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_#_Ethnic divisions: African 99%, European, Asian, Arab 1%

_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 33%, Protestant 33%, Muslim 16%,
rest indigenous beliefs

_#_Language: English (official); Luganda and Swahili widely used;
other Bantu and Nilotic languages

_#_Literacy: 48% (male 62%, female 35%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 4,500,000 (est.); subsistence agriculture 94%, wage
earners (est.) 6%; 50% of population of working age (1983)

_#_Organized labor: 125,000 union members

_#_Long-form name: Republic of Uganda

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: Kampala

_#_Administrative divisions: 10 provinces; Busoga, Central, Eastern,
Karamoja, Nile, North Buganda, Northern, South Buganda, Southern, Western

_#_Independence: 9 October 1962 (from UK)

_#_Constitution: 8 September 1967, in process of constitutional

_#_Legal system: government plans to restore system based on English
common law and customary law and reinstitute a normal judicial system;
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 9 October (1962)

_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, three deputy prime
ministers, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Resistance Council

_#_Judicial branch: Court of Appeal, High Court


Chief of State--President Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since
29 January 1986); Vice President Samson Babi Mululu KISEKKA (since
NA January 1991);

Head of Government--Prime Minister George Cosmas ADYEBO (since NA
January 1991)

_#_Political parties and leaders: only party--National Resistance
Movement (NRM); note--the Uganda Patriotic Movement (UPM), Ugandan
People's Congress (UPC), Democratic Party (DP), and Conservative Party
(CP) are all proscribed from conducting public political activities

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


National Resistance Council--last held 11-28 February 1989
(next to be held after January 1995);
results--NRM is the only party;
seats--(278 total, 210 indirectly elected) 210 members elected
without party affiliation

_#_Other political parties or pressure groups:
Uganda People's Front (UPF),
Uganda People's Christian Democratic Army (UPCDA),
Ruwenzori Movement

_#_Communists: possibly a few sympathizers

_#_Member of: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, EADB, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Stephen Kapimpina
KATENTA-APULI; 5909 16th Street NW, Washington DC 20011; telephone (202)
726-7100 through 7102;

US--Ambassador James CARSON; Embassy at Parliament
Avenue, Kampala (mailing address is P. O. Box 7007, Kampala); telephone
[256] (41) 259792, 259793, 259795

_#_Flag: six equal horizonal bands of black (top), yellow, red, black,
yellow, and red; a white disk is superimposed at the center and depicts
a red-crested crane (the national symbol) facing the staff side

_#_Overview: Uganda has substantial natural resources, including
fertile soils, regular rainfall, and sizable mineral deposits of copper
and cobalt. The economy has been devastated by much political
instability, mismanagement, and civil war since independence in 1962,
keeping Uganda poor with a per capita income of about $300. (GDP remains
below the levels of the early 1970s, as does industrial production.)
Agriculture is the most important sector of the economy, employing over
80% of the work force. Coffee is the major export crop and accounts
for the bulk of export revenues. Since 1986 the government has
acted to rehabilitate and stabilize the economy by undertaking
currency reform, raising producer prices on export crops, increasing
petroleum prices, and improving civil service wages. The policy changes
are especially aimed at dampening inflation, which was running at over
300% in 1987, and boosting production and export earnings.

_#_GDP: $4.9 billion, per capita $290 (1988); real growth rate 6.1%
(1989 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 30% (FY90)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $365 million; expenditures $545 million,
including capital expenditures of $165 million (FY89 est.)

_#_Exports: $273 million (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--coffee 97%, cotton, tea;

partners--US 25%, UK 18%, France 11%, Spain 10%

_#_Imports: $652 million (c.i.f., 1989);

commodities--petroleum products, machinery, cotton piece goods,
metals, transportation equipment, food;

partners--Kenya 25%, UK 14%, Italy 13%

_#_External debt: $1.9 billion (1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 15.0% (1989 est.); accounts
for 5% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 173,000 kW capacity; 312 million kWh produced,
18 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: sugar, brewing, tobacco, cotton textiles, cement

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 57% of GDP and 83% of labor force; cash
crops--coffee, tea, cotton, tobacco; food crops--cassava, potatoes, corn,
millet, pulses; livestock products--beef, goat meat, milk, poultry;
self-sufficient in food

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (1970-89), $145
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $1.2 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $60 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $169 million

_#_Currency: Ugandan shilling (plural--shillings);
1 Ugandan shilling (USh) = 100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: Ugandan shillings (USh) per US$1--563.18 (January
1991), 428.85 (1990), 223.09 (1989), 106.14 (1988), 42.84 (1987), 14.00
(1986), 6.72 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

_#_Railroads: 1,300 km, 1.000-meter-gauge single track

_#_Highways: 26,200 km total; 1,970 km paved; 5,849 km crushed stone,
gravel, and laterite; remainder earth roads and tracks

_#_Inland waterways: Lake Victoria, Lake Albert, Lake Kyoga, Lake
George, Lake Edward; Victoria Nile, Albert Nile; principal inland water
ports are at Jinja and Port Bell, both on Lake Victoria

_#_Merchant marine: 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo (1,000 GRT or over)
totaling 1,697 GRT

_#_Civil air: 4 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 37 total, 28 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 10 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: fair system with radio relay and radio
communications stations; 61,600 telephones; stations--10 AM, no FM, 9 TV;
satellite communications ground stations--1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1
Indian Ocean INTELSAT

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, about 3,980,637; about 2,162,241
fit for military service

_#_Defense expenditures: $68 million, 1.5% of GDP (1988)
_@_United Arab Emirates
_#_Total area: 83,600 km2; land area: 83,600 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Maine

_#_Land boundaries: 1,016 km total; Oman 410 km, Saudi Arabia 586 km,
Qatar 20 km

_#_Coastline: 1,448 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: defined by bilateral boundaries or equidistant

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm (assumed), 12 nm for Ash Shariqah

_#_Disputes: boundary with Qatar is in dispute; no defined boundary
with Saudi Arabia; no defined boundary with most of Oman, but
Administrative Line in far north; claims three islands in the Persian
Gulf occupied by Iran (Jazireh-ye Abu Musa or Abu
Musa, Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Bozorg or Greater Tunb, and Jazireh-ye
Tonb-e Kuchek or Lesser Tunb)

