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_#_Fiscal year: NA

_#_Highways: 6,100 km total; 1,350 km surfaced, 4,750 km improved and
unimproved earth roads and tracks

_#_Ports: El Aaiun, Ad Dakhla

_#_Airports: 16 total, 14 usable; 3 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
6 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: sparse and limited system; tied into Morocco's
system by radio relay, tropospheric scatter, and 2 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth stations linked to Rabat, Morocco; 2,000 telephones;
stations--2 AM, no FM, 2 TV

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: NA

_#_Manpower availability: NA

_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP
_@_Western Samoa
_#_Total area: 2,860 km2; land area: 2,850 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Rhode Island

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 403 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical; rainy season (October to March), dry season
(May to October)

_#_Terrain: narrow coastal plain with volcanic, rocky, rugged
mountains in interior

_#_Natural resources: hardwood forests, fish

_#_Land use: arable land 19%; permanent crops 24%; meadows and
pastures NEGL%; forest and woodland 47%; other 10%

_#_Environment: subject to occasional typhoons; active volcanism

_#_Note: located 4,300 km southwest of Honolulu in the South Pacific
Ocean about halfway between Hawaii and New Zealand

_#_Population: 190,346 (July 1991), growth rate 2.3% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 34 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 4 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 47 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 64 years male, 69 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 4.5 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Western Samoan(s); adjective--Western Samoan

_#_Ethnic divisions: Samoan; Euronesians (persons of European and
Polynesian blood) about 7%, Europeans 0.4%

_#_Religion: Christian 99.7% (about half of population associated with
the London Missionary Society; includes Congregational, Roman Catholic,
Methodist, Latter Day Saints, Seventh-Day Adventist)

_#_Language: Samoan (Polynesian), English

_#_Literacy: 97% (male 97%, female 97%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1971)

_#_Labor force: 38,000; 22,000 employed in agriculture (1987 est.)

_#_Organized labor: Public Service Association (PSA)

_#_Long-form name: Independent State of Western Samoa

_#_Type: constitutional monarchy under native chief

_#_Capital: Apia

_#_Administrative divisions: 11 districts; Aana, Aiga-i-le-Tai,
Atua, Faasaleleaga, Gagaemauga, Gagaifomauga, Palauli, Satupaitea,
Tuamasaga, Vaa-o-Fonoti, Vaisigano

_#_Independence: 1 January 1962 (from UN trusteeship administered
by New Zealand)

_#_Constitution: 1 January 1962

_#_Legal system: based on English common law and local customs;
judicial review of legislative acts with respect to fundamental rights of
the citizen; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: National Day, 1 June

_#_Executive branch: monarch, Executive Council, prime minister,

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly (Fono)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court, Court of Appeal


Chief of State--Susuga Malietoa TANUMAFILI II (Co-Chief of State
from 1 January 1962 until becoming sole Chief of State on 5 April 1963);

Head of Government--Prime Minister TOFILAU Eti Alesana (since
7 April 1988)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Human Rights Protection Party (HRPP), TOFILAU Eti, chairman;
Samoan National Development Party (SNDP), VA'AI Kolone,

_#_Suffrage: universal adult at age NA, but only matai (head of
family) are able to run for the Legislative Assembly


Legislative Assembly--last held NA February 1991
(next to be held by February 1994);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(47 total) HRPP 30, SNDP 14, independent 3

_#_Member of: ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Fili (Felix) Tuaopepe
WENDT; Chancery (temporary) at the Western Samoan Mission to the UN,
820 2nd Avenue, New York, NY 10017 (212) 599-6196;

US--the ambassador to New Zealand, Della Newman, is accredited to
Western Samoa (mailing address is P.O. Box 3430, Apia); telephone (685)

_#_Flag: red with a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side quadrant
bearing five white five-pointed stars representing the Southern Cross

_#_Overview: Agriculture employs more than half of the labor force,
contributes 50% to GDP, and furnishes 90% of exports. The bulk
of export earnings comes from the sale of coconut oil and copra. The
economy depends on emigrant remittances and foreign aid to support a
level of imports about five times export earnings. Tourism has become the
most important growth industry, and construction of the first
international hotel is under way.

