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A General History and Collection of Voyages and Travels, Volume 14 by Robert Kerr

Part 2 out of 11

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giving occupation to the mind, and striking it with a reverential awe,
due to Omnipotence. The ocean covered to a great extent, with myriads
of animalcules; these little beings, organized, alive, endowed with
locomotive power, a quality of shining whenever they please, and
illuminating every body with which they come in contact, and of laying
aside their luminous appearance at pleasure; all these ideas crowded
upon us, and bade us admire the Creator, even in his minutest works."
However florid the language of this gentleman on the subject, his
account and opinions are strongly enforced by the recent discoveries
of the French naturalists related by Mr Peron, to which we shall
probably call the reader's attention hereafter.--E.

[10] Mr G.F. speaks with much more enthusiasm, as one might have
expected, of Dr Sparrman, extolling his talents and activity in the
course of science, but lamenting, at the same time, that this voyage,
on which he now set out, yielded much less matter for observation than
his ardent mind had anticipated. That gentleman's labours at the Cape,
it seems, however, especially in botany, were very successful; he and
Dr Thunberg having, it is said, gathered above a thousand species
entirely unknown before.--E.


_Departure from the Cape of Good Hope, in search of a Southern

Having at length finished my business at the Cape, and taken leave of the
governor and some others of the chief officers, who, with very obliging
readiness, had given me all the assistance I could desire, on the 22d of
November we repaired on board; and at three o'clock in the afternoon
weighed, and came to sail with the wind at N. by W. As soon as the anchor
was up, we saluted the port with fifteen guns, which was immediately
returned; and after making a few trips, got out of the bay by seven
o'clock, at which time the town bore S.E. distant four miles. After this we
stood to the westward all night, in order to get clear of the land, having
the wind at N.N.W. and N.W., blowing in squalls attended with rain, which
obliged us to reef our topsails. The sea was again illuminated for some
time, in the same manner as it was the night before we arrived in Table

Having got clear of the land, I directed my course for Cape Circumcision.
The wind continued at N.W. a moderate gale, until the 24th, when it veered
round to the eastward. On the noon of this day, we were in the latitude of
35 deg. 25' S., and 29' west of the Cape; and had abundance of albatrosses
about us, several of which were caught with hook and line; and were very
well relished by many of the people, notwithstanding they were at this time
served with fresh mutton. Judging that we should soon come into cold
weather, I ordered slops to be served to such as were in want; and gave to
each man the fearnought jacket and trowsers allowed them by the Admiralty.

The wind continued easterly for two days, and blew a moderate gale, which
brought us into the latitude of 39 deg. 4', and 2 deg. of longitude west of the
Cape, thermometer 52-1/2[1] The wind now came to W. and S.W.; and on the
29th fixed at W.N.W., and increased to a storm, which continued, with some
few intervals of moderate weather, till the 6th of December, when we were
in the latitude of 48 deg. 41' S., and longitude 18 deg. 24' E. This gale, which
was attended with rain and hail, blew at times with such violence that we
could carry no sails; by which means we were driven far to the eastward of
our intended course, and no hopes were left me of reaching Cape
Circumcision. But the greatest misfortune that attended us, was the loss of
great part of our live stock, which we had brought from the Cape, and which
consisted of sheep, hogs, and geese. Indeed this sudden transition from
warm, mild weather, to extreme cold and wet, made every man in the ship
feel its effects. For by this time the mercury in the thermometer had
fallen to 38; whereas at the Cape it was generally at 67 and upwards. I now
made some addition to the people's allowance of spirit, by giving them a
dram whenever I thought it necessary, and ordered Captain Furneaux to do
the same. The night proved clear and serene, and the only one that was so
since we left the Cape; and the next morning the rising sun gave us such
flattering hopes of a fine day, that we were induced to let all the reefs
out of the top-sails, and to get top-gallant yards across, in order to make
the most of a fresh gale at north. Our hopes, however, soon vanished; for
before eight o'clock, the serenity of the sky was changed into a thick
haze, accompanied with rain. The gale increasing obliged us to hand the
main-sail, close-reef our top-sails, and to strike top-gallant yards. The
barometer at this time was unusually low, which foreboded an approaching
storm, and this happened accordingly. For, by one o'clock p. m. the wind,
which was at N.W., blew with such strength as obliged us to take in all our
sails, to strike top-gallant-masts, and to get the spritsail-yard in. And I
thought proper to wear, and lie-to, under a mizzen-stay-sail, with the
ships' heads to the N.E. as they would bow the sea, which ran prodigiously
high, better on this tack.

At eight o'clock next morning, being the 8th, we wore, and lay on the other
tack; the gale was a little abated, but the sea ran too high to make sail,
any more than the fore-top-mast-stay-sail. In the evening, being in the
latitude of 49 deg. 40 S., and 1-1/2 deg. E. of the Cape, we saw two penguins and
some sea or rock-weed, which occasioned us to sound, without finding ground
at 100 fathoms. At eight p. m. we wore, and lay with our heads to the N.E.
till three in the morning of the 9th, then wore again to the southward, the
wind blowing in squalls attended with showers of snow. At eight, being
something more moderate, I made the Adventure signal to make sail; and soon
after made sail ourselves under the courses and close-reefed top-sails. In
the evening, took in the top-sails and main-sail, and brought-to under
fore-sail and mizzen; thermometer at 36 deg.. The wind still at N.W. blew a
fresh gale, accompanied with a very high sea. In the night had a pretty
smart frost with snow.[2]

In the morning of the 10th we made sail under courses and top-sails close-
reefed; and made the signal for the Adventure to make sail and lead. At
eight o'clock saw an island of ice to the westward of us, being then in the
latitude of 56 deg. 40' S. and longitude 2 deg. 0' E. of the Cape of Good Hope.
Soon after the wind moderated, and we let all the reefs out of the top-
sails, got the spritsail-yard out, and top-gallant-mast up. The weather
coming hazy, I called the Adventure by signal under my stern, which was no
sooner done, than the haze increased so much with snow and sleet, that we
did not see an island of ice, which we were steering directly for, till we
were less than a mile from it. I judged it to be about 50 feet high, and
half a mile in circuit. It was flat at top, and its sides rose in a
perpendicular direction, against which the sea broke exceedingly high.
Captain Furneaux at first took this ice for land, and hauled off from it,
until called back by signal. As the weather was foggy, it was necessary to
proceed with caution. We therefore reefed our top-sails, and at the same
time sounded, but found no ground with 150 fathoms. We kept on to the
southward with the wind at north till night, which we spent in making short
trips, first one way and then another, under an easy sail; thermometer
these 24 hours from 36-1/2 to 31.

At day-light in the morning of the 11th, we made sail to the southward with
the wind at west, having a fresh gale, attended with sleet and snow. At
noon we were in the latitude of 51 deg. 50' S., and longitude 21 deg. 3' E., where
we saw some white birds about the size of pigeons, with blackish bills and
feet. I never saw any such before; and Mr Forster had no knowledge of them.
I believe them to be of the peterel tribe, and natives of these icy
seas.[3] At this time we passed between two ice islands, which lay at a
little distance from each other.

In the night the wind veered to N.W. which enabled us to steer S.W. On the
12th we had still thick hazy weather, with sleet and snow; so that we were
obliged to proceed with great caution on account of the ice islands. Six of
these we passed this day; some of them near two miles in circuit, and sixty
feet high. And yet, such was the force and height of the waves, that the
sea broke quite over them. This exhibited a view which for a few moments
was pleasing to the eye; but when we reflected on the danger, the mind was
filled with horror. For were a ship to get against the weather-side of one
of these islands when the sea runs high, she would be dashed to pieces in a
moment. Upon our getting among the ice islands, the albatrosses left us;
that is, we saw but one now and then. Nor did our other companions, the
pintadoes, sheerwaters, small grey birds, fulmars, &c., appear in such
numbers; on the other hand, penguins began to make their appearance. Two of
these birds were seen to-day.

The wind in the night veered to west, and at last fixed at S.W., a fresh
gale, with sleet and snow, which froze on our sails and rigging as it fell,
so that they were all hung with icicles. We kept on to the southward,
passed no less than eighteen ice islands, and saw more penguins. At noon on
the 13th, we were in the latitude of 54 deg. S., which is the latitude of Cape
Circumcision, discovered by M. Bouvet in 1739; but we were ten degrees of
longitude east of it; that is, near 118 leagues in this latitude. We stood
on to the S.S.E. till eight o'clock in the evening, the weather still
continuing thick and hazy, with sleet and snow. From noon till this time,
twenty ice islands, of various extent, both for height and circuit,
presented themselves to our view. At eight o'clock we sounded, but found no
ground with 150 fathom of line.

We now tacked and made a trip to the northward till midnight, when we stood
again to the southward; and at half an hour past six o'clock in the morning
of the 14th, we were stopped by an immense field of low ice; to which we
could see no end, either to the east, west, or south. In different parts of
this field were islands or hills of ice, like those we found floating in
the sea; and some on board thought they saw land also over the ice, bearing
S.W. by S. I even thought so myself; but changed my opinion upon more
narrowly examining these ice hills, and the various appearances they made
when seen through the haze. For at this time it was both hazy and cloudy in
the horizon; so that a distant object could not be seen distinct.[4] Being
now in the latitude of 54 deg. 50' S. and longitude 21 deg. 34' E., and having the
wind at N.W. we bore away along the edge of the ice, steering S.S.E. and
S.E., according to the direction of the north side of it, where we saw many
whales, penguins, some white birds, pintadoes, &c.

At eight o'clock we brought-to under a point of the ice, where we had
smooth water: and I sent on board for Captain Furneaux. After we had fixed
on rendezvouses in case of separation, and some other matters for the
better keeping company, he returned on board, and we made sail again along
the ice. Some pieces we took up along-side, which yielded fresh water. At
noon we had a good observation, and found ourselves in latitude 54 deg. 55' S.

We continued a south-east course along the edge of the ice, till one
o'clock, when we came to a point round which we hauled S.S.W., the sea
appearing to be clear of ice in that direction. But after running four
leagues upon this course, with the ice on our starboard side, we found
ourselves quite imbayed; the ice extending from N.N.E. round by the west
and south, to east, in one compact body. The weather was indifferently
clear; and yet we could see no end to it. At five o'clock we hauled up
east, wind at north, a gentle gale, in order to clear the ice. The extreme
east point of it, at eight o'clock, bore E. by S., over which appeared a
clear sea. We however spent the night in making short boards, under an easy
sail. Thermometer, these 24 hours, from 32 to 30.

Next day, the 15th, we had the wind at N.W., a small gale, thick foggy
weather, with much snow; thermometer from 32 to 27; so that our sails and
rigging were all hung with icicles. The fog was so thick at times, that we
could not see the length of the ship; and we had much difficulty to avoid
the many islands of ice that surrounded us. About noon, having but little
wind, we hoisted out a boat to try the current, which we found set S.E.
near 3/4 of a mile an hour. At the same time, a thermometer, which in the
open air was at 32 deg., in the surface of the sea was at 30 deg.; and, after being
immerged 100 fathoms deep for about fifteen or twenty minutes, came up at
34 deg., which is only 2 deg. above freezing.[5] Our latitude at this time was 55 deg.

The thick fog continued till two o'clock in the afternoon of the next day,
when it cleared away a little, and we made sail to the southward, wind
still at N.W. a gentle gale. We had not run long to the southward before we
fell in with the main field of ice extending from S.S.W. to E. We now bore
away to east along the edge of it; but at night hauled off north, with the
wind at W.N.W., a gentle gale, attended with snow.

At four in the morning on the 17th, stood again to the south; but was again
obliged to bear up on account of the ice, along the side of which we
steered betwixt E. and S.S.W., hauling into every bay or opening, in hopes
of finding a passage to the south. But we found every where the ice closed.
We had a gentle gale at N.W. with showers of snow. At noon we were, by
observation, in the latitude of 55 deg. 16' S. In the evening the weather was
clear and serene. In the course of this day we saw many whales, one seal,
penguins, some of the white birds, another sort of peterel, which is brown
and white, and not much unlike a pintado; and some other sorts already
known. We found the skirts of the loose ice to be more broken than usual;
and it extended some distance beyond the main field, insomuch that we
sailed amongst it the most part of the day; and the high ice islands
without us were innumerable. At eight o'clock we sounded, but found no
ground with 250 fathoms of line. After this we hauled close upon a wind to
the northward, as we could see the field of ice extend as far as N.E. But
this happened not to be the northern point; for at eleven o'clock we were
obliged to tack to avoid it.

At two o'clock the next morning we stood again to the northward, with the
wind at N.W. by W., thinking to weather the ice upon this tack; on which we
stood but two hours, before we found ourselves quite imbayed, being then in
latitude 55 deg. 8', longitude 24 deg. 3'. The wind veering more to the north, we
tacked and stood to the westward under all the sail we could carry, having
a fresh breeze and clear weather, which last was of short duration. For at
six o'clock it became hazy, and soon after there was thick fog; the wind
veered to the N.E., freshened and brought with it snow and sleet, which
froze on the rigging as it fell. We were now enabled to get clear of the
field of ice: but at the same time we were carried in amongst the ice
islands, in a manner equally dangerous, and which with much difficulty we
kept clear of.

