conference
of Colored Citizens, held at Columbia, S.C., July 20 and
21, 1876. Republican Printing Co., Columbia, S.C., 1876.

Paper (letter published in a Washington paper) submitted in connection
with the Debate in the United States House of Representatives,
July 15th and 18th, 1776, on the Massacre of Six Colored Citizens
at Hamburg, S.C., July 4, 1876.

Proceedings of the National Conference of Colored Men of the
United States, held in the State Capitol at Nashville, Tenn., May
6, 7, 8, and 9, 1879. Washington, D.C., 1879.

Story of the Riot. Persecution of Negroes by roughs and policemen
in the City of New York, August, 1900. Statement and Proofs
written and compiled by Frank Moss and issued by the Citizens'
Protective League. New York, 1900.

The Voice of the Carpet Bagger. Reconstruction Review No. 1, published
by the Anti-Lynching Bureau. Chicago, 1901.

III. Special Lists

1. On Chapter II, Section 3; Chapter III, Section 5; Chapter
VIII and Chapter XI, the general topic being the social
progress of the Negro before 1860. Titles are mainly in
the order of appearance of works.

Mather, Cotton: Rules for the Society of Negroes, 1693. Reprinted
by George H. Moore, Lenox Library, New York, 1888.

The Negro Christianized. An Essay to excite and assist that good
work, the instruction of Negro-servants in Christianity. Boston,

Allen, Richard. The Life, Experience and Gospel Labors of the Rt.
Rev. Richard Allen, written by himself. Philadelphia, 1793.

Hall, Prince. A Charge delivered to the African Lodge, June 24,
1797, at Menotomy, by the Right Worshipful Prince Hall. (Boston)

To the Free Africans and Other Free People of Color in the United
States. (Broadside) Philadelphia, 1797.

Walker, David: Appeal, in four articles, together with a Preamble
to the Colored Citizens of the World. Boston, 1829.

Garrison, William Lloyd: An Address delivered before the Free
People of Color in Philadelphia, New York, and other cities,
during the month of June, 1831. Boston, 1831.

Thoughts on African Colonization (see list above).

Minutes and Proceedings of the First Annual Convention of the
People of Color, held by adjournments in the City of Philadelphia,
from the sixth to the eleventh of June, inclusive, 1831.
Philadelphia, 1831.

College for Colored Youth. An Account of the New Haven City
Meeting and Resolutions with Recommendations of the College,
and Strictures upon the Doings of New Haven. New York, 1831.

On the Condition of the Free People of Color in the United States.
New York, 1839. (_The Anti-Slavery Examiner_, No. 13.)

Condition of the People of Color in the State of Ohio, with interesting
anecdotes. Boston, 1839.

Armistead, Wilson: Memoir of Paul Cuffe. London, 1840.

Wilson, Joseph: Sketches of the Higher Classes of Colored Society
in Philadelphia. Philadelphia, 1841.

National Convention of Colored Men and Their Friends. Troy,
N.Y., 1847.

Garnet, Henry Highland: The Past and Present Condition and the
Destiny of the Colored Race. Troy, 1848.

Delany, Martin R.: The Condition, Elevation, Emigration, and Destiny
of the Colored People of the United States, Politically Considered.
Philadelphia, 1852.

Cincinnati Convention of Colored Freedmen of Ohio. Proceedings,
Jan. 14-19, 1852. Cincinnati, 1852.

Proceedings of the Colored National Convention, held in Rochester,
July 6, 7, and 8, 1853. Rochester, 1853.

Cleveland National Emigration Convention of Colored People. Proceedings,
Aug. 22-24, 1854. Pittsburg, 1854.

Nell, William C.: The Colored Patriots of the American Revolution,
with sketches of several Distinguished Colored Persons: to which
is added a brief survey of the Condition and Prospects of Colored
Americans, with an Introduction by Harriet Beecher Stowe.
Boston, 1855.

Stevens, Charles E.: Anthony Burns, a History. Boston, 1856.

Catto, William T.: A Semi-Centenary Discourse, delivered in the
First African Presbyterian Church, Philadelphia, with a History
of the church from its first organization, including a brief notice
of Rev. John Gloucester, its first pastor. Philadelphia, 1857.

