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diversified crop and livestock farming; principal crops and livestock
include potatoes, wheat, barley, sugar beets, fruit, cabbage, cattle,
pigs, poultry; net importer of food; fish catch of 202,000 metric tons
in 1987;
East--accounts for about 10% of GNP (including fishing and forestry);
principal crops--wheat, rye, barley, potatoes, sugar beets, fruit;
livestock products include pork, beef, chicken, milk, hides and skins;
net importer of food; fish catch of 193,600 metric tons in 1987

_#_Economic aid:
West--donor--ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $75.5 billion;
East--donor--$4.0 billion extended bilaterally to non-Communist less
developed countries (1956-88)

_#_Currency: deutsche mark (plural--marks);
1 deutsche mark (DM) = 100 pfennige

_#_Exchange rates: deutsche marks (DM) per US$1--1.5100 (January
1991), 1.6157 (1990), 1.8800 (1989), 1.7562 (1988), 1.7974 (1987), 2.1715
(1986), 2.9440 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

West--31,443 km total; 27,421 km government owned, 1.435-meter
standard gauge (12,491 km double track, 11,501 km electrified);
4,022 km nongovernment owned, including 3,598 km 1.435-meter standard
gauge (214 km electrified) and 424 km 1.000-meter gauge (186 km
East--14,025 km total; 13,750 km 1.435-meter standard gauge,
275 km 1.000-meter or other narrow gauge; 3,830 (est.) km 1.435-meter
double-track standard gauge; 3,475 km overhead electrified (1988)

West--466,305 km total; 169,568 km primary, includes 6,435 km
autobahn, 32,460 km national highways (Bundesstrassen), 65,425 km state
highways (Landesstrassen), 65,248 km county roads (Kreisstrassen);
296,737 km of secondary communal roads (Gemeindestrassen);
East--124,604 km total; 47,203 km concrete, asphalt, stone block,
of which 1,855 km are autobahn and limited access roads, 11,326 are trunk
roads, and 34,022 are regional roads; 77,401 municipal roads (1988)

_#_Inland waterways:
West--5,222 km, of which almost 70% are usable by craft of 1,000-metric
ton capacity or larger; major rivers include the Rhine and Elbe; Kiel
Canal is an important connection between the Baltic Sea and North Sea;
East--2,319 km (1988)

_#_Pipelines: crude oil 3,644 km, refined products 3,946 km,
natural gas 97,564 km (1988)

_#_Ports: maritime--Bremerhaven, Brunsbuttel, Cuxhaven, Emden,
Bremen, Hamburg, Kiel, Lubeck, Wilhelmshaven, Rostock, Wismar,
Stralsund, Sassnitz; inland--31 major

_#_Merchant marine: 598 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,029,615
GRT/6,391,875 DWT; includes 3 passenger, 5 short-sea passenger,
315 cargo, 11 refrigerated cargo, 126 container, 1 multifunction
large-load carrier, 33 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 5 railcar carrier,
6 barge carrier, 11 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker,
27 chemical tanker, 21 liquefied gas tanker, 5 combination ore/oil,
14 combination bulk, 15 bulk; note--the German register includes
ships of the former East Germany and West Germany; during 1991 the
fleet is expected to undergo major restructuring as now-surplus
ships are sold off

_#_Civil air: 239 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 655 total, 647 usable; 312 with permanent-surface
runways; 4 with runways over 3,659 m; 86 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
95 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

West--highly developed, modern telecommunication service to all parts of
the country; fully adequate in all respects; 41,740,000 telephones;
stations--70 AM, 205 (370 relays) FM, 300 (6,422 relays) TV; 6 submarine
coaxial cables; earth stations operating in INTELSAT (12 Atlantic Ocean,
2 Indian Ocean), EUTELSAT, and domestic systems;

East--3,970,000 telephones; stations--23 AM, 17 FM, 21 TV (15 Soviet TV
relays); 6,181,860 TVs; 6,700,000 radios; at least 1 earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Federal Border Police

_#_Manpower availability:--males 15-49, 20,219,289; 17,557,807 fit for
military service; 415,108 reach military age (18) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $47.1 billion, 4.7% of GDP (1990)
_#_Total area: 238,540 km2; land area: 230,020 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Oregon

_#_Land boundaries: 2,093 km total; Burkina 548 km, Ivory Coast
668 km, Togo 877 km

_#_Coastline: 539 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical; warm and comparatively dry along southeast
coast; hot and humid in southwest; hot and dry in north

_#_Terrain: mostly low plains with dissected plateau in south-central

_#_Natural resources: gold, timber, industrial diamonds, bauxite,
manganese, fish, rubber

_#_Land use: arable land 5%; permanent crops 7%; meadows and pastures
15%; forest and woodland 37%; other 36%; includes irrigated NEGL%

_#_Environment: recent drought in north severely affecting marginal
agricultural activities; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; dry,
northeasterly harmattan wind (January to March)

_#_Note: Lake Volta is world's largest artificial lake

_#_Population: 15,616,934 (July 1991), growth rate 3.2% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 46 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 13 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 1 migrant/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 86 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 53 years male, 56 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 6.3 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Ghanaian(s); adjective--Ghanaian

_#_Ethnic divisions: black African 99.8% (major tribes--Akan 44%,
Moshi-Dagomba 16%, Ewe 13%, Ga 8%), European and other 0.2%