Dangerous as it is to sail among these floating rocks (if I may be allowed
to call them so) in a thick fog, this, however, is preferable to being
entangled with immense fields of ice under the same circumstances. The
great danger to be apprehended in this latter case, is the getting fast in
the ice; a situation which would be exceedingly alarming. I had two men on
board that had been in the Greenland trade; the one of them in a ship that
lay nine weeks, and the other in one that lay six weeks, fast in this kind
of ice, which they called packed ice. What they called field ice is
thicker; and the whole field, be it ever so large, consists of one piece.
Whereas this which I call field-ice, from its immense extent, consists of
many pieces of various sizes, both in thickness and surface, from thirty or
forty feet square to three or four, packed close together, and in places
heaped one upon another. This, I am of opinion, would be found too hard for
a ship's side, that is not properly armed against it. How long it may have
lain, or will lie here, is a point not easily determined. Such ice is found
in the Greenland seas all the summer long; and I think it cannot be colder
there in the summer, than it is here. Be this as it may, we certainly had
no thaw; on the contrary, the mercury in Fahrenheit's thermometer kept
generally below the freezing point, although it was the middle of summer.

It is a general opinion, that the ice I have been speaking of, is formed in
bays and rivers. Under this supposition we were led to believe that land
was not far distant; and that it even lay to the southward behind the ice,
which alone hindered us from approaching to it. Therefore, as we had now
sailed above thirty leagues along the edge of the ice, without finding a
passage to the south, I determined to run thirty or forty leagues to the
east, afterwards endeavour to get to the southward, and, if I met with no
land, or other impediment, to get behind the ice, and put the matter out of
all manner of dispute. With this view, we kept standing to the N.W., with
the wind at N.E. and N., thick foggy weather, with sleet and snow, till six
in the evening, when the wind veered to N.W., and we tacked and stood to
the eastward, meeting with many islands of ice of different magnitudes, and
some loose pieces: The thermometer from 30 to 34; weather very hazy, with
sleet and snow, and more sensibly colder than the thermometer seemed to
point out, insomuch that the whole crew complained. In order to enable them
to support this weather the better, I caused the sleeves of their jackets
(which were so short as to expose their arms) to be lengthened with baize;
and had a cap made for each man of the same stuff, together with canvas;
which proved of great service to them.

Some of our people appearing to have symptoms of the scurvy, the surgeons
began to give them fresh wort every day, made from the malt we had on board
for that purpose. One man in particular was highly scorbutic; and yet he
had been taking the rob of lemon and orange for some time, without being
benefited thereby. On the other hand, Captain Furneaux told me, that he had
two men, who, though far gone in this disease, were now in a manner
entirely cured by it.[6]

We continued standing to the eastward till eight o'clock in the morning of
the 21st; when, being in the latitude of 53 deg. 50', and longitude 29 deg. 24' E.,
we hauled to the south, with the wind at west, a fresh gale and hazy, with
snow. In the evening the wind fell and the weather cleared up, so as that
we could see a few leagues round us; being in the latitude of 54 deg. 43' S.
longitude 29 deg. 30' E.

At ten o'clock, seeing many islands of ice a-head, and the weather coming
on foggy, with snow, we wore and stood to the northward, till three in the
morning, when we stood again to the south. At eight, the weather cleared
up, and the wind came to W.S.W., with which we made all the sail we could
to the south; having never less than ten or twelve islands of ice in sight.

Next day we had the wind at S.W. and S.S.W., a gentle gale, with now and
then showers of snow and hail. In the morning, being in the latitude of 55 deg.
20' S., and longitude 31 deg. 30' E., we hoisted out a boat to see if there was
any current, but found none. Mr Forster, who went in the boat, shot some of
the small grey birds before-mentioned, which were of the peterel tribe, and
about the size of a small pigeon. Their back, and upper side of their
wings, their feet and bills, are of a blue-grey colour. Their bellies, and
under side of their wings are white, a little tinged with blue. The upper
side of their quill feathers is a dark-blue tinged with black. A streak is
formed by feathers nearly of this colour, along the upper parts of the
wings, and crossing the back a little above the tail. The end of the tail
feathers is also of the same colour. Their bills are much broader than any
I have seen of the same tribe; and their tongues are remarkably broad.
These blue peterels, as I shall call them, are seen no where but in the
southern hemisphere, from about the latitude of 28 deg., and upwards.
Thermometer at 33 deg. in the open air, and 32 deg. in the sea at the surface, and
at 34-1/2 when drawn, and 6-1/2 minutes in drawing up from 100 fathoms
below it, where it had been sixteen minutes.

On the 24th, the wind blew from N.W. to N.E., a gentle gale, fair and
cloudy. At noon we were by observation, in the latitude of 56 deg. 31' S, and
longitude 31 deg. 19' E., the thermometer at 35. And being near an island of
ice, which was about fifty feet high, and 400 fathoms in circuit, I sent
the master in the jolly-boat to see if any water run from it. He soon
returned with an account that there was not one drop, or any other
appearance of thaw. In the evening we sailed through several floats, or
fields of loose ice, lying in the direction of S.E. and N.W.; at the same
time we had continually several islands of the same composition in sight.

On the 25th, the wind veering round from the N.E., by the east to south, it
blew a gentle gale; with which we stood to the W.S.W, and at noon were in
the latitude of 57 deg. 50' S., and longitude 29 deg. 32' E. The weather was fair
and cloudy; the air sharp and cold, attended with a hard frost. And,
although this was the middle of summer with us, I much question if the day
was colder in any part of England. The wind continued at south, blew a
fresh gale, fair and cloudy weather, till near noon the next day, when we
had clear sun-shine, and found ourselves, by observation, in the latitude
of 58 deg. 31' S., longitude 26 deg. 57' E.

In the course of the last twenty-four hours we passed through several
fields of broken loose ice. They were in general narrow, but of a
considerable length, in the direction of N.W. and S.E. The ice was so close
in one, that it would hardly admit the ship through it. The pieces were
flat, from four to six or eight inches thick, and appeared of that sort of
ice which is generally formed in bays or rivers. Others again were
different; the pieces forming various honey-combed branches, exactly like
coral rocks, and exhibiting such a variety of figures as can hardly be

We supposed this ice to have broke from the main field we had lately left;
and which I was determined to get to the south of, or behind, if possible,
in order to satisfy myself whether or not it joined to any land, as had
been conjectured. With this view I kept on to the westward, with a gentle
gale at south, and S.S.W., and soon after six o'clock in the evening, we
saw some penguins, which occasioned us to sound; but we found no ground
with 150 fathoms.

In the morning of the 27th, we saw more loose ice, but not many islands;
and those we did see were but small. The day being calm and pleasant, and
the sea smooth, we hoisted out a boat, from which Mr Forster shot a penguin
and some peterels. These penguins differ not from those seen in other parts
of the world, except in some minute particulars distinguishable only by
naturalists. Some of the peterels were of the blue sort, but differed from
those before-mentioned, in not having a broad bill; and the ends of their
tail feathers were tipped with white instead of dark-blue. But whether
these were only the distinctions betwixt the male and female, was a matter
disputed by our naturalists. We were now in the latitude of 58 deg. 19' S.,
longitude 24 deg. 39' E., and took the opportunity of the calm, to sound; but
found no ground with a line of 220 fathoms. The calm continued till six in
the evening, when it was succeeded by a light breeze from the east, which
afterwards increased to a fresh gale.

In the morning of the 28th I made the signal to the Adventure to spread
four miles on my starboard beam; and in this position we continued sailing
W.S.W., until four o'clock in the afternoon, when the hazy weather,
attended with snow showers, made it necessary for us to join. Soon after we
reefed our top-sails, being surrounded on all sides with islands of ice. In
the morning of the 29th we let them out again, and set top-gallant-sails;
still continuing our course to the westward, and meeting with several
penguins. At noon we were by observation in the latitude of 59 deg. 12',
longitude 19 deg. 1' E., which is 3 deg. more to the west than we were when we
first fell in with the field of ice; so that it is pretty clear that it
joined to no land, as we conjectured.

Having come to a resolution to run as far west as the meridian of Cape
Circumcision, provided we met with no impediment, as the distance was not
more than eighty leagues, the wind favourable, and the sea seemed to be
pretty clear of ice, I sent on board for Captain Furneaux, to make him
acquainted therewith, and after dinner he returned to his ship. At one
o'clock we steered for an island of ice, thinking if there were any loose
ice round it, to take some on board, and convert it into fresh water. At
four we brought-to, close under the lee of the island, where we did not
find what we wanted, but saw upon it eighty-six penguins. This piece of ice
was about half a mile in circuit, and one hundred feet high and upwards,
for we lay for some minutes with every sail becalmed under it. The side on
which the penguins were, rose sloping from the sea, so as to admit them to
creep up it.

It is a received opinion, that penguins never go far from land, and that
the sight of them is a sure indication of its vicinity. The opinion may
hold good where there are no ice islands; but where such are, these birds,
as well as many others which usually keep near the shores, finding a
roosting-place upon these islands, may be brought by them a great distance
from any land. It will, however, be said, that they must go on shore to
breed, that probably the females were there, and that these are only the
males which we saw. Be this as it may, I shall continue to take notice of
these birds whenever we see them, and leave every one to judge for himself.

We continued our course to the westward, with a gentle gale at E.N.E., the
weather being sometimes tolerably clear, and at other times thick and hazy,
with snow. The thermometer for a few days past was from 31 to 36. At nine
o'clock the next morning, being the 30th, we shot one of the white birds,
upon which we lowered a boat into the water to take it up, and by that
means killed a penguin which weighed eleven pounds and a half. The white
bird was of the peterel tribe; the bill, which is rather short, is of a
colour between black and dark blue, and their legs and feet are blue. I
believe them to be the same sort of birds that Bouvet mentions to have seen
when he was off Cape Circumcision.

We continued our westerly course till eight o'clock in the evening, when we
steered N.W., the point on which I reckoned the above-mentioned cape to
bear. At midnight we fell in with loose ice, which soon after obliged us to
tack, and stretch to the southward. At half an hour past two o'clock in the
morning of the 31st, we stood for it again, thinking to take some on board,
but this was found impracticable; for the wind, which had been at N.E, now
veered to S.E., and increasing to a fresh gale, brought with it such a sea
as made it very dangerous for the ships to remain among the ice. The danger
was yet farther increased by discovering an immense field to the north,
extending from N.E. by E. to S.W. by W. farther than the eye could reach.
As we were not above two or three miles from this, and surrounded by loose
ice, there was no time to deliberate. We presently wore; got our tacks on
board; hauled to the south, and soon got clear; but not before we had
received several hard knocks from the loose pieces, which were of the
largest sort, and among which we saw a seal. In the afternoon the wind
increased in such a manner, as to oblige us to hand the top-sails, and
strike top-gallant-yards. At eight o'clock we tacked and stood to the east
till midnight; when being in the latitude of 60 deg. 21' S., longitude 13 deg. 32'
E, we stood again to the west.

Next day, towards noon, the gale abated, so that we could carry close-
reefed top-sails. But the weather continued thick and hazy, with sleet and
snow, which froze on the rigging as it fell, and ornamented the whole with
icicles; the mercury in the thermometer being generally below the freezing
point. This weather continued till near noon the next day; at which time we
were in the latitude of 59 deg. 12' S.; longitude 9 deg. 45' E.; and here we saw
some penguins.

The wind had now veered to the west, and was so moderate, that we could
bear two reefs out of the top-sails. In the afternoon, we were favoured
with a sight of the moon, whose face we had seen but once since we left the
Cape of Good Hope. By this a judgment may be formed of the sort of weather
we had since we left that place. We did not fail to seize the opportunity
to make several observations of the sun and moon. The longitude deduced
from it was 9 deg. 34' 30" E. Mr Kendal's watch, at the same time, giving 10 deg.
6' E., and the latitude was 58 deg. 53' 30" S.

This longitude is nearly the same that is assigned to Cape Circumcision;
and at the going down of the sun we were about ninety-five leagues to the
south of the latitude it is said to lie in. At this time the weather was so
clear, that we might have seen land at fourteen or fifteen leagues
distance. It is, therefore very probable, that what Bouvet took for land,
was nothing but mountains of ice, surrounded by loose or field-ice. We
ourselves were undoubtedly deceived by the ice-hills, the day we first fell
in with the field-ice. Nor was it an improbable conjecture, that that ice
joined to land. The probability was however now greatly lessened, if not
entirely set aside; for the space between the northern edge of the ice,
along which we sailed, and our route to the west, when south of it, no
where exceeded 100 leagues, and in some places not 60. The clear weather
continued no longer than three o'clock the next morning, when it was
succeeded by a thick fog, sleet, and snow. The wind also veered to N.E. and
blew a fresh gale, with which we stood to S.E. It increased in such a
manner, that before noon we were brought under close-reefed top-sails. The
wind continued to veer to the north, at last fixed at N.W., and was
attended with intervals of clear weather.

