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A General History and Collection of Voyages and Travels, Vol. IV. by Robert Kerr

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captains, named Morgoveio and Gaete, while endeavouring to pass the
mountains to the relief of Cuzco, were treated in the same manner. Of all
these different detachments, scarcely one man escaped, so that those who
followed knew nothing of what happened to those who went before them. The
enemy always attacked the Spaniards while engaged in marching through some
deep and narrow valley among the mountains, occupying both ends of the
valley by strong bodies of warriors, and rolling down great stones and
masses of rock from the steep and high mountains on both sides of the
valley, destroyed our men and horses in a miserable manner, often without
fighting. In this way they at different times destroyed more than three
hundred soldiers, and made themselves masters of their arms, besides
acquiring considerable and valuable plunder in gold and jewels and silk
dresses. Not knowing the fate of the former detachments, Francisco de
Godoy was sent with a reinforcement of eighty men; but falling in with two
of those who had belonged to the detachment under Gaete, who had escaped,
he learnt from them what had happened, on which he immediately endeavoured
to retreat from the mountain passes, in which he had considerable
difficulty, as the Indians had already occupied the defiles in his rear.
He made good his retreat however, followed and harassed by the Indians for
more than twenty leagues, sometimes attacking him in the rear and at other
times in the van, and at length got safe to Lima with much difficulty.
About the same time the captain Diego de Aguero arrived at that place with
some other Spaniards, who had saved themselves from the Indians, who had
endeavoured to massacre them at their country residences.

The marquis sent Pedro de Lerma at the head of eighty cavalry to drive
away a numerous army of Peruvian warriors who had invaded the lower
country in pursuit of Aguero. Lerma fought against these troops of the
Inca a whole day, and at last forced them to take refuge in a strong place
among steep rocks, where the Spaniards surrounded them. In this battle,
Lerma lost several of his teeth, and several of his men were wounded, but
none killed. The Indians were so exceedingly crowded together among the
rocks to which they had retired, that they were unable to use their arms,
insomuch that the Spaniards might probably have put an end to the war on
this occasion, if the marquis had not sent them an order to retire. On
seeing the retreat of their enemies, the Indians returned thanks to their
gods for their escape from so great danger, and took post on a high
mountain near the city of Lima on the other side of the river, whence they
harassed the Spaniards by frequent skirmishes and attacks. The commander
of these Indians was named Tyzogopangui, who had along with him one of the
brothers of the Inca, whom the marquis had sent along with Gaete[10].
While the Peruvians remained in the neighbourhood of Lima, skirmishing
every day with the Spaniards, it often happened that the natives who were
in the service of the Spaniards, who were called _Yanacones_, went during
the day to their friends in the mountains, who gave them provisions, and
returned at night to their masters.

As he was in a manner besieged by so large a force of the enemy in Lima,
the marquis concluded that his brothers and all the other Spaniards in
Cuzco had certainly been slain, and that the insurrection was so general
that the inhabitants of Chili had likewise destroyed Almagro and his army.
In this emergency, both that his Spaniards might not expect to save
themselves by sea, and to convince the Peruvians that he had no intention
to leave the country, he sent off all his ships to Panama. At the same
time he sent notice to the Viceroy of New Spain and all the other
governors in America and the West Indies of the perilous state of affairs
in Peru, intreating them to send him assistance. In these letters, he is
said not to have shewn his usual firmness, and it is reported that this
was occasioned by the earnest solicitations of many of those around him.
He sent orders at the same time to the commandant of Truxillo to abandon
that place, and to come to his assistance with all the armed men and
horses he could collect, sending off the women and children and all their
valuable effects to the province of Tierra firma. But before the execution
of these orders, the captain Alfonso de Alvarado arrived at Truxillo with
the troops he had taken along with him for the conquest of the province of
the Chachapoyas, whence he had been recalled by orders from the marquis.
Leaving a part of his troops for the defence of Truxillo, Alvarado marched
with the rest to Lima, where the marquis appointed him lieutenant-general
of his army, in place of Don Pedro de Lerma, who had hitherto enjoyed that
office. This gave great offence to Lerma, and was the occasion of his
revolt, as shall be mentioned in the sequel.

As the marquis was now reinforced by a considerable number of troops, he
thought himself in condition to send assistance to those parts which were
in greatest danger, and detached therefore Alfonso Alvarado with three
hundred horse and foot, who pillaged several districts with very little
resistance from the Indians. But about four leagues from the city of
Pachacamac, he was violently attacked by the Indians, whom he defeated
with considerable slaughter; after which he continued his march towards
Cuzco. On this march the army of Alvarado suffered great hardships in
passing across a large extent of desert country, five hundred Indians who
attended as servants perishing of thirst; and it is said that all the
Spanish infantry must have died of thirst and fatigue, if they had not
been relieved by the activity of the cavalry in bringing them water from a
distance. After reaching the province of Jauja, Alvarado was joined by
Gomez de Tordoya with two hundred horse and foot, who had been sent after
him. His force being augmented to five hundred men by this reinforcement,
Alvarado proceeded to the bridge of _Lumichaca_, where he was surrounded
by a numerous army of hostile Indians. Having defeated these in battle, he
continued his march to the bridge of Abancay[11], continually harassed by
the Indians. At that place he learned that Ferdinand and Gonzalo Pizarro
had been imprisoned by Almagro, who had taken possession of Cuzco; on
which he resolved to halt where he then was till he might receive precise
orders from the marquis for his farther proceedings.

When Almagro was informed of the arrival of Alfonso Alvarado at Abancay,
he sent Diego Alvarado to wait upon him, attended by seven or eight
horsemen, with orders to notify his commission as governor in these parts.
Alfonso, after examining the commission, declared that he did not consider
himself competent to decide upon an affair of such high importance, and
that the documents ought to be communicated to the marquis. Almagro had
come part of the way from Cuzco towards the camp of Alvarado, where he
waited the return of his messenger; and not seeing him at the time he
expected, he became afraid that Alvarado had detained him and might
advance to Cuzco by another road. He returned therefore to Cuzco in all
haste to provide for his defence. Learning the discontent of Lerma, on
account of having been superseded in the command of the army by the
marquis, and that he was disposed to come over to his side with eighty men,
Almagro marched out from Cuzco with his troops a fortnight afterwards, and
advanced towards the army of Alfonso Alvarado. While on the march, the
advanced guard belonging to Almagro, by means of an ambush, made Pedro
Alvarez Holguin prisoner, who had been sent out on discovery by Alvarado.
On learning this circumstance, Alvarado meant to have arrested Pedro de
Lerma, as he entertained suspicions that he was in correspondence with
Almagro; but Lerma had previously escaped to the enemy, carrying along
with him the signatures of all those who had joined him in the plot for
deserting to Almagro.

After the junction of Lerma, Almagro approached during the night to the
bridge of Abancay with one part of his army, where he knew that Gomez de
Tordoya and a son of Colonel Vilalva waited for him; and he detached at
the same time a large body of his troops to a ford of the river, where
those who had conspired in his favour along with Lerma had the guard. By
these men the troops of Almagro were received as friends, so that they
passed the river without opposition. Some of these conspirators contrived
during the night to throw above fifty lances belonging to the cavalry of
Alvarado into the river. Owing to all these circumstances, when Alvarado
proposed next morning to have attacked the enemy, he found himself
abandoned by the conspirators; and a considerable number of his own troops,
not being able to find their arms, did not come up in time for the attack.
By these means Almagro got an easy and bloodless victory, not a single
Spaniard being killed on either side, Rodrigo Orgognez only losing several
of his teeth by a stone thrown from a sling[12]. After the capture of
Alfonso Alvarado, the Almagrians pillaged his camp, and carried all the
adherents of Pizarro as prisoners to Cuzco, where they were harshly
treated. In consequence of this victory the partizans of Almagro were so
much elated, that they used to say the Pizarros might now retire from Peru
to govern the Mangroves under the equator.

In consequence of the victories which Alvarado had gained over the Indians
at Pachacamac and Lumichaca, as already mentioned, the Inca and Titu
Yupanqui were obliged to retire from before Lima, which they had in a
manner blockaded. By this circumstance the marquis found himself at
liberty to act in support of his interest at Cuzco; and having received
considerable reinforcements from various parts, he began his march for
Cuzco at the head of more than seven hundred men, horse and foot. In this
expedition, his only purpose was to succour his brothers against the
Peruvians, as he had not hitherto received information of the return of
Almagro from Chili, or any of those other events which had taken place, as
before related. Most of the troops by which the marquis was lately joined,
were sent by Don Alonso de Fuenmayor, archbishop and president of
Hispaniola, under the command of his brother Don Diego de Fuenmayor.
Besides these, Gaspar de Espinosa had brought some troops from Panama, and
Diego de Avala had brought others from Nicaragua. With this army the
marquis set out from Lima for Cuzco, taking the way of the plain, and
arrived in the province of Nasca, about twenty-five leagues from Lima[13].
At this place he received intelligence of the return of Almagro, the death
of one of his brothers and imprisonment of the other two, the defection of
Lerma, and the capture of Alvarado. He was sensibly affected by this
afflicting news; and considering that his troops were only prepared for
contending against Indians, he thought proper to return immediately to
Lima to take proper measures under the present emergency of his affairs.

Soon after his return to Lima, the marquis sent the licentiate Espinosa to
endeavour to bring about an accommodation with Almagro. Espinosa was
directed to represent to Almagro, that if his majesty were informed of the
disputes between them, and the evil consequences of these upon the
condition of the colony, he would assuredly recal both, and send some
other person to assume the government of Peru, who would reap the rich
fruit of their joint labours. If Almagro refused to listen to these
remonstrances, and to enter into a friendly accommodation, Espinosa was
instructed to request that he would set the brothers of Pizarro at liberty,
and would remain at Cuzco without attempting any farther hostilities,
untill they had laid a statement of their differences before his majesty,
and had received his final orders respecting the boundaries between their
governments. Espinosa was unable to persuade Almagro to agree to any
accommodation, and soon afterwards died. Leaving Gabriel de Roias as his
lieutenant in Cuzco, with the charge of Gonzalo Pizarro and Alonso de
Alvarado, Almagro descended into the plain with a considerable force,
carrying Ferdinand Pizarro along with him. He penetrated into the province
of Chancay, which is only twenty leagues from Lima, where he even
established a colony or garrison, in a place which was without any manner
of doubt within the province of the marquis.

On the return of the marquis to Lima, he made additional levies of troops;
giving out openly that he was reduced to take up arms against Almagro, who
had invaded his government. In a few days he assembled an army of seven
hundred men, among whom was a considerable body of musqueteers, which had
been brought from Flanders with the necessary arms and ammunition by Pedro
de Vergera, along with the troops of Diego de Fuenmayor. Hitherto there
had not been a sufficient number of musquets in Peru to form entire
companies of that species of troops; but on the present occasion the
marquis was enabled to arm two companies with that powerful weapon, one of
which was commanded by the before named Pedro de Vergera, who had been
formerly sent to discover the province of Bracamoras. Nugno de Castro was
appointed captain of the other company of musqueteers. Diego de Urbina,
nephew of the maestre de campo Juan de Urhina, was made captain of the
pikemen. Diego de Roias, Peranzures, and Alfonso de Mercadillo, were
appointed captains of horse: Pedro de Valdivia maestre de campo, and
Antonio de Vilalva sergeant-major, who was son of Colonel Vilalva.

About this time, Alonso de Alvarado and Gonzalo Pizarro, who remained
prisoners in Cuzco[14], made their escape from prison, and joined the
marquis with above seventy men whom they had persuaded to accompany them,
bringing likewise along with them as prisoner Gabriel de Roias the
lieutenant of Almagro. The arrival of these officers gave much
satisfaction to the marquis, both on account of their escape from danger,
and because the reinforcement they brought along with them gave great
encouragement to his troops. He appointed his brother Gonzalo
lieutenant-general of his army, and Alonso Alvarado maestre de campo, or
major-general of the cavalry. When Almagro learnt that his prisoners had
escaped, and the numerous forces which the marquis had procured, he became
desirous of an accommodation, for which purpose he sent Alfonso Enriquez,
Diego Nugnez de Mercadura the factor, and Juan de Guzman treasurer, to the
marquis to desire an interview, at which they might regulate every thing
that was in dispute between them. After several messages and proposals,
the marquis proposed to refer the whole matter to the umpirage of
Francisco de Bovadilla, provincial of the order of Mercy, to which Almagro

In virtue of the powers given to him by both parties, Bovadilla ordained
that Ferdinand Pizarro should be set at liberty; that Cuzco should be
restored to the marquis; that both armies should be disbanded, and the
different companies sent in various directions to discover and conquer the
country; and that finally the whole dispute about the boundaries of the
two governments should be referred to the decision of his majesty.
Bovadilla likewise persuaded Almagro and Pizarro to have an interview in
the village of Mala[15], mid-way between the two armies, at which they
might discuss the terms of an entire reconcilement, each to be attended by
twelve horsemen. They accordingly set out for that place from their
respective camps; but as Gonzalo Pizarro did not give implicit confidence
to the promise of Almagro, he followed his brother with the whole army,
which he secretly posted in the neighbourhood of Mala, placing Castro with
forty musketeers in ambush among some reeds near the road by which Almagro
had to pass, and directing him, in case Almagro was accompanied by a
larger force than was agreed on, to give notice by a discharge of musketry,
that Gonzalo might hasten to the defence of the marquis.