_#_Religion: indigenous beliefs 38%, Muslim 30%, Christian 24%,
other 8%

_#_Language: English (official); African languages include Akan,
Moshi-Dagomba, Ewe, and Ga

_#_Literacy: 60% (male 70%, female 51%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 3,700,000; agriculture and fishing 54.7%, industry
18.7%, sales and clerical 15.2%, services, transportation, and
communications 7.7%, professional 3.7%; 48% of population of working age

_#_Organized labor: 467,000 (about 13% of labor force)

_#_Long-form name: Republic of Ghana

_#_Type: military

_#_Capital: Accra

_#_Administrative divisions: 10 regions; Ashanti, Brong-Ahafo,
Central, Eastern, Greater Accra, Northern, Upper East, Upper West, Volta,

_#_Independence: 6 March 1957 (from UK, formerly Gold Coast)

_#_Constitution: 24 September 1979; suspended 31 December 1981

_#_Legal system: based on English common law and customary law;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 6 March (1957)

_#_Executive branch: chairman of the Provisional National Defense
Council (PNDC), PNDC, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly dissolved after 31
December 1981 coup, and legislative powers were assumed by the
Provisional National Defense Council

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


Chief of State and Head of Government--Chairman of the Provisional
National Defense Council Flt. Lt. (Ret.) Jerry John RAWLINGS (since
31 December 1981)

_#_Political parties and leaders: none; political parties outlawed
after 31 December 1981 coup

_#_Suffrage: none

_#_Elections: none

_#_Communists: a small number of Communists and sympathizers

_#_Member of: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-24, G-77, GATT,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Dr. Joseph ABBEY; Chancery at
2460 16th Street NW, Washington DC 20009; telephone (202) 462-0761;
there is a Ghanaian Consulate General in New York;

US--Ambassador Raymond C. EWING; Embassy at Ring Road East, East of
Danquah Circle, Accra (mailing address is P. O. Box 194, Accra);
telephone [233] (21) 775347 through 775349

_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green
with a large black five-pointed star centered in the gold band; uses the
popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the flag of Bolivia
which has a coat of arms centered in the yellow band

_#_Overview: Supported by substantial international assistance, Ghana
has been implementing a steady economic rebuilding program since 1983,
including moves toward privatization and relaxation of government
controls. Heavily dependent on cocoa, gold, and timber exports,
economic growth is threatened by a poor cocoa harvest and higher oil
prices in 1991. Rising inflation--unofficially estimated at 50%--could
undermine Ghana's relationships with multilateral lenders. Civil service
wage increases and the cost of peacekeeping forces sent to Liberia are
boosting government expenditures and undercutting structural adjustment
reforms. Ghana opened a stock exchange in 1990.

_#_GNP: $5.8 billion, per capita $380; real growth rate 2.7% (1990

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 50% (1990 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: 1.9% (1989)

_#_Budget: revenues $821 million; expenditures $782 million, including
capital expenditures of $151 million (1990 est.)

_#_Exports: $826 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--cocoa 45%, gold, timber, tuna, bauxite, and aluminum;

partners--US 23%, UK, other EC

_#_Imports: $1.2 billion (c.i.f., 1990 est.);

commodities--petroleum 16%, consumer goods, foods, intermediate
goods, capital equipment;

partners--US 10%, UK, FRG, France, Japan, South Korea, GDR

_#_External debt: $3.1 billion (1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 7.4% in manufacturing (1989);
accounts for almost 1.5% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 1,172,000 kW capacity; 4,110 million kWh produced,
280 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: mining, lumbering, light manufacturing, fishing,
aluminum, food processing

_#_Agriculture: accounts for more than 50% of GDP (including fishing
and forestry); the major cash crop is cocoa; other principal crops--rice,
coffee, cassava, peanuts, corn, shea nuts, timber; normally
self-sufficient in food

_#_Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the international
drug trade

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $455
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $2.3 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $78 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $106 million

_#_Currency: cedi (plural--cedis); 1 cedi (C) = 100 pesewas

_#_Exchange rates: cedis (C) per US$1--342.91 (November 1990), 270.00
(1989), 202.35 (1988), 153.73 (1987), 89.20 (1986), 54.37 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Railroads: 953 km, all 1.067-meter gauge; 32 km double track;
railroads undergoing major renovation

_#_Highways: 28,300 km total; 6,000 km concrete or bituminous surface,
22,300 km gravel, laterite, and improved earth surfaces

_#_Inland waterways: Volta, Ankobra, and Tano Rivers provide 155 km of
perennial navigation for launches and lighters; Lake Volta provides
1,125 km of arterial and feeder waterways

_#_Pipelines: none

_#_Ports: Tema, Takoradi

_#_Merchant marine: 4 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
52,016 GRT/66,627 DWT

_#_Civil air: 6 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 10 total, 9 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 7 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: poor to fair system of open-wire and cable,
radio relay links; 38,000 telephones; stations--6 AM, no FM, 9 TV;
1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Police Force, paramilitary Palace
Guard, National Civil Defense Organization

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 3,538,503; 1,983,493 fit for
military service; 169,698 reach military age (18) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $23 million, 0.5% of GNP (1988)
(dependent territory of the UK)
_#_Total area: 6.5 km2; land area: 6.5 km2

_#_Comparative area: about 11 times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: 1.2 km with Spain

_#_Coastline: 12 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 3 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