Our course was E. 1/4 N., till noon the next day, when we were in the
latitude of 59 deg. 2' S., and nearly under the same meridian as we were when
we fell in with the last field of ice, five days before; so that had it
remained in the same situation, we must now have been in the middle of it,
whereas we did not so much as see any. We cannot suppose that so large a
float of ice as this was, could be destroyed in so short a time. It
therefore must have drifted to the northward: and this makes it probable
that there is no land under this meridian, between the latitude of 55 deg. and
59 deg., where we had supposed some to lie, as mentioned above.

As we were now only sailing over a part of the sea where we had been
before, I directed the course E.S.E. in order to get more to the south. We
had the advantage of a fresh gale, and the disadvantage of a thick fog;
much snow and sleet, which, as usual, froze on our rigging as it fell; so
that every rope was covered with the finest transparent ice I ever saw.
This afforded an agreeable sight enough to the eye, but conveyed to the
mind an idea of coldness, much greater than it really was; for the weather
was rather milder then it had been for some time past, and the sea less
encumbered with ice. But the worst was, the ice so clogged the rigging,
sails, and blocks, as to make them exceedingly bad to handle. Our people,
however, surmounted those difficulties with a steady perseverance, and
withstood this intense cold much better than I expected.

We continued to steer to the E.S.E. with a fresh gale at N.W. attended with
snow and sleet, till the 8th, when we were in the latitude of 61 deg. 12' S.,
longitude 31 deg. 47' E. In the afternoon we passed more ice islands than we
had seen for several days. Indeed they were now so familiar to us, that
they were often passed unnoticed; but more generally unseen on account of
the thick weather. At nine o'clock in the evening, we came to one, which
had a quantity of loose ice about it. As the wind was moderate, and the
weather tolerably fair, we shortened sail, and stood on and off, with a
view of taking some on board on the return of light. But at four o'clock in
the morning, finding ourselves to leeward of this ice, we bore down to an
island to leeward of us; there being about it some loose ice, part of which
we saw break off. There we brought-to; hoisted out three boats; and in
about five or six hours, took up as much ice as yielded fifteen tons of
good fresh water. The pieces we took up were hard, and solid as a rock;
some of them were so large, that we were obliged to break them with pick-
axes before they could be taken into the boats.

The salt water which adhered to the ice, was so trifling as not to be
tasted, and, after it had lain on deck for a short time, entirely drained
off; and the water which the ice yielded, was perfectly sweet and well-
tasted. Part of the ice we broke in pieces, and put into casks; some we
melted in the coppers, and filled up the casks with the water; and some we
kept on deck for present use. The melting and stowing away the ice is a
little tedious, and takes up some time; otherwise this is the most
expeditious way of watering I ever met with.[7]

Having got on board this supply of water, and the Adventure about two-
thirds as much (of which we stood in great need,) as we had once broke the
ice, I did not doubt of getting more whenever we were in want. I therefore
without hesitation directed our course more to the south, with a gentle
gale at N.W., attended, as usual, with snow showers. In the morning of the
11th, being then in the latitude of 62 deg. 44' S., longitude 37 deg. E., the
variation of the compass was 24 deg. 10' W., and the following morning in the
latitude of 64 deg. 12' S., longitude 38 deg. 14' E., by the mean of three
compasses, it was no more than 23 deg. 52' W. In this situation we saw some
penguins; and being near an island of ice from which several pieces had
broken, we hoisted out two boats, and took on board as much as filled all
our empty casks, and the Adventure did the same. While this was doing, Mr
Forster shot an albatross, whose plumage was of a colour between brown and
dark-grey, the head and upper side of the wings rather inclining to black,
and it had white eye-brows. We began to see these birds about the time of
our first falling in with the ice islands; and some have accompanied us
ever since. These, and the dark-brown sort with a yellow bill, were the
only albatrosses that had not now forsaken us.

At four o'clock p.m. we hoisted in the boats, and made sail to the S.E.,
with a gentle breeze at S. by W., attended with showers of snow.

On the 13th, at two o'clock a. m. it fell calm. Of this we took the
opportunity to hoist out a boat, to try the current, which we found to set
N.W. near one-third of a mile an hour. At the time of trying the current, a
Fahrenheit's thermometer was immerged in the sea 100 fathoms below its
surface, where it remained twenty minutes. When it came up, the mercury
stood at 32, which is the freezing point. Some little time after, being
exposed to the surface of the sea, it rose to 33-1/2, and in the open air
to 36. The calm continued till five o'clock in the evening, when it was
succeeded by a light breeze from the S. and S.E., with which we stood to
the N.E. with all our sails set.

Though the weather continued fair, the sky, as usual, was clouded. However,
at nine o'clock the next morning, it was clear; and we were enabled to
observe several distances between the sun and moon. The mean result of
which gave 39 deg. 30' 30" E. longitude. Mr Kendal's watch at the same time
gave 38 deg. 27' 45" which is 1 deg. 2' 45" W. of the observations; whereas, on the
3d instant, it was half a degree E. of them.

In the evening I found the variation by the
mean of azimuths taken with Gregory's
compass to be 28 deg. 14' 0"

By the mean of six azimuths by one of Dr
Knight's 28 32 0

And by another of Dr Knight's 28 34 0

Our latitude at this time was 63 deg. 57', longitude 39 deg. 38-1/2"

The succeeding morning, the 15th, being then in latitude 63 deg. 33' S., the
longitude was observed by the following persons, viz.

Myself, being the mean of six distances of
the sun and moon 40 deg. 1' 45" E.

Mr Wales, ditto 39 29 45

Ditto, ditto 39 56 45

Lieutenant Clerke, ditto 39 38 0

Mr Gilbert, ditto 39 48 45

Mr Smith, ditto 39 18 15
Mean 39 42 12

Mr Kendal's watch made 38 41 30

which is nearly the same difference as the day before. But Mr Wales and I
took each of us six distances of the sun and moon, with the telescopes
fixed to our sextants, which brought out the longitude nearly the same as
the watch.

The results were as follows:--By Mr Wales, 38 deg. 35' 30", and by me, 38 deg. 36'

It is impossible for me to say whether these or the former are the nearest
to the truth; nor can I assign any probable reason for so great a
disagreement. We certainly can observe with greater accuracy through the
telescope, than with the common sight, when the ship is sufficiently
steady. The use of the telescope is found difficult at first, but a little
practice will make it familiar. By the assistance of the watch, we shall be
able to discover the greatest error this method of observing the longitude
at sea is liable to; which at the greatest does not exceed a degree and a
half, and in general will be found to be much less. Such is the improvement
navigation has received by the astronomers and mathematical instrument-
makers of this age; by the former from the valuable tables they have
communicated to the public, under the direction of the Board of Longitude,
and contained in the astronomical ephemeris; and by the latter, from the
great accuracy they observe in making instruments, without which the tables
would, in a great measure, lose their effect. The preceding observations
were made by four different sextants, of different workmen. Mine was by Mr
Bird; one of Mr Wales's by Mr Dollond; the other and Mr Clerke's by Mr
Ramsden; as also Mr Gilbert's and Smith's, who observed with the same

Five tolerably fine days had now succeeded one another. This, besides
giving us an opportunity to make the preceding observations, was very
serviceable to us on many other accounts, and came at a very seasonable
time. For, having on board a good quantity of fresh water, or ice, which
was the same thing, the people were enabled to wash and dry their clothes
and linen; a care that can never be enough attended to in all long voyages.
The winds during this time blew in gentle gales, and the weather was mild.
Yet the mercury in the thermometer never rose above 36; and was frequently
as low as the freezing point.

In the afternoon having but little wind, I brought-to under an island of
ice, and sent a boat to take up some. In the evening the wind freshened at
east, and was attended with snow showers and thick hazy weather, which
continued great part of the 16th. As we met with little ice, I stood to the
south, close hauled; and at six o'clock in the evening, being in the
latitude of 64 deg. 56' S., longitude 39 deg. 35' E. I found the variation by
Gregory's compass to be 26 deg. 41' W. At this time the motion of the ship was
so great that I could by no means observe with any of Dr Knight's

As the wind remained invariably fixed at E. and E. by S., I continued to
stand to the south; and on the 17th, between eleven and twelve o'clock, we
crossed the Antarctic Circle in the longitude of 39 deg. 35' E., for at noon we
were by observation in the latitude of 66 deg. 36' 30" S. The weather was now
become tolerably clear, so that we could see several leagues round us; and
yet we had only seen one island of ice since the morning. But about four
p.m. as we were steering to the south, we observed the whole sea in a
manner covered with ice, from the direction of S.E., round by the S. to W.

In this space, thirty-eight ice islands, great and small, were seen,
besides loose ice in abundance, so that we were obliged to luff for one
piece, and bear up for another, and as we continued to advance to the
south, it increased in such a manner, that at three quarters past six
o'clock, being then in the latitude of 67 deg. 15' S., we could proceed no
farther; the ice being entirely closed to the south, in the whole extent
from E. to W.S.W., without the least appearance of any opening. This
immense field was composed of different kinds of ice; such as high hills,
loose or broken pieces packed close together, and what, I think,
Greenlandmen call field-ice. A float of this kind of ice lay to the S.E. of
us, of such extent, that I could see no end to it from the mast-head. It
was sixteen or eighteen feet high at least; and appeared of a pretty equal
height and surface. Here we saw many whales playing about the ice, and for
two days before had seen several flocks of the brown and white pintadoes,
which we named Antarctic peterels, because they seem to be natives of that
region. They are, undoubtedly, of the peterel tribe; are in every respect
shaped like the pintadoes, differing only from them in colour. The head and
fore-part of the body of these are brown; and the hind-part of the body,
tail, and the ends of the wings, are white. The white peterel also appeared
in greater numbers than before; some few dark-grey albatrosses, and our
constant companion the blue peterel. But the common pintadoes had quite
disappeared, as well as many other sorts, which are common in lower

[1] "In the midst of this heavy gale, I tried Dr Lind's wind-gage, and
the water in it was depressed by the force of the wind 45/100 of an
inch." W. According to the same authority, it was equally depressed on
the 30th, and on the 1st December, it sunk 4/10 of an inch in the
squalls. Mr G.F. relates an interesting enough alarm that occurred
during this stormy weather. "A petty officer in the forepart of the
vessel, awaking suddenly, heard a noise of water streaming through his
birth, and breaking itself against his own and his mess-mates' chests;
he leaped out of his bed, and found himself to the middle of his leg
in water. He instantly acquainted the officer of the quarter-deck with
the dreadful circumstances, and in a few moments almost every person
was in motion; the pumps were employed, and the officers encouraged
the seamen with an alarming gentleness, to persevere in their work;
notwithstanding which the water seemed to gain upon us; every soul was
filled with terror, increased by the darkness of the night. The chain-
pumps were now cleared, and our sailors laboured at them with great
alacrity; at last one of them luckily discovered that the water came
in through a scuttle (or window) in the boatswain's store-room, which
not having been secured against the tempestuous southern ocean, had
been staved in by the force of the waves. It was immediately
repaired," &c. Incidents of this kind are not often related by a
commander, but they are useful to a reader by diversifying the records
of bearings, courses, &c. &c.--E.

[2] "At half past ten in the evening, some water which had been
spilled on the deck was frozen, and in the morning we passed the first
island of ice. It was not very high, was smooth on the top and sides,
and not rugged like those I have seen in the north seas." W.--Mr
Forster in his observations has entered into a very important
discussion respecting the formation of the ice islands, but it is
vastly too long for insertion in this place. Few readers, however, it
is likely, will object to see it elsewhere.--E.

[3] "They constantly appeared about the icy masses, and may be looked
upon as sure forerunners of ice. Their colour induced us to call them
the snowy peterels."--G.F.

[4] "We had already had several false alarms from the fallacious
conformation of fog-banks, or that of islands of ice half hid in snow
storms, and our consort the Adventure had repeatedly made the signals
for seeing land, deceived by such appearances: but now, the
imagination warmed with the idea of M. Bouvet's discovery, one of our
lieutenants, after having repeatedly been up to the mast-head, (about
six o'clock in the morning on the 14th,) acquainted the captain that
he plainly saw the land. This news brought us all upon deck: We saw an
immense field of flat ice before us, broken into many small pieces on
the edges, a vast number of islands of ice of all shapes and sizes
rose beyond it as far as the eye could reach, and some of the most
distant considerably raised by the hazy vapours which lay on the
horizon, had indeed some appearance of mountains. Several of our
officers persisted in the opinion that they had seen land here, till
Captain Cook, about two years and two months afterwards, (in February
1775,) on his course from Cape Horn towards the Cape of Good Hope,
sailed over the same spot, where they had supposed it to lie, and
found neither land nor even ice there at that time."--G.F.

[5] "While we were doing this, so thick a fog came on, that it was
with the utmost difficulty, and after some considerable time, that we
found the ships again."--W.