Bacon, Benjamin C.: Statistics of the Colored People of Philadelphia.
Philadelphia, 1856. Second edition, with statistics of crime,
Philadelphia, 1857.

Condition of the Free Colored People of the United States, by James
Freeman Clarke, in _Christian Examiner_, March, 1859, 246-265.
Reprinted as pamphlet by American Anti-Slavery Society, New
York, 1859.

Brown, William Wells: Clotel, or The President's Daughter (a narrative
of slave life in the United States). London, 1853.

The Escape; or A Leap for Freedom, a Drama in five acts. Boston,

The Black Man, His Antecedents, His Genius, and His Achievements.
New York, 1863.

The Rising Son; or The Antecedents and Advancement of the
Colored Race. Boston, 1874.

To Thomas J. Gantt, Esq. (Broadside), Charleston, 1861.

Douglass, William: Annals of St. Thomas's First African Church.
Philadelphia, 1862.

Proceedings of the National Convention of Colored Men, held in the city
of Syracuse, N.Y., October 4, 5, 6, and 7, 1864, with the Bill of Wrongs
and Rights and the Address to the American People. Boston, 1864.

The Budget, containing the Annual Reports of the General Officers of the
African M.E. Church of the United States of America, edited by Benjamin
W. Arnett. Xenia, O., 1881. Same for later years.

Simms, James M.: The First Colored Baptist Church in North America.
Printed by J.B. Lippincott Co., Philadelphia, 1888.

Upton, William H.: Negro Masonry, being a Critical Examination of
objections to the legitimacy of the Masonry existing among the Negroes
of America. Cambridge, 1899; second edition, 1902.

Brooks, Charles H.: The Official History and Manual of the Grand United
Order of Odd Fellows in America. Philadelphia, 1902.

Cromwell, John W.: The Early Convention Movement. Occasional Paper No. 9
of American Negro Academy, Washington, D.C., 1904.

Brooks, Walter H.: The Silver Bluff Church, Washington, 1910.

Crawford, George W.: Prince Hall and His Followers. New Haven, 1915.

Wright, Richard R., Jr. (Editor-in-Chief): Centennial Encyclopaedia
of the African Methodist Episcopal Church. A.M.E. Book Concern,
Philadelphia, 1916.

Also note narratives or autobiographies of Frederick Douglass, Sojourner
Truth, Samuel Ringgold Ward, Solomon Northrup, Lunsford Lane, etc.; the
poems of Phillis Wheatley (first edition, London, 1773), and George M.
Horton; Williams's History for study of some more prominent characters;
Woodson's bibliography for the special subject of education; and
periodical literature, especially the articles remarked in Chapter XI in
connection with the free people of color in Louisiana.

2. On Chapter V (Indian and Negro)

A standard work on the Second Seminole War is The Origin, Progress, and
Conclusion of the Florida War, by John T. Sprague, D. Appleton & Co.,
New York, 1848; but also important as touching upon the topics of the
chapter are The Exiles of Florida, by Joshua R. Giddings, Columbus,
Ohio, 1858, and a speech by Giddings in the House of Representatives
February 9, 1841. Note also House Document No. 128 of the 1st session
of the 20th Congress, and Document 327 of the 2nd session of the 25th
Congress. The Aboriginal Races of North America, by Samuel G. Drake,
fifteenth edition, New York, 1880, is interesting and suggestive though
formless; and McMaster in different chapters gives careful brief
accounts of the general course of the Indian wars.

3. On Chapter VII (Insurrections)

(For insurrections before that of Denmark Vesey note especially Coffin,
Holland, and Horsemanden above. On Gabriel's Insurrection see article by
Higginson (_Atlantic_, X. 337), afterwards included in Travellers and

Denmark Vesey

1. An Official Report of the Trials of Sundry Negroes, charged with an
attempt to raise an Insurrection in the State of South Carolina. By
Lionel H. Kennedy and Thomas Parker (members of the Charleston Bar and
the Presiding Magistrates of the Court). Charleston, 1822.