_#_Disputes: source of occasional friction between Spain and the UK

_#_Climate: Mediterranean with mild winters and warm summers

_#_Terrain: a narrow coastal lowland borders The Rock

_#_Natural resources: negligible

_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 100%

_#_Environment: natural freshwater sources are meager so large
water catchments (concrete or natural rock) collect rain water

_#_Note: strategic location on Strait of Gibraltar that links
the North Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea

_#_Population: 29,613 (July 1991), growth rate 0.1% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 18 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 9 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 6 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 78 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 2.4 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Gibraltarian; adjective--Gibraltar

_#_Ethnic divisions: mostly Italian, English, Maltese, Portuguese, and
Spanish descent

_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 74%, Protestant 11% (Church of England 8%,
other 3%), Moslem 8%, Jewish 2%, none or other 5% (1981)

_#_Language: English and Spanish are primary languages; Italian,
Portuguese, and Russian also spoken; English used in the schools and for
official purposes

_#_Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%)

_#_Labor force: about 14,800 (including non-Gibraltar laborers); UK
military establishments and civil government employ nearly 50% of the
labor force

_#_Organized labor: over 6,000

_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: dependent territory of the UK

_#_Capital: Gibraltar

_#_Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)

_#_Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

_#_Constitution: 30 May 1969

_#_Legal system: English law

_#_National holiday: Commonwealth Day (second Monday of March),
12 March 1990

_#_Executive branch: British monarch, governor, chief minister,
Gibraltar Council, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral House of Assembly

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court, Court of Appeal


Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor and Commander in Chief Adm. Sir Derek
REFFELL (since NA 1989);

Head of Government--Chief Minister Joe BOSSANO (since 25 March

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Socialist Labor Party (SL), Joe BOSSANO;
Gibraltar Labor Party/Association for the Advancement of Civil
Rights (GCL/AACR), Adolfo CANEPA;
Independent Democratic Party, Joe PITALUGA

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18, plus other UK subjects resident six
months or more


House of Assembly: last held on 24 March 1988 (next to be held
March 1992);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(18 total, 15 elected) SL 8, GCL/AACR 7

_#_Communists: negligible

_#_Other political or pressure groups: Housewives Association, Chamber
of Commerce, Gibraltar Representatives Organization

_#_Diplomatic representation: none (dependent territory of the UK)

_#_Flag: two horizontal bands of white (top, double-width) and red
with a three-towered red castle in the center of the white band; hanging
from the castle gate is a gold key centered in the red band

_#_Overview: The economy depends heavily on British defense
expenditures, revenue from tourists, fees for services to shipping, and
revenues from banking and finance activities. Because more than 70% of
the economy is in the public sector, changes in government spending have
a major impact on the level of employment. Construction workers are
particularly affected when government expenditures are cut.

_#_GNP: $182 million, per capita $4,600; real growth rate 5% (FY87)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.6% (1988)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $136 million; expenditures $139 million, including
capital expenditures of NA (FY88)

_#_Exports: $82 million (1988);

commodities--(principally reexports) petroleum 51%, manufactured
goods 41%, other 8%;

partners--UK, Morocco, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain, US, FRG

_#_Imports: $258 million (1988);

commodities--fuels, manufactured goods, and foodstuffs;

partners--UK, Spain, Japan, Netherlands

_#_External debt: $318 million (1987)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%

_#_Electricity: 47,000 kW capacity; 200 million kWh produced,
6,670 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: tourism, banking and finance, construction, commerce;
support to large UK naval and air bases; transit trade and supply depot
in the port; light manufacturing of tobacco, roasted coffee, ice, mineral
waters, candy, beer, and canned fish

_#_Agriculture: NA

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $0.8
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $187 million

_#_Currency: Gibraltar pound (plural--pounds);
1 Gibraltar pound (5G) = 100 pence

_#_Exchange rates: Gibraltar pounds (5G) per US$1--0.5171 (January
1991), 0.5603 (1990), 0.6099 (1989), 0.5614 (1988), 0.6102 (1987), 0.6817
(1986), 0.7714 (1985); note--the Gibraltar pound is at par with the
British pound

_#_Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

_#_Railroads: 1.000-meter-gauge system in dockyard area only

_#_Highways: 50 km, mostly good bitumen and concrete

_#_Ports: Gibraltar

_#_Merchant marine: 30 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,399,594
GRT/2,667,656 DWT; includes 6 cargo, 2 refrigerated cargo, 1 container,
10 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker,
1 combination oil/ore, 9 bulk; note--a flag of convenience registry

_#_Civil air: 1 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runway 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: adequate international radiocommunication
facilities; automatic telephone system with 14,000 telephones;
stations--1 AM, 6 FM, 4 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: British Army, Royal Navy, Royal Air Force

_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK
_@_Glorioso Islands
(French possession)
_#_Total area: 5 km2; land area: 5 km2; includes Ile Glorieuse,
Ile du Lys, Verte Rocks, Wreck Rock, and South Rock

_#_Comparative area: about 8.5 times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 35.2 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: claimed by Madagascar

_#_Climate: tropical

_#_Terrain: undetermined

_#_Natural resources: guano, coconuts

_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other--lush vegetation and coconut palms 100%

_#_Environment: subject to periodic cyclones

_#_Note: located in the Indian Ocean just north of the Mozambique
Channel between Africa and Madagascar

_#_Population: uninhabited

_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: French possession administered by Commissioner of the
Republic Daniel CONSTANTIN, resident in Reunion

_#_Overview: no economic activity

_#_Airports: 1 with runway 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of France
_#_Total area: 131,940 km2; land area: 130,800 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Alabama