_#_Climate: desert; cooler in eastern mountains

_#_Terrain: flat, barren coastal plain merging into rolling sand
dunes of vast desert wasteland; mountains in east

_#_Natural resources: crude oil and natural gas

_#_Land use: arable land NEGL%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 2%; forest and woodland NEGL%; other 98%; includes irrigated

_#_Environment: frequent dust and sand storms; lack of natural
freshwater resources being overcome by desalination plants;

_#_Note: strategic location along southern approaches to
Strait of Hormuz, a vital transit point for world crude oil

_#_Population: 2,389,759 (July 1991), growth rate 5.7% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 30 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 3 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 30 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 23 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 69 years male, 74 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 4.9 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Emirian(s), adjective--Emirian

_#_Ethnic divisions: Emirian 19%, other Arab 23%, South Asian
(fluctuating) 50%, other expatriates (includes Westerners and East
Asians) 8%; less than 20% of the population are UAE citizens (1982)

_#_Religion: Muslim 96% (Shia 16%); Christian, Hindu, and other

_#_Language: Arabic (official); Persian and English widely spoken in
major cities; Hindi, Urdu

_#_Literacy: 68% (male 70%, female 63%) age 10 and over but definition
of literacy not available (1980)

_#_Labor force: 580,000 (1986 est.); industry and commerce 85%,
agriculture 5%, services 5%, government 5%; 80% of labor force is foreign

_#_Organized labor: trade unions are illegal

_#_Long-form name: United Arab Emirates (no short-form name);
abbreviated UAE

_#_Type: federation with specified powers delegated to the UAE central
government and other powers reserved to member emirates

_#_Capital: Abu Dhabi

_#_Administrative divisions: 7 emirates (imarat,
singular--imarah); Abu Zaby (Abu Dhabi), Ajman, Al Fujayrah,
Ash Shariqah, Dubayy, Ras al Khaymah, Umm al Qaywayn

_#_Independence: 2 December 1971 (from UK; formerly Trucial States)

_#_Constitution: 2 December 1971 (provisional)

_#_Legal system: secular codes are being introduced by the UAE
Government and in several member shaykhdoms; Islamic law remains

_#_National holiday: National Day, 2 December (1971)

_#_Executive branch: president, vice president, Supreme Council of
Rulers, prime minister, Council of Ministers

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Federal National Council (Majlis
Watani Itihad)

_#_Judicial branch: Union Supreme Court


Chief of State--President Shaykh Zayid bin Sultan Al NUHAYYAN,
(since 2 December 1971), ruler of Abu Dhabi;
Vice President Shaykh Maktum bin Rashid al-MAKTUM (since 8 October 1990),
ruler of Dubayy;

Head of Government--Prime Minister Shaykh Maktum bin Rashid
al-MAKTUM (since 8 October 1990), ruler of Dubayy;
Deputy Prime Minister Sultan bin Zayid Al NUHAYYAN (since 20 November

_#_Political parties and leaders: none

_#_Suffrage: none

_#_Elections: none

_#_Communists: NA

_#_Other political or pressure groups: a few small clandestine
groups are active

_#_Member of: ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-77,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Abdullah bin Zayid
Al NUHAYYAN; Chancery at Suite 740, 600 New Hampshire Avenue NW,
Washington DC 20037; telephone (202) 338-6500;

US--Ambassador Edward S. WALKER, Jr.; Embassy at Al-Sudan Street,
Abu Dhabi (mailing address is P. O. Box 4009, Abu Dhabi); telephone [971]
(2) 336691; there is a US Consulate General in Dubayy (Dubai)

_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and black
with a thicker vertical red band on the hoist side

_#_Overview: The UAE has an open economy with one of the world's
highest incomes per capita outside the OECD nations. This wealth is based
on oil and gas, and the fortunes of the economy fluctuate with the prices
of those commodities. Since 1973, when petroleum prices shot up, the UAE
has undergone a profound transformation from an impoverished region of
small desert principalities to a modern state with a high standard of
living. At present levels of production, crude oil reserves should last
for over 100 years.

_#_GDP: $27.3 billion, per capita $12,100; real growth rate 10%
(1989 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3-4% (1989 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: NEGL (1988)

_#_Budget: revenues $3.8 billion; expenditures $3.7 billion,
including capital expenditures of $NA (1989 est.)

_#_Exports: $15.0 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities--crude oil 65%, natural gas, reexports, dried fish,

partners--US, EC, Japan

_#_Imports: $9.0 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities--food, consumer and capital goods;

partners--EC, Japan, US

_#_External debt: $11.0 billion (December 1989 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 9.3% (1986)

_#_Electricity: 5,773,000 kW capacity; 15,400 million kWh produced,
6,830 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: petroleum, fishing, petrochemicals, construction
materials, some boat building, handicrafts, pearling

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 2% of GNP and 5% of labor force; cash
crop--dates; food products--vegetables, watermelons, poultry, eggs,
dairy, fish; only 25% self-sufficient in food

_#_Economic aid: donor--pledged $9.1 billion in bilateral aid to less
developed countries (1979-89)

_#_Currency: Emirian dirham (plural--dirhams);
1 Emirian dirham (Dh) = 100 fils

_#_Exchange rates: Emirian dirhams (Dh) per US$1--3.6710 (fixed rate)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Highways: 2,000 km total; 1,800 km bituminous, 200 km gravel and
graded earth

_#_Pipelines: 830 km crude oil; 870 km natural gas, including natural
gas liquids

_#_Ports: Al Fujayrah, Khawr Fakkan, Mina Jabal Ali,
Mina Khalid, Mina Rashid, Mina Saqr,
Mina Zayid

_#_Merchant marine: 57 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 925,424
GRT/1,543,716 DWT; includes 22 cargo, 8 container, 2 roll-on/roll-off
cargo, 20 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 5 bulk

_#_Civil air: 8 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 38 total, 35 usable; 20 with permanent-surface runways;
7 with runways over 3,659 m; 5 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 5 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: adequate system of radio relay and coaxial
cable; key centers are Abu Dhabi and Dubayy; 386,600 telephones;
stations--8 AM, 3 FM, 12 TV; satellite communications ground
stations--1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 2 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1
ARABSAT; submarine cables to Qatar, Bahrain, India, and Pakistan;
tropospheric scatter to Bahrain; radio relay to Saudi Arabia