_#_GDP: $115 million, per capita $620; real growth rate - 4.5%
(1990 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 17% (1990 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%; shortage of skilled labor

_#_Budget: revenues $70 million; expenditures $73 million,
including capital expenditures of $41 million (1990)

_#_Exports: $9.4 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--coconut oil and cream 54%, taro 12%, copra 9%,
cocoa 3%;

partners--NZ 28%, EC 23%, American Samoa 23%, Australia 11%,
US 6% (1990)

_#_Imports: $87 million (c.i.f., 1990 est.);

commodities--intermediate goods 58%, food 17%, capital goods 12%;

partners--New Zealand 31%, Australia 20%, Japan 15%, Fiji 15%,
US 5%, EC 4% (1987)

_#_External debt: $83 million (December 1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 4.3% (1990 est.); accounts for
14% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 29,000 kW capacity; 45 million kWh produced,
240 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: timber, tourism, food processing, fishing

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 50% of GDP; coconuts, fruit (including
bananas, taro, yams)

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $18
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $291 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $4 million

_#_Currency: tala (plural--tala); 1 tala (WS$) = 100 sene

_#_Exchange rates: tala (WS$) per US$1--2.3170 (January 1991), 2.3095
(1990), 2.2686 (1989), 2.0790 (1988), 2.1204 (1987), 2.2351 (1986),
2.2437 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Highways: 2,042 km total; 375 km sealed; remainder mostly gravel,
crushed stone, or earth

_#_Ports: Apia

_#_Merchant marine: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 24,930
GRT/34,135 DWT; includes 2 container, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo

_#_Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 3 total, 3 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
none with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: 7,500 telephones; 70,000 radios;
stations--1 AM, no FM, no TV; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Department of Police and Prisons

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 49,119; NA fit for military

_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP
_#_Total area: 510,072,000 km2; 361,132,000 km2 (70.8%) is water and
148,940,000 km2 (29.2%) is land

_#_Comparative area: land area about 16 times the size of the US

_#_Land boundaries: 442,000 km

_#_Coastline: 359,000 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: generally 24 nm, but varies from 4 nm to 25 nm;

Continental shelf: generally 200 nm, but some are 200 meters
in depth;

Exclusive fishing zone: most are 200 nm, but varies from
3 nm to 200 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm; only the Maldives varies from
35-310 nm;

Territorial sea: generally 12 nm, but varies from 3 nm to 50 nm;

note--32 nations and miscellaneous areas are landlocked
and include Afghanistan, Andorra, Austria, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana,
Burkina, Burundi, Central African Republic, Chad, Czechoslovakia,
Hungary, Iraq-Saudi Arabia Neutral Zone, Laos, Lesotho, Liechtenstein,
Luxembourg, Malawi, Mali, Mongolia, Nepal, Niger, Paraguay, Rwanda,
San Marino, Swaziland, Switzerland, Uganda, Vatican City, West Bank,
Zambia, Zimbabwe

_#_Disputes: major international land boundary
disputes--Argentina-Uruguay, Bangladesh-India, Brazil-Paraguay,
Brazil-Uruguay, Cambodia-Vietnam, Chad-Libya, China-India, China-USSR,
Ecuador-Peru, Egypt-Sudan, El Salvador-Honduras, Ethiopia-Somalia,
French Guiana-Suriname, Guyana-Suriname, Guyana-Venezuela,
Israel-Jordan, Israel-Syria, North Korea-South Korea, Oman-UAE,
Oman-Yemen, Qatar-UAE, Saudi Arabia-Yemen

_#_Climate: two large areas of polar climates separated by two rather
narrow temperate zones from a wide equatorial band of tropical to
subtropical climates

_#_Terrain: highest elevation is Mt. Everest at 8,848 meters and
lowest depression is the Dead Sea at 392 meters below sea level; greatest
ocean depth is the Marianas Trench at 10,924 meters

_#_Natural resources: the oceans represent the last major frontier for
the discovery and development of natural resources

_#_Land use: arable land 10%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures
24%; forest and woodland 31%; other 34%; includes irrigated 1.6%

_#_Environment: large areas subject to severe weather (tropical
cyclones), natural disasters (earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis, volcanic
eruptions), overpopulation, industrial disasters, pollution (air, water,
acid rain, toxic substances), loss of vegetation (overgrazing,
deforestation, desertification), loss of wildlife resources, soil
degradation, soil depletion, erosion

_#_Population: 5,419,643,132 (July 1991), growth rate 1.7% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 26 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 66 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 61 years male, 65 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 3.3 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Literacy: 74% (male 81%, female 67%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 2.2 billion (1991)