_#_Land boundaries: 1,228 km total; Albania 282 km, Bulgaria 494 km,
Turkey 206 km, Yugoslavia 246 km

_#_Coastline: 13,676 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Territorial sea: 6 nm

_#_Disputes: complex maritime and air (but not territorial) disputes
with Turkey in Aegean Sea; Cyprus question; Macedonia question with
Bulgaria and Yugoslavia; Northern Epirus question with Albania

_#_Climate: temperate; mild, wet winters; hot, dry summers

_#_Terrain: mostly mountains with ranges extending into sea as
peninsulas or chains of islands

_#_Natural resources: bauxite, lignite, magnesite, crude oil, marble

_#_Land use: arable land 23%; permanent crops 8%; meadows and pastures
40%; forest and woodland 20%; other 9%; includes irrigated 7%

_#_Environment: subject to severe earthquakes; air pollution;
archipelago of 2,000 islands

_#_Note: strategic location dominating the Aegean Sea and southern
approach to Turkish Straits

_#_Population: 10,042,956 (July 1991), growth rate 0.2% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 11 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 10 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 75 years male, 80 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 1.5 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Greek(s); adjective--Greek

_#_Ethnic divisions: Greek 98%, other 2%; note--the Greek Government
states there are no ethnic divisions in Greece

_#_Religion: Greek Orthodox 98%, Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%

_#_Language: Greek (official); English and French widely understood

_#_Literacy: 93% (male 98%, female 89%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 3,860,000; services 43%, agriculture 27%,
manufacturing and mining 20%, construction 7% (1985)

_#_Organized labor: 10-15% of total labor force, 20-25% of urban
labor force

_#_Long-form name: Hellenic Republic

_#_Type: presidential parliamentary government; monarchy rejected by
referendum 8 December 1974

_#_Capital: Athens

_#_Administrative divisions: 51 departments (nomoi,
singular--nomos); Aitolia kai Akarnania, Akhaia, Argolis,
Arkadhia, Arta, Attiki, Dhodhekanisos, Drama, Evritania,
Evros, Evvoia, Florina, Fokis, Fthiotis, Grevena, Ilia,
Imathia, Ioannina, Iraklion, Kardhitsa, Kastoria, Kavala,
Kefallinia, Kerkira, Khalkidhiki, Khania, Khios, Kikladhes,
Kilkis, Korinthia, Kozani, Lakonia, Larisa, Lasithi,
Lesvos, Levkas, Magnisia, Messinia, Pella, Pieria, Preveza,
Rethimni, Rodhopi, Samos, Serrai, Thesprotia, Thessaloniki,
Trikala, Voiotia, Xanthi, Zakinthos

_#_Independence: 1827 (from the Ottoman Empire)

_#_Constitution: 11 June 1975

_#_Legal system: NA

_#_National holiday: Independence Day (proclamation of the war of
independence), 25 March (1821)

_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Greek Chamber of Deputies
(Vouli ton Ellinon)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


Chief of State--President Constantinos KARAMANLIS (since 5 May

Head of Government--Prime Minister Constantinos MITSOTAKIS
(since 11 April 1990)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
New Democracy (ND; conservative), Constantinos MITSOTAKIS;
Panhellenic Socialist Movement (PASOK), Andreas PAPANDREOU;
Democratic Renewal (DIANA), Constantine STEFANOPOULOS;
Communist Party (KKE), Aleka PAPARIGA;
Greek Left Party (EAR), Leonidas KYRKOS;
Ecologist-Alternative List, leader NA;
note--KKE and EAR have joined in the Left Alliance, Maria DAMANAKI,

_#_Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18


President--last held 4 May 1990 (next to be held May 1995);
results--Constantinos KARAMANLIS was elected by Parliament;

Parliament--last held on 8 April 1990 (next to be held
April 1994);
results--ND 46.89%, PASOK 38.62%, Left Alliance 10.27%, PASOK/Left
Alliance 1.02%, Ecologist-Alternative List 0.77%, DIANA 0.67%,
Muslim independents 0.5%;
seats--(300 total) ND 150, PASOK 123, Left Alliance 19,
PASOK-Left Alliance 4, Muslim independents 2, DIANA 1,
Ecologist-Alternative List 1;
note--one DIANA deputy joined ND in July, giving ND 151 seats; in
November a special electoral court ruled in favor of ND on a
contested seat, giving ND 152 seats and taking one from PASOK (now 122)

_#_Communists: an estimated 60,000 members and sympathizers

NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, OAS (observer), OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Christos ZACHARAKIS; Chancery
at 2221 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202)
667-3168; there are Greek Consulates General in Atlanta, Boston, Chicago,
Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco, and a Consulate in New Orleans;

US--Ambassador Michael G. SOTIRHOS; Embassy at 91 Vasilissis
Sophias Boulevard, 10160 Athens (mailing address is APO New York
09255-0006); telephone [30] (1) 721-2951 or 721-8401; there is a US
Consulate General in Thessaloniki

_#_Flag: nine equal horizontal stripes of blue (top and bottom)
alternating with white; there is a blue square in the upper hoist-side
corner bearing a white cross; the cross symbolizes Christianity, the
established religion of the country

_#_Overview: Greece has a mixed capitalistic economy with the basic
entrepreneurial system overlaid in 1981-89 by a socialist government
that enlarged the public sector from 55% of GDP in 1981 to about 70%
when Prime Minister Mitsotakis took office. Mitsotakis inherited several
severe economic problems from the preceding socialist and caretaker
governments, which neglected the runaway budget deficit, a ballooning
current account deficit, and accelerating inflation. With only a
two-seat majority in the Chamber of Deputies, Mitsotakis has concentrated
on cutting the public-sector payroll, cautiously expanding the tax base,
and adopting guidelines for privatizing Greece's loss-ridden state-owned
enterprises. Once the political situation is sorted out, Greece will have
to face the challenges posed by the steadily increasing integration of
the European Community, including the progressive lowering of trade and
investment barriers. Tourism continues as a major industry, providing a
vital offset to the sizable commodity trade deficit.