2. An Account of the Late Intended Insurrection among a Portion of the
Black of this City. Published by the Authority of the Corporation of
Charleston. Charleston, 1822 (reprinted Boston, 1822, and again in
Boston and Charleston).

The above accounts, now exceedingly rare, are the real sources of all
later study of Vesey's insurrection. The two accounts are sometimes
identical; thus the list of those executed or banished is the same. The
first has a good introduction. The second was written by James Hamilton,
Intendant of Charleston.

3. Letter of Governor William Bennett, dated August 10, 1822. (This was
evidently a circular letter to the press. References are to Lundy's
_Genius of Universal Emancipation_, II, 42, Ninth month, 1822, and there
are reviews in the following issues, pages 81, 131, and 142. Higginson
notes letter as also in _Columbian Sentinel_, August 31, 1822;
_Connecticut Courant_, September 3, 1822; and _Worcester Spy_, September
18, 1822.)

Three secondary accounts in later years are important:

1. Article on Denmark Vesey by Higginson (_Atlantic_, VII. 728) included
in Travellers and Outlaws: Episodes in American History. Lee and
Shepard, Boston, 1889.

2. Right on the Scaffold, or the Martyrs of 1822, by Archibald H.
Grimke. No. 7 of the Papers of the American Negro Academy, Washington.

3. Book I, Chapter XII, "Denmark Vesey's Insurrection," in Robert Y.
Hayne and His Times, by Theodore D. Jervey, The Macmillan Co., New York,

Various pamphlets were written immediately after the insurrection not so
much to give detailed accounts as to discuss the general problem of the
Negro and the reaction of the white citizens of Charleston to the event.
Of these we may note the following:

1. Holland, Edwin C.: A Refutation of the Calumnies Circulated against
the Southern and Western States. (See main list above.)

2. Achates (General Thomas Pinckney): Reflections Occasioned by the Late
Disturbances in Charleston. Charleston, 1822.

3. Rev. Dr. Richard Furman's Exposition of the Views of the Baptists
Relative to the Colored Population in the United States. (See main list

4. Practical Considerations Founded on the Scriptures Relative to the
Slave Population of South Carolina. By a South Carolinian. Charleston,

Nat Turner

1. The Confessions of Nat Turner, Leader of the Late Insurrection in
Southampton, Va., as fully and voluntarily made to Thos. C. Gray, in the
prison where he was confined--and acknowledged by him to be such, when
read before the court at Southampton, convened at Jerusalem November 5,
1831, for his trial. (This is the main source. Thousands of copies of
the pamphlet are said to have been circulated, but it is now exceedingly
rare. Neither the Congressional Library nor the Boston Public has a
copy, and Cromwell notes that there is not even one in the State Library
in Richmond. The copy used by the author is in the library of Harvard

2. Horrid Massacre. Authentic and Impartial Narrative of the Tragical
Scene which was witnessed in Southampton County (Virginia) on Monday the
22nd of August last. New York, 1831. (This gives a table of victims and
has the advantage of nearness to the event. This very nearness, however,
has given credence to much hearsay and accounted for several instances
of inaccuracy.)

To the above may be added the periodicals of the day, such as the
Richmond _Enquirer_ and the _Liberator_; note _Genius of Universal
Emancipation_, September, 1831. Secondary accounts or studies would
include the following:

1. Nat Turner's Insurrection, exhaustive article by Higginson
(_Atlantic_, VIII. 173) later included in Travellers and Outlaws.

2. Drewry, William Sidney: Slave Insurrections in Virginia (1830-1865).
A Dissertation presented to the Board of University Studies of the Johns
Hopkins University for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy. The Neale
Company, Washington, 1900. (Unfortunately marred by a partisan tone.)