_#_Organized labor: NA

_#_Administrative divisions: 170 sovereign nations plus 72 dependent,
other, and miscellaneous areas

_#_Legal system: varies among each of the entities; 162 are parties
to the United Nations International Court of Justice (ICJ) or World Court

_#_Diplomatic representation: there are 159 members of the UN

_#_Overview: In 1990 the world economy grew at an estimated 1.0%,
considerably lower than the estimated 3.0% for 1989 and the 3.4% for
1988. The technologically advanced areas--North America, Japan, and
Western Europe--together account for 67% of the gross world product (GWP)
of $20.9 trillion; these developed areas grew in the aggregate at 2.3%
in 1990. In contrast, output in the USSR and Eastern Europe fell an
average of 5.2%; these countries account for 15% of GWP. Experience
in the developing countries continued mixed, with the newly
industrializing economies generally maintaining their rapid growth,
and many others struggling with debt, rampant inflation, and inadequate
investment. This third group contributed 18% of GWP and grew on
average 2.3% in 1990; output in this group is probably understated
because of lack of data and the method of calculation used. The year 1990
witnessed continued political and economic upheavals in the USSR and
Eastern Europe, which are in between systems, lacking both the rough
discipline of the command economy and the institutions of the market
economy. As for prospects in the 1990s, the addition of nearly 100
million people a year to an already overcrowded globe will exacerbate the
problems of pollution, desertification, underemployment, epidemics,
and famine.

_#_GWP (gross world product): $20.9 trillion, per capita $3,930;
real growth rate 1.0% (1990 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): developed countries 5%;
developing countries 100%, with wide variations (1990 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Exports: $3.33 trillion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--the whole range of industrial and agricultural
goods and services;

partners--in value, 74% of exports from industrial countries

_#_Imports: $3.45 trillion (c.i.f., 1990 est.);

commodities--the whole range of industrial and agricultural
goods and services;

partners--in value, about 75% of imports by the industrial

_#_External debt: $1.0 trillion for less developed countries
(1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 3% (1990 est.)

_#_Electricity: 2,864,000,000 kW capacity; 11,450,000 million kWh
produced, 2,150 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: chemicals, energy, machinery, electronics, metals,
mining, textiles, food processing

_#_Agriculture: cereals (wheat, maize, rice), sugar, livestock
products, tropical crops, fruit, vegetables, fish

_#_Economic aid: NA

_#_Ports: Mina al Ahmadi (Kuwait), Chiba, Houston, Kawasaki, Kobe,
Marseille, New Orleans, New York, Rotterdam, Yokohama

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: ground, maritime, and air forces at all levels of

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 1,412,502,000; NA fit for
military service

_#_Defense expenditures: $1.1 trillion, 5.3% of GWP (1990 est.)
_#_Total area: 527,970 km2; land area: 527,970 km2; includes Perim,
Socotra, the former Yemen Arab Republic (YAR or North Yemen), and
the former People's Democratic Republic of Yemen (PDRY or South Yemen)

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than twice the size of Wyoming

_#_Land boundaries: 1,746 km total; Oman 288 km, Saudi Arabia 1,458 km

_#_Coastline: 1,906 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: North--18 nm; South--24 nm;

Continental shelf: North--200 meters (depth); South--edge of
continental margin or 200 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: North--no claim; South 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: undefined section of boundary with Saudi Arabia;
Administrative Line with Oman

_#_Climate: desert; hot and humid along west coast; temperate in
western mountains; extraordinarily hot, dry, harsh desert in east

_#_Terrain: narrow coastal plain backed by flat-topped hills and
rugged mountains; dissected upland desert plains in center slope into
the desert interior of the Arabian Peninsula

_#_Natural resources: crude oil, fish, rock salt, marble; small
deposits of coal, gold, lead, nickel, and copper; fertile soil in west

_#_Land use: arable land 6%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 30%; forest and woodland 7%; other 57%; includes irrigated

_#_Environment: subject to sand and dust storms in summer; scarcity of
natural freshwater resources; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification

_#_Note: controls Bab el Mandeb, the strait linking the Red Sea and
the Gulf of Aden, one of world's most active shipping lanes

_#_Population: 10,062,633 (July 1991), growth rate 3.2% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 51 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 16 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 3 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 121 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 49 years male, 51 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 7.4 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Yemeni(s); adjective--Yemeni

