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A Compilation of the Messages and Papers of the Presidents: Lincoln by Compiled by James D. Richardson

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directed measures to prevent the use of the post-office for treasonable
correspondence. He subjected passengers to and from foreign countries to
new passport regulations, and he instituted a blockade, suspended the
writ of _habeas corpus_ in various places, and caused persons who were
represented to him as being or about to engage in disloyal and
treasonable practices to be arrested by special civil as well as
military agencies and detained in military custody when necessary to
prevent them and deter others from such practices. Examinations of such
cases were instituted, and some of the persons so arrested have been
discharged from time to time under circumstances or upon conditions
compatible, as was thought, with the public safety.

Meantime a favorable change of public opinion has occurred. The line
between loyalty and disloyalty is plainly defined. The whole structure
of the Government is firm and stable. Apprehension of public danger and
facilities for treasonable practices have diminished with the passions
which prompted heedless persons to adopt them. The insurrection is
believed to have culminated and to be declining.

The President, in view of these facts, and anxious to favor a return to
the normal course of the Administration as far as regard for the public
welfare will allow, directs that all political prisoners or state
prisoners now held in military custody be released on their subscribing
to a parole engaging them to render no aid or comfort to the enemies in
hostility to the United States.

The Secretary of War will, however, in his discretion, except from the
effect of this order any persons detained as spies in the service of the
insurgents, or others whose release at the present moment may be deemed
incompatible with the public safety.

To all persons who shall be so released and who shall keep their parole
the President grants an amnesty for any past offenses of treason or
disloyalty which they may have committed.

Extraordinary arrests will hereafter be made under the direction of the
military authorities alone.

By order of the President:


_Secretary of War_.

The President's Thanks to the Forces That Captured Fort Henry and
Roanoke Island.

WASHINGTON CITY, D.C., _February 15, 1862_.

The President, Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy, returns thanks
to Brigadier-General Burnside and Flag-Officer Goldsborough, and to
Brigadier-General Grant and Flag-Officer Foote, and the land and naval
forces under their respective commands, for their gallant achievements
in the capture of Fort Henry and at Roanoke Island. While it will be no
ordinary pleasure for him to acknowledge and reward in a becoming manner
the valor of the living, he also recognizes his duty to pay fitting
honor to the memory of the gallant dead. The charge at Roanoke Island,
like the bayonet charge at Mill Springs, proves that the close grapple
and sharp steel of loyal and patriotic soldiers must always put rebels
and traitors to flight.

The late achievements of the Navy show that the flag of the Union, once
borne in proud glory around the world by naval heroes, will soon again
float over every rebel city and stronghold, and that it shall forever be
honored and respected as the emblem of liberty and union in every land
and upon every sea.

By order of the President:


_Secretary of War_.


_Secretary of the Navy_.


_Washington City, D.C., February 17, 1862_.

Brigadier-General F.W. LANDER:

The President directs me to say that he has observed with pleasure the
activity and enterprise manifested by yourself and the officers and
soldiers of your command. You have shown how much may be done in the
worst weather and worst roads by a spirited officer at the head of a
small force of brave men, unwilling to waste life in camp when the
enemies of their country are within reach. Your brilliant success is a
happy presage of what may be expected when the Army of the Potomac shall
be led to the field by their gallant general.


_Secretary of War_.




_Washington, February 18, 1862_.

I. The following concurrent resolutions of the two Houses of the
Congress of the United States are published for the information of the

_Resolved_, That the two Houses will assemble in the Chamber of the
House of Representatives on Saturday, the 22d day of February instant,
at 12 o'clock meridian, and that in the presence of the two Houses of
Congress thus assembled the Farewell Address of George Washington to the
people of the United States shall be read; and that the President of the
Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives be requested to
invite the President of the United States, the heads of the several
Departments, the judges of the Supreme Court, the representatives from
all foreign governments near this Government, and such officers of the
Army and Navy and distinguished citizens as may then be at the seat of
Government to be present on that occasion.

_Resolved_, That the President of the United States, Commander in Chief
of the Army and Navy, be requested to direct that orders be issued for
the reading to the Army and Navy of the United States of the Farewell
Address of George Washington, or such parts thereof as he may select, on
the 22d day of February instant.

II. In compliance with the foregoing resolutions, the President of the
United States, Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy, orders that the
following extracts from the Farewell Address of George Washington be
read to the troops at every military post and at the head of the several
regiments and corps of the Army:

Interwoven as is the love of liberty with every ligament of your hearts,
no recommendation of mine is necessary to fortify or confirm the

The unity of government which constitutes you one people is also now
dear to you. It is justly so, for it is a main pillar in the edifice of
your real independence, the support of your tranquillity at home, your
peace abroad, of your safety, of your prosperity, of that very liberty
which you so highly prize. But as it is easy to foresee that from
different causes and from different quarters much pains will be taken,
many artifices employed, to weaken in your minds the conviction of this
truth, as this is the point in your political fortress against which the
batteries of internal and external enemies will be most constantly and
actively (though often covertly and insidiously) directed, it is of
infinite moment that you should properly estimate the immense value of
your national union to your collective and individual happiness; that
you should cherish a cordial, habitual, and immovable attachment to it;
accustoming yourselves to think and speak of it as of the palladium of
your political safety and prosperity; watching for its preservation with
jealous anxiety; discountenancing whatever may suggest even a suspicion
that it can in any event be abandoned, and indignantly frowning upon the
first dawning of every attempt to alienate any portion of our country
from the rest or to enfeeble the sacred ties which now link together the
various parts.

For this you have every inducement of sympathy and interest. Citizens by
birth or choice of a common country, that country has a right to
concentrate your affections. The name of American, which belongs to you
in your national capacity, must always exalt the just pride of
patriotism more than any appellation derived from local discriminations.
With slight shades of difference, you have the same religion, manners,
habits, and political principles. You have in a common cause fought and
triumphed together. The independence and liberty you possess are the
work of joint councils and joint efforts, of common dangers, sufferings,
and successes.

* * * * *

While, then, every part of our country thus feels an immediate and
particular interest in union, all the parts combined can not fail to
find in the united mass of means and efforts greater strength, greater
resource, proportionably greater security from external danger, a less
frequent interruption of their peace by foreign nations, and, what is of
inestimable value, they must derive from union an exemption from those
broils and wars between themselves which so frequently afflict
neighboring countries not tied together by the same governments, which
their own rivalships alone would be sufficient to produce, but which
opposite foreign alliances, attachments, and intrigues would stimulate
and imbitter. Hence, likewise, they will avoid the necessity of those
overgrown military establishments which, under any form of government,
are inauspicious to liberty, and which are to be regarded as
particularly hostile to republican liberty. In this sense it is that
your union ought to be considered as a main prop of your liberty, and
that the love of the one ought to endear to you the preservation of the

* * * * *

To the efficacy and permanency of your union a government for the whole
is indispensable. No alliances, however strict, between the parts can be
an adequate substitute. They must inevitably experience the infractions
and interruptions which all alliances in all times have experienced.
Sensible of this momentous truth, you have improved upon your first
essay by the adoption of a Constitution of Government better calculated
than your former for an intimate union and for the efficacious
management of your common concerns. This Government, the offspring of
our own choice, uninfluenced and unawed, adopted upon full investigation
and mature deliberation, completely free in its principles, in the
distribution of its powers, uniting security with energy, and containing
within itself a provision for its own amendment, has a just claim to
your confidence and your support. Respect for its authority, compliance
with its laws, acquiescence in its measures, are duties enjoined by the
fundamental maxims of true liberty. The basis of our political systems
is the right of the people to make and to alter their constitutions of
government. But the constitution which at any time exists till changed
by an explicit and authentic act of the whole people is sacredly
obligatory upon all. The very idea of the power and the right of the
people to establish government presupposes the duty of every individual
to obey the established government.

All obstructions to the execution of the laws, all combinations and
associations, under whatever plausible character, with the real design
to direct, control, counteract, or awe the regular deliberation and
action of the constituted authorities, are destructive of this
fundamental principle and of fatal tendency. They serve to organize
faction; to give it an artificial and extraordinary force; to put in the
place of the delegated will of the nation the will of a party, often a
small but artful and enterprising minority of the community, and,
according to the alternate triumphs of different parties, to make the
public administration the mirror of the ill-concerted and incongruous
projects of faction rather than the organ of consistent and wholesome
plans, digested by common counsels and modified by mutual interests.