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Federal Police Force

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 940,130; 516,218 fit for
military service

_#_Defense expenditures: $1.59 billion, 6.8% of GDP (1988)
_@_United Kingdom
_#_Total area: 244,820 km2; land area: 241,590 km2; includes Rockall
and Shetland Islands

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Oregon

_#_Land boundary: Ireland 360 km

_#_Coastline: 12,429 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: as defined in continental shelf orders or in
accordance with agreed upon boundaries;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: Northern Ireland question with Ireland; Gibraltar
question with Spain; Argentina claims Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas);
Argentina claims South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; Mauritius
claims island of Diego Garcia in British Indian Ocean Territory;
Rockall continental shelf dispute involving Denmark, Iceland, and Ireland
(Ireland and the UK have signed a boundary agreement in the Rockall
area); territorial claim in Antarctica (British Antarctic Territory)

_#_Climate: temperate; moderated by prevailing southwest winds over
the North Atlantic Current; more than half of the days are overcast

_#_Terrain: mostly rugged hills and low mountains; level to rolling
plains in east and southeast

_#_Natural resources: coal, crude oil, natural gas, tin,
limestone, iron ore, salt, clay, chalk, gypsum, lead, silica

_#_Land use: arable land 29%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 48%; forest and woodland 9%; other 14%; includes irrigated

_#_Environment: pollution control measures improving air, water
quality; because of heavily indented coastline, no location is more
than 125 km from tidal waters

_#_Note: lies near vital North Atlantic sea lanes; only 35 km from
France and now being linked by tunnel under the English Channel

_#_Population: 57,515,307 (July 1991), growth rate 0.3% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 14 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 11 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 7 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 73 years male, 79 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 1.8 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Briton(s), British (collective pl.);

_#_Ethnic divisions: English 81.5%, Scottish 9.6%, Irish 2.4%, Welsh
1.9%, Ulster 1.8%, West Indian, Indian, Pakistani, and other 2.8%

_#_Religion: Anglican 27.0 million, Roman Catholic 5.3 million,
Presbyterian 2.0 million, Methodist 760,000, Jewish 410,000

_#_Language: English, Welsh (about 26% of population of Wales),
Scottish form of Gaelic (about 60,000 in Scotland)

_#_Literacy: 99% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1978 est.)

_#_Labor force: 28,966,000; services 60.6%, manufacturing and
construction 27.2%, government 8.9%, energy 2.1%, agriculture
1.2% (June 1990)

_#_Organized labor: 35.7% of labor force (1989)

_#_Long-form name: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern
Ireland; abbreviated UK

_#_Type: constitutional monarchy

_#_Capital: London

_#_Administrative divisions: 47 counties, 7 metropolitan counties,
26 districts, 9 regions, and 3 islands areas;

England--39 counties, 7 metropolitan counties*; Avon, Bedford,
Berkshire, Buckingham, Cambridge, Cheshire, Cleveland, Cornwall, Cumbria,
Derby, Devon, Dorset, Durham, East Sussex, Essex, Gloucester, Greater
London*, Greater Manchester*, Hampshire, Hereford and Worcester,
Hertford, Humberside, Isle of Wight, Kent, Lancashire, Leicester,
Lincoln, Merseyside*, Norfolk, Northampton, Northumberland,
North Yorkshire, Nottingham, Oxford, Shropshire, Somerset, South
Yorkshire*, Stafford, Suffolk, Surrey, Tyne and Wear*, Warwick, West
Midlands*, West Sussex, West Yorkshire*, Wiltshire;

Northern Ireland--26 districts; Antrim, Ards, Armagh, Ballymena,
Ballymoney, Banbridge, Belfast, Carrickfergus, Castlereagh, Coleraine,
Cookstown, Craigavon, Down, Dungannon, Fermanagh, Larne, Limavady,
Lisburn, Londonderry, Magherafelt, Moyle, Newry and Mourne, Newtownabbey,
North Down, Omagh, Strabane;

Scotland--9 regions, 3 islands areas*; Borders, Central, Dumfries
and Galloway, Fife, Grampian, Highland, Lothian, Orkney*, Shetland*,
Strathclyde, Tayside, Western Isles*;

Wales--8 counties; Clwyd, Dyfed, Gwent, Gwynedd, Mid Glamorgan,
Powys, South Glamorgan, West Glamorgan

_#_Independence: 1 January 1801, United Kingdom established

_#_Constitution: unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and

_#_Dependent areas: Anguilla, Bermuda, British Indian Ocean Territory,
British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands, Gibraltar,
Guernsey, Hong Kong (scheduled to become a Special Administrative Region
of China in 1997), Jersey, Isle of Man, Montserrat, Pitcairn Islands,
Saint Helena, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Turks and
Caicos Islands

_#_Legal system: common law tradition with early Roman and modern
continental influences; no judicial review of Acts of Parliament; accepts
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

_#_National holiday: Celebration of the Birthday of the Queen (second
Saturday in June), 10 June 1989

_#_Executive branch: monarch, prime minister, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of an upper
house or House of Lords and a lower house or House of Commons

_#_Judicial branch: House of Lords


Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952);
Heir Apparent Prince CHARLES (son of the Queen, born 14 November 1948);

Head of Government--Prime Minister John MAJOR (since 28 November

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Conservative and Unionist Party, John MAJOR;
Labor Party, Neil KINNOCK;
Social and Liberal Democratic Party (SLDP; formed from the merger of the
Liberal Party and the Social Democratic Party), Jeremy (Paddy) ASHDOWN;
Scottish National Party, Alex SALMOND;
Welsh National Party (Plaid Cymru), Dafydd THOMAS;
Ulster Unionist Party (Northern Ireland), James MOLYNEAUX;
Democratic Unionist Party (Northern Ireland), Rev. Ian PAISLEY;
Ulster Popular Unionist Party (Northern Ireland), James KILFEDDER;
Social Democratic and Labor Party (SDLP, Northern Ireland), John HUME;
Sinn Fein (Northern Ireland), Gerry ADAMS;
Alliance Party (Northern Ireland), John ALDERDICE;
Communist Party, Nina TEMPLE