Before leaving Chincha on his way to the interview with Pizarro, Almagro
left orders with his lieutenant-general, Rodrigo Orgognez, to keep
vigilant guard againt the machinations of the enemy, in case the marquis
should bring a greater escort than was agreed upon, that he might send him
prompt assistance; and if any treason were practised against him, that
Ferdinand Pizarro should be considered as an hostage for his safety. On
their meeting, the marquis and Almagro embraced each other with much
apparent cordiality; but after a short discourse, in which no part of
their difference was alluded to, one of the horsemen who accompanied the
marquis, whispered to Almagro that he was in danger, and advised him to
retire without delay, as Gonzalo Pizarro had placed an ambush to intercept
him. Almagro immediately called for his horse; and several of the
attendants on Pizarro, seeing Almagro about to retire, endeavoured to
persuade the marquis to have him arrested, which could easily have been
done by means of the musqueteers under De Castro. To this the marquis
would by no means consent, being resolved to keep his promise inviolate,
and would not believe that Almagro meant to go away without coming to some
conclusion on the subject of their meeting. Almagro however went away; and
as he saw the ambush on his way back, he was convinced that treachery was
intended against him, and made loud complaints of the conduct of the
marquis after his return to Chincha. Yet, by the intercession of Diego de
Alvarado, Almagro set Ferdinand Pizarro at liberty, on condition that the
marquis should provide him with a ship and a free port, by which he might
send dispatches to Spain and receive answers, and that they should
continue in peace until they received the final determination of the
sovereign respecting the boundaries of their governments. Rodrigo Orgognez
was exceedingly averse from this measure of liberating Ferdinand Pizarro,
who had been harshly treated while a prisoner, and who he believed would
be eager for revenge if set free, and strongly urged Almagro to put him to
death. But Almagro would not listen to his advice, and sent Ferdinand
Pizarro to the marquis, accompanied by his own son the younger Almagro and
several gentlemen. Ferdinand Pizarro was hardly set off on his return,
when Almagro began to repent that he had set him at liberty; and it is
believed he would have been remanded to prison if he had not made haste on
his journey, during which he was met by several of his brothers principal

Soon after the liberation of his brother Ferdinand, the marquis received
provisional orders from his majesty, by the hands of Pedro Anzures; by
which the two governors were commanded to retain the countries which each
of them had discovered and conquered, and in which they had formed
establishments at the time when this provisional order should be notified
to them; neither of them making any attempt to disturb the other until his
majesty should give definitive orders on the subject. Having now his
brother at liberty, the marquis sent a notification to Almagro of this
imperial order, requiring him to retire according to his majestys orders
from the country which he, Pizarro, had discovered, and in which he had
established colonies. Almagro answered, that he was ready to obey the
orders of his majesty, in keeping possession of the country and
establishments he occupied when the imperial order was notified, for which
reason he required the marquis to leave him in the peaceable enjoyment of
what he how possessed, declaring that on his part he would carefully and
entirely perform whatever should be finally commanded by his majesty. The
marquis replied, that the city of Cuzco and the adjoining territory had
been first discovered, colonized, and occupied by him, of which he had
been violently dispossessed by Almagro, that in conformity with the orders
of his majesty, therefore, it behoved Almagro to evacuate that city and
territory, or he would drive him from it by force, as all the compacts and
conventions which had been entered into between them were abrogated by
this new regulation of his majesty.

As Almagro refused to accede to these demands, the marquis marched against
him with his whole force, on which Almagro retired towards Cuzco, and
fortified himself on a high mountain named Guavtara, breaking up all the
roads to render the approach to his camp as difficult as possible.
Ferdinand Pizarro found means to ascend the mountain during the night by a
secret path, and forced the passages with his musqueteers, so that Almagro
was forced to abandon this position, seeking his safety in flight. Being
sick at the time, he went with the advanced guard, leaving Orgognez to
bring up and protect the rear. One night, Orgognez learnt by two of
Pizarros horsemen who were taken prisoners, that the enemy were close up
with his rear, on which he hastened the retreat as much as possible,
although several of his officers were anxious for him to turn back upon
the pursuers, knowing by experience that those who usually inhabited the
plain were liable, on their first coming into the mountainous region, to
sickness and vomiting, very much resembling sea-sickness. Orgognez refused
to listen to this advice, because contrary to the orders of Almagro; yet
it was believed he might have been successful, as the troops belonging to
the marquis were in reality affected by that ordinary malady, and were
besides so much distressed by the snow that Pizarro retired back with his
army into the maritime plain of Peru. Almagro continued his march to Cuzco,
where he employed himself for two months in raising recruits, procuring
ammunition, preparing arms of silver and copper, founding cannon, and
making every preparation to defend himself against Pizarro.

After the return of the marquis into the plain, various consultations were
held as to the best plan of procedure, and it was at last determined that
Ferdinand Pizarro, now lieutenant-general under the marquis, with his
brother Gonzalo Pizarro as major-general, should march with the army
against Cuzco[16]. On this occasion, a manifesto was circulated as the
reason of this measure, that several of the inhabitants of Cuzco had made
complaints to the marquis against the tyranny of Almagro, who had
violently seized their goods and houses, and dispossessed them of their
Indians and every thing that belonged to them. The marquis returned to
Lima, and his brother Ferdinand marched at the head of the army towards
Cuzco. Having arrived on the mountainous ridge near Cuzco in the evening,
all his officers urged Ferdinand Pizarro to descend immediately into the
plain that the army might encamp there for the night; but Ferdinand
positively rejected this advice, and ordered the army to encamp on the
mountain. Early next morning, the whole army of Almagro was seen drawn up
in order of battle on the plain, under the supreme command of Orgognez;
Francisco de Chaves, Juan Tello, and Vasco de Guevara, having the command
of the cavalry under his orders. On the side of the mountain there was a
great body of Indians in charge of a small number of Spaniards, intended
to be employed as circumstances might admit in the expected battle. In the
meantime, all the friends and partizans of the marquis who were in Cuzco
were committed prisoners to the citadel, which was so extremely crowded on
this occasion, and the places appropriated for their confinement so small,
that several of them were stifled.

On the following day, after the solemnization of the mass, Ferdinand
Pizarro marched his army into the plain of Cuzco in order of battle, and
advanced towards the city, intending to gain possession of some high
ground which overlooked the citadel. Ferdinand and his troops flattered
themselves, from their great superiority in numbers, that Almagro would
not risk a battle, and were even anxious to spare the effusion of
Christian blood on the present occasion, in which the natives of the same
country and subjects of the same sovereign were preparing to destroy each
other, instead of uniting in a common cause for the general good of all.
Orgognez was actuated by a different principle, and had occupied the only
passage by which the troops of Pizarro could approach towards Cuzco, in
which he had drawn up his troops and artillery with much judgment, under
cover of a marsh, across which it was necessary for the troops of Pizarro
to pass before they could attack his position. Immediately on
reconnoitring the order of the enemy, Ferdinand Pizarro ordered captain
Mercadillo to advance with his cavalry to a proper place for keeping the
Indians in check in case they should attempt to attack his army while
engaged in battle with Orgognez, and whence likewise he might be able to
give succour where necessary during the approaching engagement. Before the
Spaniards began to engage, the Indians on both sides skirmished with each
other. The cavalry of Pizarro endeavoured to pass the morass, and being
opposed by a squadron of Almagro's horse, the musketeers belonging to
Pizarro advanced in front of their own horse and soon compelled the
adverse cavalry to give ground. On seeing this successful commencement of
the battle, Pedro de Valdivia, a maestre de campo of the marquis, assured
his friends that the victory was their own. While the troops of Pizarro
were passing the marsh, the Almagrians plied their artillery, and by one
discharge five men belonging to Pizarro were brought down. But Pizarro
pressed on under cover of a close fire from his musketeers, and passed
both the marsh and a rivulet beyond, and drew up in good order on the firm
ground, every one of the captains having been previously instructed how to
proceed with their divisions before the engagement commenced. As Pizarro
noticed that the pikemen in the army of Orgognez carried their pikes high,
he gave orders to his musketeers to fire a little high, by which means in
two vollies they broke above fifty of the enemies pikes[17]. At this time
Orgognez ordered his army to advance to the charge, and observing that
several of his divisions hesitated, being held in check by the fire of the
musqueteers, he moved on himself at the head of his main body, directing
his attack to that part of the enemy where Ferdinand Pizarro was seen at
the head of his squadrons. Orgognez apparently despairing of the battle,
called out while advancing, "Follow me who will! I go in the name of God
to do my duty, and to seek an honourable death!" While Orgognez was
advancing, Gonzalo Pizarro and Alonso Alvarado observed that his flank was
uncovered, and accordingly made an immediate charge, by which above fifty
of the Almagrians were overthrown. Orgognez was wounded by a musket-ball
in the head, which broke through his beaver; notwithstanding which he
killed two men with his lance, and wounded one of Pizarros servants in the
mouth whom he mistook for the general, as he was finely dressed. For some
time the engagement was extremely severe and the combatants were mingled
together; but at length the troops of Pizarro forced the Almagrians to
take to flight after they had a considerable number killed and wounded.

Almagro being sick, took no part in the battle, which he observed from a
height at some distance, and on seeing his troops take to flight,
exclaimed, "I thought we had come out to fight like valiant soldiers, not
to run away like cowards." He immediately withdrew to the citadel of Cuzco,
to which place he was pursued by Gonzalo Pizarro and Alonso Alvarado, and
made prisoner. Orgognez was taken prisoner by two of Pizarros horsemen,
who were leading him away when a third came up who bore him a grudge for
some injurious treatment, and cut off his head. Several others who had
surrendered were slain in this manner by personal enemies, in spite of
every endeavour by Ferdinand Pizarro and his officers to protect them. The
soldiers of Alvarado especially, ashamed and irritated by the defeat they
had formerly sustained at the bridge of Abancay, were eager for revenge,
and put many of the Almagrians to death in cold blood. Captain Ruy Dias
had taken up a prisoner behind him on horseback, on purpose to protect him,
when one of his own troopers run him through with his lance.

When the Indian servants of the two armies saw that the battle among the
Christians was ended, they too gave over fighting, and fell to plundering
the dead, whom they stripped of their clothes and valuables, even
pillaging several who were yet alive, but unable to defend themselves
because of their wounds; and as the conquerors were entirely taken up in
pursuing their victory, the Indians had it in their power to do as they
pleased, so that they entirely stripped everyone whom they found on the
field of battle. The Spaniards, both victors and vanquished, were so worn
out and fatigued by their exertions in this battle, that they might have
been easily destroyed by the Indians who were present, if they had dared
to attack them according to their original intention; but they were so
busied in plundering the killed and wounded, that they neglected the
opportunity of avenging themselves on their oppressors. This decisive
battle was fought on the 6th of April 1538, in a plain called _Cachipampa_
or the field of salt by the Indians, about a league to the south of the
citadel of Cuzco, near a salt spring from which the inhabitants make great
quantities of salt; and as these salt works are in the neighbourhood of
the field, this engagement has been always known by the name of the battle
of _Salinas_, or of the salt works[18].

After this decisive victory, Ferdinand Pizarro used every means to
conciliate the officers of Almagros army who had survived the battle, that
he might engage them in the party of the marquis, and being unsuccessful,
he banished several of them from Cuzco. Being unable to satisfy the
demands of all those who had served him on the late occasion, as many of
them thought so highly of their own merits that the government of Peru
would hardly have been a sufficient reward in their own estimation,
Ferdinand Pizarro resolved to separate the army, sending it away in
various detachments to discover and conquer those parts of the country
which had not been hitherto explored and reduced. By this measure, he at
the same time rewarded his friends by giving them opportunities to
distinguish and enrich themselves, and got rid of his enemies by sending
them to a distance. On this occasion Pedro de Candia was sent with three
hundred men, part of whom had belonged to Almagro, to conquer the country
of Collao, a mountainous district which was said to be extremely rich. Not
being able to make any progress in this country on account of the
difficulty of the roads, he had to return; besides which his troops became
mutinous, chiefly at the instigation of one Mesa, who had been commissary
of artillery under Almagro, and was encouraged by the other soldiers of
Almagro who served on this expedition. On this, Candia arrested Mesa and
sent him to Ferdinand Pizarro with the evidences of his guilt. This
circumstance, combined with information of conspiracies in several other
places, which had for their object to free Almagro from prison and to give
him possession of Cuzco, satisfied Ferdinand Pizarro that the country
would never be in quiet while Almagro lived.