"Their situation in a small four-oared boat, on an immense ocean, far
from any habitable shore, surrounded with ice, and utterly destitute
of provisions, was truly terrifying and horrible in its consequences.
They rowed about for some time, making vain efforts to be heard, but
all was silent about them, and they could not see the length of their
boat. They were the more unfortunate, as they had neither mast nor
sail, and only two oars. In this dreadful suspence they determined to
lie still, hoping that, provided they preserved their place, the
sloops would not drive out of sight, as it was calm. At last they
heard the jingling of a bell at a distance; this sound was heavenly
music to their ears; they immediately rowed towards it, and by
continual hailing, were at last answered from the Adventure, and
hurried on board, overjoyed to have escaped the danger of perishing by
slow degrees, through the inclemencies of weather and through famine.
Having been on board some time, they fired a gun, and being within
hail of the Resolution, returned on board of that sloop to their own
damp beds and mouldering cabins, upon which they now set a double
value: after so perilous an expedition."--G.F.

[6] "The encomiums on the efficacy of malt cannot be exaggerated, and
this useful remedy ought never to be forgotten on board of ships bound
on long voyages; nor can we bestow too much care to prevent its
becoming damp and mouldy, by which means its salutary qualities are
impaired, as we experienced during the latter part of our voyage."--

[7] "That water melted from the ice usually found floating in the sea
is fresh and good, is no new discovery. The Hudson's Bay ships have
long made use of it; and I have mentioned it, from my own experience,
in the account of a voyage to Hudson's Bay." _See Phil. Trans. vol.
60_.--W. This is a solitary but most unexceptionable evidence. Mr
Forster, in the article before alluded to, has not failed to point out
much more.--E.


_Sequel of the Search for a Southern Continent, between the Meridian of
the Cape of Good Hope and New Zealand; with an Account of the Separation of
the two Ships, and the Arrival of the Resolution in Dusky Bay._

After meeting with this ice, I did not think it was at all prudent to
persevere in getting farther to the south; especially as the summer was
already half spent, and it would have taken up some time to have got round
the ice, even supposing it to have been practicable; which, however, is
doubtful. I therefore came to a resolution to proceed directly in search of
the land lately discovered by the French. And, as the winds still continued
at E. by S., I was obliged to return to the north, over some part of the
sea I had already made myself acquainted with, and, for that reason, wished
to have avoided. But this was not to be done, as our course made good, was
little better than north. In the night the wind increased to a strong gale,
attended with sleet and snow, and obliged us to double-reef our top-sails.
About noon the next day the gale abated, so that we could bear all our
reefs out; but the wind still remained in its old quarter.

In the evening, being in the latitude of 64 deg. 12' S., longitude 40 deg. 15' E.,
a bird, called by us in my former voyage Port Egmont Hen, (on account of
the great plenty of them at Port Egmont in Falkland Isles,) came hovering
several times over the ship, and then left us in the direction of N.E. They
are a short thick bird, about the size of a large crow, of a dark-brown or
chocolate colour, with a whitish streak under each wing, in the shape of a
half-moon. I have been told that these birds are found in great plenty at
the Fero Isles, North of Scotland; and that they never go far from land.
Certain it is, I never before saw them above forty leagues off; but I do
not remember ever seeing fewer than two together; whereas here was but one,
which, with the islands of ice, may have come a good way from land.

At nine o'clock, the wind veering to E.N.E., we tacked and stood to the
S.S.E, but at four in the morning of the 20th, it returned back to its old
point, and we resumed our northerly course. One of the above birds was seen
this morning, probably the same we saw the night before, as our situation
was not much altered. As the day advanced, the gale increased, attended
with thick hazy weather, sleet, and snow, and at last obliged us to close-
reef our top-sails, and strike top-gallant-yards. But in the evening the
wind abated so as to admit us to carry whole top-sails, and top-gallant-
yards aloft. Hazy weather, with snow and sleet continued.

In the afternoon of the 21st, being in the latitude of 62 deg. 24' S.,
longitude 42 deg. 19' E., we saw a white albatross with black tipped wings, and
a pintado bird. The wind was now at S. and S.W., a fresh gale. With this we
steered N.E., against a very high sea, which did not indicate the vicinity
of land in that quarter; and yet it was there we were to expect it. The
next day we had intervals of fair weather, the wind was moderate, and we
carried our studding-sails.[1] In the morning of the 23d, we were in
latitude of 60 deg. 27' S., longitude 45 deg. 33' E. Snow showers continued, and
the weather was so cold, that the water in our water-vessels on deck had
been frozen for several preceding nights.

Having clear weather at intervals, I spread the ships a-breast four miles
from each other, in order the better to discover any thing that might lie
in our way. We continued to sail in this manner till six o'clock in the
evening, when hazy weather and snow showers made it necessary for us to

We kept our course to N.E. till eight o'clock in the morning of the 25th,
when the wind having veered round to N.E. by E., by the W. and N. we
tacked, and stood to N.W. The wind was fresh, and yet we made but little
way against a high northerly sea. We now began to see some of that sort of
peterels so well known to sailors by the name of sheerwaters, latitude 58 deg.
10', longitude 50 deg. 54' E. In the afternoon the wind veered to the southward
of east; and at eight o'clock in the evening, it increased to a storm,
attended with thick hazy weather, sleet and snow.

During night we went under our fore-sail and main-top-sail close-reefed: At
day-light the next morning, added to them the fore and mizen top-sails. At
four o'clock it fell calm; but a prodigious high sea from the N.E., and a
complication of the worst of weather, viz. snow, sleet, and rain,
continued, together with the calm, till nine o'clock in the evening. Then
the weather cleared up, and we got a breeze at S.E. by S. With this we
steered N. by E. till eight o'clock the next morning, being the 27th, when
I spread the ships, and steered N.N.E., all sails set, having a fresh
breeze at S. by W., and clear weather.

At noon we were by observation, in the latitude of 56 deg. 28' S., and, about
three o'clock in the afternoon, the sun and moon appearing at intervals,
their distances were observed by the following persons; and the longitude
resulting therefrom was,

By Mr Wales, (the mean of two sets) 50 deg. 59' East.
Lieutenant Clerke 51 11
Mr Gilbert 50 14
Mr Smith 50 50
Mr Kendal's watch 50 50

At six o'clock in the evening, being in latitude 56 deg. 9' S., I now made
signal to the Adventure to come under my stern; and at eight o'clock the
next morning sent her to look out on my starboard beam, having at this time
a fresh gale at west and pretty clear weather. But this was not of long
duration; for, at two in the afternoon, the sky became cloudy and hazy, the
wind increased to a fresh gale, blew in squalls attended with snow, sleet,
and drizzling rain. I now made signal to the Adventure to come under my
stern, and took another reef in each top-sail. At eight o'clock I hauled up
the main-sail, and run all night under the foresail, and two top-sails; our
course being N.N.E. and N.E. by N., with a strong gale at N.W.

The 29th, at noon, we observed in latitude 52 deg. 29' S., the weather being
fair and tolerably clear. But in the afternoon, it again became very thick
and hazy with rain; and the gale increased in such a manner as to oblige us
to strike top-gallant yards, close-reef and hand the top-sails. We spent
part of the night, which was very dark and stormy, in making a tack to the
S.W., and in the morning of the 30th, stood again to the N.E., wind at N.W.
and N., a very fresh gale; which split several of our small sails. This day
no ice was seen, probably owing to the thick hazy weather. At eight o'clock
in the evening we tacked and stood to the westward, under our courses; but
as the sea run high, we made our course no better than S.S W.

At four o'clock the next morning, the gale had a little abated; and the
wind had backed to W. by S. We again stood to the northward, under courses
and double-reefed top-sails, having a very high sea from the N.N.W., which
gave us but little hopes of finding the land we were in search of. At noon
we were in the latitude of 50 deg. 56' S., longitude 56 deg. 48' E., and presently
after we saw two islands of ice. One of these we passed very near, and
found that it was breaking or falling to pieces, by the cracking noise it
made; which was equal to the report of a four-pounder. There was a good
deal of loose ice about it; and had the weather been favourable, I should
have brought-to, and taken some up. After passing this, we saw no more,
till we returned again to the south.

Hazy gloomy weather continued, and the wind remained invariably fixed at
N.W., so that we could make our course no better than N.E. by N., and this
course we held till four o'clock in the afternoon of the first of February.
Being then in the latitude of 48 deg. 30', and longitude 58 deg. 7' E., nearly in
the meridian of the island of Mauritius, and where we were to expect to
find the land said to be discovered by the French, of which at this time we
saw not the least signs, we bore away east.

I now made the signal to the Adventure to keep at the distance of four
miles on my starboard beam. At half an hour past six, Captain Furneaux made
the signal to speak with me; and upon his coming under my stern, he
informed me that he had just seen a large float of sea or rock weed, and
about it several birds (divers.) These were certainly signs of the vicinity
of land; but whether it lay to the east or west, was not possible for us to
know. My intention was to have got into this latitude four or five degrees
of longitude to the west of the meridian we were in, and then to have
carried on my researches to the east. But the west and north-west winds we
had had the five preceding days, prevented me from putting this in

The continual high sea we had lately had from the N.E., N., N.W. and W.,
left me no reason to believe that land of any extent lay to the West. We
therefore continued to steer to the east, only lying-to a few hours in the
night, and in the morning resumed our course again, four miles north and
south from each other; the hazy weather not permitting us to spread
farther. We passed two or three small pieces of rock weed, and saw two or
three birds known by the name of egg-birds; but saw no other signs of land.
At noon we observed in latitude 48 deg. 36' S., longitude 59 deg. 35' E. As we
could only see a few miles farther to the south, and as it was not
impossible that there might be land not far off in that direction, I gave
orders to steer S. 1/2 E., and made the signal for the Adventure to follow,
she being by this movement thrown a-stern: The weather continuing hazy till
half an hour past six o'clock in the evening, when it cleared up so as to
enable us to see about five leagues round us.

Being now in the latitude of 49 deg. 13' S., without having the least signs of
land, I wore and stood again to the eastward, and soon after spoke with
Captain Furneaux. He told me that he thought the land was to the N.W. of
us,; as he had, at one time, observed the sea to be smooth when the wind
blew in that direction. Athough this was not conformable to the remarks
_we_ had made on the sea, I resolved to clear up the point, if the wind
would admit of my getting to the west in any reasonable time.

At eight o'clock in the morning of the 3d, being in the latitude of 48 deg. 56'
S. longitude 60 deg. 47' E., and upwards of 8 deg. to the east of the meridian of
the Mauritius, I began to despair of finding land to the east; and as the
wind had now veered to the north, resolved to search for it to the west. I
accordingly tacked and stood to the west with a fresh gale. This increased
in such a manner, that, before night, we were reduced to our two courses;
and, at last, obliged to lie-to under the fore-sails, having a prodigious
high sea from W.N.W., notwithstanding the height of the gale was from N. by
W. At three o'clock the next morning, the gale abating, we made sail, and
continued to ply to the west till ten o'clock in the morning of the 6th.

At this time, being in the latitude of 48 deg. 6' S., longitude 58 deg. 22' E., the
wind seemingly fixed at W.N.W., and seeing no signs of meeting with land, I
gave over plying, and bore away east a little southerly: Being satisfied,
that if there is any land hereabout, it can only be an isle of no great
extent. And it was just as probable I might have found it to the E. as to
the W.

While we were plying about here we took every opportunity to observe the
variation of the compass, and found it to be from 27 deg. 50' to 30 deg. 26' W.
Probably the mean of the two extremes, viz. 29 deg. 4', is the nearest the
truth, as it nearly agrees with the variation observed on board the
Adventure. In making these observations, we found that, when the sun was on
the larboard side of the ship, the variation was the least; and when on the
starboard side, the greatest. This was not the first time we had made this
observation, without being able to account for it. At four o'clock in the
morning of the 7th, I made the Adventure's signal to keep at the distance
of four miles on my starboard beam; and continued to steer E.S.E. This
being a fine day, I had all our men's bedding and clothes spread on deck to
air; and the ship cleaned and smoked betwixt decks. At noon I steered a
point more to the south, being then in the latitude of 45 deg. 49' S.,
longitude 61 deg. 48' E. At six o'clock in the evening, I called in the
Adventure; and at the same time took several azimuths, which gave the
variation 31 deg. 28'.W. These observations could not be taken with the
greatest accuracy, on account of the rolling of the ship, occasioned by a
very high westerly swell.

The preceding evening, three Port Egmont hens were seen; this morning
another appeared. In the evening, and several times in the night, penguins
were heard; and, at daylight in the morning of the 8th, several of these
were seen; and divers of two sorts, seemingly such as are usually met with
on the coast of England. This occasioned us to sound, but we found no
ground with a line of 210 fathoms. Our latitude now was 49 deg. 53' S., and
longitude 63 deg. 39' E. This was at eight o'clock. By this time the wind had
veered round by the N.E. to E., blew a brisk gale, and was attended with
hazy weather, which soon after turned to a thick fog; and, at the same
tine, the wind shifted to N.E.

I continued to keep the wind on the larboard tack, and to fire a gun every
hour till noon; when I made the signal to tack, and tacked accordingly.
But, as neither this signal, nor any of the former, was answered by the
Adventure, we had but too much reason to think that a separation had taken
place; though we were at a loss to tell how it had been effected. I had
directed Captain Furneaux, in case he was separated from me, to cruise
three days in the place where he last saw me. I therefore continued making
short boards, and firing half-hour guns, till the 9th in the afternoon,
when, the weather having cleared up, we could see several leagues round us,
and found that the Adventure was not within the limits of our horizon. At
this time we were about two or three leagues to the eastward of the
situation we were in when we last saw her; and were standing to the
westward with a very strong gale at N.N.W., accompanied with a great sea
from the same direction. This, together, with an increase of wind, obliged
us to lie-to till eight o'clock the next morning, during which time we saw
nothing of the Adventure, notwithstanding the weather was pretty clear, and
we had kept firing guns, and burning false fires, all night. I therefore
gave over looking for her, made sail, and steered S.E., with a very fresh
gale at W. by N., accompanied with a high sea from the same direction.