3. The Aftermath of Nat Turner's Insurrection, by John W. Cromwell, in
_Journal of Negro History_, April, 1920.

_Amistad and Creole_ Cases

1. Argument of John Quincy Adams before the Supreme Court of the United
States, in the case of the United States, Apellants, vs. Cinque, and
others, Africans, captured in the Schooner _Amistad_, by Lieut. Gedney,
delivered on the 24th of February and 1st of March, 1841. New York,

2. Africans Taken in the _Amistad_. Document No. 185 of the 1st session
of the 26th Congress, containing the correspondence in relation to the
captured Africans. (Reprinted by Anti-Slavery Depository, New York,

3. Senate Document 51 of the 2nd session of the 27th Congress.

4. On Chapter IX (Liberia)

Much has been written about Liberia, but the books and pamphlets have
been very uneven in quality. Original sources include the reports of
the American Colonization Society to 1825; _The African Repository_,
a compendium issued sometimes monthly, sometimes quarterly, by the
American Colonization Society from 1825 to 1892, and succeeded by the
periodical known as _Liberia_; the reports of the different state
organizations; J. Ashmun's History of the American Colony in Liberia
from December, 1821 to 1823, compiled from the authentic records of the
colony, Washington, 1826; Ralph Randolph Gurley's Life of Jehudi Ashmun,
Washington, 1835, second edition, New York, 1839; Gurley's report
on Liberia (a United States state paper), Washington, 1850; and the
Memorial of the Semi-Centennial Anniversary of the American Colonization
Society, celebrated at Washington, January 15, 1867, with documents
concerning Liberia, Washington, 1867; to all of which might be added
Journal of Daniel Coker, a descendant of Africa, from the time of
leaving New York, in the ship _Elisabeth_, Capt. Sebor, on a voyage for
Sherbro, in Africa, Baltimore, 1820. J.H.B. Latrobe, a president of the
American Colonization Society, is prominent in the Memorial volume of
1867, and after this date are credited to him Liberia: its Origin,
Rise, Progress, and Results, an address delivered before the American
Colonization Society, January 20, 1880, Washington, 1880, and Maryland
in Liberia, Baltimore, 1885. An early and interesting compilation is
G.S. Stockwell's The Republic of Liberia: Its Geography, Climate, Soil,
and Productions, with a history of its early settlement, New York, 1868;
a good handbook is Frederick Starr's Liberia, Chicago, 1913; mention
might also be made of T. McCants Stewart's Liberia, New York, 1886; and
George W. Ellis's Negro Culture in West Africa, Neale Publishing Co.,
New York, 1914, is outstanding in its special field. Two Johns Hopkins
theses have been written: John H.T. McPherson's History of Liberia
(Studies, IX, No. 10), 1891, and E.L. Fox's The American Colonization
Society 1817-1840 (Studies, XXXVII, 9-226), 1919; the first of these is
brief and clearcut and especially valuable for its study of the Maryland
colony. Magazine articles of unusual importance are George W. Ellis's
Dynamic Factors in the Liberian Situation and Emmett J. Scott's Is
Liberia Worth Saving? both in _Journal of Race Development_, January,
1911. Of English or continental works outstanding is the monumental but
not altogether unimpeachable Liberia, by Sir Harry H. Johnston, with an
appendix on the Flora of Liberia by Dr. Otto Stapf, 2 vols., Hutchinson
& Co., London, 1906; while with a strong English bias and incomplete and
unsatisfactory as a general treatise is R.C.F. Maughan's The Republic of
Liberia, London (1920?), Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. Mention must
also be made of the following publications by residents of Liberia: The
Negro Republic on West Africa, by Abayomi Wilfrid Karnga, Monrovia,
1909; New National Fourth Reader, edited by Julius C. Stevens, Monrovia,
1903; Liberia and Her Educational Problems, by Walter F. Walker, an
address delivered before the Chicago Historical Society, October
23, 1916; and Catalogue of Liberia College for 1916, and Historical
Register, printed at the Riverdale Press, Brookline, Mass., 1919; while
Edward Wilmot Blyden's Christianity, Islam, and the Negro Race is
representative of the best of the more philosophical dissertations.