Ferdinand accordingly brought Almagro to trial, in which he was convicted
of giving occasion to all the preceding disorders, of which he was the
first and chief cause; having begun the war by several acts of hostilities;
having taken forcible possession of the city of Cuzco by his own private
authority, where he put several persons to death merely for opposing his
unlawful usurpation; and having marched in hostile array into the province
of Chincha, which incontestibly belonged to the province assigned to the
marquis. When sentence of death was pronounced, Almagro said every thing
he could think of to excite the compassion of Ferdinand Pizarro that he
might spare his life. He represented that the marquis in a great measure
owed his present greatness to him; as he had advanced the greatest
proportion of the original funds for the discovery of Peru. He desired
Ferdinand to recollect, that when he was a prisoner in his hands, he had
set him at liberty contrary to the representations of his officers, who
advised that he should be put to death: And that though he, Pizarro, might
have been ill treated while a prisoner, that had been done without his
orders or knowledge. He intreated him to consider his very advanced age,
which would soon bring him to the grave, without the disgrace of a public
punishment. Ferdinand expressed his astonishment that one of such great
courage should shew so much fear of death, which was now inevitable, and
desired him to submit to the will of God like a good Christian, and to
meet death with the courage of a gentleman and a man of honour. Almagro
replied, that be ought not to be surprised at seeing him afraid of death,
being a man and a sinner, since even Jesus Christ had evinced a fear to
die. All this however was of no avail, as Ferdinand caused him to be

After the execution of Almagro, Ferdinand Pizarro went to Collao, where he
punished Mesa for having excited mutiny among the troops of Candia; after
which he sent the three hundred men under the command of Peranzures to
reduce the country which had been assigned to Pedro de Candia. These
troops had to march by a most difficult and dangerous route among morasses
and uncultivated places, where they thought to have perished of famine.
Ferdinand remained in Collao, which he reduced. This is a level country
containing several gold mines, but so cold that it produces no maize, the
natives living principally on a root named _papas_, which resembles
truffles. This country likewise abounds in those Peruvian sheep which have
been formerly described[19]. About this time the marquis came to Cuzco, to
which place Ferdinand went to confer with him, leaving his brother Gonzalo
Pizarro to continue his conquest. Gonzalo advanced into the province of
the Charcas[20], where he was attacked by a great body of Indians and
reduced to great straits, insomuch that Ferdinand set out from Cuzco to
his assistance with a body of horse. On this occasion, on purpose to
encourage these succours to use every possible expedition, the marquis
gave out that he meant to go in person to relieve his brother Gonzalo, and
actually went two or three days journey from Cuzco. When Ferdinand arrived
at Charcas, he found that Gonzalo had already extricated himself from his
difficulties, having defeated and dispersed the enemy. They continued
together for some time reducing the country, having frequently to fight
with the Indians, till at last they took their chief prisoner, named
_Tixo_[21], on which the natives universally submitted. Ferdinand and
Gonzalo now returned to Cuzco, where the marquis distributed settlements
to every one sufficient to maintain them in ease and comfort.

About this time likewise various other parties were sent out in different
directions to discover and reduce the provinces of Peru and the
neighbouring districts; among the commanders of these detachments were the
captains Vergara, Porcel, Mercadillo, and Guevera. Pedro de Valdivia
likewise was sent to Chili, where Almagro had formerly been, and Gonzalo
Pizarro to Quito, of whose adventures we shall speak hereafter. When all
these matters were arranged, by which the Spaniards were dispersed in
various parts, and tranquillity was restored to the country, Ferdinand
Pizarro set out for Spain to give an account to the emperor of all the
transactions which had taken place in Peru, though many advised him not to
run the risk of that measure until it was known what judgment might be
formed at court respecting the death of Almagro. Before his departure,
Ferdinand strongly advised his brother the marquis to put no trust in
those who had adhered to the service of Almagro in the late troubles, who
were usually denominated the _Chilese_, and particularly that he ought to
keep them at a distance from each other, being well assured that if even
eight or ten of them were permitted to dwell in one neighbourhood, that
they would form conspiracies against his life.

[1] Though not mentioned directly in the text, it appears that Almagro
knew of and intended to conquer the country of Chili, and that he
chose to march by the high country of Peru, through the great
elevated valley of the lake Titicaca, probably the highest inhabited
land of South America. His object was in all probability to avoid
the extensive desert of Atacama, which divides the plain of Peru
from Chili.--E.

[2] From the desert of Atacama in lat 25 deg. S. to the island of Chiloe in
about lat. 42 deg. S. Chili Proper, between the Pacific ocean and the
western ridge of the Andes, stretches about 1100 English miles nearly
north and south by an average breadth of about 140 miles.--E.

[3] Valparayso stands nearly in the latitude indicated by the text.
Valdivia, taking its name from that commander, is in
lat. 30 deg.40' S.--E.

[4] Zarate is extremely remiss in regard to dates, and not a little
confused in the arrangement of his narrative. We learn from Robertson,
II. 325, that Ferdinand Pizarro returned to Peru in 1536.--E.

[5] According to Robertson, II. 326, the place where the festival was to
be celebrated was only at a few leagues distance from Cuzco.
Garcilasso says that it was a garden belonging to the Incas only a
league from the city.--E.

[6] The return of Almagro to Cuzco was in the year 1537.--E.

[7] Garcilasso names this prince Paullu Inca.--E.

[8] Named _Atavillos_ by Garcilasso de la Vega.--E.

[9] The arrangement of Zarate is extremely faulty and confused, as he here
recounts circumstances which preceeded the return of Almagro to Cuzco.
We are here giving a translation of a original document; not
endeavouring to write a history of the Conquest of Peru, and have not
therefore authority to alter the arrangement of our author.--E.

[10] Garcilasso names the Peruvian general Titu Yupanqui. The remainder of
the sentence, respecting the brother of the Inca and Gaete, is quite
unintelligible. I suspect it has been misunderstood by the French
translator and ought to stand thus: "The commander of these Peruvians
was Titu Yupanqui, a brother of the Inca, and the same person who had
driven Gaete and others to take refuge in Lima."--E.

[11] Abancay is a town on one of the branches of the Apurimac about 60
miles west from Cuzco.--E.

[12] We learn from the History of America, II. 331, that this bloodless
victory over Alvarado took place on the 12th July 1537. Garcilasso
calls it the battle of the river Amancay, and names Alvarado

[13] Nasca is about 240 miles S.S.E. from Lima, or about sixty Spanish

[14] Zarate forgets that only a few lines before, he had mentioned that
Almagro carried these officers along with his army:--E.

[15] Mala, or San Pedro de Mala, is a town and sea-port on a river of the
same name, about 50 miles south from Lima.

[16] According to Robertson, II. 334, after an unsuccessful attempt to
cross the mountains by the direct road from Lima to Cuzco, Ferdinand
marched southwards in the maritime plain to Nasca, whence he
penetrated by the defiles of the mountains in that quarter.--E.

[17] Garcilasso informs us that the musketeers of Pizarro used a kind of
chain shot on this occasion; their leaden bullets being cast in two
hemispheres connected together by several links of a small iron

[18] In Zarate the date of this battle is given as the 26th of April, in
which he is followed by Robertson; but Garcilasso carefully notices
the mistake, and assures us that it was fought on the 6th of the

[19] Collao in the text is probably Cailloma of modern maps, a very
elevated valley at the head of one of the branches of the Apurimac.
The marshy country beyond, to which Candia and Peranzures were sent on
discovery, is called Musu by Garcilasso, and was probably the Pampas
or marshy plains of the Mojos or Muju, to the east of the Andes,
nearly in the latitude of Cailloma--E.

[20] We learn from Garcilasso that in this province the city of La Plata
was afterwards built, not far distant from the famous mines of Potosi
and Porco--E.

[21] Perhaps the Inca Titu Yupanqui is here meant, who was named
Tizogopangui by Zarate on a former occasion.--E.


_Expeditions of Pedro de Valdivia into Chili, and of Gonzalo Pizarro to
Los Canelos_.

On the arrival of Pedro de Valdivia in Chili, he was peaceably received by
the Indians, who wished to gather in their crops, as it was then the
season of harvest. When this important business was accomplished, the
whole country rose upon the Spaniards, who were unprepared for this event
and somewhat dispersed, and killed forty of them before they could draw
their forces together. On this occasion, when Valdivia was about to take
the field to chastise the Chilese, part of his troops threatened to mutiny
against his authority, and he was under the necessity of hanging several
of the ringleaders, among whom was captain Pedro Sancho de Hosz, who was
almost equal to himself in the command of this expedition. After the
suppression of this mutiny, Valdivia took the field against the Indians,
and during his absence an army of the enemy exceeding seven thousand men
came to attack the newly established city, in which only a small number of
Spaniards remained for its defence, under the command of the captains
Francisco de Villagran, and Alfonso de Monroy. These officers went boldly
out against the Chilese, at the head only of thirty horsemen, with whom
they fought bravely against the immense number of Chilese archers from
morning till night, after which they retired into the city, extremely
fatigued and several of them wounded, but none of them slain. As the
Chilese suffered a great loss in killed and wounded during this engagement,
they retired during the night.

For eight years afterwards, Valdivia and his troops defended themselves
bravely against every effort of the Chilese, who continued the war
incessantly. In all that time, Valdivia obliged his soldiers to cultivate
a sufficient quantity of land for their sustenance, not being able to
procure Indians for that purpose, yet resolved not to abandon the country
which had been commited to his government. At the end of that period he
returned into Peru, at the time when the licentiate Pedro de la Gasca was
employed in levying an army against Gonzalo Pizarro, as shall be related
in the sequel[1].

Soon after the overthrow of the Almagrians, it was reported in Peru that a
very rich country had been discovered to the eastwards of Quito, which in
particular contained great quantities of cinnamon trees, on which account
it got the name of Los Canelos, or the cinnamon country. The marquis
accordingly resolved to send his brother Gonzalo Pizarro to discover that
country; and as it was necessary to march thither by way of Quito, where
likewise every requisite for the expedition was to be procured, the
marquis conferred the government of the kingdom of Quito on his brother,
till his majestys pleasure might be made known. Gonzalo Pizarro
accordingly set out from Cuzco with a considerable force, taking his route
for Quito by way of the elevated mountain vallies[2]. In this march he was
opposed by the Indians of the province of Guanuco with so much
perseverance and bravery, that the marquis was under the necessity of
sending him a reinforcement under Francisco de Chaves. After having
overcome this obstacle, he arrived in safety at Quito, where he proceeded
to make preparations for his expedition to Los Canelos.

On account of the hostile conduct of the Guanucos towards Gonzalo, and
because the curacas or caciques of that province, in conjunction with
those of the Conchucos had made frequent attacks on the city and province
of Truxillo, in which they killed all the Spaniards they could meet with
and pillaged the country, not even sparing their Indian neighbours, the
marquis sent a detachment of troops under Gomez de Alvarado to make a
conquest of Guanuco, with orders to establish a settlement in that country
to keep the natives under subjection. In their military expeditions, the
Peruvians of Guanuco carried an idol along with them, named Cataquilla, to
which they made offerings of all whom they massacred or made prisoners,
and of the spoil which fell into their hands. They persisted for a long
time in their barbarous hostilities, till at length, Miguel de la Cerna
raised a considerable force in Truxillo, with which he joined Francisco de
Chaves. With these forces conjoined, they fought successfully against the
Indians of Guanuco and reduced them to subjection.

When Gonzalo Pizarro had completed the preparations for his expedition, he
set out from Quito in the year 1540 at the head of 200 Spaniards well
equipped, of whom the half was cavalry[3]. He was attended by 4000
friendly Indians[4], and by a flock of 4000 animals, consisting of swine
and Peruvian sheep, to serve as provisions, and to carry the baggage and
ammunition of the army. After passing a place called Inca, the boundary of
the conquests of Huana Capac towards the north and east, Gonzalo arrived
in the country of the Quixos, where he was opposed by the natives, but
they all disappeared one night, without the Spaniards being able to make a
single prisoner. On the retreat of the Indians, Gonzalo and his troops
took possession of their deserted habitations in which they rested for
some days. While here, the country was visited by a dreadful earthquake,
accompanied by prodigious thunder and lightning and an immense fall of
rain. The earth opened in many places and swallowed up above five hundred
houses. By the excessive rains, which continued forty or fifty days, a
river in the neighbourhood of the Spanish quarters became so swollen that
it was quite impassable, in consequence of which the troops suffered much
from famine, as they were unable to get across the river in search of
provisions. On the cessation of the tempest, Gonzalo had to cross a
prodigious ridge of mountains, on the top of which they suffered such
extreme cold that many of their attendant Indians were frozen to death.
And as no provisions or shelter could be had in that elevated region, he
made haste to arrive in the province of Zumaco[5] which is situated at the
foot of a volcano. As provisions were found here in abundance, the army
halted in this place for refreshments. In the mean time Gonzalo went with
a small party of troops to endeavour to find out a passage through the
forest. He at length reached the banks of a river named Coca, whence he
sent for the remainder of his people to join him from Zumaco. During two
months that the army remained in this country, it never ceased raining day
or night, so that they never had a sufficient interval in which to dry
their clothes.