* * * * *

Of all the dispositions and habits which lead to political prosperity,
religion and morality are indispensable supports. In vain would that
man claim the tribute of patriotism who should labor to subvert these
great pillars of human happiness--these firmest props of the duties
of men and citizens. The mere politician, equally with the pious man,
ought to respect and to cherish them. A volume could not trace all
their connections with private and public felicity. Let it simply be
asked, Where is the security for property, for reputation, for life,
if the sense of religious obligation _desert_ the oaths which are the
instruments of investigation in courts of justice? And let us with
caution indulge the supposition that morality can be maintained without
religion. Whatever may be conceded to the influence of refined education
on minds of peculiar structure, reason and experience both forbid us to
expect that national morality can prevail in exclusion of religious

It is substantially true that virtue or morality is a necessary spring
of popular government. The rule indeed extends with more or less force
to every species of free government. Who that is a sincere friend to it
can look with indifference upon attempts to shake the foundation of the
fabric? Promote, then, as an object of primary importance, institutions
for the general diffusion of knowledge. In proportion as the structure
of a government gives force to public opinion, it is essential that
public opinion should be enlightened.

* * * * *

Observe good faith and justice toward all nations. Cultivate peace and
harmony with all. Religion and morality enjoin this conduct. And can it
be that good policy does not equally enjoin it? It will be worthy of a
free, enlightened, and at no distant period a great nation to give to
mankind the magnanimous and too novel example of a people always guided
by an exalted justice and benevolence. Who can doubt that in the course
of time and things the fruits of such a plan would richly repay any
temporary advantages which might be lost by a steady adherence to it?
Can it be that Providence has not connected the permanent felicity of
a nation with its virtue? The experiment, at least, is recommended by
every sentiment which ennobles human nature. Alas! is it rendered
impossible by its vices?

* * * * *

Harmony, liberal intercourse with all nations, are recommended by
policy, humanity, and interest. But even our commercial policy should
hold an equal and impartial hand, neither seeking nor granting exclusive
favors or preferences; consulting the natural course of things;
diffusing and diversifying by gentle means the streams of commerce, but
forcing nothing; establishing with powers so disposed, in order to give
trade a stable course, to define the rights of our merchants, and to
enable the Government to support them, conventional rules of
intercourse, the best that present circumstances and mutual opinion will
permit, but temporary and liable to be from time to time abandoned or
varied as experience and circumstances shall dictate; constantly keeping
in view that it is folly in one nation to look for disinterested favors
from another; that it must pay with a portion of its independence for
whatever it may accept under that character; that by such acceptance it
may place itself in the condition of having given equivalents for
nominal favors, and yet of being reproached with ingratitude for not
giving more. There can be no greater error than to expect or calculate
upon real favors from nation to nation. It is an illusion which
experience must cure, which a just pride ought to discard.

In offering to you, my countrymen, these counsels of an old and
affectionate friend I dare not hope they will make the strong and
lasting impression I could wish--that they will control the usual
current of the passions or prevent our nation from running the course
which has hitherto marked the destiny of nations. But if I may even
flatter myself that they may be productive of some partial benefit, some
occasional good--that they may now and then recur to moderate the fury
of party spirit, to warn against the mischiefs of foreign intrigue, to
guard against the impostures of pretended patriotism--this hope will be
a full recompense for the solicitude for your welfare by which they have
been dictated.

* * * * *

Though in reviewing the incidents of my Administration I am unconscious
of intentional error, I am nevertheless too sensible of my defects not
to think it probable that I may have committed many errors. Whatever
they may be, I fervently beseech the Almighty to avert or mitigate the
evils to which they may tend. I shall also carry with me the hope that
my country will never cease to view them with indulgence, and that,
after forty-five years of my life dedicated to its service with an
upright zeal, the faults of incompetent abilities will be consigned to
oblivion, as myself must soon be to the mansions of rest.

Relying on its kindness in this as in other things, and actuated by that
fervent love toward it which is so natural to a man who views in it the
native soil of himself and his progenitors for several generations, I
anticipate with pleasing expectation that retreat in which I promise
myself to realize without alloy the sweet enjoyment of partaking in the
midst of my fellow-citizens the benign influence of good laws under a
free government--the ever-favorite object of my heart, and the happy
reward, as I trust, of our mutual cares, labors, and dangers.

By command of Major-General McClellan:




_Washington City, D.C., February 18, 1862_.

_Ordered by the President, Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of
the United States_, That on the 22d day of February, in the Hall of the
House of Representatives, immediately after the Farewell Address of
George Washington shall have been read, the rebel flags lately captured
by the United States forces shall be presented to Congress by the
Adjutant-General, to be disposed of as Congress may direct.

By order of the President,


_Secretary of War_.


_Washington City, February 25, 1862_.

_Ordered_, first. On and after the 26th day of February instant the
President, by virtue of the act of Congress, takes military possession
of all the telegraph lines in the United States.

Second. All telegraphic communications in regard to military operations
not expressly authorized by the War Department, the General Commanding,
or the generals commanding armies in the field, in the several
departments, are absolutely forbidden.

Third. All newspapers publishing military news, however obtained and by
whatever medium received, not authorized by the official authority
mentioned in the preceding paragraph will be excluded thereafter from
receiving information by telegraph or from transmitting their papers by

Fourth. Edward S. Sanford is made military supervisor of telegraphic
messages throughout the United States. Anson Stager is made military
superintendent of all telegraph lines and offices in the United States.

Fifth. This possession and control of the telegraph lines is not
intended to interfere in any respect with the ordinary affairs of the
companies or with private business.

By order of the President:


_Secretary of War_.


_Washington, February 27, 1862_.

_It is ordered_, first. That a special commission of two persons, one of
military rank and the other in civil life, be appointed to examine the
cases of the state prisoners remaining in the military custody of the
United States, and to determine whether, in view of the public safety
and the existing rebellion, they should be discharged or remain in
military custody or be remitted to the civil tribunals for trial.

Second. That Major-General John A. Dix, commanding in Baltimore, and the
Hon. Edwards Pierrepont, of New York, be, and they are hereby, appointed
commissioners for the purposes above mentioned, and they are authorized
to examine, hear, and determine the cases aforesaid, _ex parte_ and in a
summary manner, at such times and places as in their discretion they may
appoint, and make full report to the War Department.

By order of the President:


_Secretary of War_.


WASHINGTON, _February 28, 1862_.

Considering that the existing circumstances of the country allow a
partial restoration of commercial intercourse between the inhabitants of
those parts of the United States heretofore declared to be in
insurrection and the citizens of the loyal States of the Union, and
exercising the authority and discretion confided to me by the act of
Congress approved July 13, 1861, entitled "An act further to provide for
the collection of duties on imports, and for other purposes," I hereby
license and permit such commercial intercourse in all cases within the
rules and regulations which have been or may be prescribed by the
Secretary of the Treasury for the conducting and carrying on of the same
on the inland waters and ways of the United States.




_Washington, March 8, 1862_.

_Ordered_, 1. That the major-general commanding the Army of the Potomac
proceed forthwith to organize that part of the said army destined to
enter upon active operations (including the reserve, but excluding the
troops to be left in the fortifications about Washington) into four army
corps, to be commanded according to seniority of rank, as follows:

First Corps to consist of four divisions, and to be commanded by
Major-General I. McDowell.

Second Corps to consist of three divisions, and to be commanded by
Brigadier-General E.V. Sumner.

Third Corps to consist of three divisions, and to be commanded by
Brigadier-General S.P. Heintzelman.

Fourth Corps to consist of three divisions, and to be commanded by
Brigadier-General E.D. Keyes.

2. That the divisions now commanded by the officers above assigned to
the commands of army corps shall be embraced in and form part of their
respective corps.

3. The forces left for the defense of Washington will be placed in
command of Brigadier-General James S. Wadsworth, who shall also be
military governor of the District of Columbia.

4. That this order be executed with such promptness and dispatch as not
to delay the commencement of the operations already directed to be
undertaken by the Army of the Potomac.

5. A fifth army corps, to be commanded by Major-General N.P. Banks, will
be formed from his own and General Shields's (late General Lander's)




_Washington, March 8, 1862_.

_Ordered_, That no change of the base of operations of the Army of the
Potomac shall be made without leaving in and about Washington such a
force as in the opinion of the General in Chief and the commanders of
all the army corps shall leave said city entirely secure.

That no more than two army corps (about 50,000 troops) of said Army of
the Potomac shall be moved _en route_ for a new base of operations until
the navigation of the Potomac from Washington to the Chesapeake Bay
shall be freed from enemy's batteries and other obstructions, or until
the President shall hereafter give express permission.

That any movements as aforesaid _en route_ for a new base of operations
which may be ordered by the General in Chief, and which may be intended
to move upon the Chesapeake Bay, shall begin to move upon the bay as
early as the 18th day of March instant, and the General in Chief shall
be responsible that it so move as early as that day.

_Ordered_, That the Army and Navy cooperate in an immediate effort to
capture the enemy's batteries upon the Potomac between Washington and
the Chesapeake Bay.




_Washington, March 11, 1862_.