_#_Ethnic divisions:
North--Arab 90%, Afro-Arab (mixed) 10%;
South--almost all Arabs; a few Indians, Somalis, and Europeans

North--Muslim 100% (Sunni and Shia);
South--Sunni Muslim, some Christian and Hindu

_#_Language: Arabic

_#_Literacy: 38% (male 53%, female 26%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force:
North--NA number of workers with agriculture and herding 70%, and
expatriate laborers 30% (est.);
South--477,000 with agriculture 45.2%, services 21.2%, construction
13.4%, industry 10.6%, commerce and other 9.6% (1983)

_#_Organized labor:
South--348,200 and the General Confederation of Workers of the
People's Democratic Republic of Yemen had 35,000 members

_#_Long-form name: Republic of Yemen

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: Sanaa

_#_Administrative divisions: 17 governorates (muhafazat,
singular--muhafazah); Abyan, Adan, Al Bayda,
Al Hudaydah, Al Jawf, Al Mahrah, Al Mahwit, Dhamar,
Hadramawt, Hajjah, Ibb, Lahij, Marib, Sadah, Sana,
Shabwah, Taizz

_#_Independence: Republic of Yemen was established on 22 May 1990
with the merger of the Yemen Arab Republic [Yemen (Sanaa) or North
Yemen] and the Marxist-dominated People's Democratic Republic of Yemen
[Yemen (Aden) or South Yemen]; previously North Yemen had become
independent on NA November 1918 (from the Ottoman Empire) and South
Yemen had become independent on 30 November 1967 (from the UK); the
union is to be solidified during a 30-month transition period, which
coincides with the remainder of the five-year terms of both legislatures

_#_Constitution: 16 April 1991

_#_Legal system: based on Islamic law, Turkish law, English common
law, and local customary law; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Proclamation of the Republic, 22 May (1990)

_#_Executive branch: five-member Presidential Council (president,
vice president, two members from northern Yemen and one member from
southern Yemen), prime minister

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives;
note--northern Yemen's Consultative Assembly (Majlis Chura) and
southern Yemen's Supreme People's Council (Majlis al-Shab al-Ala)
will combine to form the basis for the new unicameral House of

_#_Judicial branch: North--State Security Court; South--Federal
High Court


Chief of State and Head of Government President Ali Abdallah
SALIH (since 22 May 1990, the former president of North Yemen); Vice
President Ali Salim al-BIDH (since 22 May 1990, secretary general of the
Yemeni Socialist Party); Presidential Council Member Salim Salih
MUHAMMED (southern Yemen); Presidential Council Member Kadi Abdul-Karim
al-ARASHI (northern Yemen); Presidential Council Member Abdul-Aziz
ABDUL-GHANI (northern Yemen); Prime Minister Haydar Abu Bakr
al-ATTAS (since 22 May 1990, former president of South Yemen)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
General People's Congress, Ali Abdallah SALIH;
Yemeni Socialist Party (YSP; formerly South Yemen's ruling party--a
coalition of National Front, Bath, and Communist Parties), Ali Salim

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


House of Representatives--last held NA (next to be held
26-27 May, 12 June, and 24 July 1991);
results--percent of vote NA;
seats--(301); number of seats by party NA; note--the 301 members of
the new House of Representatives will come from North Yemen's
Consultative Assembly (159 members), South Yemen's Supreme People's
Council (111 members), and appointments by the New Presidential Council
(31 members)

_#_Communists: small number in North, greater but unknown number
in South

_#_Other political or pressure groups: conservative tribal groups,
Muslim Brotherhood, leftist factions--pro-Iraqi Bathists, Nasirists,
National Democratic Front (NDF)

_#_Member of: ACC, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, ESCWA, FAO, G-77,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Muhsin Ahmad al-AYNI;
Chancery at Suite 840, 600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington DC 20037;
telephone (202) 965-4760 or 4761; there is a Yemeni Consulate General in
Detroit and a Consulate in San Francisco;

US--Ambassador Charles F. DUNBAR; Embassy at Dhahr Himyar Zone,
Sheraton Hotel District, Sanaa (mailing address is P. O. Box 22347 Sanaa,
Republic of Yemen or Sanaa--Department of State, Washington, D. C.
20521-6330); telephone [967] (2) 238-842 through 238-852

_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black;
similar to the flag of Syria which has two green stars and of
Iraq which has three green stars (plus an Arabic inscription) in a
horizontal line centered in the white band; also similar to the flag of
Egypt which has a symbolic eagle centered in the white band

_#_Overview: Whereas the northern city Sanaa is the political
capital of a united Yemen, the southern city Aden, with its refinery
and port facilities, is the economic and commercial capital. Future
economic development depends heavily on Western-assisted development
of promising oil resources. South Yemen's willingness to merge stemmed
partly from the steady decline in Soviet economic support.