In this province of Zumaco the trees are found which afford cinnamon.
These trees are very large and have leaves resembling the laurel. Their
fruit grows in clusters, consisting of a nut resembling the acorn of the
cork tree, but larger, and containing a number of small seeds. The fruit,
leaves, bark, and roots have all the taste and flavour of cinnamon; but
the best consists of the shell or nut which contains the seeds. In the
whole of that country vast numbers of these trees are found wild in the
woods, growing and producing fruit without care; but the Indians cultivate
them with much attention in their plantations; and these cultivated trees
produce a much better cinnamon than those trees which grow wild. This
cinnamon is in great request among the natives, and is exchanged by the
inhabitants of Zumaco with the neighbouring tribes, receiving in return
provisions and other things of which they are in want.

Leaving the greater part of his people in the country of Zumaco, as has
been already said, Gonzalo penetrated into the country with much
difficulty, accompanied by the most vigorous of his men, and guided by the
Indians, who frequently gave him false accounts of the country in advance,
on purpose to get him away from their own district. Thus the people of
Zumaco informed him that the country beyond theirs was well peopled and
had abundance of provisions; but he found it extremely barren and very
thinly inhabited. Having penetrated to the province of Coca upon a large
river of that name, he remained there about six weeks, waiting the arrival
of the rest of his people from Zumaco, all the while treated in a friendly
manner by the cacique of the district.

After his troops were all assembled at Coca, Gonzalo marched along the
course of the river, till at last he arrived at a place where it fell over
a cataract of above 200 fathoms making a noise that could be easily heard
at six leagues distance. A few days march below that place, the whole
waters of the river became confined in a rocky channel not exceeding
twenty feet wide, while the rocks were at least 200 fathoms in height
above the water, and perfectly perpendicular. After a march of fifty
leagues along the banks of this river, the Spaniards could find no place
where they might possibly cross over, except at that narrow rocky channel,
where a considerable number of Indians opposed their passage. Having
driven away these Indians by means of their firearms, the Spaniards
constructed a wooden bridge across between the steep rocks, over which
they all passed in safety.

After crossing the river, the Spaniards penetrated through the woods to a
country named Guema, which was extremely flat and intersected with rivers
and marshes, and in which they could get no provisions except wild fruits;
but after this they came to a country tolerably peopled, in which there
were some provisions. In this place the natives wore cotton vestments, but
in the whole country through which they had hitherto passed, the few
natives they had seen were entirely naked, either on account of the
continual and excessive heat of the climate, or because they had no means
of procuring clothes: The men had only a kind of girdles round their waist,
with some strings tied to their prepuce, which passed between their thighs
and were drawn up to the girdle; and the women wore some slight clouts. At
this place Gonzalo built a bark to serve for crossing the rivers in search
of provisions, and to transport the baggage and the sick by water. Besides
in some places the country was so covered with wood, that they were unable
to clear the way by means of their swords and hatchets, and in other
places so inundated, that they were often obliged to transport the whole
party by water. The building of this vessel occasioned infinite difficulty
and labour, as besides cutting down wood for the purpose, they had to
construct a forge in which to make the necessary iron work, which they
made from the shoes of their dead horses. On this occasion, Gonzalo not
only obliged every one to labour without regard to rank, but gave the
example himself in using both the hatchet and the hammer as occasion
required. Instead of pitch and tar, the gum which exuded from some trees
of the forest was collected; and instead of flax and hemp, the old clothes
of the Indians and the wore-out shirts of the Spaniards were employed for
caulking the scams. They at length succeeded in making their bark capable
of swimming, so as to transport all their baggage very commodiously;
besides which they hollowed out several canoes to accompany the bark
instead of boats.

Gonzalo flattered himself that all his difficulties would be surmounted by
means of this bark, and that he would now be able to pursue his
discoveries to any extent he pleased. He continued his march therefore,
accompanied by the bark which carried the baggage, while the main body had
to travel along the banks of the river, often greatly incommoded in
passing marshes, thick woods, and close brushwood. In some of these places
they had to cut their way through canes and reeds with great toil, by
means of their swords and hatchets; often changing from one side of the
river to the other in search of an easier road. In this march they were
always accompanied by the bark; and at night the whole party united
together, that they might be able to give mutual assistance in case of
need. After having penetrated above two hundred leagues, always following
the course of the river, during which space they got only wild fruits and
roots to support them, Gonzalo gave orders to Francisco de Orellana, one
of his captains, to go forwards in the bark with fifty men in search of
provisions; with orders to load his bark with these if he found any,
leaving all the baggage at a place where two great rivers joined,
according to information received from the Indians; and likewise to leave
two canoes in a river which crossed the road to that place by land, to
serve for ferrying over the troops.

Orellana set out accordingly in the bark, and was very soon carried by the
current to the appointed place where the two rivers met; but finding no
provisions, and considering the immense difficulty of going up the river
against a rapid current, he resolved to trust himself to the stream to try
his fortune in that way. He even neglected to leave the two canoes at this
place according to the orders of Gonzalo; and although several of those
who were along with him in the bark urged him to remain according to the
orders of his general, he insisted upon going forwards, even maltreating
Friar Gaspard de Carvajal, who opposed this act of mutiny and desertion
more forcibly than any of the rest. In his progress down the river,
Orellana and his people frequently landed in search of provisions, and had
often to fight with the Indians, who sometimes even attacked him in the
bark by means of canoes, on which occasion the Spaniards could hardly
defend themselves they were so crowded. On this last account he built a
second bark, at a place where the Indians received him in a friendly
manner and supplied him with provisions. From these Indians he was
informed of a district a few days journey farther on, which was entirely
inhabited by women, who made war and defended themselves agaist their

Following continually the stream of the river, but without finding any
gold or silver, or the least indication of these metals, Orellana arrived
at the mouth of this river on the Atlantic Ocean, about 350 leagues from
the island of Cubagua. This great river is called the Maragnon or Marannon,
from a person of that name who first discovered its mouth. It takes its
rise in Peru on the eastern slopes of the Andes of Quito, and its entire
course measured in a straight line extends to 700 leagues; but following
all its flexures from the Andes to the ocean, it measures at least 1800
leagues. At its mouth it measures 15 leagues in breadth, and in many parts
of its course is three or four leagues broad. Orellana went afterwards
into Spain[7], where he gave an account to his majesty of his discovery,
which he pretended to have made at his own charges. He alleged that he had
discovered a very rich country inhabited by a nation of warlike females,
on which account the country and river came to be called _of the Amazons_.
Having procured a commission of governor of this new country from his
majesty, he levied a force of five hundred men for its conquest, with
which he embarked from Seville: But having a most unprosperous voyage, in
which his people suffered much from scarcity of provisions, most of his
followers deserted from him at the Canaries, leaving him almost alone. He
died during the subsequent part of the voyage, and all his remaining
companions dispersed themselves among the islands.

Gonzalo Pizarro was reduced to prodigious straits in consequence of the
desertion of Orellana, both by the want of provisions and the difficulty
of passing the rivers in his course; besides which Orellana had carried
away with him a great quantity of gold, silver, and emeralds, which he
converted to his own use in making his solicitations at the court of Spain,
and in fitting out his expedition for the conquest and settlement of
Amazonia. On his arrival at the place where Orellana had been ordered to
leave the canoes, for the purpose of facilitating the passage of certain
rivers which fall into the great Maranon, Gonzalo and his people were
exceedingly embarrassed, and had to make other canoes with much difficulty
to enable them to cross over, that they might continue their journey. When
they came afterwards to where the two large rivers joined[8], and where
Orellana ought to have waited for them, they found a Spaniard who had been
left at this place by Orellana, because he had opposed the continuation of
the voyage, and preferred to wait in that place for his general[9]. By his
account, Orellana had renounced his dependence on Gonzalo Pizarro, meaning
to proceed to discover the river in his own name and authority, and had
prevailed on the people who accompanied him to elect him of new for their

By the loss of their vessel Gonzalo and his men were deprived of every
means of procuring provisions from the Indians, as all the mirrors, bells,
and other baubles for trading with the natives of the country had been put
on board the bark. In this hopeless and discouraging situation, above four
hundred leagues distant from Quito, they came to the immediate resolution
of returning to that city; although, from the length and difficulty of the
way, through forests and marshes, they had very little hope of ever
getting back, and could hardly expect to escape dying of famine in the
mountains and deserts over which they had to pass. In fact above forty
actually died of famine during the march. After recommending themselves to
the mercy of God, they began their march in great dejection; and as the
way in which they came from Peru was full of difficulties and destitute of
provisions, they took another road in their return, altogether at hazard,
which they did not find in any degree better than the former[10]. Before
reaching Peru, they were under the necessity of killing all their
remaining horses to keep themselves from starving, and even to eat all
their dogs. In the course of this journey likewise, they were reduced to
the necessity of feeding on certain strings, or twining plants, a good
deal like the tendrils of vines, which they found in the woods, and which
had the taste of garlic. During this march a wild cat or a turkey sold for
four dollars, and one of the sea-birds named Alcatraz, formerly mentioned
as being very bad eating, brought a dollar or more, although reckoned very

Some short time before Gonzalo got to Peru intelligence of his return had
reached Quito, on which the inhabitants collected a considerable number of
swine and Peruvian sheep which they sent off to meet him. They sent off at
the same time a good many horses, and a supply of clothes for Gonzalo and
his officers. This seasonable supply met them above fifty leagues from
Quito, and one may easily judge that it was received with much joy,
especially the provisions. The whole party, from the general to the
private soldier, was almost entirely naked; as, from the almost continual
rains to which they had been exposed, and the other hardships of their
journey, their clothes were all rotten and torn to rags, and they were
reduced to the necessity of covering themselves with the skins of beasts.
Their swords were all without scabbards, and almost destroyed with rust.
Their legs and arms were torn and scratched by the brushwood, thorns, and
brakes, through which they had travelled; and the whole party were so pale,
lean, and worn out with fatigue and famine, that their most intimate
acquaintances were hardly able to recognize them. Among all their
privations, what they felt the most unsufferable, was the want of salt, of
which they had not been able to procure the smallest supply for above two
hundred leagues.

On arriving in the kingdom of Quito, where every thing they stood in need
of was brought them, they knelt down and kissed the ground as a mark of
gratitude and satisfaction, and returned thanks to God for their
preservation from so many dangers. Such was their eagerness for food after
so long famine, that it became necessary to regulate their supply, and
only to allow them to eat by little and little at a time, till their
stomachs became accustomed to digest their food. As there had only been
sent from Quito a sufficiency of horses and clothes for Gonzalo and his
officers, they refused to avail themselves of either, not choosing to
enjoy any advantages which they could not share with their soldiers, by
which they rendered themselves extremely popular and gained their
affection greatly. They arrived at Quito in the morning, and went
immediately to church to hear mass, and to give thanks to God for their
delivery from so many and severe evils; after which every one retired to
his quarters, to refresh and clothe themselves according to their means.
This country of Los Canelos, whence the cinnamon is procured, is
immediately under the equinoctial line, similar in that respect to the
Molucca islands, whence cinnamon is brought into Spain and other parts of

[1] We shall have a future opportunity of giving a better account of the
discovery and conquest of Chili than this extremely meagre notice by
Zarate from Molina, Ovalle and other early authors. The nameless city
mentioned by Zarate was probably St Jago de Chili, which was founded
by Valdivia. The commencement of the Valdivian expedition was in the
year 1530.--E.

[2] This force, according to Garcilasso, amounted to 100 horse, and an
equal number of foot.--E.

[3] According to Garcilasso de la Vega, his force consisted of 340
Spaniards, of whom 150 were horsemen.--E.

[4] These Indians, according to Garcilasso, were laden with arms,
provisions, and ammunition, besides large quantities of hatchets,
ropes, nails, and wooden pins, to use upon occasion.--E.

[5] Perhaps the elevated valley of Macas on the river Morona which runs
into the Tunguragua.--E.

[6] Even Garcilasso, who is sufficiently fond of the marvellous and ever
ready to adopt absurdities, honestly relates of these _Amazons_, that
they were a fierce and wild nation of men, whose wives went forth to
war along with their husbands; and that Orellana invented the tale of
a nation of Amazons to raise the honour of his atchievement, and to
induce the emperor to bestow upon him the government of the country he
had discovered.--E.

[7] According to Garcilasso, he contrived with great difficulty and danger
to navigate in his rude bark from the mouth of the Marannon or Amazons
to the island of Trinidada, where he purchased a ship for his voyage
to Spain.--E.

[8] The river Napo joins the Maranon in lat. 3 deg. 20' S. and long. 70 deg. W.
But we are uncertain whether this were the place where Orellana
deserted, as there are many junctions of large rivers in the course of
the vast Maranon. The two greatest of its tributary streams are the
Negro which joins in long. 60 deg. W. from the north, and the Madeira in
long. 58 deg. W. from the south.--E.

[9] Garcilasso preserves the name of that faithful Spaniard, Hernando
Sanchez de Vargas, a young gentleman of Badajoz.--E.

[10] We learn from Garcilasso that this new road was on the north side of
the river, Napo probably, and consequently that they had kept the
south side in their way eastwards.--E.

[11] It is hardly necessary to say that cinnamon comes only from Ceylon,
not from the Moluccas; and that so entirely different was the
substance sought for in this disastrous expedition from cinnamon, that
it is now entirely unknown in Europe; unless it be the Canella alba,
now only used as a light aromatic of small value by druggists.