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


House of Commons--last held 11 June 1987 (next to be held
by June 1992);
results--Conservative 43%, Labor 32%, Liberal/Social Democratic
23%, other 2%;
seats--(650 total) Conservative 376, Labor 228,
Liberal/Social Democratic 22,
Ulster Unionist (Northern Ireland) 9,
Scottish National 4,
Welsh National 3,
Democratic Unionist (Northern Ireland) 3,
Social Democratic and Labor (Northern Ireland) 3,
Ulster Popular Unionist (Northern Ireland) 1,
Sinn Fein (Northern Ireland) 1;
note--the Liberal Party and the Social Democratic Party merged
to become the Social and Liberal Democratic Party in 1988

_#_Communists: 15,961

_#_Other political or pressure groups: Trades Union Congress,
Confederation of British Industry, National Farmers' Union, Campaign for
Nuclear Disarmament

_#_Member of: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, BIS, C,
UN Trusteeship Council, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Sir Antony ACLAND; Chancery
at 3100 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202)
462-1340; there are British Consulates General in Atlanta, Boston,
Chicago, Cleveland, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco,
and Consulates in Dallas, Miami, and Seattle;

US--Ambassador Raymond SEITZ; Embassy at 24/31 Grosvenor Square,
London, W.1A1AE, (mailing address is FPO New York 09509);
telephone [44] (71) 499-9000; there are US Consulates General in Belfast
and Edinburgh

_#_Flag: blue with the red cross of Saint George (patron saint of
England) edged in white superimposed on the diagonal red cross of
Saint Patrick (patron saint of Ireland) which is superimposed on the
diagonal white cross of Saint Andrew (patron saint of Scotland); known as
the Union Flag or Union Jack; the design and colors (especially the
Blue Ensign) have been the basis for a number of other flags including
dependencies, Commonwealth countries, and others

_#_Overview: The UK is one of the world's great trading powers and
financial centers, and its economy ranks among the four largest in
Europe. The economy is essentially capitalistic with a generous admixture
of social welfare programs and government ownership. Over the last decade
the Thatcher government halted the expansion of welfare measures and
promoted extensive reprivatization of the government economic sector.
Agriculture is intensive, highly mechanized, and efficient by European
standards, producing about 60% of food needs with only 1% of the labor
force. Industry is a mixture of public and private enterprises, employing
about 27% of the work force and generating 22% of GDP. The UK is an
energy-rich nation with large coal, natural gas, and oil reserves;
primary energy production accounts for 12% of GDP, one of the highest
shares of any industrial nation. In mid-1990 the economy fell into
recession after eight years of strong economic expansion, which had
raised national output by one quarter. Britain's inflation rate, which
has been consistently well above those of her major trading partners,
is expected to decline in 1991. Between 1986 and 1990 unemployment
fell from 11% to about 6%, but it is now rising rapidly because of
the economic slowdown. As a major trading nation, the UK will continue
to be greatly affected by world boom or recession, swings in the
international oil market, productivity trends in domestic industry,
and the terms on which the economic integration of Europe proceeds.

_#_GDP: $858.3 billion, per capita $15,000; real growth rate 0.8%

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9.3% (1990)

_#_Unemployment rate: 5.7% (1990)

_#_Budget: revenues $385.0 billion; expenditures $385.5 billion,
including capital expenditures of $35.0 billion (FY91 est.)

_#_Exports: $188.9 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities--manufactured goods, machinery, fuels, chemicals,
semifinished goods, transport equipment;

partners--EC 50.7% (FRG 11.9%, France 10.2%, Netherlands 7.0%),
US 13.1%

_#_Imports: $222 billion (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities--manufactured goods, machinery, semifinished goods,
foodstuffs, consumer goods;

partners--EC 52.6% (FRG 16.6%, France 8.9%, Netherlands 7.9%),
US 10.8%

_#_External debt: $10.5 billion (1990)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 0% (1990)

_#_Electricity: 98,000,000 kW capacity; 316,500 million kWh produced,
5,520 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: machinery and transportation equipment, metals, food
processing, paper and paper products, textiles, chemicals, clothing,
other consumer goods, motor vehicles, aircraft, shipbuilding, petroleum,

_#_Agriculture: accounts for only 1.5% of GNP and 1% of labor force;
highly mechanized and efficient farms; wide variety of crops and
livestock products produced; about 60% self-sufficient in food and
feed needs; fish catch of 665,000 metric tons (1987)

_#_Economic aid: donor--ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $21.0

_#_Currency: British pound or pound sterling (plural--pounds);
1 British pound (5) = 100 pence

_#_Exchange rates: British pounds (5) per US$1--0.5171 (January
1991), 0.5603 (1990), 0.6099 (1989), 0.5614 (1988), 0.6102 (1987),
0.6817 (1986), 0.7714 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

_#_Railroads: Great Britain--16,629 km total; British Railways (BR)
operates 16,629 km 1.435-meter standard gauge (4,205 km electrified
and 12,591 km double or multiple track); several additional small
standard-gauge and narrow-gauge lines are privately owned and operated;
Northern Ireland Railways (NIR) operates 332 km 1.600-meter gauge,
190 km double track

_#_Highways: UK, 362,982 km total; Great Britain, 339,483 km paved
(including 2,573 km limited-access divided highway); Northern Ireland,
23,499 km (22,907 paved, 592 km gravel)

_#_Inland waterways: 2,291 total; British Waterways Board, 606 km;
Port Authorities, 706 km; other, 979 km

_#_Pipelines: 933 km crude oil, almost all insignificant; 2,993 km
refined products; 12,800 km natural gas

_#_Ports: London, Liverpool, Felixstowe, Tees and Hartlepool,
Dover, Sullom Voe, Southampton

_#_Merchant marine: 251 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
4,643,056 GRT/6,214,450 DWT; includes 7 passenger, 21 short-sea
passenger, 39 cargo, 34 container, 22 roll-on/roll-off cargo,
10 refrigerated cargo, 1 vehicle carrier, 1 railcar carrier,
74 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 4 chemical tanker,
9 liquefied gas, 1 combination ore/oil, 1 specialized tanker, 25 bulk,
2 combination bulk