While we were beating about here; we frequently saw penguins and divers,
which made us conjecture the land was not far off; but in what direction it
was not possible for us to tell. As we advanced to the south, we lost the
penguins, and most of the divers; and, as usual, met with abundance of
albatrosses, blue peterels, sheer-waters, &c.

The 11th, at noon, and in the latitude of 51 deg. 15' S., longitude 67 deg. 20' E.,
we again met with penguins: and saw an egg bird, which we also look upon to
be a sign of the vicinity of land. I continued to steer to the S.E., with a
fresh gale in the north-west quarter, attended with a long hollow swell,
and frequent showers of rain, hail, and snow. The 12th, in the morning,
being in the latitude of 52 deg. 32' S., longitude 69 deg. 47' E., the variation
was 31 deg. 38' W. In the evening, in the latitude of 53 deg. 7' S., longitude 70 deg.
50' E., it was 32 deg. 33'; and, the next morning, in the latitude of 53 deg. 37'
S., longitude 72 deg. 10', it was 33 deg. 8' W. Thus far we had continually a great
number of penguins about the ship, which seemed to be different from those
we had seen near the ice; being smaller, with reddish bills and brownish
heads. The meeting with so many of these birds, gave us some hopes of
finding land, and occasioned various conjectures about its situation. The
great westerly swell, which still continued, made it improbable that land
of any considerable extent lay to the west. Nor was it very probable that
any lay to the north; as we were only about 160 leagues to the south of
Tasman's track in 1642; and I conjectured that Captain Furneaux would
explore this place; which accordingly happened. In the evening we saw a
Port Egmont hen, which flew away in the direction of N.E. by E., and the
next morning a seal was seen; but no penguins. In the evening, being in the
latitude of 55 deg. 49' S., longitude 75 deg. 52' E., the variation was 34 deg. 48' W.,
and, in the evening of the 15th, in latitude 57 deg. 2' S., longitude 79 deg. 56'
E., it was 38 deg. W. Five seals were seen this day, and a few penguins; which
occasioned us to sound, without finding any bottom, with a line of 150

At day-light in the morning of the 16th, we saw an island of ice to the
northward; for which we steered, in order to take some on board; but the
wind shifting to that direction, hindered us from putting this in
execution. At this time we were in the latitude of 57 deg. 8' S., longitude 80 deg.
59' E., and had two islands of ice in sight. This morning we saw one
penguin, which appeared to be of the same sort which we had formerly seen
near the ice. But we had now been so often deceived by these birds, that we
could no longer look upon them, nor indeed upon any other oceanic birds,
which frequent high latitudes, as sure signs of the vicinity of land.

The wind continued not long at north, but veered to E. by N.E., and blew a
gentle gale, with which we stood to the southward; having frequent showers
of sleet and snow. But, in the night, we had fair weather, and a clear
serene sky; and, between midnight and three o'clock in the morning, lights
were seen in the heavens, similar to those in the northern hemisphere,
known by the name of Aurora Borealis, or Northern Lights; but I never heard
of the Aurora Australia been seen before. The officer of the watch observed
that it sometimes broke out in spiral rays, and in a circular form; then
its light was very strong, and its appearance beautiful. He could not
perceive it had any particular direction; for it appeared, at various
times, in different parts of the heavens, and diffused its light throughout
the whole atmosphere.[2]

At nine in the morning, we bore down to an island of ice which we reached
by noon. It was full half a mile in circuit, and two hundred feet high at
least, though very little loose ice about it. But while we were considering
whether or no we should hoist out our boats to take some up, a great
quantity broke from the island. Upon this we hoisted out our boats, and
went to work to get some on board. The pieces of ice, both great and small,
which broke from the island, I observed, drifted fast to the westward; that
is, they left the island in that direction, and were, in a few hours,
spread over a large space of sea. This, I have no doubt, was caused by a
current setting in that direction. For the wind could have but little
effect upon the ice; especially as there was a large hollow swell from the
west. This circumstance greatly retarded our taking up ice. We, however,
made a shift to get on board about nine or ten tons before eight o'clock,
when we hoisted in the boats and made sail to the east, inclining to the
south, with a fresh gale at south; which, soon after, veered to S.S.W. and
S.W., with fair but cloudy weather. This course brought us among many ice
isles; so that it was necessary to proceed with great caution. In the night
the mercury in the thermometer fell two degrees below the freezing point;
and the water in the scuttle casks on deck was frozen. As I have not taken
notice of the thermometer of late, I shall now observe, that, as we
advanced to the north, the mercury gradually rose to 45, and fell again, as
we advanced to the south, to what is above-mentioned; nor did it rise, in
the middle of the day, to above 34 or 35.

In the morning of the 18th, being in the latitude of 57 deg. 54' S., longitude
83 deg. 14' E., the variation was 39 deg. 33' W. In the evening, in latitude 58 deg. 2'
S., longitude 84 deg. 35' E., it was only 37 deg. 8' W., which induced me to
believe it was decreasing. But in the evening of the 20th, in the latitude
of 58 deg. 47' S., longitude 90 deg. 56' E., I took nine azimuths, with Dr Knight's
compass, which gave the variation 40 deg. 7', and nine others, with Gregory's,
which gave 40 deg. 15' W.

This day, at noon, being nearly in the latitude and longitude just
mentioned, we thought we saw land to the S.W. The appearance was so strong
that we doubted not it was there in reality, and tacked to work up to it
accordingly; having a light breeze at south, and clear weather. We were,
however, soon undeceived, by finding that it was only clouds; which, in the
evening, entirely disappeared, and left us a clear horizon, so that we
could see a considerable way round us; in which space nothing was to be
seen but ice islands.

In the night the Aurora Australis made a very brilliant and luminous
appearance. It was seen first in the east, a little above the horizon; and,
in a short time, spread over the whole heavens.

The 21st, in the morning, having little wind and a smooth sea, two
favourable circumstances for taking up ice, I steered for the largest ice
island before us, which we reached by noon. At this time, we were in the
latitude of 59 deg. S., longitude 92 deg. 30' E.; having about two hours before
seen three or four penguins. Finding here a good quantity of loose ice, I
ordered two boats out, and sent them to take some on board. While this was
doing, the island, which was not less than half a mile in circuit, and
three or four hundred feet high above the surface of the sea, turned nearly
bottom up. Its height, by this circumstance, was neither increased nor
diminished apparently. As soon as we had got on board as much ice as we
could dispose of, we hoisted in the boats, and made sail to the S.E., with
a gentle breeze at N. by E., attended with showers of snow, and dark gloomy
weather. At this time we had but few ice islands in sight, but, the next
day, seldom less than twenty or thirty were seen at once.

The wind gradually veered to the east; and, at last, fixing at E. by S.,
blew a fresh gale. With this we stood to the south, till eight o'clock in
the evening of the 23d; at which time we were in the latitude of 61 deg. 52'
S., longitude 95 deg. 2' E. We now tacked and spent the night, which was
exceedingly stormy, thick, and hazy, with sleet and snow, in making short
boards. Surrounded on every side with danger, it was natural for us to wish
for day-light. This, when it came, served only to increase our
apprehensions, by exhibiting to our view those huge mountains of ice, which
in the night we had passed without seeing.

These unfavourable circumstances, together with dark nights, at this
advanced season of the year, quite discouraged me from putting in execution
a resolution I had taken of crossing the Antarctic Circle once more.
Accordingly, at four o'clock in the morning, we stood to the north, with a
very hard gale at E.S.E., accompanied with snow and sleet, and a very high
sea from the same point, which made great destruction among the ice
islands. This circumstance, far from being of any advantage to us, greatly
increased the number of pieces we had to avoid. The large pieces which
break from the ice islands, are much more dangerous than the islands
themselves. The latter are so high out of water, that we can generally see
them, unless the weather be very thick and dark, before we are very near
them. Whereas the others cannot be seen in the night, till they are under
the ship's bows. These dangers were, however, now become so familiar to us,
that the apprehensions they caused were never of long duration; and were,
in some measure, compensated both by the seasonable supplies of fresh water
these ice islands afforded us, (without which we must have been greatly
distressed,) and also by their very romantic appearance, greatly heightened
by the foaming and dashing of the waves into the curious holes and caverns
which are formed in many of them; the whole exhibiting a view which at once
filled the mind with admiration and horror, and can only be described by
the hand of an able painter.[3]

Towards the evening the gale abated, and in the night we had two or three
hours calm. This was succeeded by a light breeze at west, with which we
steered east, under all the sail we could set, meeting with many ice

This night we saw a Port Egmont hen; and next morning, being the 25th,
another. We had lately seen but few birds; and those were albatrosses,
sheer-waters, and blue peterels. It is remarkable that we did not see one
of either the white or Antarctic peterels, since we came last amongst the
ice. Notwithstanding the wind kept at W. and N.W. all day, we had a very
high sea from the east, by which we concluded that no land could be near in
that direction. In the evening, being in the latitude 60 deg. 51', longitude
95 deg. 41' E., the variation was 43 deg. 6' W., and the next morning, being the
26th, having advanced about a degree and a half more to the east, it was
41 deg. 30', both being determined by several azimuths.

We had fair weather all the afternoon, but the wind was unsettled, veering
round by the north to the east. With this we stood to the S.E. and E., till
three o'clock in the afternoon; when, being in the latitude of 61 deg. 21' S.,
longitude 97 deg. 7', we tacked and stood to the northward and eastward as the
wind kept veering to the south. This, in the evening, increased to a strong
gale, blew in squalls, attended with snow and sleet, and thick hazy
weather, which soon brought us under our close-reefed top-sails.

Between eight in the morning of the 26th, and noon the next day, we fell in
among several islands of ice; from whence such vast quantities had broken
as to cover the sea all round us, and render sailing rather dangerous.
However, by noon, we were clear of it all. In the evening the wind abated,
and veered to S.W. but the weather did not clear up till the next morning,
when we were able to carry all our sails, and met with but very few islands
of ice to impede us. Probably the late gale had destroyed a great number of
them. Such a very large hollow sea had continued to accompany the wind as
it veered from E. to S.W. that I was certain no land of considerable extent
could lie within 100 or 150 leagues of our situation between these two

The mean height of the thermometer at noon, for some days past, was at
about 35, which is something higher than it usually was in the same
latitude about a month or five weeks before, consequently the air was
something warmer. While the weather was really _warm_, the gales were
not only stronger, but more frequent, with almost continual misty, dirty,
wet weather. The very animals we had on board felt its effects. A sow
having in the morning farrowed nine pigs, every one of them was killed by
the cold before four o'clock in the afternoon, notwithstanding all the care
we could take of them. From the same cause, myself as well as several of my
people, had fingers and toes chilblained. Such is the summer weather we

The wind continued unsettled, veering from the south to the west, and blew
a fresh gale till the evening. Then it fell little wind, and soon after a
breeze sprung up at north, which quickly veered to N.E. and N.E. by E.,
attended with a thick fog, snow, sleet, and rain. With this wind and
weather we kept on to the S.E., till four o'clock in the afternoon of the
next day, being the first of March, when it fell calm, which continued for
near twenty-four hours. We were now in the latitude of 60 deg. 36' S.,
longitude 107 deg. 54', and had a prodigious high swell from the S.W., and, at
the same time, another from the S. or S.S.E. The dashing of the one wave
against the other, made the ship both roll and pitch exceedingly; but at
length the N.W. swell prevailed. The calm continued till noon the next day,
when it was succeeded by a gentle breeze from S.E., which afterwards
increased and veered to S.W. With this we steered N.E. by E., and E. by N.,
under all the sail we could set.

In the afternoon of the 3d, being in latitude 60 deg. 13', longitude 110 deg. 18',
the variation was 39 deg. 4' W. But the observations, by which this was
determined, were none of the best, being obliged to make use of such as we
could get, during the very few and short intervals when the sun appeared. A
few penguins were seen this day, but not so many islands of ice as usual.
The weather was also milder, though very changeable; thermometer from 36 to
38. We continued to have a N.W. swell, although the wind was unsettled,
veering to N.W. by the W. and N., attended with hazy sleet and drizzling

We prosecuted our course to the east, inclining to the south, till three
o'clock in the afternoon of the 4th, when, (being in the latitude of 60 deg.
37', longitude 113 deg. 24') the wind shifting at once to S.W. and S.W. by S.,
I gave orders to steer E. by N. 1/2 N. But in the night we steered E. 1/2
S. in order to have the wind, which was at S.S.W., more upon the beam, the
better to enable us to stand back, in case we fell in with any danger in
the dark. For we had not so much time to spare to allow us to lie-to.