_#_GDP: $76.7 billion, per capita $7,650; real growth rate 0.9%

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 19.0% (1990)

_#_Unemployment rate: 9.0% (1989)

_#_Budget: revenues $20.9 billion; expenditures $34.1 billion,
including capital expenditures of $NA (1990)

_#_Exports: $9.0 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities--manufactured goods, food and live animals, fuels and
lubricants, raw materials;

partners--FRG 20%, Italy 17%, France 8%, UK 7%, US 6%

_#_Imports: $20.2 billion (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities--machinery and transport equipment, light manufactures,
fuels and lubricants, foodstuffs, chemicals;

partners--FRG 21%, Italy 16%, France 8%, Netherlands 7%, UK 6%

_#_External debt: $18.7 billion (1989)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 1.0% (1990 est.); accounts
for 22% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 10,500,000 kW capacity; 36,420 million kWh produced,
3,630 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: food and tobacco processing, textiles, chemicals, metal
products, tourism, mining, petroleum

_#_Agriculture: including fishing and forestry, accounts for 13% of
GNP and 27% of the labor force; principal products--wheat, corn, barley,
sugar beets, olives, tomatoes, wine, tobacco, potatoes, beef, mutton,
pork, dairy products; self-sufficient in food; fish catch of 135,000
metric tons in 1987

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-81), $525
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $1.35 billion

_#_Currency: drachma (plural--drachmas); 1 drachma (Dr) = 100 lepta

_#_Exchange rates: drachma (Dr) per US$1--159.87 (January 1991),
158.51 (1990), 162.42 (1989), 141.86 (1988), 135.43 (1987), 139.98
(1986), 138.12 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Railroads: 2,479 km total; 1,565 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, of
which 36 km electrified and 100 km double track, 892 km 1.000-meter
gauge; 22 km 0.750-meter narrow gauge; all government owned

_#_Highways: 38,938 km total; 16,090 km paved, 13,676 km crushed stone
and gravel, 5,632 km improved earth, 3,540 km unimproved earth

_#_Inland waterways: 80 km; system consists of three coastal canals
and three unconnected rivers

_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 26 km; refined products, 547 km

_#_Ports: Piraeus, Thessaloniki

_#_Merchant marine: 958 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 21,585,048
GRT/39,011,361 DWT; includes 13 passenger, 63 short-sea passenger,
2 passenger-cargo, 152 cargo, 21 container, 17 roll-on/roll-off cargo,
23 refrigerated cargo, 1 vehicle carrier, 185 petroleum, oils, and
lubricants (POL) tanker, 15 chemical tanker, 10 liquefied gas, 25
combination ore/oil, 5 specialized tanker, 407 bulk, 19 combination bulk;
note--ethnic Greeks also own large numbers of ships under the registry of
Liberia, Panama, Cyprus, and Lebanon

_#_Civil air: 35 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 81 total, 79 usable; 60 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 20 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
22 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: adequate, modern networks reach all areas;
4,122,317 telephones; stations--30 AM, 17 (20 repeaters) FM, 39 (560
repeaters) TV; 8 submarine cables; satellite earth stations operating in
INTELSAT (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), EUTELSAT, and MARISAT

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Hellenic Army, Hellenic Navy, Hellenic Air Force

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 2,434,762; 1,870,699 fit for
military service; 72,707 reach military age (21) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $3.7 billion, 5.5% of GDP (1990)
(part of the Danish realm)
_#_Total area: 2,175,600 km2; land area: 341,700 km2 (ice free)

_#_Comparative area: slightly more than three times the size of Texas

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 44,087 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

_#_Disputes: Denmark has challenged Norway's maritime claims between
Greenland and Jan Mayen

_#_Climate: arctic to subarctic; cool summers, cold winters

_#_Terrain: flat to gradually sloping icecap covers all but a narrow,
mountainous, barren, rocky coast

_#_Natural resources: zinc, lead, iron ore, coal, molybdenum,
cryolite, uranium, fish

_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
1%; forest and woodland NEGL%; other 99%

_#_Environment: sparse population confined to small settlements along
coast; continuous permafrost over northern two-thirds of the island

_#_Note: dominates North Atlantic Ocean between North America and

_#_Population: 56,752 (July 1991), growth rate 1.2% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 20 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 28 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 63 years male, 69 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 2.2 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Greenlander(s); adjective--Greenlandic

_#_Ethnic divisions: Greenlander (Eskimos and Greenland-born
Caucasians) 86%, Danish 14%

_#_Religion: Evangelical Lutheran

_#_Language: Eskimo dialects, Danish

_#_Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%)

_#_Labor force: 22,800; largely engaged in fishing, hunting, sheep

_#_Organized labor: NA

_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: part of the Danish realm; self-governing overseas
administrative division