Major-General McClellan having personally taken the field at the head of
the Army of the Potomac, until otherwise ordered he is relieved from the
command of the other military departments, he retaining command of the
Department of the Potomac.

_Ordered further_, That the departments now under the respective
commands of Generals Halleck and Hunter, together with so much of that
under General Buell as lies west of a north and south line indefinitely
drawn through Knoxville, Tenn., be consolidated and designated the
Department of the Mississippi, and that until otherwise ordered
Major-General Halleck have command of said department.

_Ordered also_, That the country west of the Department of the Potomac
and east of the Department of the Mississippi be a military department,
to be called the Mountain Department, and that the same be commanded by
Major-General Fremont.

That all the commanders of departments, after the receipt of this order
by them, respectively report severally and directly to the Secretary of
War, and that prompt, full, and frequent reports will be expected of all
and each of them.


WAR DEPARTMENT, _March 13, 1862_.


The President, having considered the plan of operations agreed upon by
yourself and the commanders of army corps, makes no objection to the
same, but gives the following directions as to its execution:

1. Leave such force at Manassas Junction as shall make it entirely
certain that the enemy shall not repossess himself of that position and
line of communication.

2. Leave Washington entirely secure.

3. Move the remainder of the force down the Potomac, choosing a new base
at Fortress Monroe, or anywhere between here and there, or, at all
events, move such remainder of the army at once in pursuit of the enemy
by some route.


_Secretary of War_.

[From the Daily National Intelligencer, March 28, 1862.]

NAVY DEPARTMENT, _March 15, 1862_.

Lieutenant JOHN L. WORDEN, United States Navy,

_Commanding United States Steamer Monitor, Washington_.

SIR: The naval action which took place on the 10th instant between the
_Monitor_ and _Merrimac_ at Hampton Roads, when your vessel, with two
guns, engaged a powerful armored steamer of at least eight guns, and
after a few hours' conflict repelled her formidable antagonist, has
excited general admiration and received the applause of the whole

The President directs me, while earnestly and deeply sympathizing with
you in the injuries which you have sustained, but which it is believed
are but temporary, to thank you and your command for the heroism you
have displayed and the great service you have rendered.

The action of the 10th and the performance, power, and capabilities of
the _Monitor_ must effect a radical change in naval warfare.

Flag-Officer Goldsborough, in your absence, will be furnished by the
Department with a copy of this letter of thanks and instructed to cause
it to be read to the officers and crew of the _Monitor_.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,



_Washington, D.C., April 5, 1862_.

Major-General JOHN A. DIX:

_Ordered_, That Major-General John A. Dix, commanding at Baltimore, be,
and he is, authorized and empowered at his discretion--

First. To assume and exercise control over the police of the city of
Baltimore; to supersede and remove the civil police or any part thereof
and establish a military police in said city.

Second. To arrest and imprison disloyal persons, declare martial law,
and suspend the writ of _habeas corpus_ in the city of Baltimore or any
part of his command, and to exercise and perform all military power,
function, and authority that he may deem proper for the safety of his
command or to secure obedience and respect to the authority and
Government of the United States.

By order of the President:


_Secretary of War_.

[From the Daily National Intelligencer, May 17, 1862.]

The skillful and gallant movements of Major-General John E. Wool and the
forces under his command, which resulted in the surrender of Norfolk and
the evacuation of strong batteries erected by the rebels on Sewells
Point and Craney Island and the destruction of the rebel ironclad
steamer _Merrimac_, are regarded by the President as among the most
important successes of the present war. He therefore orders that his
thanks as Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy be communicated by the
War Department to Major-General John E. Wool and the officers and
soldiers of his command for their gallantry and good conduct in the
brilliant operations mentioned.

By order of the President, made at the city of Norfolk on the 11th day
of May, 1862:


_Secretary of War_.

WAR DEPARTMENT, _May 25, 1862_.

_Ordered_: By virtue of the authority vested by act of Congress, the
President takes military possession of all the railroads in the United
States from and after this date until further order, and directs that
the respective railroad companies, their officers and servants, shall
hold themselves in readiness for the transportation of such troops and
munitions of war as may be ordered by the military authorities, to the
exclusion of all other business.

By order of the Secretary of War:




_Washington, D.C., May 28, 1862_.

Colonel HAUPT:

SIR: You are hereby appointed chief of construction and transportation
in the Department of the Rappahannock, with the rank of colonel, and
attached to the staff of Major-General McDowell.

You are authorized to do whatever you may deem expedient to open for use
in the shortest possible time all military railroads now or hereafter
required in said department; to use the same for transportation under
such rules and regulations as you may prescribe; to appoint such
assistants and employees as you may deem necessary, define their duties
and fix their compensation; to make requisitions upon any of the
military authorities, with the approval of the Commanding General, for
such temporary or permanent details of men as may be required for the
construction or protection of lines of communication; to use such
Government steamers and transports as you may deem necessary; to pass
free of charge in such steamers and transports and on other military
roads all persons whose services may be required in construction or
transportation; to purchase all such machinery, rolling stock, and
supplies as the proper use and operation of the said railroads may
require, and certify the same to the Quartermaster-General, who shall
make payment therefor. You are also authorized to form a permanent corps
of artificers, organized, officered, and equipped in such manner as you
may prescribe; to supply said corps with rations, transportation, tools,
and implements by requisitions upon the proper departments; to employ
civilians as foremen and assistants, under such rules and rates of
compensation as you may deem expedient; to make such additions to
ordinary rations when actually at work as you may deem necessary.

You are also authorized to take possession of and use all railroads,
engines, cars, buildings, machinery, and appurtenances within the
geographical limits of the Department of the Rappahannock, and all
authority heretofore given to other parties which may in any way
conflict with the instructions herein contained are and will be without
force and effect in the said Department of the Rappahannock from and
after this date.

By order of the President, Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of
the United States:


_Secretary of War_.


_Washington City, D.C., May 30, 1862_.

All regiments of militia or of three-months' volunteers who have offered
their services under the recent call of the War Department, and who have
so far perfected their organization as to be able to report for orders
at St. Louis, at Columbus, or at Washington City by the 10th of June,
will be mustered into the service of the United States for three months
from that date, the pay of each volunteer or militiaman commencing from
the date of his enlistment.

Under the call for three-years volunteers 50,000 men will be accepted as
raised and reported by the respective State governors.

By order of the President:


_Secretary of War_.

NEW YORK, _June 30, 1862_.

_To the Governors of the several States_:

The capture of New Orleans, Norfolk, and Corinth by the national forces
has enabled the insurgents to concentrate a large force at and about
Richmond, which place we must take with the least possible delay; in
fact, there will soon be no formidable insurgent force except at
Richmond. With so large an army there, the enemy can threaten us on the
Potomac and elsewhere. Until we have reestablished the national
authority, all these places must be held, and we must keep a respectable
force in front of Washington. But this, from the diminished strength of
our Army by sickness and casualties, renders an addition to it necessary
in order to close the struggle which has been prosecuted for the last
three months with energy and success. Rather than hazard the
misapprehension of our military condition and of groundless alarm by a
call for troops by proclamation, I have deemed it best to address you in
this form. To accomplish the object stated we require without delay
150,000 men, including those recently called for by the Secretary of
War. Thus reenforced our gallant Army will be enabled to realize the
hopes and expectations of the Government and the people.


JUNE 28, 1862.


The undersigned, governors of States of the Union, impressed with the
belief that the citizens of the States which they respectively represent
are of one accord in the hearty desire that the recent successes of the
Federal arms may be followed up by measures which must insure the speedy
restoration of the Union, and believing that, in view of the present
state of the important military movements now in progress and the
reduced condition of our effective forces in the field, resulting from
the usual and unavoidable casualties in the service, the time has
arrived for prompt and vigorous measures to be adopted by the people in
support of the great interests committed to your charge, respectfully
request, if it meets with your entire approval, that you at once call
upon the several States for such number of men as may be required to
fill up all military organizations now in the field, and add to the
armies heretofore organized such additional number of men as may, in
your judgment, be necessary to garrison and hold all the numerous cities
and military positions that have been captured by our armies, and to
speedily crush the rebellion that still exists in several of the
Southern States, thus practically restoring to the civilized world our
great and good Government. All believe that the decisive moment is near
at hand, and to that end the people of the United States are desirous to
aid promptly in furnishing all reenforcements that you may deem needful
to sustain our Government.