Zarate is generally loose and confused in his accounts, and almost
entirely neglectful of dates. We learn from the History of America
that this unfortunate expedition lasted near two years, and that two
hundred and ten Spaniards and four thousand Indians perished during
its continuance, only eighty Spaniards returning to Quito. Garcilasso
says that two thousand of the Indians returned along with the
Spaniards, and served them during the hardships of the journey with
the most affectionate fidelity, supplying their extreme necessities
with herbs, roots, and wild fruit, and with toads, snakes, and other
reptiles, which the Spaniards greedily devoured, or they must have
died for want of food.--E.


_Conspiracy of the Almagrians and Assassination of Pizarro_.

On his return to Quito in 1541, Gonzalo Pizarro received accounts of the
most afflicting nature. When, as formerly related, Don Diego Almagro was
put to death at Cuzco by Ferdinand Pizarro, a son whom Almagro had by an
Indian woman was sent to reside in Lima. This young man, who was named
after his father Diego Almagro, was of a graceful appearance, handsome,
generous, and excelling in all the martial exercises, being particularly
graceful and dexterous in riding the manage horse. His literary education
likewise had been so carefully attended to, that he was considered as more
versant in these things than his situation required. Juan de Herrada,
formerly mentioned, to whose care he had been especially confided by his
father, undertook the care of educating young Almagro in the capacity of
his governor, and had been particularly watchful and successful in the
charge. Their house in Lima was the rendezvous of such friends and
partizans of the late Almagro as remained unemployed in Peru, and had been
excepted from the division of lands and Indians after the defeat of their
party, as the adherents of the Pizarros would not, and their dependents
dared not to have any intercourse with them.

After the voyage of Ferdinand Pizarro to Spain, and the setting out of
Gonzalo Pizarro upon his disastrous discovery of Los Canelos, Herrada and
the younger Almagro, being now left at entire liberty by the Marquis, who
before had held them in a species of imprisonment, began to take measures
for the execution of an enterprize they had long contemplated. For this
purpose they secretly provided arms and every thing that appeared
necessary for their project of revenging the death of the elder Almagro.
Their partizans were farther animated to the accomplishment of this design
from resentment for the death of several of their friends and companions,
who had been cut off during the late civil war. The marquis had often used
his endeavours to reconcile Almagro and Herrada to his authority by gentle
means, and by the offer of his friendship and patronage to them and their
adherents; but finding all his advances ineffectual, he deprived Almagro
of the moderate repartition of Indians which had been assigned to him, on
purpose to prevent him from continuing to form a party by the application
of his fortune to the support of the malcontents. All these precautions
were ultimately ineffectual, as the Almagrians were so closely united
among themselves, that all their property was in a great measure held
common among the members of their party, even every thing that the
individuals acquired by play or otherwise being thrown into a common stock
in the hands of Herrada to serve their general expence. Their numbers
increased daily, by the accession of all who were dissatisfied by the
administration of the marquis, or who thought their merits overlooked in
the distribution of property and employments. They secretly increased
their store of arms, and took measures for securing the success of their

Their conduct, however secretly pursued, being known among many, came at
length to the knowledge of some friends of the marquis, who endeavoured to
put him on his guard against the machinations of his enemies. But he,
confiding in his honour and good faith, judged of others by himself, and
refused to listen to this advice; saying that it was proper to leave these
unfortunate men in peace, who were already sufficiently punished by the
shame of their defeat, the public hatred, and the poverty to which they
were reduced. So much were the Almagrians encouraged by the patient
indulgence of the marquis, that their chiefs used even to pass him in
public without saluting him or giving him any token of respect; and one
night some of them had the audacity to affix three ropes to the gibbet,
one of which was stretched towards the palace of the marquis, another
towards the house of his lieutenant, and the third to that of his
secretary. Even this insolence was forgiven by the marquis, in
consideration of their misery and the unhappy situation of their affairs.
Profiting by this indulgence, the Almagrians assembled together almost
openly, several of their party who were wandering about the country
without property or employment, coming to Lima from the distance even of
two hundred leagues. They resolved upon putting the marquis to death; yet
waited to hear from Spain what judgment might be given in the case of
Ferdinand Pizarro, who was there thrown into prison as accused, of the
murder of Don Diego Almagro; and to prosecute whom Captain Diego Alvarado
had gone home and was actively engaged in soliciting his trial and
punishment. When the conspirators learnt that his majesty had appointed
the licentiate Vaca de Castro to proceed to Peru, on purpose to examine
into all the past disorders, but without orders to prosecute the death of
Almagro with that rigorous severity which they wished and expected, they
resolved upon the execution of their long concerted enterprize. They were
anxious, however, to learn exactly the intentions of Vaca de Castro, as
the intended assassination of the marquis was by no means universally
approved among the Almagrians. Several of the gentlemen belonging to the
party, although much incensed at the death of Almagro, were anxious only
for redress by legal means, and in a manner that might be conformable with
the pleasure and service of the sovereign. The chiefs of this conspiracy
who were now assembled in Lima, were Juan de Saavedra, Alfonso de
Montemayor, Juan de Gusman controller, Manuel de Espinar treasurer, Nugnez
de Mercado agent, Christoval Ponce de Leon, Juan de Herrada, Pero Lopez de
Ayala, and some others. In this assemblage, Don Alfonso de Montemayor was
deputed to wait upon Vaca de Castro; and accordingly set out with letters
of credence and dispatches to meet Vaca de Castro at the beginning of
April 1541. After his arrival at the place where Vaca de Castro then was,
and before he proposed to return to his employers, news was brought of the
assassination of the marquis. On this occasion, Montemayor and some others
of the Almagrian party, who were not concerned in the murder, remained
with Vaca de Castro till after the defeat of the younger Almagro in the
battle of Chupas, preferring the service of their sovereign, in whose name
and authority de Castro acted, to their individual resentments.

So public had the measures of the conspirators become in the city of Lima,
that several persons gave notice of their intentions to the marquis, and
advised him to employ a guard for the protection of his person: But he
always said that the lives of others would guard him from violence, and
that he was resolved to give no cause for suspecting that he used
precautions of defence against the judge whom his majesty was sending to
Peru. On one occasion, Juan de Herrada complained to the marquis of a
report that he meant to put all the friends of Almagro to death. The
marquis assured him that the report was entirely groundless; and when
Herrada mentioned that the marquis was collecting a great number of lances
and other arms, as a confirmation of the report that these were intended
against the Almagrians, the marquis replied in the gentlest terms, that
these arms were by no means intended to be used against him or his friends.
He even presented Herrada with several oranges which he pluckt for him,
which were then esteemed a high delicacy, as they were the first that were
grown in Peru; and told him privately, that if he were in want of anything,
he had only to give him notice, and he might depend on being provided for.
Herrada kissed his hands, and thanked him for his kindness, going away
delighted with the assurance that the marquis seemed to have no suspicion
whatever of the conspiracy.

On arriving at his house, where the principal conspirators waited for him,
it was determined to kill the marquis on the following Sunday, as they had
not been able to put their design into execution on the festival of St
John[1] as they at first intended. On the Saturday immediately preceding,
one of the conspirators revealed the circumstances of the plot in
confession to the curate of the great church of Lima. The curate went that
same evening to communicate the intelligence to Antonio Picado, secretary
to the marquis, who immediately carried the curate to Francisco Martinez
de Alcantara, the marquises brother[2], where the marquis then was at
supper together with his children[3]. On being informed of the urgent
business on which they came, the marquis rose from table and retired to
another room, where the curate informed him of every thing he had learnt
respecting the conspiracy. The marquis was at first considerably agitated
by his intelligence: but after a moments reflection, he said that he could
not credit the story, as Herrada had been with him only a few days before,
and had conversed with him with much humility; for which reason he was
convinced that the man who now brought this intelligence had some secret
end to serve, and had invented this story to assume merit. He sent however,
for his lieutenant, the doctor Juan Velasquez[4] meaning to consult with
him; but as Velasquez was ill in bed, the marquis went to his house, and
told him all that he had heard. Velaquez used every argument to convince
him that the story was false, and that he had nothing to fear. Taking up
his rod of office, he declared that no one dared to revolt so long as he
held that badge in his hand, and that the marquis might rest in security.
He may be said in some measure to have kept his word; for when the
Almagrians came next day to kill the marquis, Velasquez made his escape
over a window, and took his rod of office in his teeth, that he might use
both his hands to assist himself in his descent.

In spite of all these assurances the marquis was somewhat alarmed,
insomuch that next day, being Sunday the 26th June 1541, he determined not
to go to church, and had the mass said in his own house. After church, the
doctor Velasquez and captain Francisco de Chaves, who were the principal
persons in the colony, went along with several other persons to visit the
marquis. Having paid their visit, they all retired to their houses, except
Velasquez and de Chaves who remained to dine with him. After dinner,
between twelve and one o'clock, when all the attendants of the marquis had
retired to their dinner, and the whole city was quiet, Juan de Herrada and
ten or twelve of his associates all armed sallied forth from the house of
Almagro, which was not more than three hundred paces from the palace of
the marquis, between which were part of a street and the whole breadth of
the great square. On coming out into the street with their drawn swords,
they exclaimed, "death to the tyrant who hath slain the judge sent by the
emperor to execute judgment upon him." They used these words, and went
thus openly, to induce the inhabitants to believe that their party was
numerous, so that no one might take measures to oppose them. Besides this,
the conspirators believed that there was no time for any one to interpose
to prevent the execution of their purpose, and that it would either be
accomplished, or themselves slain in the attempt, before any effectual
succour would arrive. On their arrival at the palace of the marquis, one
of the party remained at the gate with a bloody sword in his hand, who
cried out repeatedly, "_The tyrant is dead! the tyrant is dead!_" This had
the desired effect, as several of the inhabitants who hastened to the
palace on the alarm, being convinced that the marquis was already slain,
retired again to their houses.

In the mean time Juan de Herrada and the rest of the conspirators rushed
up the stair towards the apartment of the marquis, who, being alarmed by
some of the Indian servants, desired de Chaves to shut the doors of the
saloon and the hall, while he retired to put on his armour. De Chaves was
so much confused, that instead of fastening the doors he went out to the
staircase demanding the reason of the noise; on which one of the
conspirators wounded him. "This, said he, is not the usage of a friend,"
and immediately drew his sword, but was soon overpowered and slain. The
conspirators immediately rushed into the hall, whence ten or twelve
Spaniards who were there made their escape by the windows: Among these was
Velasquez, who, as has been already mentioned, took his rod of office in
his mouth, that he might use his hands the more readily in making his
escape by the window. The marquis was at this time in his chamber,
employed in arming himself, attended by his brother de Alcantara, two
other gentlemen, and two pages. Seeing his enemies so near, the marquis
was unable to fasten the clasps of his cuirass, but advanced courageously
with his sword and buckler to defend the entry to the chamber, in which he
was bravely assisted by those who were along with him. He defended himself
for a considerable time successfully, encouraging his brother and the rest
by his voice and example. At length the Almagrians slew de Alcantara, on
which one of the pages took his place beside the marquis. The Almagrians,
being afraid lest succour might arrive, resolved to make a desperate
effort, for which purpose one of the best armed among them forced in at
the door and made room for the rest to enter, who now attacked the marquis
and his faithful companions with such fury that he was soon exhausted with
fatigue and hardly able to handle his arms. At length the marquis received
a mortal thrust in his throat, and falling to the ground called out in a
loud voice for a confessor. Soon losing all power of speech, he made the
sign of the cross on the floor with his finger, which he kissed and
expired. Besides his brother, the two pages were likewise slain. Of the
Almagrians, four were killed, and several of the rest wounded.

When the marquises death was made known, above two hundred men who waited
the event, declared themselves loudly in favour of Don Diego, and went
about the city arresting and disarming all who seemed to favour the party
of the marquis. The conspirators went out into the street waving their
bloody swords, and Herrada made Don Diego ride on horseback through the
city of Lima, proclaiming him as governor of Peru. The palace of the
marquis, and the houses of Alcantara and Picado the secretary were
pillaged, Herrada assembled the cabildo of the city, and obliged them to
acknowledge Don Diego as governor, under pretence that the elder Almagro
had been appointed by his majesty to the government of New Toledo, with
succession to his son or to any person he might appoint as his successor.
The conspirators likewise put to death several persons who were
particularly attached to the late marquis, and gave up their houses to be
plundered by their own partizans. It was melancholy to behold the misery
and desolation of the wives and children of those who were thus massacred,
and whose houses were pillaged of every thing valuable, as they went about
the streets bewailing their forlorn condition.