Abbeville, S.C.
Aberdeen, Lord
Abolition, Abolitionists
Abraham, Negro interpreter
Adams, Doc
Adams, Henry
Adams, John
Adams, John Quincy
African Methodist Episcopal Church, and schools
African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, and schools
_Age, The New York_
Akron, Ohio
Aldridge, Ira
Allen, Richard
Alton, Ill.
Ambrister, Robert
Amendments to Constitution of United States
American Anti-Slavery Society
American Baptist Home Mission Society
American Baptist Publication Society
American Bar Association
American Colonization Society
American Convention of Abolition Societies
American Federation of Labor
American Giants
American Missionary Association
Amistad Case
Anderson, Benjamin
Andrew, John O.
Andrew, William
Anthony, Susan B.
Anti-Slavery societies
_Appeal_, David Walker's
Arbuthnot, Alexander
Arkwright, Richard
Armstrong, Samuel C.
Asbury, Bishop
Ashley, Lord
Ashmun, Jehudi
Assiento Contract
Atlanta, Ga.
Atlanta Compromise
Atlanta Massacre
Atlanta University
Attaway, A.T.
Attucks, Crispus
Augusta, Ga.
Ayres, Eli

Bacon, Ephraim
Bacon, John F.
Bacon, Samuel
Baker, F.B.
Bankson, John
Banneker, Benjamin
Baptists, churches and schools
Baptist Young People s Union
Barbour, Capt.
Barbour, Dan
Barclay, Arthur
Barlow, Joel
Bassa Trading Association
Bassa tribe
Bassett, Ebenezer
Batson, Flora
Baxter, Richard
Beecher, Henry Ward
Behn, Aphra
Belleau Wood
Benedict College
Benefit societies
Benezet, Anthony
Bennett, Batteau
Bennett, Gov., of South Carolina
Bennett, Ned
Bennett, Rolla
Benson, Stephen Allen
Berea College
Bethel Church, A.M.E., of Philadelphia
Birmingham, Ala.
Birney, James G.
"Birth of a Nation"
Bishop College
Black Codes
Black Star Line
Blacksmith, Ben
Blackwood, Jesse
Blair, Henry
Blanco, Pedro
Bleckley, L.E.
Blunt, John
Blyden, Edward Wilmot
Boatswain, African chief
Bogalusa, La.
Boston, Mass.
Boston Massacre
Boston, Samuel
Bouey, H.N.
Bourne, E.G.
Bowers, John
Bowler, Jack
Boyd, Henry
Brooks, Preston S.
Brooks County, Ga.
Brough, Charles H.
Brown, Bishop, of Arkansas
Brown, John
Brown, William
Brown, William Wells
Browning, Elizabeth Barrett
Brownsville, Texas
Bruce, Blanche K.
Bryan, Andrew
Bryce, James
Buchanan, Thomas H.
Bull, Gov., of South Carolina
Bullock, M.W.
Burgess, Ebenezer
Burleigh, Harry T.
Burning of Negroes
Burns, Anthony
Burnside, Gen.
Burton, Belfast
Burton, Mary
Business, Negro
Butler, B.F., District Attorney in New York
Butler, B.F., Gen.
Butler, M.C.
Butler, Sol
Buttrick, Wallace
Buzi tribe
Byron, Lord