_#_Capital: Nuuk (Godthab)

_#_Administrative divisions: 3 municipalities (kommuner,
singular--kommun); Nordgronland, Ostgronland, Vestgronland

_#_Independence: part of the Danish realm; self-governing overseas
administrative division

_#_Constitution: Danish

_#_Legal system: Danish

_#_National holiday: Birthday of the Queen, 16 April (1940)

_#_Executive branch: Danish monarch, high commissioner, home rule
chairman, prime minister, Cabinet (Landsstyre)

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Landsting

_#_Judicial branch: High Court (Landsret)


Chief of State--Queen MARGRETHE II (since 14 January 1972),
represented by High Commissioner Bent KLINTE (since NA);

Head of Government--Home Rule Chairman Lars Emil JOHANSEN
(since 15 March 1991)

_#_Political parties and leaders: two-party ruling
coalition--Siumut (a moderate socialist party that advocates more
distinct Greenlandic identity and greater autonomy from Denmark), Lars
Emil JOHANSEN, chairman; and Inuit Ataqatigiit (IA; a Marxist-Leninist
party that favors complete independence from Denmark rather than home
Atassut Party (a more conservative party that favors continuing close
relations with Denmark), leader NA;
Polar Party (conservative-Greenland nationalist), leader NA;
Center Party (a new nonsocialist protest party), leader NA

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


Landsting--last held on 5 March 1991 (next to be held 5 March
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(27 total) Siumut 11, Atassut Party 8, Inuit Ataqatigiit
5, Center Party 2, Polar Party 1;

Danish Folketing--last held on 12 December 1990 (next to be held by
December 1994); Greenland elects two representatives to the Folketing;
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(2 total) Siumut 1, Atassut 1

_#_Member of: NC

_#_Diplomatic representation: none (self-governing overseas
administrative division of Denmark)

_#_Flag: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red with a
large disk slightly to the hoist side of center--the top half of the
disk is red, the bottom half is white

_#_Overview: Over the past 25 years, the economy has changed from
one based on subsistence whaling, hunting, and fishing to one dependent
on foreign trade. Fishing is still the most important industry,
accounting for over 75% of exports and about 25% of the
population's income. Maintenance of a social welfare system similar to
Denmark's has given the public sector a dominant role in the economy.
In 1990, the economy became critically dependent on shrimp exports and an
annual subsidy (now about $355 million) from the Danish Government
because cod exports had fallen, the zinc and lead mine closed, and
a large promising platinum and gold mine was not yet operational.
Greenland has signed a contract for its largest construction project,
a power plant to supply the capital. To avoid a decline in the economy,
Denmark has agreed to pay 75% of the costs of running Sondrestrom
Airbase and Kulusuk Airfield as civilian bases after the US withdraws
in 1992.

_#_GNP: $500 million, per capita $9,000; real growth rate 5% (1988)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.4% (1989)

_#_Unemployment rate: 9% (1990 est.)

_#_Budget: revenues $381 million; expenditures $381 million, including
capital expenditures of $36 million (1989)

_#_Exports: $417 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities--fish and fish products 78%, metallic ores and
concentrates 19%;

partners--Denmark 74%, FRG 11%, Sweden 6%

_#_Imports: $394 million (c.i.f., 1989 est.);

commodities--manufactured goods 36%, machinery and transport
equipment 26%, food products 13%, petroleum and petroleum products

partners--Denmark 69%, Norway, FRG, Japan, US, Sweden

_#_External debt: $480 million (1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%

_#_Electricity: 84,000 kW capacity; 176 million kWh produced,
3,180 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: fish processing (mainly shrimp), potential for
platinum and gold mining, handicrafts, shipyards

_#_Agriculture: sector dominated by fishing and sheep raising; crops
limited to forage and small garden vegetables; 1988 fish catch of 133,500
metric tons

_#_Economic aid: none

_#_Currency: Danish krone (plural--kroner); 1 Danish krone (DKr)
= 100 ore

_#_Exchange rates: Danish kroner (DKr) per US$1--5.817 (January 1991),
6.189 (1990), 7.310 (1989), 6.732 (1988), 6.840 (1987), 8.091 (1986),
10.596 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Highways: 80 km

_#_Ports: Kangerluarsoruseq (Faeringehavn), Paamiut (Frederikshaab),
Nuuk (Godthaab), Sisimiut (Holsteinsborg), Julianehaab, Maarmorilik,
North Star Bay

_#_Merchant marine: 1 refrigerated cargo (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
1,021 GRT/1,778 DWT; note--operates under the registry of Denmark

_#_Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 11 total, 8 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 2 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: adequate domestic and international service
provided by cables and radio relay; 17,900 telephones; stations--5 AM,
7 (35 relays) FM, 4 (9 relays) TV; 2 coaxial submarine cables; 1 Atlantic
Ocean INTELSAT earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is responsibility of Denmark
_#_Total area: 340 km2; land area: 340 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Washington,

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 121 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical; tempered by northeast trade winds

_#_Terrain: volcanic in origin with central mountains

_#_Natural resources: timber, tropical fruit, deepwater harbors

_#_Land use: arable land 15%; permanent crops 26%; meadows and
pastures 3%; forest and woodland 9%; other 47%

_#_Environment: lies on edge of hurricane belt; hurricane season
lasts from June to November

_#_Note: islands of the Grenadines group are divided politically
with Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