Some obscure persons[5] carried or dragged the dead body of the marquis to
the church, where no one dared to give it burial, till one Juan Barbaran
and his wife, who had been servants to the marquis, obtained permission
from Don Diego, and buried the marquis and his brother as well as they
could. They were obliged to hurry over the ceremony as quickly as possible,
having hardly time to clothe the body in the habit of St Jago, of which
order he was a member, and to put on his spurs according to the usual
manner of burying the knights of that order; as they were informed that
some of the Almagrians were hastening to the church to cut off the head of
the marquis to affix it to the gallows. Barbaran himself performed the
ceremonies of the funeral, at which he was sole mourner, and defrayed all
the expences from his own funds. He next endeavoured to provide for the
security of the children of the marquis, who were concealed in different
parts of the city of Lima, now under the absolute controul of the

In this melancholy catastrophe, we have a forcible example of the
uncertainty and changeableness of fortune. In a very short space of time,
a private individual who held no important office, had discovered a vast
extent of country containing powerful kingdoms, of which he made himself
master and governor with almost uncontrolled authority, bestowing on
several persons such ample fortunes and extensive revenues as none of the
richest and most powerful monarchs whom we read of in history had ever
given away in so short a time. Yet was this man assassinated by only
twelve men at noonday, in the midst of a city the whole inhabitants of
which were his creatures, servants, kinsmen, friends, and soldiers, who
had all eaten of his bread and subsisted on his bounty, even his own
domestic servants and those who were in his house, flying away and
abandoning him to his fate. He was interred in the most obscure manner,
all his richness and greatness having disappeared, not enough being left
to defray the consecrated tapers and other expences of his funeral. The
unsearchable ways of Providence are surprisingly illustrated by these
events; and particularly, that after all the warnings and just causes of
suspicion which had been given him, he refused to take any precautions for
his safety which he could have done so easily.

As the discovery and conquest of Peru, the subject of this work,
originated from the two captains of whom I have hitherto dicoursed, the
Marquis Don Francisco Pizarro, and the President Don Diego de Almagro; it
seems proper to attempt giving their portraitures, with some account of
their manners and qualifications, imitating in this the example of
Plutarch; who, after giving the lives and heroic actions of two great
commanders, institutes a comparison between them, shewing how far they
resembled and differed from each other. We have already said all that
could be learnt respecting their parentage. They were both personally
brave and daring, patient of labour, of hale and robust constitutions, and
exceedingly friendly, being always ready to do good offices to every one
without consideration of expence. In their inclinations and manner of life
they very much resembled each other, as neither of them were married,
though Almagro attained to seventy-five years of age and the marquis to
sixty-five. Both loved war; but Almagro, when not thus employed, willingly
devoted himself to the management of his private affairs. They were both
advanced in life when they undertook the discovery and conquest of Peru,
in which they both encountered great fatigues, as has been formerly
mentioned; but the marquis more especially was exposed to great dangers,
far beyond those of the president, who remained long at Panama providing
all necessaries for the success of the enterprize, while the marquis was
actually engaged in the discovery and conquest of the greater part of the
country. Both had great souls, continually occupied in vast designs and
splendid enterprizes; yet both were of gentle and conciliatory manners,
and of easy access to their followers. They were both liberal and generous
in their gifts; yet the president loved to have his liberalities known and
published to the world; while the marquis carefully concealed his gifts,
and expressed uneasiness when they were known or blazed abroad; being more
anxious to serve the necessities of those to whom he made them, than to
make an ostentatious display of his munificence. One example of this is
worthy of being mentioned. He learnt that one of his soldiers had lost a
horse, on which occasion he went to a tennis-court belonging to his house,
expecting to meet the soldier in that place, carrying with him an ingot of
gold of ten pounds weight, which he meant to present him with. Not finding
the soldier there, he engaged in a match at tennis without taking off his
coat, as he did not wish the ingot should be noticed, which was concealed
below his waistcoat. He remained there above three hours, when at length
the soldier made his appearance. The marquis then took him aside and gave
him the gold, saying that he would rather have given him thrice as much
than have been obliged to carry that heavy weight so long.

Many other examples might be given of the secret liberalities of the
marquis, who gave all his presents with his own hand that they might not
be known. On this account, Almagro was always considered as more liberal,
as his gifts were made in an ostentatious manner. They may be considered,
however, as perfectly equal in their liberality and munificence; for, as
the marquis used to acknowledge that all came from their common funds,
being partners and associates in every thing derived from their joint
discovery and conquest, the half of all that was given by one belonged to
the other, so that he who consented to or participated in the present, was
equally generous with the actual donor. Besides, in proof that they both
deserved the praise of liberality, they were both during their lives
prodigiously rich in ready money and vast revenues, beyond any person or
prince not sovereign who had been known for many ages; yet both died so
poor that no mention is made of the treasures or estates left by them; so
that hardly at their deaths was there sufficient to defray the expences of
their funerals; resembling in that respect Cato and Sylla and some other
famous Romans, who were buried at the public charge.

Both were exceedingly kind to their servants and dependents, whom on all
occasions they delighted to enrich and advance, and to rescue from dangers.
In this last particular the marquis carried his attentions even to excess,
as appears by the following instance. In passing a river called the
Baranca, one of his Indian servants, of the Yanaconas tribe, was carried
away by the strength of the current, on which the marquis plunged into the
stream and swam after him, catching him by the hair, and saved him at the
imminent hazard of his own life, in so rapid a current that the bravest
and most vigorous man in his army durst hardly have made the attempt. When
his officers blamed him for his rashness in thus exposing his life, he
answered that none of them knew how to value a faithful servant. The
marquis enjoyed the authority of governor much longer in tranquillity than
Almagro; who, though he hardly enjoyed that authority at all, was more
ambitious, and evinced a more ardent desire of exercising command. Both
affected simplicity in dress, keeping to the same fashion in their old age
which they had been accustomed to in their youth. In particular, the
marquis used ordinarily to wear a close coat of black cloth, the wide
skirts of which came down almost to his ankles, while the body had a very
short waist and was closely fitted to his shape. His shoes were of white
leather, with a white or grey hat, and a plain sword and dagger in the old
fashion. Sometimes on festivals, by the entreaty of his servants, he wore
a robe of fine fur which had been sent him by the Marquis del Valle; but
immediately on his return from church he put it off, remaining in his
shirt or a plain jacket, with a napkin hanging from his neck to wipe away
sweat, as he usually passed most of the day when in peace in playing at
bowls or tennis.

Both Pizarro and Almagro were exceedingly patient of labour and fatigue,
and could submit better than most men to hunger and thirst and other
privations; but especially the marquis, who was so vigorous that few young
men were able to compete with him in his old days at athletic sports. The
marquis in general was more addicted to play than Almagro, insomuch that
he often spent whole days in playing at bowls, with any one that offered,
whether mariner or miller was all one; and he never allowed any man to
lift his bowl for him, or to use any ceremony whatever in respect to his
rank. He was so fond of play, that few affairs were of sufficient
importance to induce him to give over, especially when losing. But when
informed of any insurrection among the Indians, he would instantly lay
every thing aside, immediately bracing on his armour and seizing his lance
and target, would hasten to the place where the mutiny had risen, without
waiting for his people, who followed him with all expedition.

Both the marquis and the president were so brave and so experienced in the
manner of making war with the Indians, that either of them alone would
never hesitate when on horseback and armed to charge through a hundred
Indians. Both were extremely intelligent, sensible, and judicious, and
could take their measures both in civil and military affairs with great
promptitude and propriety; yet both were so extremely illiterate that
neither of them could read or write, or even sign their names; which
assuredly was a great defect, and exceedingly inconvenient in carrying on
the important affairs in which they were concerned; and although they in
every other respect appeared like persons of high birth, and deported
themselves like noblemen with much dignity and propriety, yet their entire
ignorance of letters was an evident demonstration of the meanness of their
birth. The marquis placed implicit confidence in his servants and friends,
insomuch that in all his dispatches and orders relative to the government,
and in the assignments of lands and Indians, he only made two lines with
the pen, between which Antonio Picado his secretary wrote his name,
Francisco Pizarro. As Ovid said of Romulus, respecting astronomy, we may
say of Pizarro that he was more learned in the art of war than in the
sciences, and applied himself more to know how to atchieve glorious
conquests than to acquire literature. Both were exceedingly affable and
familiar with the colonists, making them frequent visits, and they readily
accepted invitations to dinner from any one; yet both were extremely
moderate in eating and drinking; and both refrained from amorous
connection with Spanish women, on the principle that to intrigue with the
wives or daughters of their countrymen was both prejudicial and
dishonourable to their neighbours. Almagro was the most continent in
regard to the Peruvian women, as we know of no affairs of his gallantry in
that country, his only son being born of an Indian woman of Panama. But
the marquis had more than one attachment in Peru, having lived publickly
with a sister of Atahualpa, by whom he had a son named Don Gonzalo who
died at fourteen years of age, and a daughter named Donna Francisca. By
another Indian woman of Cuzco he had a son named Don Francisco[6].

Both Pizarro and Almagro received high rewards from his majesty for their
signal services; the former being created a marquis, with the authority of
governor of New Castille, and the order of St Jago. Almagro was rewarded
with the government of New Toledo, with the title of President or Lord
Lieutenant of that country. The marquis always evinced the highest respect
for his majesty, the utmost zeal for his service, and the most perfect
obedience for his orders; insomuch that he would often refrain from doing
many things which were evidently within the scope of his authority, lest
he should appear to overstep the bounds of his commission. Frequently,
when sitting in the meeting-houses where the gold and silver was assessed
for the royal fifth, he would rise from his chair to pick up the small
pieces which started from the scissars; observing that if the hands failed
on such occasions, a loyal subject ought to use his mouth to serve the
king. As these two great men resembled each other in many things during
their lives, so in their deaths they were alike unfortunate: the president
being put to death by the brother of the marquis, and the marquis slain by
the son of the president.

The marquis was exceedingly anxious for the improvement of the country,
giving every encouragement to the cultivation of the soil, and the
establishment of colonies of Spaniards in different places. He built for
himself a fine house or palace in the city of Lima, and had two sluices
constructed on the river to drive mills for its supply; employing much of
his leisure in superintending the workmen, and instructing the overseers
how he wished the works to be carried on. He was particularly diligent in
procuring the erection of a great and handsome church in Lima, and
monasteries for the Dominicans and the order of Mercy; both of whom he
endowed with ample estates in lands and Indians.

[1] The festival of St John the Evangelist is on the 5th May but the
assasination of the Marquis did not take place till the 26th June

[2] In a former note, it has been mentioned, on the authority of Robertson,
that Francisco de Alcantara was the uncle of Pizarro by his mother;
yet Garcilasso calls him his brother, and perhaps he was so by a
different father.--E.

[3] The language of the French translator is here rather equivocal, but
distinctly bears the construction here given of the marquis being at
supper in the house of de Alcantara.--E.

[4] By Garcilasso, Velasquez is called the Chief Justice.--E.

[5] Garcilasso, quoting Zarate, says that the body was dragged to church
by some negroes; the French translator says _quelques miserables_.--E.

[6] According to Garcilasso, the marquis had only one son and one daughter,
Don Francisco being the son of his brother Gonzalo. Don Gonzalo, the
only son of the marquis, was born of a daughter of Atahualpa, not a
sister, named Angelina. Donna Francisca was the marquises daughter by
Ynes Huayllas Nusta, a daughter of the Inca Huana Capac, whose
Christian name was Donna Beatrix.--E.

* * * * *




_From the revival of the civil wars in Peru, to the close of the
administration of Vaca de Castro, the first governor appointed from Spain_.

After Don Diego had made himself master of the city of Lima, he deprived
the magistrates of all their insignia of command, but which he immediately
returned to them, with orders to execute their official duties in his name
and authority. He then ordered the Doctor Velasquez, who had been chief
justice or adelantado under the marquis, and Antonio Picado who had been
his secretary, to be taken into custody[2]. In the next place he appointed
Juan Tello, Francisco de Chaves[3], and one Sotelo to be captains of his
troops. On the news of this revolution, all the idle vagabonds and
debauched blackguards of the country hastened to enrol themselves under
the banners of Don Diego, in hopes of participating in the plunder of the
partizans of Pizarro, and of being enabled to live licentiously without
labour. To enable him to pay his troops, Don Diego seized the fifth of the
precious metals belonging to the crown, and took possession of the
properties of those who had been massacred, and the revenues of all the
absentees. In a very short time disputes and divisions arose among those
who had taken part with Don Diego, as the leaders of the malcontent party
among them were anxious to assassinate Juan de Herrada, because every
thing was done and directed by him, Don Diego having only the name of
captain general, while he in fact exercised the whole authority. The
intention of these malcontents being discovered, several of them were put
to death as seditious people; among whom was Francisco de Chaves, who was
put to the rack and afterwards hanged as a ringleader of this new
conspiracy. One Antonio de Orihuela likewise, who had only arrived of late
from Spain, was beheaded, having imprudently asserted that the Almagrians
were tyrants and usurpers.