Cable, George W.
Cadell, Major
Caesar, in New York
Calderon, Spanish minister
Caldwell, Elias B.
Calhoun, John C.
Calvert, George, Lord Baltimore
Camp Dodge
Camp Grant
Camphor, A.P.
Canaan, N.H., school at
Canning, George
Cape Palmas
Cardozo, F.L.
Carmantee tribe
Carney, William H.
Carranza, Andres Dorantes de
Cartledge, Lewis
Cary, Lott
Cass, Lewis
Cassell, Nathaniel H.B.
Cato, insurrectionist
Cato, Will
_Challenge Magazine_
Chamberlain, Gov., of South Carolina
Champion, James
Channing, William Ellery
Charles V
Charles, Robert
Charleston, S.C.
Chateau Thierry
Chavis, John
Cheeseman, Joseph James
Chesnutt, Charles W.
Chester, Penn.
Chicago riot
Child, Lydia Maria
_Christian Recorder_
Cinque, Joseph
Civil Rights
Civil War
Claflin University
_Clansman, The_
Clark, Andrew
Clark, Major
Clark University
Clarkson, Matthew
Clarkson, Quamoney
Clarkson, Thomas
Clay, Henry
Cleveland, Grover
Cleveland, Ohio
Clinch, Duncan L.
Clinton, Sir Henry
Coatesville, Penn.
Cockburn, Sir Francis
Coker, Daniel
Cole and Johnson Company
Cole, James
Coleman, William D.
Coleridge-Taylor, Samuel
College graduates
College of West Africa
Colored Methodist Episcopal Church, and schools
Compromise of 1850
Constitution of the United States
Continental Congress
Convict Lease system. _See_ Peonage.
Cook, James
Cook, O.F.
Coot, insurrectionist
Cope, Thomas P.
Cordovell, of New Orleans
Corey, C.H.
"Corkscrew" lynching
Cornish, Samuel E.
Cowagee, John
Cowley, Robert
Cowper, William
Cox, Minnie
Coybet, Gen.
Cranchell, Caesar
Crandall, Prudence
Cravath, E.M.
Crawford, Anthony
Crawford, William
Creole Case
Criminal, Negro
_Crisis, The_
Crompton, Samuel
Cross Keys, Va.
Crozer, Samuel A.
Crum, William D.
Crummell, Alexander
Cuffe, Paul
Cuffe, Peter
Cuffee, in New York
Curry, J.L.M.
Curtis, Justice
Cutler, Manasseh

Dade, Major
Darien, Ga.
Davis, Benjamin O.
Declaration of Independence
Declaration of Independence (Liberian)
_Defender, The_
De Grasse, John V.
Delany, Martin R.
Dennison, Franklin A.
Derham, James
Dew, T.R.
Deys, in Africa
Dickens, Charles
Dillard, James H.
Dismond, Binga
District of Columbia
Dixie Kid
Dixon, George
Dixon, Thomas
Dorsey, Hugh M.
Dossen, J.J.
Douglas, Stephen A.
Douglass, Frederick
Douglass, Robert
Dow, Lorenzo
Dowdy, Jim
Draft Riot in New York
Drake, Francis
Drayton, Congressman from South Carolina
Dred Scott Decision
Drew, Howard P.
"Dreyfus," poem by Edwin Markham
DuBois, W.E. Burghardt
Dugro, Justice P.H.
Dunbar, Charles B.
Dunbar, Paul L.
Dunbar Theater, in Philadelphia
Duncan, Otis B.
Duncan, William
Dunmore, Lord
Dunning, W.A.
Durham, Clayton
Duties on importation of slaves
Duval, William P.
Dwight, Gen.
Dyersburg, Tenn.

Early County, Ga.
East St. Louis
Eaton, John, Comm. of Education
Eaton, John H., Secretary of War
Elaine, Ark.
El Caney
Eliot, John
Elizabeth, Queen
Elliott, Robert B.
Emathla, Charley
Emerson, Dr.
_Empire and Commerce in Africa_
England (or Great Britain)
Erie Railroad
Estill Springs, Tenn.
Etheridge, at Phoenix, S.C.
Evans, Lewis
Everett, Alexander H.
Everett, Edward
Exodus, Negro. _See also_ Migration.

Faber, F.W.
Factories, slave
Falkner, Roland P.
Ferguson, Frank
Ferguson, Samuel D.
Fernandina, Fla.
Finley, I.F.C.
Finley, Robert
First African Baptist Church, in Savannah
First Bryan Baptist Church, in Savannah
Fish War
Fisk Jubilee Singers
Fisk University
Fleet, Dr.
Fleming, W.L.
Foraker, J.B.
Forrester, Lot
Forsyth, John
Fort Brooke
Fort Gibson, Ark.
Fort Jackson, treaty of
Fort King
Fort Mims
Fort Moultrie (near St. Augustine), treaty of
Fort Moultrie (near Charleston)
Fort Pillow
Fort Sam Houston
Fort Wagner
Forten, James
Fortress Monroe
Foster, Theodore
Francis, Sam
Francis, Will
Franklin, Benjamin
Free African Society
Freedmen's Aid Society
Freedmen's Bank
Freedmen's Bureau
_Freedom's Journal_
Freeman, Cato
Free Negroes
Free-Soil Party
Fremont, John C.
Friends, Society of. _See_ Quakers.
Frissell, Hollis B.
Fugitive Slave Laws
Fuller, Meta Warrick
Furman, Richard