_#_Population: 83,812 (July 1991), growth rate - 0.4% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 35 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 32 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 29 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 69 years male, 74 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 4.7 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Grenadian(s); adjective--Grenadian

_#_Ethnic divisions: mainly of black African descent

_#_Religion: largely Roman Catholic; Anglican; other Protestant sects

_#_Language: English (official); some French patois

_#_Literacy: 98% (male 98%, female 98%) age 15 and over having ever
attended school (1970)

_#_Labor force: 36,000; services 31%, agriculture 24%, construction
8%, manufacturing 5%, other 32% (1985)

_#_Organized labor: 20% of labor force

_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: parliamentary democracy

_#_Capital: Saint George's

_#_Administrative divisions: 6 parishes and 1 dependency*; Carriacou
and Little Martinique*, Saint Andrew, Saint David, Saint George, Saint
John, Saint Mark, Saint Patrick

_#_Independence: 7 February 1974 (from UK)

_#_Constitution: 19 December 1973

_#_Legal system: based on English common law

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 7 February (1974)

_#_Executive branch: British monarch, governor general, prime
minister, Ministers of Government (cabinet)

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of an upper
house or Senate and a lower house or House of Representatives

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Sir Paul SCOON (since 30 September 1978);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Nicholas BRATHWAITE
(since 13 March 1990)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
National Democratic Congress (NDC), Nicholas BRATHWAITE;
Grenada United Labor Party (GULP), Sir Eric GAIRY;
The National Party (TNP), Ben JONES; New National Party (NNP), Keith
Maurice Bishop Patriotic Movement (MBPM), Terrence MERRYSHOW;
New Jewel Movement (NJM), Bernard COARD

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


House of Representatives--last held on 13 March 1990 (next
to be held by March 1996);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(15 total) NDC 8, GULP 3, TNP 2, NNP 2

_#_Communists: about 450 members of the New Jewel Movement
(pro-Soviet) and the Maurice Bishop Patriotic Movement (pro-Cuban)

_#_Member of: ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Denneth MODESTE; Chancery at
1701 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington DC 20009; telephone (202)
265-2561; there is a Grenadian Consulate General in New York;

US--Charge d'Affaires Annette VELER; Embassy at Ross Point Inn,
Saint George's (mailing address is P. O. Box 54, Saint George's);
telephone (809) 444-1173 through 1178

_#_Flag: a rectangle divided diagonally into yellow triangles (top and
bottom) and green triangles (hoist side and outer side) with a red border
around the flag; there are seven yellow five-pointed stars with three
centered in the top red border, three centered in the bottom red border,
and one on a red disk superimposed at the center of the flag; there is
also a symbolic nutmeg pod on the hoist-side triangle (Grenada is the
world's second-largest producer of nutmeg, after Indonesia); the seven
stars represent the seven administrative divisions

_#_Overview: The economy is essentially agricultural and centers on
the traditional production of spices and tropical plants. Agriculture
accounts for about 16% of GDP and 80% of exports and employs 24% of the
labor force. Tourism is the leading foreign exchange earner, followed by
agricultural exports. Manufacturing remains relatively undeveloped, but
is expected to grow, given a more favorable private investment climate
since 1983. Despite an impressive average annual growth rate for the
economy of 5.6% during the period 1986-90, unemployment remains high
at about 25%.

_#_GDP: $200.7 million, per capita $2,390 (1989); real growth rate
5.4% (1990)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7.0% (1990)

_#_Unemployment rate: 25% (1990 est.)

_#_Budget: revenues $54.9 million; expenditures $77.6 million,
including capital expenditures of $16.6 million (1990 est.)

_#_Exports: $27.9 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities--nutmeg 36%, cocoa beans 9%, bananas 14%, mace 8%,
textiles 5;

partners--US 12%, UK, FRG, Netherlands, Trinidad and Tobago (1989)

_#_Imports: $115.6 million (c.i.f., 1989 est.);

commodities--food 25%, manufactured goods 22%, machinery 20%,
chemicals 10%, fuel 6% (1989);

partners--US 29%, UK, Trinidad and Tobago, Japan, Canada (1989)

_#_External debt: $90 million (1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 5.8% (1989 est.); accounts
for 6% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 12,500 kW capacity; 26 million kWh produced,
310 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: food and beverage, textile, light assembly operations,
tourism, construction

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 16% of GDP and 80% of exports; bananas,
cocoa, nutmeg, and mace account for two-thirds of total crop production;
world's second-largest producer and fourth-largest exporter of nutmeg
and mace; small-size farms predominate, growing a variety of citrus
fruits, avocados, root crops, sugarcane, corn, and vegetables

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY84-89), $60
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $67 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $32 million

_#_Currency: East Caribbean dollar (plural--dollars);
1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1--2.70 (fixed
rate since 1976)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Highways: 1,000 km total; 600 km paved, 300 km otherwise improved;
100 km unimproved

_#_Ports: Saint George's

_#_Civil air: no major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 3 total, 3 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: automatic, islandwide telephone system with
5,650 telephones; new SHF links to Trinidad and Tobago and Saint Vincent;
VHF and UHF links to Trinidad and Carriacou; stations--1 AM, no FM, 1 TV

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Royal Grenada Police Force, Coast Guard

_#_Manpower availability: NA

_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP
(overseas department of France)
_#_Total area: 1,780 km2; land area: 1,760 km2

_#_Comparative area: 10 times the size of Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 306 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: subtropical tempered by trade winds; relatively high