Deputies or messengers were sent to all the cities and provinces of Peru,
to induce the commandants and magistrates to recognize Don Diego as
governor, which was done in many places out of fear: But Alonso de
Alvarado, who was lieutenant governor in the province of Chachapoyas,
ordered the deputies who were sent into his government to be arrested,
declaring for his majesty in opposition to Don Diego, whom he denounced a
rebel. He was encouraged in this bold procedure, because he was confident
of being able to defend himself with a hundred men whom he commanded in a
strong fortress of his province, which he fortified with much care. Don
Diego used every effort to gain Alvarado to his party, by flattering
promises and menaces of condign punishment; but he uniformly replied, that
he would never acknowledge his authority without an express command from
his majesty to that effect, and that he hoped, by the blessing of God and
the assistance of the brave men whom he commanded, to revenge the death of
the marquis, and to punish the Almagrians for their injurious and
outrageous conduct, and the contempt of the royal authority which they had
evinced in their whole procedure. Garcias de Alvarado was therefore sent
with a force of cavalry and infantry, having orders to go in the first
place to the cities of San Miguel and Truxillo, to deprive the inhabitants
of these two colonies of their arms and horses, and then to march with all
his troops against Alonso de Alvarado. Garcias went accordingly by sea to
the port of Jauta, about fifteen leagues from Truxillo, where he found
Captain Alonso de Cabrera, who had fled thither with all the inhabitants
of Guanuco to join the people of Truxillo against the usurpation of Don
Diego. Garcias made Cabrera and some other of his companions prisoners;
and on his arrival at San Miguel he cut off his head, and likewise put to
death Francisco de Vozmudiana, and Hernando de Villegas.

When the deputies or messengers of Don Diego arrived at Cuzco with orders
to recognize him as governor general of Peru, Diego de Silva and Francisco
de Carvajal were the chief magistrates of that city. These officers,
together with the other magistrates and counsellors forming the Cabildo,
were unwilling to submit to his authority, yet durst not declare
themselves openly till they had maturely considered whether they were
possessed of a sufficient force, and had enough of provisions and warlike
stores to defend themselves in case of being attacked. On purpose
therefore to gain time, they desired the messengers of Don Diego to return
to their master, and to desire him to send them other deputies with more
ample and more regular powers or instructions, after which they would
recognize his authority. Gomez de Tordoya, who was one of the principal
members of the royal council of Cuzco, happened not to be in the city when
the deputies arrived, as he had gone out that day to take the diversion of
hawking. The other members sent therefore a message to inform him of what
was going on, and to desire his presence and advice. On his return to the
city, he met the messengers of Don Diego, and having learnt the state of
affairs, he twisted off the head of an excellent falcon which he carried
on his fist, saying that fighting must now be followed, not the sports of
the field. After a secret consultation with the rest of the Cabildo on the
proper measures to be pursued on the present emergency, he left the city
the same night, and went to the residence of Captain de Castro. They sent
immediately a message to Pedro Anzurez, the lieutenant of the province of
Charcas, giving him an account of the state of affairs, and he declared
himself at once for the party of his majesty.

Immediately afterwards Gomez de Tordoya set off in pursuit of Pedro
Alvarez Holguin, who had lately marched with above a hundred men to reduce
some revolted Indians: On coming up with Holguin, Tordoya immediately told
him all that had taken place, earnestly intreating him to assist the loyal
inhabitants of Cuzco in their just and honourable intentions, and to
assume the command of such troops as might be collected for the defence of
that city against the usurpation of Don Diego. To induce him to comply,
Tordoya declared himself ready to become one of his soldiers, and to give
an example of implicit obedience to his commands. Holguin immediately
declared for his majesty, and agreed to assume the command. He and Tordoya
assembled the inhabitants of the city of Arequipa, whom they confirmed in
their loyalty, and immediately set out for Cuzco with all the force they
could collect. On the arrival of Holguin and Tordoya near Cuzco, above
fifty men who had declared themselves for Don Diego left the city, meaning
to join him at Lima; but the royalists sent de Castro and Ferdinand
Bachicao after them with a party of musqueteers, who came up with and
attacked them during the night, and brought them all back prisoners to

All the magistrates and councillors of Cuzco concurred not only in the
appointment of Pedro Alvarez Holguin as military commandant, but they
named him captain general and governor of all Peru, coming under an oath
of obedience to him in that high capacity till the pleasure of his majesty
should be made manifest on the subject: And in testimony of their zealous
loyalty, the whole inhabitants of Cuzco came under obligations to replace
all the sums that Holguin might be under the necessity of taking from the
effects and revenues belonging to the crown for the payment and equipment
of his troops, in case his majesty might not approve and allow that
expence. Besides this, all the inhabitants of Cuzco, Charcas, and Arequipa
engaged voluntarily to serve in the war, and to contribute towards its
expences. Immediately on his appointment to the supreme power, Holguin
made a proclamation of war against Don Diego as a rebel, and in a short
time assembled a force of 150 cavalry, 100 musqueteers and 100 pikemen.
But learning that Don Diego had more than 800 men under arms, he did not
consider himself powerful enough to wait for him in Cuzco, deeming it more
prudent to march from thence by way of the mountain road, on purpose to
join forces with Alonso de Alvarado, who had declared for his majesty.
Holguin likewise expected to be joined upon the march by several of the
friends and servants of the late marquis, who had concealed themselves
from the rage of the Almagrians in different parts of the mountain region
of Peru. In pursuance of this plan, Holguin set out on his march from
Cuzco, having appointed Gomez de Tordoya his maestre de campo or major
general, Garcilasso de la Vega[4] and Pedro Anzurez, captains of horse,
Nunno de Castro and Hernando de Bachicao captains of foot, and Martin de
Robles as ensign to carry the royal standard. On leaving Cuzco, all who
were unfit for active service in the field were left behind, and proper
officers were appointed for maintaining the government and to distribute

On receiving notice of all these events which had taken place in Cuzco,
and that Holguin had marched from thence with his troops, Don Diego judged
that Holguin would endeavour to form a junction with Alonzo de Alvarado
who commanded in Chachapoyas, and would therefore proceed by the mountain
road towards the north; he resolved therefore to march in such a direction
as might enable him to intercept Holguin before his junction with Alonzo
de Alvarado, but did not think it prudent to attempt this before the
arrival of the force under Garcias de Alvarado, whom he had recalled from
the originally concerted expedition against Alonzo de Alvarado[5]. While
passing through Truxillo, levying men and providing arms and horses,
Garcias proposed to have attacked Alonzo de Alvarado, but was resisted by
the inhabitants of a town in the province of Chachapoyas named Levanto,
and receiving his orders of recal from Don Diego he relinquished his
design, and marched in all haste for Lima. Immediately after the return of
Garcias, Don Diego began his march against Holguin, with a force of 300
horse, 100 musqueteers, and 150 pikemen; but before his departure, he
banished the children of the late marquis and of Gonzalo Pizarro from the
country, and executed Antonio Picado, having previously put him to the
torture to endeavour to extort confession from him as to any hidden
treasure belonging to the marquis.

"As during the civil dissentions in Peru, all intercourse with Spain was
suspended, the detail of the extraordinary transactions there between the
marquis and the elder Almagro, already recounted, did not soon reach the
court[6]. Unfortunately for the victorious faction, the first intelligence
was brought thither by some of Almagro's officers, who left the country on
the ruin of their cause; and they related what had happened with every
circumstance unfavourable to Pizarro and his brothers. Their ambition,
their breach of the most solemn engagements, their violence and cruelty,
were painted with all the malignity and exaggeration of party hatred.
Ferdinand Pizarro, who arrived soon after, and appeared at court with
great splendour, endeavoured to efface the impression which their
accusations had made, and to justify his brother and himself by
representing Almagro as the aggressor. The emperor and his ministers,
though they could not pronounce which of the contending factions was most
criminal, clearly discerned the fatal tendency of their dissentions. It
was obvious, that while the leaders entrusted with the conduct of two
infant colonies, employed the arms which should have been turned against
the common enemy in destroying one another, all attention to the public
good must cease, and there was reason to dread that the Indians might
improve the advantage which the disunion of the Spaniards presented to
them, and extirpate both the victors and the vanquished. But the evil was
more apparent than the remedy. Where the information which had been
received was so defective and suspicious, and the scene of action so
remote, it was almost impossible to chalk out the line of conduct that
ought to be followed; and before any plan that should be approved of in
Spain could be carried into execution, the situation of the parties, and
the circumstances of affairs, might alter so entirely as to render its
effects extremely pernicious."

"Nothing therefore remained but to send a person to Peru, vested with
extensive and discretionary powers; who, after viewing deliberately the
posture of affairs with his own eyes, and inquiring on the spot into the
conduct of the different leaders, should be authorised to establish the
government in that form which he deemed most conducive to the interest of
the parent state and the welfare of the colony. The man selected in 1539
for this important charge was Christoval Vaca de Castro, a judge in the
court of royal audience at Valladolid; and his abilities, integrity, and
firmness, justified the choice. His instructions, though ample, were not
such as to fetter him in his operations. According to the different aspect
of affairs, he had power to take upon him different characters. If he
found the governor still alive, he was only to assume the title of judge,
to maintain the appearance of acting in concert with him, and to guard
against giving any just cause of offence to a man who had merited so
highly of his country. But, if Pizarro were dead, he was entrusted with a
commission that he might then produce, by which he was appointed his
successor in the government of Peru. This attention to Pizarro, however,
seems to have flowed rather from dread of his power, than from any
approbation of his measures; for at the very time that the court seemed so
solicitous not to irritate him, his brother Ferdinand was arrested at
Madrid, and confined to a prison where he remained above twenty years[7]."

"Vaca de Castro, who left Spain in 1540, was driven by stress of weather
in 1541, after a long and disastrous voyage, into a small harbour in the
province of Popayan; and proceeding from thence by land, after a journey
no less difficult than tedious, he reached Quito. In his way he received
accounts of Pizarro's death, and of the events which followed upon it, as
already mentioned. He immediately produced his commission appointing him
governor of Peru, with the same privileges and authority which had been
enjoyed by Pizarro; and his jurisdiction was acknowledged without
hesitation by Benalcazar, adelantado or lieutenant general for the emperor
in Popayan, and by Pedro de Puelles, who had the command of the troops
left in Quito in the absence of Gonzalo Pizarro. Vaca de Castro not only
assumed the supreme authority, but shewed that he possessed the talents
which the exercise of it at that juncture required. By his influence and
address, he soon assembled such a body of troops as not only set him above
all fear of being exposed to any insult from the adverse party, but
enabled him to advance from Quito with the dignity that became his
character. By dispatching persons of confidence to the different
settlements in Peru, with a formal notification of his arrival and of his
commission, he communicated to his countrymen the royal pleasure with
respect to the government of the country. By private emissaries, he
excited such officers as had discovered their disapprobation of Almagro's
proceedings, to manifest their duty to their sovereign by supporting the
person honoured with his commission. Those measures were productive of
great effects. Encouraged by the approach of the new governor, or prepared
by his machinations, the loyal were confirmed in their principles, and
avowed them with greater boldness; the timid ventured to declare their
sentiments; the neutral and wavering, finding it necessary to choose a
side, began to lean to that which now appeared to be the safest, as well
as the most just[8]."

Don Diego had hardly got two leagues from Lima, in 1542, when secret
orders arrived there from Vaca de Castro, addressed to F. Thomas de San
Martin, provincial of the Dominicans, and Francisco de Barrionuevo, to
whom he committed the direction of public affairs till his own arrival. By
these persons, the cabildo of the city was secretly assembled in the
Dominican convent, to whom these orders were communicated, and who
immediately recognized Vaca de Castro as governor, and Geronimo de Aliaga,
his principal secretary, as adelantado or lieutenant governor of Peru.
Immediately upon this formal act of recognition, the members of the
cabildo and several of the principal citizens fled to Truxillo, fearing
the resentment of the Almagrians. Although all this had passed in secret,
it was communicated on the same night to Don Diego, who was disposed in
consequence to have returned with the intention of giving up the city to
plunder; but he was afraid lest by delay Holguin might escape into the
north of Peru, and lest by returning, the arrival of the new governor
might come to the knowledge of his troops. He determined therefore to
continue his march against Holguin with all expedition. In spite of all
his precautions, intelligence of the arrival of the new governor reached
his camp, on which several persons abandoned him secretly, particularly
the provincial of the Dominicans, Diego de Aguero, Juan de Saavedra, Yllen
Suarez de Carvajal the commissary, and Gomez de Alvarado.

Although every consideration prompted Don Diego to use the utmost
diligence in the present posture of affairs, he was under the absolute
necessity of marching slowly, as Juan de Herrada his great friend and
adviser fell sick of a mortal distemper. Owing to this delay, Holguin was
enabled to get beyond the valley of Jauja in his march towards the
province of Chachapoyas. Yet Don Diego followed after him with so much
diligence that he very nearly got up with him. In this emergency, as
Holguin was by no means in sufficient force to venture a battle with Don
Diego, he put the following stratagem in practice to enable him to escape,
which effectually succeeded. During the night he detached twenty horsemen
to make an attack on the advanced guard of the enemy, with orders to take
some prisoners if possible, and then to retire. They executed their orders
successfully and made three prisoners, two of whom Holguin ordered to be
immediately hanged, and offered life and liberty with a considerable
reward in money to the third, if he would carry information to certain
persons in the army of Don Diego, who he pretended were disposed to join
him, that he intended to attack the right wing of the camp in the ensuing
night, that they might be ready to assist him. He even administered an
oath to this soldier that he would religiously keep the secret from every
one but those to whom he was directed to carry the message. Being a young
man and desirous of procuring the promised large reward, he readily
undertook the commission, and returned to the camp of Don Diego. When Don
Diego understood that this man had come back, and that his two companions
were hanged by Holguin, he suspected that mercy had been shewn him on some
private conditions; for which reason he ordered the soldier to be put to
the torture, who immediately avowed all that had been confided to him. By
this means, Don Diego was led to believe that Holguin actually intended to
surprise him by night, and took effectual measures to receive him, placing
the greatest part of his troops under arms all night on that side which
the soldier mentioned as the part where Holguin was to attack. The
intentions of Holguin were diametrically opposite to this story which he
had put in the mouth of the soldier, meaning only to gain time for a
secure retreat; so that immediately after dispatching the soldier, he
decamped in the middle of the night, marching with all possible celerity
to get his army into a place of safety, while Don Diego uselessly kept his
army under arms in expectation of being attacked.