Gabriel, insurrectionist
Gadsden, James
Gage, Frances D.
Gailliard, Nicholas
Gaines, Gen.
Galilean Fishermen
Gans, Joe
Gardiner, Anthony W.
Garlington, E.A.
Garnett, H.H.
Garrison, William Lloyd
Garvey, Marcus
Gatumba, Chief
Geaween, John
Gell, Monday
General Education Board
_Georgia Baptist_
Georgia Railroad labor trouble
Georgia, University of
Germans, Germany
Germantown protest
Gibbes, Gov., of South Carolina
Gibson, Garretson W.
Giddings, Joshua R.
Gildersleeve, Basil L.
Giles, Harriet E.
Giles, Jackson W.
Gilmer, Congressman, of Georgia
Gleaves, R.H.
Gloucester, John
Gola tribe
Gold Coast
Goodspeed, Dr., of Benedict College
Gorden, Robert
Gordon, Midshipman
Gourdin, E.
Gradual Emancipation
Grady, Henry W.
Graeff, Abraham Op den
Graeff, Dirck Op den
Grand Bassa
"Grandfather Clause,"
Grant, U.S.
Graves, Samuel
Gray, Thomas C.
Gray, William
Great War
Grebo tribe
Greeley, Horace
Greene, Col.
Greenfield, Elizabeth Taylor
Greenleaf, Prof.
Greenville, in Liberia
Grice, Hezekiah
Groves, Junius C.
Grundy, Felix
_Guardian, The_
Guerra, Christobal de la
Guerra, Luis de la
Guinea Coast
Gullah Jack
Gurley, R.R.

Hadjo, Micco
Hajo, Tuski
Hall, James
Hall, Prince
Hallowell, Edward N.
Hallowell, N.P.
Hamburg Massacre
Hampton Institute
Hampton, Wade
Harden, Henry
Hargreaves, James
Harper, in Liberia
Harper, F.E.W.
Harper's Ferry
Harris, Arthur
Harris, John M.
Harris, William T.
Harrison, Benjamin
Harrison, William Henry
Harrison St. Baptist Church, of Petersburg, Va.
Harry, Negro in Seminole Wars
Hart, A.B.
Hartford, Conn.
Harth, Mingo
Hartshorn Memorial College
Harvard University
Havelock, A.E.
Hawkins, John
Hawkins, William
Hayes, R.B.
Haygood, Atticus G.
Hayne, Robert Y.
Haynes, George E.
Haynes, Lemuel
Heber, Reginald
Helper, Hinton Rowan
Hendericks, Garret
Henry, Prince, of Portugal
Henry, Patrick
Hewell, John R.
Hicks, John
Higginson, Thomas Wentworth
Hill, Arnold
Hill, Stephen
Hoar, Samuel
Hodge, F.W.
Hoffman, Frederick L.
Hogg, Robert, and Mrs. Hogg
Holbert, Luther
Holland, Edwin C.
Holly, James Theodore
Hopkins, Samuel
Horsemanden, Judge
Horseshoe Bend
Horton, George M.
Hose, Sam
Houston, Texas
Howard, Daniel Edward
Howard, O.O.
Howard University
Howells, William Dean
Howze, Alma
Howze, Maggie
Hughes, Charles E.
Hughson, John
Hughson, Sarah
Hugo, Victor
Humphreys, Gad
Hunter, David

_Impending Crisis, The_
Indenture. _See_ Servitude.
Indian Spring, treaty of
_Informer_, The Houston
Intermarriage, Racial intermixture