In the morning of the 5th, we steered E. by N., under all the sail we could
set, passing one ice island and many small pieces, and at nine o'clock the
wind, which of late had not remained long upon any one point, shifted all
at once to east, and blew a gentle gale. With this, we stood to the north,
at which time we were in the latitude of 60 deg. 44' S., and longitude 116 deg. 50'
E. The latitude was determined by the meridian altitude of the sun, which
appeared, now and then, for a few minutes, till three in the afternoon.
Indeed the sky was, in general, so cloudy, and the weather so thick and
hazy, that we had very little benefit of sun or moon; very seldom seeing
the face of either the one or the other. And yet, even under these
circumstances, the weather, for some days past, could not be called very
cold. It, however, had not the least pretension to be called summer
weather, according to my ideas of summer in the northern hemisphere, as far
as 60 deg. of latitude, which is nearly as far north as I have been.

In the evening we had three islands of ice in sight, all of them large;
especially one, which was larger than any we had yet seen. The side opposed
to us seemed to be a mile in extent; if so, it could not be less than three
in circuit. As we passed it in the night, a continual cracking was heard,
occasioned, no doubt, by pieces breaking from it.[4] For, in the morning of
the 6th, the sea, for some distance round it, was covered with large and
small pieces; and the island itself did not appear so large as it had done
the evening before. It could not be less than 100 feet high; yet such was
the impetuous force and height of the waves which were broken against it,
by meeting with such a sudden resistance, that they rose considerably
higher. In the evening we were in latitude of 59 deg. 58' S., longitude 118 deg.
39' E. The 7th, the wind was variable in the N.E. and S.E. quarters,
attended with snow and sleet till the evening. Then the weather became
fair, the sky cleared up, and the night was remarkably pleasant, as well as
the morning of the next day; which, for the brightness of the sky, and
serenity and mildness of the weather, gave place to none we had seen since
we left the Cape of Good Hope. It was such as is little known in this sea;
and to make it still more agreeable, we had not one island of ice in sight.
The mercury in the thermometer rose to 40. Mr Wales and the master made
some observations of the moon and stars, which satisfied us, that, when our
latitude was 59 deg. 44', our longitude was 121 deg. 9'. At three o'clock in the
afternoon, the calm was succeeded by a breeze at S.E. The sky, at the same
time, was suddenly obscured, and seemed to presage an approaching storm,
which accordingly happened. For, in the evening, the wind shifted to south,
blew in squalls, attended with sleet and rain, and a prodigious high sea.
Having nothing to take care of but ourselves, we kept two or three points
from the wind, and run at a good rate to the E.N.E. under our two courses,
and close-reefed topsails.

The gale continued till the evening of the 10th. Then it abated; the wind
shifted to the westward; and we had fair weather, and but little wind,
during the night; attended with a sharp frost. The next morning, being in
the latitude of 57 deg. 56', longitude 130 deg., the wind shifted to N.E., and blew
a fresh gale, with which we stood S.E., having frequent showers of snow and
sleet, and a long hollow swell from S.S.E. and S.E. by S. This swell did
not go down till two days after the wind which raised it had not only
ceased to blow, but had shifted, and blown fresh at opposite points, good
part of the time. Whoever attentively considers this, must conclude, that
there can be no land to the south, but what must be at a great distance.

Notwithstanding so little was to be expected in that quarter, we continued
to stand to the south till three o'clock in the morning of the 12th, when
we were stopped by a calm; being then in the latitude of 58 deg. 56' S.,
longitude 131 deg. 26' E. After a few hours calm, a breeze sprung up at west,
with which we steered east. The S.S.E. swell having gone down, was
succeeded by another from N.W. by W. The weather continued mild all this
day, and the mercury rose to 39-1/2. In the evening it fell calm, and
continued so till three o'clock in the morning of the 13th, when we got the
wind at E. and S.E., a fresh breeze attended with snow and sleet. In the
afternoon it became fair, and the wind veered round to the S. and S.S.W. In
the evening, being in the latitude of 58 deg. 59', longitude 134 deg., the weather
was so clear in the horizon, that we could see many leagues round us. We
had but little wind during the night, some showers of snow, and a very
sharp frost. As the day broke, the wind freshened at S.E. and S.S.E.; and
soon after, the sky cleared up, and the weather became clear and serene;
but the air continued cold, and the mercury in the thermometer rose only
one degree above the freezing point.

The clear weather gave Mr Wales an opportunity to get some observations of
the sun and moon. Their results reduced to noon, when the latitude was 58 deg.
22' S., gave us 136 deg. 22' E. longitude. Mr Kendal's watch at the same time
gave 134 deg. 42'; and that of Mr Arnold the same. This was the first and only
time they pointed out the same longitude since we left England. The
greatest difference, however, between them, since we left the Cape, had not
much exceeded two degrees.

The moderate, and I might almost say, pleasant weather, we had, at times,
for the last two or three days, made me wish I had been a few degrees of
latitude farther south; and even tempted me to incline our course that way.
But we soon had weather which convinced us that we were full far enough;
and that the time was approaching, when these seas were not to be navigated
without enduring intense cold; which, by the bye, we were pretty well used
to. In the afternoon, the serenity of the sky was presently obscured: The
wind veered round by the S.W. to W., and blew in hard squalls, attended
with thick and heavy showers of hail and snow, which continually covered
our decks, sails, and rigging, till five o'clock in the evening of the
15th. At this time, the wind abated, and shifted to S.E.; the sky cleared
up; and the evening was so serene and clear, that we could see many leagues
round us; the horizon being the only boundary to our sight.

We were now in the latitude of 59 deg. 17' S., longitude 140 deg. 12' E., and had
such a large hollow swell from W.S.W., as assured us that we had left no
land behind us in that direction. I was also well assured that no land lay
to the south on this side 60 deg. of latitude. We had a smart frost during the
night, which was curiously illuminated with the southern lights.

At ten o'clock in the morning of the 16th, (which was as soon as the sun
appeared,) in the latitude of 58 deg. 51' S., our longitude was 144 deg. 10' E.
This good weather was, as usual, of short duration. In the afternoon of
this day, we had again thick snow showers; but, at intervals, it was
tolerably clear; and, in the evening being in the latitude of 58 deg. 58' S.,
longitude 144 deg. 37' E., I found the variation by several azimuths to be 31'

I was not a little pleased with being able to determine, with so much
precision, this point of the Line, in which the compass has no variation.
For I look upon half a degree as next to nothing; so that the intersection
of the latitude and longitude just mentioned, may be reckoned the point
without any sensible error. At any rate, the Line can only pass a very
small matter west of it.

I continued to steer to the east, inclining to the south, with a fresh gale
at S.W., till five o'clock the next morning, when, being in the latitude of
59 deg. 7' S., longitude 146 deg. 53' E., I bore away N.E., and, at noon, north,
having come to a resolution to quit the high southern latitudes, and to
proceed to New Zealand to look for the Adventure, and to refresh my people.
I had also some thoughts, and even a desire to visit the east coast of Van
Diemen's Land, in order to satisfy myself if it joined the coast of New
South Wales.

In the night of the 17th, the wind shifted to N.W., and blew in squalls,
attended with thick hazy weather and rain. This continued all the 18th, in
the evening of which day, being in the latitude of 56 deg. 15' S., longitude
150 deg., the sky cleared up, and we found the variation by several azimuths to
be 13 deg. 30' E. Soon after, we hauled up, with the log, a piece of rock-weed,
which was in a state of decay, and covered with barnacles. In the night the
southern lights were very bright.

The next morning we saw a seal; and towards noon, some penguins, and more
rock-weed, being at this time in the latitude of 55 deg. 1', longitude 152 deg. 1'
E. In the latitude of 54 deg. 4', we also saw a Port Egmont hen, and some weed.
Navigators have generally looked upon all these to be certain signs of the
vicinity of land; I cannot, however, support this opinion. At this time we
knew of no land, nor is it even probable that there is any, nearer than New
Holland, or Van Diemen's Land, from which we were distant 260 leagues. We
had, at the same time, several porpoises playing about us; into one of
which Mr Cooper struck a harpoon; but as the ship was running seven knots,
it broke its hold, after towing it some minutes, and before we could deaden
the ship's way.

As the wind, which continued between the north and the west, would not
permit me to touch at Van Diemen's Land, I shaped my course to New Zealand;
and, being under no apprehensions of meeting with any danger, I was not
backward in carrying sail, as well by night as day, having the advantage of
a very strong gale, which was attended with hazy rainy weather, and a very
large swell from the W. and W.S.W. We continued to meet with, now and then,
a seal, Port Egmont hens, and sea-weed.

On the morning of the 22d, the wind shifted to south, and brought with it
fair weather. At noon, we found ourselves in the latitude of 49 deg. 55',
longitude 159 deg. 28', having a very large swell out of the S.W. For the three
days past, the mercury in the thermometer had risen to 46, and the weather
was quite mild. Seven or eight degrees of latitude had made a surprising
difference in the temperature of the air, which we felt with an agreeable

We continued to advance to the N.E. at a good rate, having a brisk gale
between the S. and E.; meeting with seals, Port Egmont hens, egg birds,
sea-weed, &c. and having constantly a very large swell from the S.W. At ten
o'clock in the morning of the 25th, the land of New Zealand was seen from
the mast-head; and at noon, from the deck; extending from N.E. by E. to E.,
distant ten leagues. As I intended to put into Dusky Bay, or any other port
I could find, on the southern part of _Tavai Poenammoo_, we steered in
for the land, under all the sail we could carry, having the advantage of a
fresh gale at W., and tolerably clear weather. This last was not of long
duration; for, at half an hour after four o'clock, the land, which was not
above four miles distant, was in a manner wholly obscured in a thick haze.
At this time, we were before the entrance of a bay, which I had mistaken
for Dusky Bay, being deceived by some islands that lay in the mouth of it.

Fearing to run, in thick weather, into a place to which we were all
strangers, and seeing some breakers and broken ground a-head, I tacked in
twenty-five fathom water, and stood out to sea with the wind at N.W. This
bay lies on the S.E. side of Cape West, and may be known by a white cliff
on one of the isles which lies in the entrance of the bay. This part of the
coast I did not see, but at a great distance, in my former voyage; and we
now saw it under so many disadvantageous circumstances, that the less I say
about it, the fewer mistakes I shall make. We stood out to sea, under
close-reefed top-sails and courses, till eleven o'clock at night; when we
wore and stood to the northward, having a very high and irregular sea. At
five o'clock next morning, the gale abated, and we bore up for the land; at
eight o'clock, the West Cape bore E. by N. 1/2 N., for which we steered,
and entered Dusky Bay about noon. In the entrance of it, we found 44
fathoms water, a sandy bottom, the West Cape bearing S.S.E., and Five
Fingers Point, or the north point of the bay, north. Here we had a great
swell rolling in from the S.W. The depth of water decreased to 40 fathoms,
afterwards we had no ground with 60. We were, however, too far advanced to
return; and therefore stood on, not doubting but that we should find
anchorage. For in this bay we were all strangers; in my former voyage,
having done no more than discover and name it.

After running about two leagues up the bay, and passing several of the
isles which lay in it, I brought-to, and hoisted out two boats; one of
which I sent away with an officer round a point on the larboard hand to
look for anchorage. This he found, and signified the same by signal. We
then followed with the ship, and anchored in 50 fathoms water, so near the
shore as to reach it with an hawser. This was on Friday the 26th of March,
at three in the afternoon, after having been 117 days at sea; in which time
we had sailed 3600 leagues, without having once sight of land.

After such a long continuance at sea, in a high southern latitude, it is
but reasonable to think that many of my people must be ill of the scurvy.
The contrary, however, happened. Mention hath already been made of sweet
wort being given to such as were scorbutic. This had so far the desired
effect, that we had only one man on board that could be called very ill of
this disease; occasioned chiefly, by a bad habit of body, and a
complication of other disorders. We did not attribute the general good
state of health in the crew, wholly to the sweet wort, but to the frequent
airing and sweetening the ship by fires, &c. We must also allow portable
broth, and sour krout, to have had some share in it. This last can never be
enough recommended.

My first care, after the ship was moored, was to send a boat and people a-
fishing; in the mean time, some of the gentlemen killed a seal, (out of
many that were upon a rock,) which made us a fresh meal.

[1] "The two time-keepers being put on each side of the great cabin, I
put a thermometer by each, and before a fire was kept in the cabin, I
never saw them differ more than half a degree; but since there has
been a fire, I have constantly found that thermometer highest, which
happened to be on the weather-side, sometimes by three degrees,
whereas one would naturally have expected it to have been just the

The rapidity of the current of moist air would be no doubt greater on
the other side, and therefore, as moisture occasions cold, would lower
the thermometer on that side. On the weather-side, on the contrary,
the air would be less quickly changed, and of course preserve greater
uniformity of temperature. This explanation, however, depends on a
certain supposition as to the form of the cabin, and its kind of
communication with the external air.--E.

[2] "The natural state of the heavens, except in the south-east
quarter, and for about ten degrees of altitude all round the horizon,
was a whitish haze, through which stars of the third magnitude were
just discernible. All round, the horizon was covered with thick
clouds, out of which arose many streams of a pale reddish light, that
ascended towards the zenith. These streams had not that motion which
they are sometimes seen to have in England; but were perfectly steady,
except a small tremulous motion which some of them had near their

"19th.--In the night the southern lights were very bright at times,
and the colours much more various and vivid than they were on
Wednesday night, their motion also was greater, so that on the whole
they were extremely beautiful.