ISRAEL WASHBURN, Jr., Governor of Maine; H.S. BERRY, Governor of
New Hampshire; FREDERICK HOLBROOK, Governor of Vermont; WILLIAM A.
BUCKINGHAM, Governor of Connecticut; E.D. MORGAN, Governor of New
York; CHARLES S. OLDEN, Governor of New Jersey; A.G. CURTIN, Governor
of Pennsylvania; A.W. BRADFORD, Governor of Maryland, F.H. PEIRPOINT,
Governor of Virginia; AUSTIN BLAIR, Governor of Michigan; J.B. TEMPLE,
President Military Board of Kentucky; ANDREW JOHNSON, Governor of
Tennessee; H.R. GAMBLE, Governor of Missouri; O.P. MORTON, Governor
of Indiana; DAVID TODD, Governor of Ohio; ALEXANDER RAMSEY, Governor
of Minnesota; RICHARD YATES, Governor of Illinois; EDWARD SALOMON,
Governor of Wisconsin.


_Washington, July 1, 1862_.

Gentlemen: Fully concurring in the wisdom of the views expressed to me
in so patriotic a manner by you in the communication of the 28th day of
June, I have decided to call into the service an additional force of
300,000 men. I suggest and recommend that the troops should be chiefly
of infantry. The quota of your State would be ------. I trust that they
may be enrolled without delay, so as to bring this unnecessary and
injurious civil war to a speedy and satisfactory conclusion. An order
fixing the quotas of the respective States will be issued by the War
Department to-morrow.



_Washington, July 11, 1862_.

_Ordered_, That Major-General Henry W. Halleck be assigned to command
the whole land forces of the United States as General in Chief, and that
he repair to this capital as soon as he can with safety to the positions
and operations within the department under his charge.


Whereas, in the judgment of the President, the public safety does
require that the railroad line called and known as the Southwest Branch
of the Pacific Railroad in the State of Missouri be repaired, extended,
and completed from Rolla to Lebanon, in the direction to Springfield, in
the said State, the same being necessary to the successful and
economical conduct of the war and to the maintenance of the authority of
the Government in the Southwest:

Therefore, under and in virtue of the act of Congress entitled "An act
to authorize the President of the United States in certain cases to take
possession of railroad and telegraph lines, and for other purposes,"
approved January 31, 1862, it is--

_Ordered_, That the portion of the said railroad line which reaches from
Rolla to Lebanon be repaired, extended, and completed, so as to be made
available for the military uses of the Government, as speedily as may
be. And inasmuch as, upon the part of the said line from Rolla to the
stream called Little Piney a considerable portion of the necessary work
has already been done by the railroad company, and the road to this
extent may be completed at comparatively small cost, it is ordered that
the said line from Rolla to and across Little Piney be first completed,
and as soon as possible.

The Secretary of War is charged with the execution of this order. And to
facilitate the speedy execution of the work, he is directed, at his
discretion, to take possession and control of the whole or such part of
the said railroad line, and the whole or such part of the rolling stock,
offices, shops, buildings, and all their appendages and appurtenances,
as he may judge necessary or convenient for the early completion of the
road from Rolla to Lebanon.

Done at the city of Washington, July 11, 1862.





_Washington, July 21, 1862_.

The following order has been received from the President of the United

Representations have been made to the President by the ministers of
various foreign powers in amity with the United States that subjects of
such powers have during the present insurrection been obliged or
required by military authorities to take an oath of general or qualified
allegiance to this Government. It is the duty of all aliens residing in
the United States to submit to and obey the laws and respect the
authority of the Government. For any proceeding or conduct inconsistent
with this obligation and subversive of that authority they may
rightfully be subjected to military restraints when this may be
necessary. But they can not be required to take an oath of allegiance to
this Government, because it conflicts with the duty they owe to their
own sovereigns. All such obligations heretofore taken are therefore
remitted and annulled. Military commanders will abstain from imposing
similar obligations in future, and will in lieu thereof adopt such other
restraints of the character indicated as they shall find necessary,
convenient, and effectual for the public safety. It is further directed
that whenever any order shall be made affecting the personal liberty of
an alien reports of the same and of the causes thereof shall be made to
the War Department for the consideration of the Department of State.

By order of the Secretary of War:



WAR DEPARTMENT, _July 22, 1862_.

1. _Ordered_, That military commanders within the States of Virginia,
South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana,
Texas, and Arkansas in an orderly manner seize and use any property,
real or personal, which may be necessary or convenient for their several
commands as supplies or for other military purposes; and that while
property may be destroyed for proper military objects, none shall be
destroyed in wantonness or malice.

2. That military and naval commanders shall employ as laborers within
and from said States so many persons of African descent as can be
advantageously used for military or naval purposes, giving them
reasonable wages for their labor.

3. That as to both property and persons of African descent accounts
shall be kept sufficiently accurate and in detail to show quantities and
amounts and from whom both property and such persons shall have come, as
a basis upon which compensation can be made in proper cases; and the
several Departments of this Government shall attend to and perform their
appropriate parts toward the execution of these orders.

By order of the President:


_Secretary of War_.




_Washington, July 25, 1862_.

I. The following order of the President of the United States
communicates information of the death of ex-President Martin Van Buren:

WASHINGTON, _July 25, 1862_.

The President with deep regret announces to the people of the United
States the decease, at Kinderhook, N.Y., on the 24th instant, of his
honored predecessor Martin Van Buren.

This event will occasion mourning in the nation for the loss of a
citizen and a public servant whose memory will be gratefully cherished.
Although it has occurred at a time when his country is afflicted with
division and civil war, the grief of his patriotic friends will
measurably be assuaged by the consciousness that while suffering with
disease and seeing his end approaching his prayers were for the
restoration of the authority of the Government of which he had been the
head and for peace and good will among his fellow-citizens.

As a mark of respect for his memory, it is ordered that the Executive
Mansion and the several Executive Departments, except those of War and
the Navy, be immediately placed in mourning and all business be
suspended during to-morrow.

It is further ordered that the War and Navy Departments cause suitable
military and naval honors to be paid on this occasion to the memory of
the illustrious dead.


II. On the day after the receipt of this order the troops will be
paraded at 10 o'clock a.m. and the order read to them. The national flag
will be displayed at half-staff. At dawn of day thirteen guns will be
fired, and afterwards at intervals of thirty minutes between rising and
setting sun a single gun, and at the close of the day a national salute
of thirty-four guns. The officers of the Army will wear crape on the
left arm and on their swords and the colors of the several regiments
will be put in mourning for the period of six months.

By order of the Secretary of War:




NAVY DEPARTMENT, _July 25, 1862_.

The death of ex-President Martin Van Buren is announced in the following
order of the President of the United States:

[For order see preceding page.]

In pursuance of the foregoing order, it is hereby directed that thirty
minute guns, commencing at noon, be fired on the day after the receipt
of this general order at the navy-yards, naval stations, and on board
the vessels of the Navy in commission; that their flags be displayed at
half-mast for one week, and that crape be worn on the left arm by all
officers of the Navy for a period of six months.


_Secretary of the Navy_.


_Washington City, D.C., July 31, 1862_.

The absence of officers and privates from their duty under various
pretexts while receiving pay, at great expense and burden to the
Government, makes it necessary that efficient measures be taken to
enforce their return to duty or that their places be supplied by those
who will not take pay while rendering no service. This evil, moreover,
tends greatly to discourage the patriotic impulses of those who would
contribute to support the families of faithful soldiers.

It is therefore ordered by the President--

I. That on Monday, the 11th day of August, all leaves of absence and
furloughs, by whomsoever given, unless by the War Department, are
revoked and absolutely annulled, and all officers capable of service are
required forthwith to join their respective commands and all privates
capable of service to join their regiments, under penalty of a dismissal
from the service, or such penalty as a court-martial may award, unless
the absence be occasioned by lawful cause.

II. The only excuses allowed for the absence of officers or privates
after the 11th day of August are:

First. The order or leave of the War Department.

Second. Disability from wounds received in service.

Third. Disability from disease that renders the party unfit for military
duty. But any officer or private whose health permits him to visit
watering places or places of amusement, or to make social visits or walk
about the town, city, or neighborhood in which he may be, will be
considered fit for military duty and as evading duty by absence from his
command or ranks.

III. On Monday, the 18th day of August, at 10 o'clock a.m., each
regiment and corps shall be mustered. The absentees will be marked,
three lists of the same made out, and within forty-eight hours after the
muster one copy shall be sent to the Adjutant-General of the Army, one
to the commander of the corps, the third to be retained; and all
officers and privates fit for duty absent at that time will be regarded
as absent without cause, their pay will be stopped, and they dismissed
from the service or treated as deserters unless restored; and no officer
shall be restored to his rank unless by the judgment of a court of
inquiry, to be approved by the President, he shall establish that his
absence was with good cause.

IV. Commanders of corps, divisions, brigades, regiments, and detached
posts are strictly enjoined to enforce the muster and return aforesaid.
Any officer failing in his duty herein will be deemed guilty of gross
neglect of duty and be dismissed from the service.