Jackson, Andrew
Jackson College
Jackson, Edward
Jackson, Francis
Jackson, James
Jackson, Peter
Jacksonville, Fla.
James, David
James, Duke of York
Jasper, John
Jay, John
Jay, William
Jeanes, Anna T.
Jeanes Fund
Jefferson, Thomas
Jennings, Thomas L.
Jessup, Thomas S.
"Jim Crow," origin of
Jocelyn, S.S.
John, in Fugitive Slave case
Johnson, Andrew
Johnson, Elijah
Johnson, Henry
Johnson, H.R.W.
Johnson, Jack
Johnson, James
Johnson, Joseph
Johnston brothers, of Arkansas
Johnston, E.L.
Johnston, Sir Harry H.
Jones, Abraham
Jones, Eugene K.
Jones, George
Jones, Sam
Jones, Sissieretta
Julius, John

Kali, in Amistad case
Kansas City, dynamiting of homes in
Kansas-Nebraska Bill
Kean, Edmund
Kerry, Margaret
King, C.D.B.
King, Mulatto
King, Rufus
Kizell, John
Knights of Pythias
Knights of the Golden Circle
Knoxville College
Knoxville riot
Kpwessi tribe
Kru tribe
KuKlux Klan

Lafar, John J.
Laing, Major
Lake City, S.C.
Lane College
Lane Seminary
Langston, John Mercer
Las Quasimas
Laurens, Henry
Laurens, John
Law, John
Lawless, Judge
Le Clerc, Gen.
Lee, Robert E.
Lee County, Ga.
Leicester, Earl of
Leland Giants
Lewis, William H.
_Liberator, The_
Liberia College
Liberian Exodus and Joint Stock Company
Liberty Party
Liele, George
Lincoln, Abraham
Lincoln Giants
Lincoln University
Livingstone College
Livingstone, David
Lockwood, L.C.
London Company
Louis Napoleon
Lovejoy, Elijah P.
Lowell, James R.
Lugard, Lady
Lundy, Benjamin

Macaulay, T.B.
Macon, Ga.
Madison, James
Mahan, Asa
Maldonado, Alonzo del Castillo
Manly, Alex. L.
Mano tribe
Mansfield, Lord
Marcos, Fray
Markham, Edwin
_Marrow of Tradition, The_
Marshall, J.F.B.
Marshall, J.R.
Marshall, of Univ. of Minnesota
Martin, Luther
Mason, George
Masons, Negro
Mather, Cotton
Matthews, W.C.
May, Samuel J.
Mazzini, G.
McCorkle, William A.
McIlheron, Jim
McIntosh, burned
McKay, Claude
McKelway, A.J.
Medicine, Negro in
Memphis, Tenn.
Mercer, Charles F.
_Messenger, The_
Methodists, churches and schools. _See also_ African Methodist.
Mexican War
Mickasukie tribe
Migration. _See also_ Exodus.
Milan, Ga.
Milliken's Bend
Mills, Samuel J.
Miscegenation. _See_ Intermarriage, Racial intermixture.
Mississippi Company
Missouri Compromise
Monroe, James
Montes, Pedro
Montgomery, Ala.
Montgomery, James
Monticello, Ga.
Montserado, Cape
Moore, Joanna P.
Moorhead, Scipio
Morehouse College
Morell, Junius C.
Morgan, Thomas J.
Morris Brown University
Morris, Edward H.
Morris, Gouverneur
Morris, Robert, Jr.
Mott, Lucretia
Mumford, John P.
"Mungo," in The Padlock
Murphy, Edgar G.

Napoleon Bonaparte
Narvaez, Pamfilo de
Nashville, Tenn.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
National Urban League
Navigation Ordinance
Nea Mathla
Neau, Elias
_Negro_, the word
Negro Union
_Negro World, The_
Nell, William C.
New Bedford, Mass.
New England Anti-Slavery Society
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Orleans
New Mexico
New York (city)
New York (state)
_News and Courier_, of Charleston, S.C.
Niagara Movement
Niles, Hezekiah
Nino, Pedro Alonso
Norfolk, Va.
North Carolina
Northrup, Solomon
_North Star_
Northwest Territory
Nott, Josiah C.
Nott, Dr., of Union College
Nunn, Joseph

Oberlin College
Odd Fellows
Ogden, Peter
Ogden, Robert C.
Oglethorpe, James
Orange Park Academy

Facebook Google Reddit Twitter Pinterest