_#_Civil air: 618 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 520 total, 388 usable; 252 with permanent-surface
runways; 1 with runways over 3,659 m; 37 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
133 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: modern, efficient domestic and international
system; 30,200,000 telephones; excellent countrywide broadcast systems;
stations--223 AM, 165 (401 relays) FM, 207 (3,210 relays) TV; 40 coaxial
submarine cables; satellite communication ground stations operating in
INTELSAT (7 Atlantic Ocean and 3 Indian Ocean), MARISAT, and EUTELSAT

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Royal Navy (including Royal Marines), Royal Air

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 14,475,433; 12,167,324 fit for
military service; no conscription

_#_Defense expenditures: $41 billion, 4.8% of GDP (FY90)
_@_United States
_#_Total area: 9,372,610 km2; land area: 9,166,600 km2; includes only
the 50 states and District of Colombia

_#_Comparative area: about four-tenths the size of USSR; about
one-third the size of Africa; about one-half the size of South America
(or slightly larger than Brazil); slightly smaller than China; about
two and one-half times the size of Western Europe

_#_Land boundaries: 12,248 km total; Canada 8,893 km (including
2,477 km with Alaska), Mexico 3,326 km, Cuba (US naval base at
Guantanamo) 29 km

_#_Coastline: 19,924 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: not specified;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: maritime boundary disputes with Canada; US Naval Base at
Guantanamo is leased from Cuba and only mutual agreement or US
abandonment of the area can terminate the lease; Haiti claims Navassa
Island; US has made no territorial claim in Antarctica (but has reserved
the right to do so) and does not recognize the claims of any other
nation; Marshall Islands claims Wake Island

_#_Climate: mostly temperate, but varies from tropical (Hawaii) to
arctic (Alaska); arid to semiarid in west with occasional warm, dry
chinook wind

_#_Terrain: vast central plain, mountains in west, hills and low
mountains in east; rugged mountains and broad river valleys in Alaska;
rugged, volcanic topography in Hawaii

_#_Natural resources: coal, copper, lead, molybdenum, phosphates,
uranium, bauxite, gold, iron, mercury, nickel, potash, silver, tungsten,
zinc, crude oil, natural gas, timber

_#_Land use: arable land 20%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 26%; forest and woodland 29%; other 25%; includes irrigated 2%

_#_Environment: pollution control measures improving air and water
quality; acid rain; agricultural fertilizer and pesticide pollution;
management of sparse natural water resources in west; desertification;
tsunamis, volcanoes, and earthquake activity around Pacific Basin;
continuous permafrost in northern Alaska is a major impediment to

_#_Note: world's fourth-largest country (after USSR, Canada, and

_#_Population: 252,502,000 (July 1991), growth rate 0.8% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 15 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 2 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 10 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 79 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 1.8 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--American(s); adjective--American

_#_Ethnic divisions: white 85%, black 12%, other 3% (1985)

_#_Religion: Protestant 61% (Baptist 21%, Methodist 12%, Lutheran 8%,
Presbyterian 4%, Episcopalian 3%, other Protestant 13%), Roman Catholic
25%, Jewish 2%, other 5%, none 7%

_#_Language: predominantly English; sizable Spanish-speaking minority

_#_Literacy: 97% (male 97%, female 97%) age 15 and over having
completed 5 or more years of schooling (1980)

_#_Labor force: 126,424,000 (includes armed forces and unemployed);
civilian labor force 124,787,000 (1990)

_#_Organized labor: 16,729,000 members; 16.1% of total wage and
salary employment which was 103,905,000 (1990)

_#_Long-form name: United States of America; abbreviated US or USA

_#_Type: federal republic; strong democratic tradition

_#_Capital: Washington, DC

_#_Administrative divisions: 50 states and 1 district*; Alabama,
Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware,
District of Columbia*, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois,
Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland,
Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana,
Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North
Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode
Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont,
Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming

_#_Independence: 4 July 1776 (from England)

_#_Constitution: 17 September 1787, effective 4 June 1789

_#_Dependent areas: American Samoa, Baker Island, Guam, Howland
Island; Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Islands,
Navassa Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Palmyra Atoll, Puerto Rico,
Virgin Islands, Wake Island.
Since 18 July 1947, the US has administered the Trust Territory of the
Pacific Islands, but recently entered into a new political relationship
with three of the four political units. The Northern Mariana Islands is
a Commonwealth associated with the US (effective 3 November 1986). Palau
concluded a Compact of Free Association with the US that was approved by
the US Congress but to date the Compact process has not been completed in
Palau, which continues to be administered by the US as the Trust
Territory of the Pacific Islands. The Federated States of Micronesia
signed a Compact of Free Association with the US (effective 3 November
1986). The Republic of the Marshall Islands signed a Compact of Free
Association with the US (effective 21 October 1986).

_#_Legal system: based on English common law; judicial review of
legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 4 July (1776)

_#_Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Congress consists of an upper house
or Senate and a lower house or House of Representatives

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


Chief of State and Head of Government--President George BUSH
(since 20 January 1989); Vice President Dan QUAYLE (since
20 January 1989)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Republican Party, Clayton YEUTTER, national committee chairman; Jeanie
AUSTIN, co-chairman;
Democratic Party, Ronald H. BROWN, national committee chairman;
several other groups or parties of minor political significance

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


President--last held 8 November 1988
(next to be held 3 November 1992);
results--George BUSH (Republican Party) 53.37%,
Michael DUKAKIS (Democratic Party) 45.67%, other 0.96%;

Senate--last held 6 November 1990
(next to be held 3 November 1992);
results--Democratic Party 51%, Republican Party 47%, other 2%;
seats--(100 total) Democratic Party 56, Republican Party 44;

House of Representatives--last held 6 November 1990
(next to be held 3 November 1992);
results--Democratic Party 52%, Republican Party 44%, other 4%;
seats--(435 total) Democratic Party 267, Republican Party 167,
Socialist 1

_#_Communists: Communist Party (claimed 15,000-20,000 members), Gus
HALL, general secretary; Socialist Workers Party (claimed 1,800 members),
Jack BARNES, national secretary

_#_Member of: AfDB, AG (observer), ANZUS, APEC, AsDB, BIS,
Security Council, UN Trusteeship Council, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO,

_#_Diplomatic representation: US Representative to the UN,
Ambassador Thomas R. PICKERING; Mission at 799 United Nations Plaza,
New York, NY 10017; telephone (212) 415-4444 (afternoon hours)