V. A commissioner shall be appointed by the Secretary of War to
superintend the execution of this order in the respective States.

The United States marshals in the respective districts, the mayor and
chief of police of any town or city, the sheriff of the respective
counties in each State, all postmasters and justices of the peace, are
authorized to act as special provost-marshals to arrest any officer or
private soldier fit for duty who may be found absent from his command
without just cause and convey him to the nearest military post or depot.
The transportation, reasonable expenses of this duty, and $5 will be
paid for each officer or private so arrested and delivered.

By order of the President:


_Secretary of War_.


_Washington City, D.C., August 4, 1862_.

_Ordered_, I. That a draft of 300,000 militia be immediately called into
the service of the United States, to serve for nine months unless sooner
discharged. The Secretary of War will assign the quotas to the States
and establish regulations for the draft.

II. That if any State shall not by the 15th of August furnish its quota
of the additional 300,000 volunteers authorized by law the deficiency of
volunteers in that State will also be made up by special draft from the
militia. The Secretary of War will establish regulations for this

III. Regulations will be prepared by the War Department and presented to
the President with the object of securing the promotion of officers of
the Army and Volunteers for meritorious and distinguished services and
of preventing the nomination or appointment in the military service of
incompetent or unworthy officers. The regulations will also provide for
ridding the service of such incompetent persons as now hold commissions
in it.

By order of the President:


_Secretary of War_.


_Washington, D.C., August 8, 1862_.

By direction of the President of the United States, it is hereby ordered
that until further order no citizen liable to be drafted into the
militia shall be allowed to go to a foreign country. And all marshals,
deputy marshals, and military officers of the United States are
directed, and all police authorities, especially at the ports of the
United States on the seaboard and on the frontier, are requested, to see
that this order is faithfully carried into effect. And they are hereby
authorized and directed to arrest and detain any person or persons about
to depart from the United States in violation of this order, and report
to Major L.C. Turner, judge-advocate at Washington City, for further
instructions respecting the person or persons so arrested or detained.

II. Any person liable to draft who shall absent himself from his county
or State before such draft is made will be arrested by any
provost-marshal or other United States or State officer, wherever he may
be found within the jurisdiction of the United States, and be conveyed
to the nearest military post or depot and placed on military duty for
the term of the draft; and the expenses of his own arrest and conveyance
to such post or depot, and also the sum of $5, as a reward to the
officer who shall make such arrest, shall be deducted from his pay.

III. The writ of _habeas corpus_ is hereby suspended in respect to all
persons so arrested and detained, and in respect to all persons arrested
for disloyal practices.


_Secretary of War_.


_Washington City, D.C., August 14, 1862_.


_Ordered_, first. That after the 15th of this month bounty and advanced
pay shall not be paid to volunteers for any new regiments, but only to
volunteers for regiments now in the field and volunteers to fill up new
regiments now organizing, but not yet full.

Second. Volunteers to fill up new regiments now organizing will be
received and paid the bounty and advanced pay until the 22d day of this
month, and if not completed by that time the incomplete regiments will
be consolidated and superfluous officers mustered out.

Third. Volunteers to fill up the old regiments will be received and paid
the bounty and advanced pay until the 1st day of September.

Fourth. The draft for 300,000 militia called for by the President will
be made on Wednesday, the 3d day of September, between the hours of 9
a.m. and 5 p.m., and continue from day to day between the same hours
until completed.

Fifth. If the old regiments should not be filled up by volunteers before
the 1st day of September, a special draft will be ordered for the

Sixth. The exigencies of the service require that officers now in the
field should remain with their commands, and no officer now in the field
in the regular or volunteer service will under any circumstances be
detailed to accept a new command.

By order of the President:


_Secretary of War_.




_Washington, September 2, 1862_.

* * * * *

By direction of the President, all the clerks and employees of the civil
Departments and all the employees on the public buildings in Washington
will be immediately organized into companies, under the direction of
Brigadier-General Wadsworth, and will be armed and supplied with
ammunition, for the defense of the capital.

By command of Major-General Halleck:


_Assistant Adjutant-General_.



_Washington City, October 20, 1862_.

The insurrection which has for some time prevailed in several of the
States of this Union, including Louisiana, having temporarily subverted
and swept away the civil institutions of that State, including the
judiciary and the judicial authorities of the Union, so that it has
become necessary to hold the State in military occupation, and it being
indispensably necessary that there shall be some judicial tribunal
existing there capable of administering justice, I have therefore
thought it proper to appoint, and I do hereby constitute, a provisional
court, which shall be a court of record, for the State of Louisiana; and
I do hereby appoint Charles A. Peabody, of New York, to be a provisional
judge to hold said court, with authority to hear, try, and determine all
causes, civil and criminal, including causes in law, equity, revenue,
and admiralty, and particularly all such powers and jurisdiction as
belong to the district and circuit courts of the United States,
conforming his proceedings so far as possible to the course of
proceedings and practice which has been customary in the courts of the
United States and Louisiana, his judgment to be final and conclusive.
And I do hereby authorize and empower the said judge to make and
establish such rules and regulations as may be necessary for the
exercise of his jurisdiction, and empower the said judge to appoint a
prosecuting attorney, marshal, and clerk of the said court, who shall
perform the functions of attorney, marshal, and clerk according to such
proceedings and practice as before mentioned and such rules and
regulations as may be made and established by said judge. These
appointments are to continue during the pleasure of the President, not
extending beyond the military occupation of the city of New Orleans or
the restoration of the civil authority in that city and in the State of
Louisiana. These officers shall be paid, out of the contingent fund of
the War Department, compensation as follows: The judge at the rate of
$3,500 per annum; the prosecuting attorney, including the fees, at the
rate of $3,000 per annum; the marshal, including the fees, at the rate
of $3,000 per annum; and the clerk, including the fees, at the rate of
$2,500 per annum; such compensations to be certified by the Secretary of
War. A copy of this order, certified by the Secretary of War and
delivered to such judge, shall be deemed and held to be a sufficient


_President of the United States_.


_Washington, October 29, 1862_.

Two associate justices of the Supreme Court of the United States having
been appointed since the last adjournment of said court, and
consequently no allotment of the members of said court to the several
circuits having been made by them, according to the fifth section of the
act of Congress entitled "An act to amend the judicial system of the
United States," approved April 29, 1802, I, Abraham Lincoln, President
of the United States, in virtue of said section, do make an allotment of
the justices of said court to the circuits now existing by law, as

For the first circuit: Nathan Clifford, associate justice.

For the second circuit: Samuel Nelson, associate justice.

For the third circuit: Robert C. Grier, associate justice.

For the fourth circuit: Roger B. Taney, Chief Justice.

For the fifth circuit: James M. Wayne, associate justice.

For the sixth circuit: John Catron, associate justice.

For the seventh circuit: Noah H. Swayne, associate justice.

For the eighth circuit: David Davis, associate justice.

For the ninth circuit: Samuel F. Miller, associate justice.



_Washington, November 5, 1862_.

By direction of the President, it is ordered that Major-General
McClellan be relieved from the command of the Army of the Potomac, and
that Major-General Burnside take the command of that army; also that
Major-General Hunter take command of the corps in said army which is now
commanded by General Burnside; that Major-General Fitz John Porter be
relieved from the command of the corps he now commands in said army, and
that Major-General Hooker take command of said corps.

The General in Chief is authorized, in [his] discretion, to issue an
order substantially as the above forthwith, or so soon as he may deem


EXECUTIVE MANSION, _November 7, 1862_.

_Ordered_, That Brigadier-General Ellet report to Rear-Admiral Porter
for instructions, and act under his direction until otherwise ordered by
the War Department.



_Washington, November 12, 1862_.

_Ordered_, first. That clearances issued by the Treasury Department for
vessels or merchandise bound for the port of Norfolk for the military
necessities of the department, certified by the military commandant at
Fort Monroe, shall be allowed to enter said port.

Second. That vessels and domestic produce from Norfolk, permitted by the
military commandant at Fort Monroe for the military purposes of his
command, shall on his permit be allowed to pass from said port to their
destination in any port not blockaded by the United States.


[From the Daily National Intelligencer, November 25, 1862.]


_November 13, 1862_.

_Ordered by the President of the United States_, That the
Attorney-General be charged with the superintendence and direction of
all proceedings to be had under the act of Congress of the 17th of July,
1862, entitled "An act to suppress insurrection, to punish treason and
rebellion, to seize and confiscate the property of rebels, and for other
purposes," in so far as may concern the seizure, prosecution, and
condemnation of the estate, property, and effects of rebels and
traitors, as mentioned and provided for in the fifth, sixth, and seventh
sections of the said act of Congress. And the Attorney-General is
authorized and required to give to the attorneys and marshals of the
United States such instructions and directions as he may find needful
and convenient touching all such seizures, prosecutions, and
condemnations, and, moreover, to authorize all such attorneys and
marshals, whenever there may be reasonable ground to fear any forcible
resistance to them in the discharge of their respective duties in this
behalf, to call upon any military officer in command of the forces of
the United States to give to them such aid, protection, and support as
may be necessary to enable them safely and efficiently to discharge
their respective duties; and all such commanding officers are required
promptly to obey such call, and to render the necessary service as far
as may be in their power consistently with their other duties.