"20th.--At nine o'clock in the evening, the southern light sprung up
very bright about the east point of the horizon, in a single steady
pillar, of a pale reddish light. Its direction was not directly towards
the zenith, but gradually deflected towards the south, and grew
fainter as it ascended, so as to vanish about south-east, and at
forty-five degrees of altitude.

"15th March.--The southern lights very bright at times, and exceeding
beautiful; their colours being vivid, and their motion quick and

"18th.--A little after nine o'clock in the evening it was very clear,
and the southern lights were exceeding bright and beautiful, and
appeared of a semi-circular or rainbow-like form, whose two
extremities were nearly in the east and west points of the horizon.
This bow, when it first made its appearance, passed a considerable way
to the north of the zenith; but rose by degrees, turning, as it were,
on its diameter, and passing through the zenith, settled at length
towards the southern horizon. These lights were at one time so bright,
that we could discern our shadows on the deck."--W.

It was thought proper to bring together all these similar remarks of
so accurate and faithful an observer. There is reason to believe that
the southern lights had never been seen by any navigator before this
voyage of Cook's.--E.

[3] "The shapes of these large frozen masses, were frequently
singularly ruinous, and so far picturesque enough; among them we
passed one of a great size, with a hollow in the middle, resembling a
grotto or cavern, which was pierced through, and admitted the light
from the other side. Some had the appearance of a spire or steeple;
and many others gave full scope to our imagination, which compared
them to several known objects, by that means attempting to overcome
the tediousness of our cruise, which the sight of birds, porpoises,
seals, and whales, now too familiar to our eyes, could not prevent
from falling heavily upon us."--G.F.

[4] "One island of ice, which we passed in the afternoon, was near a
mile and a half long, and very high. It was calm most part of the
night, so that we found ourselves very near it in the morning, but
observed that several very large pieces had broke off from it. Many
great reports, like thunder, were heard in the night, which I conceive
were occasioned by these pieces breaking off."--W.


_Transactions in Dusky Bay, with an Account of several Interviews with
the Inhabitants._

As I did not like the place we had anchored in, I sent Lieutenant
Pickersgill over to the S.E. side of the bay, to search for a better; and I
went myself to the other side, for the same purpose, where I met with an
exceedingly snug harbour, but nothing else worthy of notice. Mr Pickersgill
reported, upon his return, that he had found a good harbour, with every
conveniency. As I liked the situation of this, better than the other of my
own finding, I determined to go there in the morning. The fishing-boat was
very successful; returning with fish sufficient for all hands for supper;
and, in a few hours in the morning, caught as many as served for dinner.
This gave us certain hopes of being plentifully supplied with this article.
Nor did the shores and woods appear less destitute of wild fowl; so that we
hoped to enjoy with ease, what, in our situation, might be called the
luxuries of life. This determined me to stay some time in this bay, in
order to examine it thoroughly; as no one had ever landed before, on any of
the southern parts of this country.

On the 27th, at nine o'clock in the morning, we got under sail with a light
breeze at S.W., and working over to Pickersgill harbour, entered it by a
channel scarcely twice the width of the ship; and in a small creek, moored
head and stern, so near the shore as to reach it with a brow or stage,
which nature had in a manner prepared for us in a large tree, whose end or
top reached our gunwale. Wood, for fuel and other purposes, was here so
convenient, that our yards were locked in the branches of the trees; and,
about 100 yards from our stern, was a fine stream of freshwater. Thus
situated, we began to clear places in the woods, in order to set up the
astronomer's observatory, the forge to repair our iron-work, tents for the
sail-makers and coopers to repair the sails and casks in; to land our empty
casks, to fill water, and to cut down wood for fuel; all of which were
absolutely necessary occupations. We also began to brew beer from the
branches or leaves of a tree, which much resembles the American black-
spruce. From the knowledge I had of this tree, and the similarity it bore
to the spruce, I judged that, with the addition of inspissated juice of
wort and molasses, it would make a very wholesome beer, and supply the want
of vegetables, which this place did not afford; and the event proved that I
was not mistaken.

Now I have mentioned the inspissated juice of wort, it will not be amiss,
in this place, to inform the reader, that I had made several trials of it
since I left the Cape of Good Hope, and found it to answer in a cold
climate, beyond all expectation. The juice, diluted in warm water, in the
proportion of twelve parts water to one part juice, made a very good and
well-tasted small-beer. Some juice which I had of Mr Pelham's own
preparing, would bear sixteen parts water. By making use of warm-water,
(which I think ought always to be done,) and keeping it in a warm place, if
the weather be cold, no difficulty will be found in fermenting it. A little
grounds of either small or strong-beer, will answer as well as yeast.

The few sheep and goats we had left were not likely to fare quite so well
as ourselves; there being no grass here, but what was coarse and harsh. It
was, however not so bad, but that we expected they would devour it with
great greediness, and were the more surprised to find that they would not
taste it; nor did they seem over-fond of the leaves of more tender plants.
Upon examination, we found their teeth loose; and that many of them had
every other symptom of an inveterate sea-scurvy. Out of four ewes and two
rams which I brought from the Cape, with an intent to put ashore in this
country, I had only been able to preserve one of each; and even these were
in so bad a state, that it was doubtful if they could recover,
notwithstanding all the care possible had been taken of them.

Some of the officers, on the 28th, went up the bay in a small boat on a
shooting party; but, discovering inhabitants, they returned before noon, to
acquaint me therewith; for hitherto we had not seen the least vestige of
any. They had but just got aboard, when a canoe appeared off a point about
a mile from us, and soon after, returned behind the point out of sight,
probably owing to a shower of rain which then fell; for it was no sooner
over, than the canoe again appeared, and came within musket-shot of the
ship. There were in it seven or eight people. They remained looking at us
for some time, and then returned; all the signs of friendship we could make
did not prevail on them to come nearer. After dinner I took two boats and
went in search of them, in the cove where they were first seen, accompanied
by several of the officers and gentlemen. We found the canoe (at least
a-canoe) hauled upon the shore near to two small huts, where were several
fire-places, some fishing-nets, a few fish lying on the shore, and some in
the canoe. But we saw no people; they probably had retired into the woods.
After a short stay, and leaving in the canoe some medals, looking-glasses,
beads, &c. we embarked and rowed to the head of the cove, where we found
nothing remarkable. In turning back we put ashore at the same place as
before; but still saw no people. However, they could not be far off, as we
smelled the smoke of fire, though we did not see it. But I did not care to
search farther, or to force an interview which they seemed to avoid; well
knowing that the way to obtain this, was to leave the time and place to
themselves. It did not appear that any thing I had left had been touched;
however, I now added a hatchet, and, with the night, returned on board.

On the 29th, were showers till the afternoon; when a party of the officers
made an excursion up the bay; and Mr Forster and his party were out
botanizing. Both parties returned in the evening without meeting with any
thing worthy of notice; and the two following days, every one was confined
to the ship on account of rainy stormy weather.

In the afternoon of the 1st of April, accompanied by several of the
gentlemen, I went to see if any of the articles I had left for the Indians
were taken away. We found every thing remaining in the canoe; nor did it
appear that any body had been there since. After shooting some birds, one
of which was a duck, with a blue-grey plumage and soft bill, we, in the
evening, returned on board.

The 2d, being a pleasant morning, Lieutenants Clerke and Edgecumbe, and the
two Mr Forsters, went in a boat up the bay to search for the productions of
nature; and myself, Lieutenant Pickersgill, and Mr Hodges, went to take a
view of the N.W. side. In our way, we touched at the seal-rock, and killed
three seals, one of which afforded us much sport. After passing several
isles, we at length came to the most northern and western arms of the bay;
the same as is formed by the land of Five Fingers Point. In the bottom of
this arm or cove, we found many ducks, wood-hens, and other wild fowl, some
of which we killed, and returned on board at ten o'clock in the evening;
where the other party had arrived several hours before us, after having had
but indifferent sport. They took with them a black dog we had got at the
Cape, who, at the first musket they fired, ran into the woods, from whence
he would not return. The three following days were rainy; so that no
excursions were made.

Early in the morning on the 6th, a shooting party, made up of the officers,
went to Goose Cove, the place where I was the 2d; and myself, accompanied
by the two Mr Forsters, and Mr Hodges, set out to continue the survey of
the bay. My attention was directed to the north side, where I discovered a
fine capacious cove, in the bottom of which is a fresh-water river; on the
west side several beautiful small cascades; and the shores are so steep
that a ship might lie near enough to convey the water into her by a hose.
In this cove we shot fourteen ducks, besides other birds, which occasioned
my calling it Duck Cove.

As we returned in the evening, we had a short interview with three of the
natives, one man and two women. They were the first that discovered
themselves on the N.E. point of Indian Island, named so on this occasion.
We should have passed without seeing them, had not the man hallooed to us.
He stood with his club in his hand upon the point of a rock, and behind
him, at the skirts of the wood, stood the two women, with each of them a
spear. The man could not help discovering great signs of fear when we
approached the rock with our boat. He however stood firm; nor did he move
to take up some things we threw him ashore. At length I landed, went up and
embraced him; and presented him with such articles as I had about me, which
at once dissipated his fears. Presently after, we were joined by the two
women, the gentlemen that were with me, and some of the seamen. After this,
we spent about half an hour in chit-chat, little understood on either side,
in which the youngest of the two women bore by far the greatest share. This
occasioned one of the seamen to say, that women did not want tongue in any
part of the world. We presented them with fish and fowl which we had in our
boat; but these they threw into the boat again, giving us to understand
that such things they wanted not. Night approaching, obliged us to take
leave of them; when the youngest of the two women, whose volubility of
tongue exceeded every thing I ever met with, gave us a dance; but the man
viewed us with great attention. Some hours after we got on board, the other
party returned, having had but indifferent sport.

Next morning, I made the natives another visit, accompanied by Mr Forster
and Mr Hodges, carrying with me various articles which I presented them
with, and which they received with a great deal of indifference, except
hatchets and spike-nails; these they most esteemed. This interview was at
the same place as last night; and now we saw the whole family, it consisted
of the man, his two wives (as we supposed), the young woman before
mentioned, a boy about fourteen years old, and three small children, the
youngest of which was at the breast. They were all well-looking, except one
woman, who had a large wen on her upper-lip, which made her disagreeable;
and she seemed, on that account, to be in a great measure neglected by the
man. They conducted us to their habitation, which was but a little way
within the skirts of the wood, and consisted of two mean huts made of the
bark of trees. Their canoe, which was a small double one, just large enough
to transport the whole family from place to place, lay in a small creek
near the huts. During our stay, Mr Hodges made drawings of most of them;
this occasioned them to give him the name of _Toe-toe_, which word, we
suppose signifies marking or painting. When we took leave, the chief
presented me with a piece of cloth or garment of their own manufacturing,
and some other trifles. I at first thought it was meant as a return for the
presents I had made him; but he soon undeceived me, by expressing a desire
for one of our boat cloaks. I took the hint, and ordered one to be made for
him of red baise, as soon as I got aboard; where rainy weather detained me
the following day.

The 9th, being fair weather, we paid the natives another visit, and made
known our approach by hallooing to them; but they neither answered us, nor
met us at the shore as usual. The reason of this we soon saw; for we found
them at their habitations, all dressed and dressing, in their very best,
with their hair combed and oiled, tied up upon the crowns of their heads,
and stuck with white feathers. Some wore a fillet of feathers round their
heads; and all of them had bunches of white feathers stuck in their ears:
Thus dressed, and all standing, they received us with great courtesy. I
presented the chief with the cloak I had got made for him, with which he
seemed so well pleased, that he took his pattapattou from his girdle and
gave it me. After a short stay, we took leave; and having spent the
remainder of the day in continuing my survey of the bay, with the night
returned on board.

Very heavy rains falling on the two following days, no work was done; but
the 12th proved clear and serene, and afforded us an opportunity to dry our
sails and linen; two things very much wanted; not having had fair weather
enough for this purpose since we put into this bay. Mr Forster and his
party also profited by the day in botanizing.

About ten o'clock, the family of the natives paid us a visit. Seeing that
they approached the ship with great caution, I met them in a boat, which I
quitted when I got to them, and went into their canoe. Yet, after all, I
could not prevail on them to put along-side the ship, and at last was
obliged to leave them to follow their own inclination. At length they put
ashore in a little creek hard by us; and afterwards came and sat down on
the shore a-breast of the ship, near enough to speak with us. I now caused
the bagpipes and fife to play, and the drum to beat. The two first they did
not regard; but the latter caused some little attention in them; nothing
however could induce them to come on board. But they entered, with great
familiarity, into conversation (little understood) with such of the
officers and seamen as went to them, paying much greater regard to some
than to others; and these, we had reason to believe, they took for women.
To one man in particular, the young woman shewed an extraordinary fondness
until she discovered his sex, after which she would not suffer him to come
near her. Whether it was that she before took him for one of her own sex,
or that the man, in order to discover himself, had taken some liberties
with her which she thus resented, I know not.