_#_Flag: thirteen equal horizontal stripes of red (top and bottom)
alternating with white; there is a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side
corner bearing 50 small white five-pointed stars arranged in nine offset
horizontal rows of six stars (top and bottom) alternating with rows of
five stars; the 50 stars represent the 50 states, the 13 stripes
represent the 13 original colonies; known as Old Glory; the design and
colors have been the basis for a number of other flags including Chile,
Liberia, Malaysia, and Puerto Rico

_#_Overview: The US has the most powerful, diverse, and
technologically advanced economy in the world, with a per capita GNP
of $21,800, the largest among major industrial nations. In 1989 the
economy enjoyed its seventh successive year of substantial growth, the
longest in peacetime history. The expansion featured moderation in
wage and consumer price increases and a steady reduction in
unemployment to 5.2% of the labor force. In 1990, however, growth
slowed to 1% because of a combination of factors, such as the
worldwide increase in interest rates, Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in
August, the subsequent spurt in oil prices, and a general decline
in business and consumer confidence. Ongoing problems for the
1990s include inadequate investment in education and other economic
infrastructure, rapidly rising medical costs, and sizable budget and
trade deficits.

_#_GNP: $5,465 billion, per capita $21,800; real growth rate 1.0%

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.4% (1990)

_#_Unemployment rate: 5.5% (1990)

_#_Budget: revenues $1,106 billion; expenditures $1,272 billion,
including capital expenditures of $NA (FY90 est.)

_#_Exports: $393.9 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities--capital goods, automobiles, industrial supplies and
raw materials, consumer goods, agricultural products;

partners--Western Europe 27.3%, Canada 22.1%, Japan 12.1% (1989)

_#_Imports: $516.2 billion (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities--crude and partly refined petroleum, machinery,
automobiles, consumer goods, industrial raw materials, food and

partners--Western Europe 21.5%, Japan 19.7%, Canada 18.8% (1989)

_#_External debt: $581 billion (December 1989)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 1.0% (1990)

_#_Electricity: 776,550,000 kW capacity; 3,020,000 million kWh
produced, 12,080 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: leading industrial power in the world, highly
diversified; petroleum, steel, motor vehicles, aerospace,
telecommunications, chemicals, electronics, food processing, consumer
goods, fishing, lumber, mining

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 2% of GNP and 2.8% of labor force;
favorable climate and soils support a wide variety of crops and livestock
production; world's second-largest producer and number-one exporter of
grain; surplus food producer; fish catch of 5.0 million metric tons

_#_Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for domestic
consumption with 1987 production estimated at 3,500 metric tons
or about 25% of the available marijuana; ongoing eradication program
aimed at small plots and greenhouses has not reduced production

_#_Economic aid: donor--commitments, including ODA and OOF, (FY80-89),
$115.7 billion

_#_Currency: United States dollar (plural--dollars);
1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: British pounds (5) per US$--0.5171 (January
1991), 0.5603 (1990), 0.6099 (1989), 0.5614 (1988), 0.6102 (1987), 0.6817
(1986), 0.7714 (1985);

Canadian dollars (Can$) per US$--1.1559 (January 1991), 1.1668
(1990), 1.1840 (1989), 1.2307 (1988), 1.3260 (1987), 1.3895 (1986),
1.3655 (1985);

French francs (F) per US$--5.1307 (January 1991), 5.4453 (1990),
6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988), 6.0107 (1987), 6.9261 (1986), 8.9852

Italian lire (Lit) per US$--1,134.4 (January 1991), 1,198.1 (1990),
1.372.1 (1989), 1,301.6 (1988), 1,296.1 (1987), 1,490.8 (1986), 1,909.4

Japanese yen (3) per US$--133.88 (January 1991), 144.79 (1990),
137.96 (1989), 128.15 (1988), 144.64 (1987), 168.52 (1986), 238.54

German deutsche marks (DM) per US$--1.5100 (January 1991), 1.6157
(1990), 1.8800 (1989), 1.7562 (1988), 1.7974 (1987), 2.1715 (1986),
2.9440 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September

_#_Railroads: 270,312 km

_#_Highways: 6,365,590 km, including 88,641 km expressways

_#_Inland waterways: 41,009 km of navigable inland channels, exclusive
of the Great Lakes (est.)

_#_Pipelines: 275,800 km petroleum, 305,300 km natural gas (1985)

_#_Ports: Anchorage, Baltimore, Beaumont, Boston, Charleston,
Cleveland, Duluth, Freeport, Galveston, Hampton Roads, Honolulu, Houston,
Jacksonville, Long Beach, Los Angeles, Milwaukee, Mobile, New Orleans,
New York, Philadelphia, Portland (Oregon), Richmond (California), San
Francisco, Savannah, Seattle, Tampa, Wilmington

_#_Merchant marine: 404 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling NA
GRT/NA DWT); includes 3 passenger-cargo, 44 cargo, 23 bulk,
180 tanker, 13 tanker tug-barge, 11 liquefied gas, 130
intermodal; in addition there are 231 government-owned vessels

_#_Civil air: 3,297 commercial multiengine transport aircraft,
including 2,989 jet, 231 turboprop, 77 piston (1985)

_#_Airports: 14,177 total, 12,417 usable; 4,820 with permanent
surface-runways; 63 with runways over 3,659 m; 325 with runways
2,440-3,659 m; 2,524 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: 182,558,000 telephones; stations--4,892 AM,
5,200 FM (including 3,915 commercial and 1,285 public broadcasting),
7,296 TV (including 796 commercial, 300 public broadcasting, and 6,200
commercial cable); 495,000,000 radio receivers (1982); 150,000,000 TV
sets (1982); satellite communications ground stations--45 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT and 16 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Department of the Army, Department of the Navy (including
Marine Corps), Department of the Air Force

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 66,458,000; NA fit for military

_#_Defense expenditures: $312.9 billion, 5.7% of GNP (1990)
_#_Total area: 176,220 km2; land area: 173,620 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Washington State

_#_Land boundaries: 1,564 km total; Argentina 579 km, Brazil 985 km

_#_Coastline: 660 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Territorial sea: 200 nm (overflight and navigation permitted
beyond 12 nm)

_#_Disputes: short section of boundary with Argentina is in dispute;
two short sections of the boundary with Brazil are in dispute (Arroyo
de la Invernada area of the Rio Quarai and the islands at the confluence
of the Rio Quarai and the Uruguay)