By the President:



_Washington, November 15, 1862_.

The President, Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy, desires and
enjoins the orderly observance of the Sabbath by the officers and men in
the military and naval service. The importance for man and beast of the
prescribed weekly rest, the sacred rights of Christian soldiers and
sailors, a becoming deference to the best sentiment of a Christian
people, and a due regard for the divine will demand that Sunday labor in
the Army and Navy be reduced to the measure of strict necessity.

The discipline and character of the national forces should not suffer
nor the cause they defend be imperiled by the profanation of the day or
name of the Most High. "At this time of public distress," adopting the
words of Washington in 1776, "men may find enough to do in the service
of God and their country without abandoning themselves to vice and
immorality." The first general order issued by the Father of his Country
after the Declaration of Independence indicates the spirit in which our
institutions were founded and should ever be defended:

_The General hopes and trusts that every officer and man will endeavor
to live and act as becomes a Christian soldier defending the dearest
rights and liberties of his country_.



_Washington City, November 21, 1862_.

_Ordered_, That no arms, ammunition, or munitions of war be cleared or
allowed to be exported from the United States until further order; that
any clearances for arms, ammunition, or munitions of war issued
heretofore by the Treasury Department be vacated if the articles have
not passed without the United States, and the articles stopped; that the
Secretary of War hold possession of the arms, etc., recently seized by
his order at Rouses Point, bound for Canada.



DECEMBER 1, 1862.

_Fellow-Citizens of the Senate and House of Representatives_:

Since your last annual assembling another year of health and bountiful
harvests has passed, and while it has not pleased the Almighty to bless
us with a return of peace, we can but press on, guided by the best light
He gives us, trusting that in His own good time and wise way all will
yet be well.

The correspondence touching foreign affairs which has taken place during
the last year is herewith submitted, in virtual compliance with a
request to that effect made by the House of Representatives near the
close of the last session of Congress.

If the condition of our relations with other nations is less gratifying
than it has usually been at former periods, it is certainly more
satisfactory than a nation so unhappily distracted as we are might
reasonably have apprehended. In the month of June last there were some
grounds to expect that the maritime powers which at the beginning of our
domestic difficulties so unwisely and unnecessarily, as we think,
recognized the insurgents as a belligerent would soon recede from that
position, which has proved only less injurious to themselves than to our
own country. But the temporary reverses which afterwards befell the
national arms, and which were exaggerated by our own disloyal citizens
abroad, have hitherto delayed that act of simple justice.

The civil war, which has so radically changed for the moment the
occupations and habits of the American people, has necessarily disturbed
the social condition and affected very deeply the prosperity of the
nations with which we have carried on a commerce that has been steadily
increasing throughout a period of half a century. It has at the same
time excited political ambitions and apprehensions which have produced a
profound agitation throughout the civilized world. In this unusual
agitation we have forborne from taking part in any controversy between
foreign states and between parties or factions in such states. We have
attempted no propagandism and acknowledged no revolution. But we have
left to every nation the exclusive conduct and management of its own
affairs. Our struggle has been, of course, contemplated by foreign
nations with reference less to its own merits than to its supposed and
often exaggerated effects and consequences resulting to those nations
themselves. Nevertheless, complaint on the part of this Government, even
if it were just, would certainly be unwise.

The treaty with Great Britain for the suppression of the slave trade has
been put into operation with a good prospect of complete success. It is
an occasion of special pleasure to acknowledge that the execution of it
on the part of Her Majesty's Government has been marked with a jealous
respect for the authority of the United States and the rights of their
moral and loyal citizens.

The convention with Hanover for the abolition of the Stade dues has been
carried into full effect under the act of Congress for that purpose.

A blockade of 3,000 miles of seacoast could not be established and
vigorously enforced in a season of great commercial activity like the
present without committing occasional mistakes and inflicting
unintentional injuries upon foreign nations and their subjects.

A civil war occurring in a country where foreigners reside and carry on
trade under treaty stipulations is necessarily fruitful of complaints of
the violation of neutral rights. All such collisions tend to excite
misapprehensions, and possibly to produce mutual reclamations between
nations which have a common interest in preserving peace and friendship.
In clear cases of these kinds I have so far as possible heard and
redressed complaints which have been presented by friendly powers. There
is still, however, a large and an augmenting number of doubtful cases
upon which the Government is unable to agree with the governments whose
protection is demanded by the claimants. There are, moreover, many cases
in which the United States or their citizens suffer wrongs from the
naval or military authorities of foreign nations which the governments
of those states are not at once prepared to redress. I have proposed to
some of the foreign states thus interested mutual conventions to examine
and adjust such complaints. This proposition has been made especially to
Great Britain, to France, to Spain, and to Prussia. In each case it has
been kindly received, but has not yet been formally adopted.

I deem it my duty to recommend an appropriation in behalf of the owners
of the Norwegian bark _Admiral P. Tordenskiold_, which vessel was in
May, 1861, prevented by the commander of the blockading force off
Charleston from leaving that port with cargo, notwithstanding a similar
privilege had shortly before been granted to an English vessel. I have
directed the Secretary of State to cause the papers in the case to be
communicated to the proper committees.

Applications have been made to me by many free Americans of African
descent to favor their emigration, with a view to such colonization as
was contemplated in recent acts of Congress. Other parties, at home and
abroad--some from interested motives, others upon patriotic
considerations, and still others influenced by philanthropic
sentiments--have suggested similar measures, while, on the other hand,
several of the Spanish American Republics have protested against the
sending of such colonies to their respective territories. Under these
circumstances I have declined to move any such colony to any state
without first obtaining the consent of its government, with an agreement
on its part to receive and protect such emigrants in all the rights of
freemen; and I have at the same time offered to the several States
situated within the Tropics, or having colonies there, to negotiate with
them, subject to the advice and consent of the Senate, to favor the
voluntary emigration of persons of that class to their respective
territories, upon conditions which shall be equal, just, and humane.
Liberia and Hayti are as yet the only countries to which colonists of
African descent from here could go with certainty of being received and
adopted as citizens; and I regret to say such persons contemplating
colonization do not seem so willing to migrate to those countries as to
some others, nor so willing as I think their interest demands. I
believe, however, opinion among them in this respect is improving, and
that ere long there will be an augmented and considerable migration to
both these countries from the United States.

The new commercial treaty between the United States and the Sultan of
Turkey has been carried into execution.

A commercial and consular treaty has been negotiated, subject to the
Senate's consent, with Liberia, and a similar negotiation is now pending
with the Republic of Hayti. A considerable improvement of the national
commerce is expected to result from these measures.

Our relations with Great Britain, France, Spain, Portugal, Russia,
Prussia, Denmark, Sweden, Austria, the Netherlands, Italy, Rome, and the
other European States remain undisturbed. Very favorable relations also
continue to be maintained with Turkey, Morocco, China, and Japan.

During the last year there has not only been no change of our previous
relations with the independent States of our own continent, but more
friendly sentiments than have heretofore existed are believed to be
entertained by these neighbors, whose safety and progress are so
intimately connected with our own. This statement especially applies to
Mexico, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Honduras, Peru, and Chile.

The commission under the convention with the Republic of New Granada
closed its session without having audited and passed upon all the claims
which were submitted to it. A proposition is pending to revive the
convention, that it may be able to do more complete justice. The joint
commission between the United States and the Republic of Costa Rica has
completed its labors and submitted its report.

I have favored the project for connecting the United States with Europe
by an Atlantic telegraph, and a similar project to extend the telegraph
from San Francisco to connect by a Pacific telegraph with the line which
is being extended across the Russian Empire.

The Territories of the United States, with unimportant exceptions, have
remained undisturbed by the civil war; and they are exhibiting such
evidence of prosperity as justifies an expectation that some of them
will soon be in a condition to be organized as States and be
constitutionally admitted into the Federal Union.

The immense mineral resources of some of those Territories ought to be
developed as rapidly as possible. Every step in that direction would
have a tendency to improve the revenues of the Government and diminish
the burdens of the people. It is worthy of your serious consideration
whether some extraordinary measures to promote that end can not be
adopted. The means which suggests itself as most likely to be effective
is a scientific exploration of the mineral regions in those Territories
with a view to the publication of its results at home and in foreign
countries--results which can not fail to be auspicious.