In the afternoon, I took Mr Hodges to a large cascade, which falls from a
high mountain on the south side of the bay, about a league above the place
where we lay. He made a drawing of it on paper, and afterwards painted it
in oil colours; which exhibits, at once, a better description of it than
any I can give. Huge heaps of stones lay at the foot of this cascade, which
had been broken off and brought by the stream from the adjacent mountains.
These stones were of different sorts; none however, according to Mr
Forster's opinion, (whom I believe to be a judge,) containing either
minerals or metals. Nevertheless, I brought away specimens of every sort,
as the whole country, that is, the rocky part of it, seemed to consist of
those stones and no other. This cascade is at the east point of a cove,
lying in S.W. two miles, which I named Cascade Cove. In it is good
anchorage and other necessaries. At the entrance, lies an island, on each
side of which is a passage; that on the east side is much the widest. A
little above the isle, and near the S.E. shore, are two rocks which are
covered at high water. It was in this cove we first saw the natives.

When I returned aboard in the evening, I found our friends, the natives,
had taken up their quarters at about a hundred yards from our watering-
place; a very great mark of the confidence they placed in us. This evening
a shooting party of the officers went over to the north side of the bay,
having with them the small cutter to convey them from place to place.

Next morning, accompanied by Mr Forster, I went in the pinnace to survey
the isles and rocks which lie in the mouth of the bay. I began first with
those which lie on the S.E. side of Anchor Isle. I found here a very snug
cove sheltered from all winds, which we called Luncheon Cove, because here
we dined on cray fish, on the side of a pleasant brook, shaded by the trees
from both wind and sun. After dinner we proceeded, by rowing, out to the
outermost isles, where we saw many seals, fourteen of which we killed and
brought away with us; and might have got many more, if the surf had
permitted us to land with safety on all the rocks. The next morning, I went
out again to continue the survey, accompanied by Mr Forster. I intended to
have landed again on the Seal Isles; but there ran such a high sea that I
could not come near them. With some difficulty we rowed out to sea, and
round the S.W. point of Anchor Isle. It happened very fortunately that
chance directed me to take this course, in which we found the sportsmen's
boat adrift, and laid hold of her the very moment she would have been
dashed against the rocks. I was not long at a loss to guess how she came
there, nor was I under any apprehensions for the gentlemen that had been in
her; and after refreshing ourselves with such as we had to eat and drink,
and securing the boat in a small creek, we proceeded to the place where we
supposed them to be. This we reached about seven or eight o'clock in the
evening, and found them upon a small isle in Goose Cove, where, as it was
low water, we could not come with our boat until the return of the tide. As
this did not happen till three o'clock in the morning, we landed on a naked
beach, not knowing where to find a better place, and, after some time,
having got a fire and broiled some fish, we made a hearty supper, having
for sauce a good appetite. This done, we lay down to sleep, having a stony
beach for a bed, and the canopy of heaven for a covering. At length the
tide permitted us to take off the sportsmen; and with them we embarked, and
proceeded for the place where we had left their boat, which, we soon
reached, having a fresh breeze of wind in our favour, attended with rain.
When we came to the creek which was on the N.W. side of Anchor Isle, we
found there an immense number of blue peterels, some on the wing, others in
the woods in holes in the ground, under the roots of trees and in the
crevices of rocks, where there was no getting them, and where we supposed
their young were deposited. As not one was to be seen in the day, the old
ones were probably, at that time, out at sea searching for food, which in
the evening they bring to their young. The noise they made was like the
croaking of many frogs. They were, I believe, of the broad-bill kind,
which, are not so commonly seen at sea as the others. Here, however, they
are in great numbers, and flying much about in the night, some of our
gentlemen at first took them for bats. After restoring the sportsmen to
their boat, we all proceeded for the ship, which we reached by seven
o'clock in the morning, not a little fatigued with our expedition. I now
learned that our friends the natives returned to their habitation at night;
probably foreseeing that rain was at hand; which sort of weather continued
the whole of this day.

On the morning of the 15th, the weather having cleared up and become fair,
I set out with two boats to continue the survey of the N.W. side of the
bay, accompanied by the two Mr Forsters and several of the officers, whom I
detached in one boat to Goose Cove, where we intended to lodge the night,
while I proceeded in the other, examining the harbours and isles which lay
in my way. In the doing of this, I picked up about a score of wild fowl,
and caught fish sufficient to serve the whole party; and reaching the place
of rendezvous a little before dark, I found all the gentlemen out duck-
shooting. They however soon returned, not overloaded with game. By this
time, the cooks had done their parts, in which little art was required; and
after a hearty repast, on what the day had produced, we lay down to rest;
but took care to rise early the next morning, in order to have the other
bout among the ducks, before we left the cove.

Accordingly, at day-light, we prepared for the attack. Those who had
reconnoitred the place before, chose their stations accordingly; whilst
myself and another remained in the boat, and rowed to the head of the cove
to start the game, which we did so effectually, that, out of some scores of
ducks, we only detained one to ourselves, sending all the rest down to
those stationed below. After this I landed at the head of the cove, and
walked across the narrow isthmus that disjoins it from the sea, or rather
from another cove which runs in from the sea about one mile, and lies open
to the north winds. It, however, had all the appearance of a good harbour
and safe anchorage. At the head is a fine sandy beach, where I found an
immense number of wood hens, and brought away ten couple of them, which
recompensed me for the trouble of crossing the isthmus, through the wet
woods, up to the middle in water. About nine o'clock we all got collected
together, when the success of everyone was known, which was by no means
answerable to our expectations. The morning, indeed, was very unfavourable
for shooting, being rainy the most of the time we were out. After breakfast
we set out on our return to the ship, which we reached by seven o'clock in
the evening, with about seven dozen of wild fowl, and two seals; the most
of them shot while I was rowing about, exploring the harbours and coves
which I found in my way; every place affording something, especially to us,
to whom nothing came amiss.

It rained all the 17th, but the 18th bringing fair and clear weather, in
the evening our friends, the natives before-mentioned, paid us another
visit; and, the next morning, the chief and his daughter were induced to
come on board, while the others went out in the canoe fishing. Before they
came on board I shewed them our goats and sheep that were on shore, which
they viewed for a moment with a kind of stupid insensibility. After this I
conducted them to the brow; but before the chief set his foot upon it to
come into the ship, he took a small green branch in his hand, with which he
struck the ship's side several times, repeating a speech or prayer. When
this was over, he threw the branch into the main chains, and came on board.
This custom and manner of making peace, as it were, is practised by all the
nations in the South Seas that I have seen.

I took them both down into the cabin, where we were to breakfast. They sat
at table with us, but would not taste any of our victuals. The chief wanted
to know where we slept, and indeed to pry into every corner of the cabin,
every part of which he viewed with some surprise. But it was not possible
to fix his attention to any one thing a single moment. The works of art
appeared to him in the same light as those of nature, and were as far
removed beyond his comprehension. What seemed to strike them most was the
number and strength of our decks, and other parts of the ship. The chief,
before he came aboard, presented me with a piece of cloth and a green talc
hatchet; to Mr Forster he also gave a piece or cloth; and the girl gave
another to Mr Hodges. This custom of making presents before they receive
any, is common with the natives of the South Sea isles; but I never saw it
practised in New Zealand before. Of all the various articles I gave my
guest, hatchets and spike-nails were the most valuable in his eyes.

These he never would suffer to go out of his hands after he once laid hold
of them; whereas many other articles he would lay carelessly down any
where, and at last leave them behind him.

As soon as I could get quit of them, they were conducted into the gun-room,
where I left them, and set out with two boats to examine the head of the
bay; myself in one, accompanied by Mr Forster and Mr Hodges, and Lieutenant
Cooper in the other. We proceeded up the south side, and without meeting
with any thing remarkable, got to the head of the bay by sun-set; where we
took up our lodging for the night, at the first place we could land upon;
for the flats hindered us from getting quite to the head.

At day-light in the morning, I took two men in the small boat, and with Mr
Forster went to take a view of the flat land at the head of the bay, near
to where we spent the night. We landed on one side, and ordered the boat to
meet us on the other side; but had not been long on shore before we saw
some ducks, which, by their creeping through the bushes, we got a shot at,
and killed one. The moment we had fired, the natives, whom we had not
discovered before, set up a most hideous noise in two or three places close
by us. We hallooed in our turn; and, at the same time, retired to our boat,
which was full half a mile off. The natives kept up their clamouring noise,
but did not follow us. Indeed we found afterwards that they could not,
because of a branch of the river between us and them, nor did we find their
numbers answerable to the noise they made. As soon as we got to our boat,
and found that there was a river that would admit us, I rowed in, and was
soon after joined by Mr Cooper in the other boat. With this reinforcement I
proceeded up the river, shooting wild ducks, of which there were great
numbers; as we went along, now and then hearing the natives in the woods.
At length two appeared on the banks of the river, a man and a woman; and
the latter kept waving something white in her hand, as a sign of
friendship. Mr Cooper being near them, I called to him to land, as I wanted
to take the advantage of the tide to get as high up as possible, which did
not much exceed half a mile, when I was stopped by the strength of the
stream and great stones which lay in the bed of the river.

On my return, I found that as Mr Cooper did not land when the natives
expected him, they had retired into the woods, but two others now appeared
on the opposite bank. I endeavoured to have an interview with them, but
this I could not effect. For as I approached the shore, they always retired
farther into the woods, which were so thick as to cover them from our
sight. The falling tide obliged me to retire out of the river to the place
where we had spent the night. There we breakfasted, and afterwards
embarked, in order to return on board; but, just as we were going, we saw
two men on the opposite shore, hallooing to us, which induced me to row
over to them. I landed with two others, unarmed; the two natives standing
about 100 yards from the water-side, with each a spear in his hand. When we
three advanced, they retired; but stood when I advanced alone.

It was some little time before I could prevail upon them to lay down their
spears. This, at last, one of them did; and met me with a grass plant in
his hand, one end of which he gave me to hold, while he held the other.
Standing in this manner, he began a speech, not one word of which I
understood, and made some long pauses, waiting, as I thought, for me to
answer; for, when I spoke, he proceeded. As soon as this ceremony was over,
which was not long, we saluted each other. He then took his hahou, or coat,
from off his own back, and put it upon mine; after which peace seemed
firmly established. More people joining us did not in the least alarm them;
on the contrary, they saluted every one as he came up.

I gave to each a hatchet and a knife, having nothing else with me: Perhaps
these were the most valuable things I could give them, at least they were
the most useful. They wanted us to go to their habitation, telling us they
would give us something to eat; and I was sorry that the tide and other
circumstances would not permit me to accept of their invitation. More
people were seen in the skirts of the wood, but none of them joined us:
Probably these were their wives and children. When we took leave they
followed us to our boat; and, seeing the musquets lying across the stern,
they made signs for them to be taken away, which being done, they came
alongside, and assisted us to launch her. At this time it was necessary for
us to look well after them, for they wanted to take away every thing they
could lay their hands upon, except the muskets. These they took care not to
touch, being taught, by the slaughter they had seen us make among the wild-
fowl, to look upon them as instruments of death.

We saw no canoes or other boats with them, two or three logs of wood tied
together served the same purpose, and were indeed sufficient for the
navigation of the river, on the banks of which they lived. There fish and
fowl were in such plenty, that they had no occasion to go far for food; and
they have but few neighbours to disturb them. The whole number at this
place, I believe, does not exceed three families.

It was noon when we took leave of these two men, and proceeded down the
north side of the bay, which I explored in my way, and the isles that lie
in the middle. Night, however, overtook us, and obliged me to leave one arm
unlooked into, and hasten to the ship, which we reached by eight o'clock. I
then learnt that the man and his daughter stayed on board the day before
till noon; and that having understood from our people what things were left
in Cascade Cove, the place where they were first seen, he sent and took
them away. He and his family remained near us till today, when they all
went away, and we saw them no more; which was the more extraordinary, as he
never left us empty-handed. From one or another he did not get less than
nine or ten hatchets, three or four times that number of large spike-nails,
besides many other articles. So far as these things may be counted riches
in New Zealand, he exceeds every man there; being, at this time, possessed
of more hatchets and axes than are in the whole country besides.

In the afternoon of the 21st, I went with a party out to the isles on seal-
hunting. The surf ran so high that we could only land in one place, where
we killed ten. These animals served us for three purposes; the skins we
made use of for our rigging; the fat gave oil for our lamps; and the flesh
we eat. Their haslets are equal to that of a hog, and the flesh of some of
them eats little inferior to beef-steaks. The following day nothing worthy
of notice was done.

In the morning of the 23d, Mr Pickersgill, Mr Gilbert, and two others, went
to the Cascade Cove, in order to ascend one of the mountains, the summit of
which they reached by two o'clock in the afternoon, as we could see by the
fire they made. In the evening they returned on board, and reported that
inland, nothing was to be seen but barren mountains, with huge craggy
precipices, disjoined by valleys, or rather chasms, frightful to behold. On
the southeast side of Cape West, four miles out at sea, they discovered a
ridge of rocks, on which the waves broke very high. I believe these rocks

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