_#_Climate: warm temperate; freezing temperatures almost unknown

_#_Terrain: mostly rolling plains and low hills; fertile coastal

_#_Natural resources: soil, hydropower potential, minor minerals

_#_Land use: arable land 8%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 78%; forest and woodland 4%; other 10%; includes irrigated 1%

_#_Environment: subject to seasonally high winds, droughts, floods

_#_Population: 3,121,101 (July 1990), growth rate 0.6% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 17 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 1 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 22 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 69 years male, 76 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 2.4 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Uruguayan(s); adjective--Uruguayan

_#_Ethnic divisions: white 88%, mestizo 8%, black 4%

_#_Religion: Roman Catholic (less than half adult population attends
church regularly) 66%, Protestant 2%, Jewish 2%, nonprofessing or other

_#_Language: Spanish

_#_Literacy: 96% (male 97%, female 96%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 1,300,000; government 25%, manufacturing 19%,
agriculture 11%, commerce 12%, utilities, construction, transport,
and communications 12%, other services 21% (1988 est.)

_#_Organized labor: Interunion Workers' Assembly/National Workers'
Confederation (PIT/CNT) Labor Federation

_#_Long-form name: Oriental Republic of Uruguay

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: Montevideo

_#_Administrative divisions: 19 departments (departamentos,
singular--departamento); Artigas, Canelones, Cerro Largo, Colonia,
Durazno, Flores, Florida, Lavalleja, Maldonado, Montevideo, Paysandu,
Rio Negro, Rivera, Rocha, Salto, San Jose, Soriano, Tacuarembo,
Treinta y Tres

_#_Independence: 25 August 1828 (from Brazil)

_#_Constitution: 27 November 1966, effective February 1967, suspended
27 June 1973, new constitution rejected by referendum 30 November 1980

_#_Legal system: based on Spanish civil law system; accepts compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 25 August (1828)

_#_Executive branch: president, vice president, Council of Ministers

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral General Assembly (Asamblea General)
consists of an upper chamber or Chamber of Senators (Camara de
Senadores) and a lower chamber or Chamber of Representatives (Camera de

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


Chief of State and Head of Government--President Luis Alberto
LACALLE (since 1 March 1990); Vice President Gonzalo AGUIRRE (since
1 March 1990)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
National (Blanco) Party, Luis Alberto LACALLE Herrera;
Colorado Party, Jorge BATLLE Ibanez;
Broad Front Coalition, Liber SEREGNI Mosquera--includes Communist Party
led by Jaime PEREZ
and National Liberation Movement (MLN) or Tupamaros led by Eleuterio
New Space Coalition consists of the Party of the Government
of the People (PGP), Hugo BATALLA;
Christian Democratic Party (PDC), Hector LESCANO;
and Civic Union, Humberto CIGANDA

_#_Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18


President--last held 26 November 1989 (next to be held November
results--Luis Alberto LACALLE Herrera (Blanco) 37%, Jorge BATLLE
Ibanez (Colorado) 29%, Liber SEREGNI Mosquera (Broad Front) 20%;

Chamber of Senators--last held 26 November 1989 (next to be held
November 1994);
results--Blanco 40%, Colorado 30%, Broad Front 23% New Space 7%;
seats--(30 total) Blanco 12, Colorado 9, Broad Front 7, New Space 2;

Chamber of Representatives--last held NA November 1989 (next to
be held November 1994);
results--Blanco 39%, Colorado 30%, Broad Front 22%, New Space 8%, other
seats--(99 total) number of seats by party NA

_#_Communists: 50,000

_#_Member of: AG (observer), CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, GATT, IADB,
IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS, NAM

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Eduardo MACGILLICUDDEY;
Chancery at 1918 F Street NW, Washington DC 20006; telephone (202)
331-1313 through 1316; there are Uruguayan Consulates General in Los
Angeles, Miami, and New York, and a Consulate in New Orleans;

US--Ambassador Richard C. BROWN; Embassy at Lauro Muller 1776,
Montevideo (mailing address is APO Miami 34035); telephone [598] (2)

_#_Flag: nine equal horizontal stripes of white (top and bottom)
alternating with blue; there is a white square in the upper hoist-side
corner with a yellow sun bearing a human face known as the Sun of May
and 16 rays alternately triangular and wavy

_#_Overview: The economy is slowly recovering from the deep recession
of the early 1980s. In 1988 real GDP grew by only 0.5% and in 1989 by
1.5%. The recovery was led by growth in the agriculture and fishing
sectors, agriculture alone contributing 20% to GDP, employing about 11%
of the labor force, and generating a large proportion of export earnings.
Raising livestock, particularly cattle and sheep, is the major
agricultural activity. In 1990, despite healthy exports and an improved
current account, domestic growth remained weak because of government
concentration on the external sector, adverse weather conditions, and
prolonged strikes. Bringing down high inflation, reducing a large fiscal
deficit, and avoiding frequent strikes remain major economic problems
for the government.

_#_GDP: $9.2 billion, per capita $2,970; real growth rate 1%
(1990 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 129% (1990)

_#_Unemployment rate: 8.8% (1990 est.)

_#_Budget: revenues $1.2 billion; expenditures $1.4 billion,
including capital expenditures of $165 million (1988)

_#_Exports: $1.7 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities--hides and leather goods 17%, beef 10%, wool 9%,
fish 7%, rice 4%;

partners--Brazil 17%, US 15%, FRG 10%, Argentina 10% (1987)

_#_Imports: $1.28 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities--fuels and lubricants 15%, metals, machinery,
transportation equipment, industrial chemicals;

partners--Brazil 24%, Argentina 14%, US 8%, FRG 8% (1987)

_#_External debt: $4.2 billion (1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 2.1% (1989 est.)