The condition of the finances will claim your most diligent
consideration. The vast expenditures incident to the military and naval
operations required for the suppression of the rebellion have hitherto
been met with a promptitude and certainty unusual in similar
circumstances, and the public credit has been fully maintained. The
continuance of the war, however, and the increased disbursements made
necessary by the augmented forces now in the field demand your best
reflections as to the best modes of providing the necessary revenue
without injury to business and with the least possible burdens upon

The suspension of specie payments by the banks soon after the
commencement of your last session made large issues of United States
notes unavoidable. In no other way could the payment of the troops and
the satisfaction of other just demands be so economically or so well
provided for. The judicious legislation of Congress, securing the
receivability of these notes for loans and internal duties and making
them a legal tender for other debts, has made them an universal
currency, and has satisfied, partially at least, and for the time, the
long-felt want of an uniform circulating medium, saving thereby to the
people immense sums in discounts and exchanges.

A return to specie payments, however, at the earliest period compatible
with due regard to all interests concerned should ever be kept in view.
Fluctuations in the value of currency are always injurious, and to
reduce these fluctuations to the lowest possible point will always be a
leading purpose in wise legislation. Convertibility, prompt and certain
convertibility, into coin is generally acknowledged to be the best and
surest safeguard against them; and it is extremely doubtful whether a
circulation of United States notes payable in coin and sufficiently
large for the wants of the people can be permanently, usefully, and
safely maintained.

Is there, then, any other mode in which the necessary provision for the
public wants can be made and the great advantages of a safe and uniform
currency secured?

I know of none which promises so certain results and is at the same time
so unobjectionable as the organization of banking associations, under a
general act of Congress, well guarded in its provisions. To such
associations the Government might furnish circulating notes, on the
security of United States bonds deposited in the Treasury. These notes,
prepared under the supervision of proper officers, being uniform in
appearance and security and convertible always into coin, would at once
protect labor against the evils of a vicious currency and facilitate
commerce by cheap and safe exchanges.

A moderate reservation from the interest on the bonds would compensate
the United States for the preparation and distribution of the notes and
a general supervision of the system, and would lighten the burden of
that part of the public debt employed as securities. The public credit,
moreover, would be greatly improved and the negotiation of new loans
greatly facilitated by the steady market demand for Government bonds
which the adoption of the proposed system would create.

It is an additional recommendation of the measure, of considerable
weight, in my judgment, that it would reconcile as far as possible all
existing interests by the opportunity offered to existing institutions
to reorganize under the act, substituting only the secured uniform
national circulation for the local and various circulation, secured and
unsecured, now issued by them.

The receipts into the Treasury from all sources, including loans and
balance from the preceding year, for the fiscal year ending on the 30th
June, 1862, were $583,885,247.06, of which sum $49,056,397.62 were
derived from customs; $1,795,331.73 from the direct tax; from public
lands, $152,203.77; from miscellaneous sources, $931,787.64; from loans
in all forms, $529,692,460.50. The remainder, $2,257,065.80, was the
balance from last year.

The disbursements during the same period were: For Congressional,
executive, and judicial purposes, $5,939,009.29; for foreign
intercourse, $1,339,710.35; for miscellaneous expenses, including the
mints, loans, Post-Office deficiencies, collection of revenue, and other
like charges, $14,129,771.50; for expenses under the Interior
Department, $3,102,985.52; under the War Department, $394,368,407.36;
under the Navy Department, $42,674,569.69; for interest on public debt,
$13,190,324.45; and for payment of public debt, including reimbursement
of temporary loan and redemptions, $96,096,922.09; making an aggregate
of $570,841,700.25, and leaving a balance in the Treasury on the 1st day
of July, 1862, of $13,043,546.81.

It should be observed that the sum of $96,096,922.09, expended for
reimbursements and redemption of public debt, being included also in the
loans made, may be properly deducted both from receipts and
expenditures, leaving the actual receipts for the year $487,788,324.97,
and the expenditures $474,744,778.16.

Other information on the subject of the finances will be found in the
report of the Secretary of the Treasury, to whose statements and views I
invite your most candid and considerate attention.

The reports of the Secretaries of War and of the Navy are herewith
transmitted. These reports, though lengthy, are scarcely more than brief
abstracts of the very numerous and extensive transactions and operations
conducted through those Departments. Nor could I give a summary of them
here upon any principle which would admit of its being much shorter than
the reports themselves. I therefore content myself with laying the
reports before you and asking your attention to them.

It gives me pleasure to report a decided improvement in the financial
condition of the Post-Office Department as compared with several
preceding years. The receipts for the fiscal year 1861 amounted to
$8,349,296.40, which embraced the revenue from all the States of the
Union for three quarters of that year. Notwithstanding the cessation of
revenue from the so-called seceded States during the last fiscal year,
the increase of the correspondence of the loyal States has been
sufficient to produce a revenue during the same year of $8,299,820.90,
being only $50,000 less than was derived from all the States of the
Union during the previous year. The expenditures show a still more
favorable result. The amount expended in 1861 was $13,606,759.11. For
the last year the amount has been reduced to $11,125,364.13, showing a
decrease of about $2,481,000 in the expenditures as compared with the
preceding year, and about $3,750,000 as compared with the fiscal year
1860. The deficiency in the Department for the previous year was
$4,551,966.98. For the last fiscal year it was reduced to $2,112,814.57.
These favorable results are in part owing to the cessation of mail
service in the insurrectionary States and in part to a careful review of
all expenditures in that Department in the interest of economy. The
efficiency of the postal service, it is believed, has also been much
improved. The Postmaster-General has also opened a correspondence
through the Department of State with foreign governments proposing a
convention of postal representatives for the purpose of simplifying the
rates of foreign postage and to expedite the foreign mails. This
proposition, equally important to our adopted citizens and to the
commercial interests of this country, has been favorably entertained and
agreed to by all the governments from whom replies have been received.

I ask the attention of Congress to the suggestions of the
Postmaster-General in his report respecting the further legislation
required, in his opinion, for the benefit of the postal service.

The Secretary of the Interior reports as follows in regard to the public

The public lands have ceased to be a source of revenue. From the 1st
July, 1861, to the 30th September, 1862, the entire cash receipts from
the sale of lands were $137,476.26--a sum much less than the expenses of
our land system during the same period. The homestead law, which will
take effect on the 1st of January next, offers such inducements to
settlers that sales for cash can not be expected to an extent sufficient
to meet the expenses of the General Land Office and the cost of
surveying and bringing the land into market.

The discrepancy between the sum here stated as arising from the sales of
the public lands and the sum derived from the same source as reported
from the Treasury Department arises, as I understand, from the fact that
the periods of time, though apparently, were not really coincident at
the beginning point, the Treasury report including a considerable sum
now which had previously been reported from the Interior, sufficiently
large to greatly overreach the sum derived from the three months now
reported upon by the Interior and not by the Treasury.

The Indian tribes upon our frontiers have during the past year
manifested a spirit of insubordination, and at several points have
engaged in open hostilities against the white settlements in their
vicinity. The tribes occupying the Indian country south of Kansas
renounced their allegiance to the United States and entered into
treaties with the insurgents. Those who remained loyal to the United
States were driven from the country. The chief of the Cherokees has
visited this city for the purpose of restoring the former relations of
the tribe with the United States. He alleges that they were constrained
by superior force to enter into treaties with the insurgents, and that
the United States neglected to furnish the protection which their treaty
stipulations required.

In the month of August last the Sioux Indians in Minnesota attacked the
settlements in their vicinity with extreme ferocity, killing
indiscriminately men, women, and children. This attack was wholly
unexpected, and therefore no means of defense had been provided. It is
estimated that not less than 800 persons were killed by the Indians, and
a large amount of property was destroyed. How this outbreak was induced
is not definitely known, and suspicions, which may be unjust, need not
to be stated. Information was received by the Indian Bureau from
different sources about the time hostilities were commenced that a
simultaneous attack was to be made upon the white settlements by all the
tribes between the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains. The State
of Minnesota has suffered great injury from this Indian war. A large
portion of her territory has been depopulated, and a severe loss has
been sustained by the destruction of property. The people of that State
manifest much anxiety for the removal of the tribes beyond the limits of
the State as a guaranty against future hostilities. The Commissioner of
Indian Affairs wall furnish full details. I submit for your especial
consideration whether our Indian system shall not be remodeled. Many
wise and good men have impressed me with the belief that this can be
profitably done.