_#_Terrain: Basse-Terre is volcanic in origin with interior
mountains; Grand-Terre is low limestone formation

_#_Natural resources: cultivable land, beaches, and climate that
foster tourism

_#_Land use: arable land 18%; permanent crops 5%; meadows and
pastures 13%; forest and woodland 40%; other 24%; includes irrigated 1%

_#_Environment: subject to hurricanes (June to October); La
Soufriere is an active volcano

_#_Note: located 500 km southeast of Puerto Rico in the Caribbean Sea

_#_Population: 344,897 (July 1991), growth rate 0.8% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 20 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 5 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 17 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 70 years male, 77 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 2.0 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Guadeloupian(s); adjective--Guadeloupe

_#_Ethnic divisions: black or mulatto 90%; white 5%; East Indian,
Lebanese, Chinese less than 5%

_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 95%, Hindu and pagan African 5%

_#_Language: French, creole patois

_#_Literacy: 90% (male 90%, female 91%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1982)

_#_Labor force: 120,000; 53.0% services, government, and commerce,
25.8% industry, 21.2% agriculture

_#_Organized labor: 11% of labor force

_#_Long-form name: Department of Guadeloupe

_#_Type: overseas department of France

_#_Capital: Basse-Terre

_#_Administrative divisions: none (overseas department of France)

_#_Independence: none (overseas department of France)

_#_Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

_#_Legal system: French legal system

_#_National holiday: Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

_#_Executive branch: government commissioner

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral General Council and unicameral
Regional Council

_#_Judicial branch: Court of Appeal (Cour d'Appel) with jurisdiction
over Guadeloupe, French Guiana, and Martinique


Chief of State--President Francois MITTERRAND (since
21 May 1981);

Head of Government--Commissioner of the Republic Jean-Paul PROUST
(since November 1989)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Rally for the Republic (RPR), Marlene CAPTANT;
Communist Party of Guadeloupe (PCG), Christian Medard CELESTE;
Socialist Party (PSG), Dominique LARIFLA;
Independent Republicans;
Union for French Democracy (UDF);
Union for a New Majority (UNM)

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


General Council --last held NA 1986 (next to be held by NA 1992);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(42 total) number of seats by party NA;

Regional Council--last held on 16 March 1986 (next to be held
by 16 March 1992);
results--RPR 33.1%, PS 28.7%, PCG 23.8%, UDF 10.7%, other 3.7%;
seats--(41 total) RPR 15, PS 12, PCG 10, UDF 4;

French Senate--last held on 5 and 12 June 1988 (next to be
held June 1994); Guadeloupe elects two representatives;
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(2 total) PCG 1, PS 1;

French National Assembly--last held on 5 and 12 June 1988
(next to be held June 1994); Guadeloupe elects four representatives;
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(4 total) PS 2 seats, RPR 1 seat, PCG 1 seat

_#_Communists: 3,000 est.

_#_Other political or pressure groups: Popular Union for the
Liberation of Guadeloupe (UPLG); Popular Movement for Independent
Guadeloupe (MPGI); General Union of Guadeloupe Workers (UGTG); General
Federation of Guadeloupe Workers (CGT-G); Christian Movement for
the Liberation of Guadeloupe (KLPG)

_#_Member of: FZ, WCL, WFTU

_#_Diplomatic representation: as an overseas department of France,
the interests of Guadeloupe are represented in the US by France

_#_Flag: the flag of France is used

_#_Overview: The economy depends on agriculture, tourism, light
industry, and services. It is also dependent upon France for large
subsidies and imports. Tourism is a key industry, with most tourists from
the US. In addition, an increasingly large number of cruise ships visit
the islands. The traditionally important sugarcane crop is slowly being
replaced by other crops, such as bananas (which now supply about 50% of
export earnings), eggplant, and flowers. Other vegetables and root crops
are cultivated for local consumption, although Guadeloupe is still
dependent on imported food, which comes mainly from France. Light
industry consists mostly of sugar and rum production. Most manufactured
goods and fuel are imported. Unemployment is especially high among the

_#_GDP: $1.1 billion, per capita $3,300; real growth rate NA% (1987)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.3% (1988)

_#_Unemployment rate: 38% (1987)

_#_Budget: revenues $254 million; expenditures $254 million, including
capital expenditures of NA (1989)

_#_Exports: $153 million (f.o.b., 1988);

commodities--bananas, sugar, rum;

partners--France 68%, Martinique 22% (1987)

_#_Imports: $1.2 billion (c.i.f., 1988);

commodities--vehicles, foodstuffs, clothing and other consumer
goods, construction materials, petroleum products;

partners--France 64%, Italy, FRG, US (1987)

_#_External debt: $NA

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%

_#_Electricity: 171,500 kW capacity; 441 million kWh produced,
1,290 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: construction, cement, rum, sugar, tourism

_#_Agriculture: cash crops--bananas and sugarcane; other products
include tropical fruits and vegetables; livestock--cattle, pigs, and
goats; not self-sufficient in food

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $4
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $7.9 billion

_#_Currency: French franc (plural--francs); 1 French franc (F) = 100

_#_Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1--5.1307 (January 1991),
5.4453 (1990), 6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988), 6.0107 (1987), 6.9261
(1986), 8.9852 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Railroads: privately owned, narrow-gauge plantation lines

_#_Highways: 1,940 km total; 1,600 km paved, 340 km gravel and earth

_#_Ports: Pointe-a-Pitre, Basse-Terre

_#_Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft

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