_#_Electricity: 1,950,000 kW capacity; 5,274 million kWh produced,
1,740 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: meat processing, wool and hides, sugar, textiles,
footwear, leather apparel, tires, cement, fishing, petroleum refining,

_#_Agriculture: large areas devoted to extensive livestock grazing;
wheat, rice, corn, sorghum; self-sufficient in most basic foodstuffs

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $105
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $293 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $69 million

_#_Currency: new Uruguayan peso (plural--pesos);
1 new Uruguayan peso (N$Ur) = 100 centesimos

_#_Exchange rates: new Uruguayan pesos (N$Ur) per US$1--1,626.4
(January 1991), 1,171.0 (1990), 605.5 (1989), 359.44 (1988), 226.67
(1987), 151.99 (1986), 101.43 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Railroads: 3,000 km, all 1.435-meter standard gauge and government

_#_Highways: 49,900 km total; 6,700 km paved, 3,000 km gravel,
40,200 km earth

_#_Inland waterways: 1,600 km; used by coastal and shallow-draft river

_#_Ports: Montevideo, Punta del Este

_#_Merchant marine: 4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 65,212
GRT/116,613 DWT; includes 2 cargo, 1 container, 1 petroleum, oils, and
lubricants (POL) tanker

_#_Civil air: 14 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 91 total, 86 usable; 16 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
17 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: most modern facilities concentrated in
Montevideo; new nationwide radio relay network; 337,000 telephones;
stations--99 AM, no FM, 26 TV, 9 shortwave; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
earth stations

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy (including Naval Air Arm and Marines), Air
Force, Coast Guard, Grenadier Guards, Police

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 735,971; 597,302 fit for
military service; no conscription

_#_Defense expenditures: $168 million, 2.2% of GDP (1988)
_#_Total area: 14,760 km2; land area: 14,760 km2; includes more
than 80 islands

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Connecticut

_#_Land boundary: none

_#_Coastline: 2,528 km

_#_Maritime claims: (measured from claimed archipelagic baselines);

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical; moderated by southeast trade winds

_#_Terrain: mostly mountains of volcanic origin; narrow coastal plains

_#_Natural resources: manganese, hardwood forests, fish

_#_Land use: arable land 1%; permanent crops 5%; meadows and pastures
2%; forest and woodland 1%; other 91%

_#_Environment: subject to tropical cyclones or typhoons (January to
April); volcanism causes minor earthquakes

_#_Note: located 5,750 km southwest of Honolulu in the South Pacific
Ocean about three-quarters of the way between Hawaii and Australia

_#_Population: 170,319 (July 1991), growth rate 3.1% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 36 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 36 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 67 years male, 72 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 5.4 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Ni-Vanuatu (singular and plural);

_#_Ethnic divisions: indigenous Melanesian 94%, French 4%, remainder
Vietnamese, Chinese, and various Pacific Islanders

_#_Religion: Presbyterian 36.7%, Anglican 15%, Catholic 15%,
indigenous beliefs 7.6%, Seventh-Day Adventist 6.2%, Church of Christ
3.8%, other 15.7%

_#_Language: English and French (official); pidgin (known as Bislama
or Bichelama)

_#_Literacy: 53% (male 57%, female 48%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1979)

_#_Labor force: NA

_#_Organized labor: 7 registered trade unions--largest include Oil
and Gas Workers' Union, Vanuatu Airline Workers' Union

_#_Long-form name: Republic of Vanuatu

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: Port-Vila

_#_Administrative divisions: 11 island councils; Ambrym, Aoba/Maewo,
Banks/Torres, Efate, Epi, Malakula, Paama, Pentecote, Santo/Malo,
Shepherd, Tafea

_#_Independence: 30 July 1980 (from France and UK; formerly New

_#_Constitution: 30 July 1980

_#_Legal system: unified system being created from former dual French
and British systems

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 30 July (1980)

_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, Council of Ministers

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament; note--the National
Council of Chiefs advises on matters of custom and land

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


Chief of State--President Frederick TIMAKATA (since 30 January

Head of Government--Prime Minister Father Walter Hadye LINI (since
30 July 1980); Deputy Prime Minister (vacant)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
National Party (Vanua'aku Pati), Donald KALPOKAS;
Union of Moderate Parties, Maxine CARLOT;
Melanesian Progressive Party, Barak SOPE

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


Parliament--last held 30 November 1987 (next to be held
by November 1991); byelections were held in December 1988 to fill
vacancies resulting from the expulsion of opposition members for
boycotting sessions; results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(46 total)
National Party 26, Union of Moderate Parties 19, independent 1

_#_Member of: ACCT, ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Vanuatu does not have a mission in

US--the ambassador in Papua New Guinea is accredited to Vanuatu

_#_Flag: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green (bottom)
with a black isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side) all separated
by a black-edged yellow stripe in the shape of a horizontal Y (the
two points of the Y face the hoist side and enclose the triangle);
centered in the triangle is a boar's tusk encircling two crossed
namele leaves, all in yellow

_#_Overview: The economy is based primarily on subsistence farming
that provides a living for about 80% of the population. Fishing and
tourism are the other mainstays of the economy. Mineral deposits are
negligible; the country has no known petroleum deposits. A small
light industry sector caters to the local market. Tax revenues come
mainly from import duties.

_#_GDP: $137 million, per capita $860; real growth rate 4.3% (1989

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7.8% (1989 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $90.0 million; expenditures $103.0 million,
including capital expenditures of $45.0 million (1989 est.)

_#_Exports: $14.5 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities--copra 59%, cocoa 11%, meat 9%, fish 8%, timber 4%;

partners--Netherlands 34%, France 27%, Japan 17%, Belgium 4%, New
Caledonia 3%, Singapore 2% (1987)

_#_Imports: $58.4 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities--machines and vehicles 25%, food and beverages 23%,
basic manufactures 18%, raw materials and fuels 11%, chemicals 6%;

partners--Australia 36%, Japan 13%, NZ 10%, France 8%, Fiji 5%

_#_External debt: $30 million (1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%

_#_Electricity: 17,000 kW capacity; 30 million kWh produced,
180 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: food and fish freezing, forestry processing, meat

_#_Agriculture: export crops--copra, cocoa, coffee, and fish;
subsistence crops--copra, taro, yams, coconuts, fruits, and vegetables

_#_Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-88), $565 million

_#_Currency: vatu (plural--vatu); 1 vatu (VT) = 100 centimes

_#_Exchange rates: vatu (VT) per US$1--109.62 (January 1991), 116.57
(1990), 116.04 (1989), 104.43 (1988), 109.85 (1987), 106.08 (1986),
106.03 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Railroads: none

_#_Highways: 1,027 km total; at least 240 km sealed or all-weather

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