I submit a statement of the proceedings of commissioners, which shows
the progress that has been made in the enterprise of constructing the
Pacific Railroad. And this suggests the earliest completion of this
road, and also the favorable action of Congress upon the projects now
pending before them for enlarging the capacities of the great canals in
New York and Illinois, as being of vital and rapidly increasing
importance to the whole nation, and especially to the vast interior
region hereinafter to be noticed at some greater length. I purpose
having prepared and laid before you at an early day some interesting and
valuable statistical information upon this subject. The military and
commercial importance of enlarging the Illinois and Michigan Canal and
improving the Illinois River is presented in the report of Colonel
Webster to the Secretary of War, and now transmitted to Congress. I
respectfully ask attention to it.

To carry out the provisions of the act of Congress of the 15th of May
last, I have caused the Department of Agriculture of the United States
to be organized.

The Commissioner informs me that within the period of a few months this
Department has established an extensive system of correspondence and
exchanges, both at home and abroad, which promises to effect highly
beneficial results in the development of a correct knowledge of recent
improvements in agriculture, in the introduction of new products, and in
the collection of the agricultural statistics of the different States.

Also, that it will soon be prepared to distribute largely seeds,
cereals, plants, and cuttings, and has already published and liberally
diffused much valuable information in anticipation of a more elaborate
report, which will in due time be furnished, embracing some valuable
tests in chemical science now in progress in the laboratory.

The creation of this Department was for the more immediate benefit of a
large class of our most valuable citizens, and I trust that the liberal
basis upon which it has been organized will not only meet your
approbation, but that it will realize at no distant day all the fondest
anticipations of its most sanguine friends and become the fruitful
source of advantage to all our people.

On the 22d day of September last a proclamation was issued by the
Executive, a copy of which is herewith submitted.

In accordance with the purpose expressed in the second paragraph of that
paper, I now respectfully recall your attention to what may be called
"compensated emancipation."

A nation may be said to consist of its territory, its people, and its
laws. The territory is the only part which is of certain durability.
"One generation passeth away and another generation cometh, but the
earth abideth forever." It is of the first importance to duly consider
and estimate this ever-enduring part. That portion of the earth's
surface which is owned and inhabited by the people of the United States
is well adapted to be the home of one national family, and it is not
well adapted for two or more. Its vast extent and its variety of climate
and productions are of advantage in this age for one people, whatever
they might have been in former ages. Steam, telegraphs, and intelligence
have brought these to be an advantageous combination for one united

In the inaugural address I briefly pointed out the total inadequacy of
disunion as a remedy for the differences between the people of the two
sections. I did so in language which I can not improve, and which,
therefore, I beg to repeat:

One section of our country believes slavery is _right_ and ought to be
extended, while the other believes it is _wrong_ and ought not to be
extended. This is the only substantial dispute. The fugitive-slave
clause of the Constitution and the law for the suppression of the
foreign slave trade are each as well enforced, perhaps, as any law can
ever be in a community where the moral sense of the people imperfectly
supports the law itself. The great body of the people abide by the dry
legal obligation in both cases, and a few break over in each. This, I
think, can not be perfectly cured, and it would be worse in both cases
_after_ the separation of the sections than before. The foreign slave
trade, now imperfectly suppressed, would be ultimately revived without
restriction in one section, while fugitive slaves, now only partially
surrendered, would not be surrendered at all by the other.

Physically speaking, we can not separate. We can not remove our
respective sections from each other nor build an impassable wall between
them. A husband and wife may be divorced and go out of the presence and
beyond the reach of each other, but the different parts of our country
can not do this. They can not but remain face to face, and intercourse,
either amicable or hostile, must continue between them. Is it possible,
then, to make that intercourse more advantageous or more satisfactory
_after_ separation than _before_? Can aliens make treaties easier than
friends can make laws? Can treaties be more faithfully enforced between
aliens than laws can among friends? Suppose you go to war, you can not
fight always; and when, after much loss on both sides and no gain on
either, you cease fighting, the identical old questions, as to terms of
intercourse, are again upon you.

There is no line, straight or crooked, suitable for a national boundary
upon which to divide. Trace through, from east to west, upon the line
between the free and slave country, and we shall find a little more than
one-third of its length are rivers, easy to be crossed, and populated,
or soon to be populated, thickly upon both sides; while nearly all its
remaining length are merely surveyors' lines, over which people may walk
back and forth without any consciousness of their presence. No part of
this line can be made any more difficult to pass by writing it down on
paper or parchment as a national boundary. The fact of separation, if it
comes, gives up on the part of the seceding section the fugitive-slave
clause, along with all other constitutional obligations upon the section
seceded from, while I should expect no treaty stipulation would ever be
made to take its place.

But there is another difficulty. The great interior region bounded east
by the Alleghanies, north by the British dominions, west by the Rocky
Mountains, and south by the line along which the culture of corn and
cotton meets, and which includes part of Virginia, part of Tennessee,
all of Kentucky, Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Wisconsin, Illinois, Missouri,
Kansas, Iowa, Minnesota, and the Territories of Dakota, Nebraska, and
part of Colorado, already has above 10,000,000 people, and will have
50,000,000 within fifty years if not prevented by any political folly or
mistake. It contains more than one-third of the country owned by the
United States--certainly more than 1,000,000 square miles. Once half as
populous as Massachusetts already is, it would have more than 75,000,000
people. A glance at the map shows that, territorially speaking, it is
the great body of the Republic. The other parts are but marginal borders
to it, the magnificent region sloping west from the Rocky Mountains to
the Pacific being the deepest and also the richest in undeveloped
resources. In the production of provisions, grains, grasses, and all
which proceed from them this great interior region is naturally one of
the most important in the world. Ascertain from the statistics the small
proportion of the region which has as yet been brought into cultivation,
and also the large and rapidly increasing amount of its products, and we
shall be overwhelmed with the magnitude of the prospect presented. And
yet this region has no seacoast--touches no ocean anywhere. As part of
one nation, its people now find, and may forever find, their way to
Europe by New York, to South America and Africa by New Orleans, and to
Asia by San Francisco; but separate our common country into two nations,
as designed by the present rebellion, and every man of this great
interior region is thereby cut off from some one or more of these
outlets, not perhaps by a physical barrier, but by embarrassing and
onerous trade regulations.

And this is true, _wherever_ a dividing or boundary line may be fixed.
Place it between the now free and slave country, or place it south of
Kentucky or north of Ohio, and still the truth remains that none south
of it can trade to any port or place north of it, and none north of it
can trade to any port or place south of it, except upon terms dictated
by a government foreign to them. These outlets, east, west, and south,
are indispensable to the well-being of the people inhabiting and to
inhabit this vast interior region. _Which_ of the three may be the best
is no proper question. All are better than either, and all of right
belong to that people and to their successors forever. True to
themselves, they will not ask _where_ a line of separation shall be, but
will vow rather that there shall be no such line. Nor are the marginal
regions less interested in these communications to and through them to
the great outside world. They, too, and each of them, must have access
to this Egypt of the West without paying toll at the crossing of any
national boundary.

Our national strife springs not from our permanent part; not from the
land we inhabit; not from our national homestead. There is no possible
severing of this but would multiply and not mitigate evils among us. In
all its adaptations and aptitudes it demands union and abhors
separation. In fact, it would ere long force reunion, however much of
blood and treasure the separation might have cost.

Our strife pertains to ourselves--to the passing generations of men--and
it can without convulsion be hushed forever with the passing of one

In this view I recommend the adoption of the following resolution and
articles amendatory to the Constitution of the United States:

_Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United
States of America in Congress assembled (two-thirds of both Houses
concurring)_, That the following articles be proposed to the
legislatures (or conventions) of the several States as amendments to
the Constitution of the United States, all or any of which articles,
when ratified by three-fourths of the said legislatures (or conventions),
to be valid as part or parts of the said Constitution, viz:

ART. --. Every State wherein slavery now exists which shall abolish
the same therein at any time or times before the 1st day of January,
A.D. 1900, shall receive compensation from the United States as
follows, to wit:

The President of the United States shall deliver to every such State
bonds of the United States bearing interest at the rate of ---- per cent
per annum to an amount equal to the aggregate sum of ---- for each slave
shown to have been therein by the Eighth Census of the United States,
said bonds to be delivered to such State by installments or in one
parcel at the completion of the abolishment, accordingly as the same
shall have been gradual or at one time within such State; and interest
shall begin to run upon any such bond only from the proper time of its
delivery as aforesaid. Any State having received bonds as aforesaid and
afterwards reintroducing or tolerating slavery therein shall refund to
the United States the bonds so received, or the value thereof, and all
interest paid thereon.

ART. --. All slaves who shall have enjoyed actual freedom by the chances
of the war at any time before the end of the rebellion shall be forever
free; but all owners of such who shall not have been disloyal shall
be compensated for them at the same rates as is provided for States
adopting abolishment of slavery, but in such way that no slave shall
be twice accounted for.

ART. --. Congress may appropriate money and otherwise provide for
colonizing free colored persons with their own consent at any place
or places without the United States.

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