When Don Diego discovered the trick which had been imposed on him, he
resumed the pursuit of Holguin with as much celerity as he could: But
Holguin had sent a quick messenger to Alonso de Alvarado, requesting him
to hasten to his assistance, which Alvarado did without delay with all his
own troops and several of the inhabitants of Truxillo. On the junction of
these officers a few davs afterwards, Don Diego discontinued the pursuit,
and returned towards Cuzco. Holguin and Alvarado sent off immediately to
inform Vaca de Castro by letter of all the preceding events, and
counselled him to advance without delay to join them, as they were in
sufficient force to make him master of the country when strengthened by
his authority. At this time Juan de Herrada expired at Jauja, and Don
Diego detached a part of his army to the low country of Peru to collect
those of his party who were at Arequipa and other places. His officers
plundered the city of Arequipa, and dug up every where about the monastery
of the Dominicans in search of treasure, as they were informed that the
inhabitants of that city had concealed their valuable effects in that

Vaca de Castro had reached Peru with much difficulty and fatigue. The
voyage from Panama was exceedingly tedious and tempestuous, and the vessel
in which he sailed lost all its anchors. Having at last reached the
harbour of Buenaventura at the bottom of the bay of Choco on the coast of
Raposo, he went from thence by land to the frontiers of the government of
Benalcazar, who commanded in Popayan, and thence to Peru. He suffered much
hardship and fatigue in that journey, both from the length and difficulty
of the way and the scarcity of provisions, so that he fell sick as being
quite unused to such fatigues. Yet as the death of the marquis and the
subsequent events were already known in Popayan, de Castro continued his
journey with as little delay as possible, that he might endeavour by his
presence to remedy the disorders of the country. Although Vaca de Castro
had been sent to Peru ostensibly to investigate into and take cognizance
of the death of Almagro, and of the subsequent transactions, without any
order to deprive the marquis of the government, or even to suspend his
authority; yet he had been furnished with a secret commission, by which he
was authorized to assume the government, in case the marquis should die
during his voyage, or after his arrival, and to exercise all the functions
of that high office, till the emperor might give orders to the contrary.
By the authority of this commission, he was received in the camp of
Holguin and Alvarado as governor. He was accompanied thither by several
persons who had joined him on his first arrival in Peru, particularly by
Captain Lorenzo de Aldana, who had been lieutenant governor of Quito under
the marquis. He sent before him Captain Pedro de Puelles, to make
preparations for carrying on the war. He sent likewise Gomez de Royas to
Cuzco, with orders to the magistrates and inhabitants of that city to
receive him as lieutenant. Royas used so much diligence and address that
he arrived at Cuzco and was received and acknowledged in the command of
that place before Don Diego could reach it with his army.

When Vaca de Castro passed through the province of Bracamoras on his way
from Quito to Truxillo, Captain Pedro de Vergara, who was then occupied in
reducing that province, and had even fortified himself in a strong post on
purpose to defend himself against Don Diego, joined him with all his men.
At Truxillo the new governor was joined by Gomez de Tordoya, who had
quitted the camp in consequence of a dispute with Holguin. He was joined
likewise at Truxillo by Garcilasso de la Vega and some other gentlemen. By
all these means, when Vaca de Castro left Truxillo to repair to the camp
of Holguin and Alvarado, he had already collected a well armed force of
more than two hundred men, all ready to obey his orders. Immediately on
his arrival at the camp, Holguin and Alvarado received him with every
demonstration of joy, giving up to him their standards and all other marks
of authority; all of which he restored, except the royal standard, which
he retained for himself. Having appointed Holguin to the command of the
army, as maestre de campo general, he ordered him to march forwards to
Jauja, and to wait there till he himself might return from Lima, where he
proposed going that he might establish its government in proper order, and
on purpose to collect men, arms and ammunition. He gave orders to Holguin,
that Captain Diego de Royas should always precede the army about twenty
leagues, with a detachment of thirty horsemen, to gain intelligence of the
motions of the enemy. At the same time he sent back Diego de Mora to
Truxillo, to take the command in that city. De Castro thus took every
proper precaution for the successful issue of his expedition, with as much
prudent foresight as if he had been all his life enured to warlike affairs.

When Don Diego found that Holguin had escaped from his pursuit, as
formerly related, he went to Cuzco with his army, where Christoval de
Sotelo, whom he had detached there before him, had already taken
possession of the city, and had displaced the magistrates who had been
established there under the authority of the new governor. Immediately on
the arrival of Don Diego at Cuzco, he made every exertion to provide
artillery and gunpowder for the farther prosecution of the war. Both of
these warlike articles are easily made in Peru. As to artillery, there is
abundance of metal for that purpose, and there were also several persons
in Cuzco who were perfectly well acquainted with the manner of founding
cannon: These were _Levantines_ or Greeks, several of whom had come to
Peru out of respect for Pedro de Candia, who was master of the ordnance to
Don Diego. Powder was likewise easily made in great abundance, as
saltpetre is to be had in every part of that country of excellent quality.
At the same time he had defensive armour made for those of his people who
were in want, forming corslets and helmets of silver mixed with copper,
which answered amazingly well, and, were made by the native artists, who
fabricated every kind of arms in imitation of, and as good as those of
Milan. By these means, and by collecting all the arms throughout the whole
country, every one of his men was at least provided with a coat of mail, a
cuirass or corselet, and a helmet[9]. In this manner Don Diego was enabled
to equip two hundred musqueteers, and to establish several companies of
men at arms, as hitherto in Peru, hardly any thing had been seen of that
kind, the cavalry being all light horse except a very few.

While these preparations were going on, an unfortunate quarrel arose
between the captains Garcias de Alvarado and Christoval de Sotelo, in
which they drew their swords and Sotelo was slain. As both of these
captains were principal leaders in the Almagrian party, and had many
friends and partizans in the army, this unfortunate affair occasioned much
strife, and had nearly occasioned a battle between the friends of the two
combatants; but Don Diego appeased them with some difficulty, and by using
a great deal of address. But as Garcias de Alvarado plainly perceived that
Don Diego took the death of Sotelo much to heart, whom he dearly loved,
and feared lest he might take measures afterwards of revenge, he
endeavoured to take precautions in the meantime for his own safety, and
for this purpose proposed to have assassinated Don Diego. With this view
he one day invited Don Diego to dinner, intending to have put him to death
during the entertainment. Don Diego accepted the invitation, but when the
appointed day came, having some suspicion of what was intended, he sent an
excuse for his absence, on pretence of being indisposed. As Garcias had
provided every thing for the execution of his design, he went with several
of his friends to endeavour to prevail on Don Diego to come to the
entertainment. While on his way, he met a soldier named Martin Carillo who
advised him to stay away from the house of Don Diego, who he was fully
persuaded intended to put him to death. He continued his purpose however,
and received a similar advice from another soldier a little farther on.
Yet he persisted in going to the house of Don Diego, and even went up to
his chamber, where he found him on a day-bed under pretence of being
unwell. This visit seemed to be expected, as Don Diego had several armed
men concealed in a neighbouring room.

Garcias de Alvarado and his followers went into the chamber of Don Diego,
to whom Alvarado said; "I hope, my lord, that your indisposition is of
little importance. You must rise and shake it off, and you will be the
better of some exercise and amusement. Come along with us, and though you
eat little, your presence will give pleasure to the company who expect
you." Don Diego agreed to go, and called for his cloak, being already
armed with his sword and dagger. While the company in the room made way by
going out, and Garcias de Alvarado went immediately before Don Diego,
Pedro de Onnate and several others who were instructed, shut the door, and
seizing on Garcias told him he was their prisoner. Don Diego drew his
sword, with which he wounded Garcias, saying that he must be slain, not
taken prisoner; and immediately Juan Balsa, Alfonso de Saavedra, Diego
Mendez the brother of Rodrigo Orgognez, and several others who were
concealed in the next room, rushed out and put Alvarado to death with many

On the news of this event spreading through the city, it occasioned much
dissatisfaction and some appearances of an insurrection which might have
had very fatal consequences; but Don Diego went immediately out into the
great square, where he succeeded in appeasing the people, and the friends
of Alvarado were forced to be quiet. Immediately after this, on purpose to
give employment to his troops, and because he heard that Vaca de Castro
had joined Holguin and Alonso Alvarado, he marched out from Cuzco, meaning
to seek out and give battle to the royalists. His army on this occasion
was the most numerous and best appointed that had hitherto been seen in
Peru, consisting of 250 horse, 200 musqueteers, and 250 pikemen, many of
these being armed with halberts, and all remarkably well provided with
defensive armour, especially all his cavalry, who, besides coats of mail,
had back and breast-pieces of iron. Besides these, he had a great train of
artillery, and was accompanied by Paul, the brother of the Inca who had
been raised to the Peruvian throne by the elder Almagro. The assistance of
this chief was of great importance to Don Diego on the present occasion,
as his Indians always went a considerable way before the army, and obliged
the natives of all the districts through which they passed to supply
provisions for the troops, and to furnish people for carrying the baggage
and other necessary services. In this manner Don Diego proceeded for about
fifty leagues to the province of Vilcas, where he learnt that the royal
army was only thirty leagues distant from him.

While Vaca de Castro was in Lima, he procured a number of musquets to be
made by the workmen of that city, and made every other preparation in his
power to strengthen his army. Among other things, as Don Diego had carried
off the whole royal treasure, he borrowed a large sum from the inhabitants
of Lima, for the pay of his troops and other expences of the war; and all
things being regulated, he set out to join the army with as many men as he
could collect, leaving Francisco de Barrionuevo as his lieutenant in Lima,
and Juan Perez de Guevara as commandant of his marine. He directed his
march for Jauja, leaving orders with the inhabitants of Lima to retire on
board the ships, in case Don Diego, as he threatened, should make an
attack upon the city. On his arrival at Jauja, where Holguin and the army
waited for him, he found that the general had provided good store of arms
both offensive and defensive, and particularly a large supply of gunpowder
which had been made at that place. The governor incorporated the horsemen
whom he brought along with him from Lima among the troops or companies of
cavalry already in the army, which were commanded by the Captains Pedro
Alvarez Holguin, Pedro Anzurez, and Garcilasso de la Vega, and formed an
additional troop of horse of which he gave the command to Gomez de
Alvarado. Those foot soldiers which he brought with him were distributed
into the companies of Pedro de Vergara and Nunno de Castro, and he formed
a new company of musqueteers, of which he appointed the bachelor Juan
Velez de Guevara captain. Although a man of letters and educated in the
study of the law, Guevara was an excellent soldier, and particularly
attentive to discipline, and had even greatly assisted in the construction
of the musquets with which his company was armed. Being likewise very
learned in the law, he executed a judicial charge at the same time with
his military command, both on the present occasion under Vaca de Castro,
and during the subsequent troubles produced by Gonzalo Pizarro, as will be
afterwards related. Every day till noon, he held his judicial sittings and
dispatched such affairs of that kind as occurred, in the ordinary sober
dress of a lawyer. After that, he dressed in richly embroidered uniforms,
with a buff jerkin, a feather in his hat, and his musquet on his shoulder,
exercising his company with much attention, and practised himself in

Having drawn together a well armed force of seven hundred men, 370 of whom
were cavalry, 170 musqueteers, and 160 armed with pikes, Vaca de Castro
appointed captain Francisco de Carvajal serjeant major[10] of his army;
the same person who was afterwards maestre de campo general under Gonzalo
Pizarro. Carvajal was an officer of great experience, having served above
forty years in the army, and was bred in the wars of Italy under _the
great captain_, having risen in that service from the ranks to a
lieutenancy. By him all the movements of the army were directed.

About this time a message was received by Vaca de Castro from Gonzalo
Pizarro, who had just returned to Quito from his disastrous expedition to
Los Canelos, formerly related. Gonzalo made offer to the governor to march
to his assistance with all the troops he could raise; but de Castro, in
answer, after thanking him for his good will, desired him to remain at
Quito and on no account to come to the army, as he had hope of bringing
Don Diego to terms of accommodation, being only desirous of restoring the
country to peace. In this procedure, the governor meant in some measure to
mortify the pride of Gonzalo Pizarro; and besides, he feared lest his
natural desire of taking revenge for the murder of his brother might prove
an invincible obstacle against Don Diego agreeing to any accommodation,
who would never venture to submit to any one who was accompanied by
Gonzalo Pizarro, whose friends in the royal army were very numerous. Some

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