North--The low level of domestic industry and agriculture have made
northern Yemen dependent on imports for virtually all of its essential
needs. Large trade deficits have been made up for by remittances from
Yemenis working abroad and foreign aid. Once self-sufficient in food
production, northern Yemen has been a major importer. Land once used for
export crops--cotton, fruit, and vegetables--has been turned over to
growing qat, a mildly narcotic shrub chewed by Yemenis that has no
significant export market. Oil export revenues started flowing in late
1987 and boosted 1988 earnings by about $800 million.

South--This has been one of the poorest Arab countries, with a per
capita GNP of about $500. A shortage of natural resources, a widely
dispersed population, and an arid climate have made economic development
difficult. The economy has grown at an average annual rate of only 2-3%
since the mid-1970s. The economy had been organized along socialist
lines, dominated by the public sector. Economic growth has been
constrained by a lack of incentives, partly stemming from centralized
control over production decisions, investment allocation, and import

_#_GDP: $5.3 billion, per capita $545; real growth rate NA%
(1990 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices):

North--16.9% (1988);

South--0% (1989)

_#_Unemployment rate:

North--13% (1986);



North--revenues $1.4 billion; expenditures $2.2 billion,
including capital expenditures of $590 million (1988 est.);

South--revenues and grants $435 million; expenditures $1.0 billion,
including capital expenditure of $460 million (1988 est.)


North--$606 million (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--crude oil, cotton, coffee, hides, vegetables;

partners--FRG 29%, US 26%, Netherlands 12%;

South--$113.8 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities--cotton, hides, skins, dried and salted fish;

partners--Japan, North Yemen, Italy


North--$1.3 billion (f.o.b., 1988);

commodities--textiles and other manufactured consumer goods,
petroleum products, sugar, grain, flour, other foodstuffs, and cement;

partners--Saudi Arabia 12%, France 6%, US 5%, Australia 5%

South--$553.9 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities--grain, consumer goods, crude oil, machinery,

partners--USSR, UK, Ethiopia

_#_External debt: $5.75 billion (December 1989 est.)

_#_Industrial production:

North--growth rate 2% in manufacturing (1988);

South--growth rate NA% in manufacturing

_#_Electricity: 670,000 kW capacity; 1,100 million kWh produced,
110 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: crude oil production and petroleum refining;
small-scale production of cotton textiles and leather goods; food
processing; handicrafts; fishing; small aluminum products factory; cement


North--accounted for 26% of GDP and 70% of labor force; farm
products--grain, fruits, vegetables, qat (mildly narcotic shrub), coffee,
cotton, dairy, poultry, meat, goat meat; not self-sufficient in grain;

South--accounted for 17% of GNP and 45% of labor force;
products--grain, qat (mildly narcotic shrub), coffee, fish, livestock;
fish and honey major exports; most food imported

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $389
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $1.9 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $3.2 billion;
Communist countries (1970-89), $2.4 billion


North Yemeni riyal (plural--riyals); 1 North Yemeni riyal
(YR) = 100 fils;

South Yemeni dinar (plural--dinars); 1 South Yemeni dinar
(YD) = 1,000 fils

_#_Exchange rates:

North Yemeni riyals (YR) per US$1--9.7600 (January 1990), 9.7600 (1989),
9.7717 (1988), 10.3417 (1987), 9.6392 (1986), 7.3633 (1985);

South Yemeni dinars (YD) per US$1--0.3454 (fixed rate)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Highways: 15,500 km; 4,000 km bituminous, 11,500 km natural
surface (est.)

_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 424 km; refined products, 32 km

_#_Ports: Aden, Al Hudaydah, Al Khalf, Mocha, Nishtun,
Ras Kathib, Salif

_#_Merchant marine: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
4,309 GRT/6,568 DWT; includes 2 cargo, 1 petroleum, oils, and
lubricants (POL) tanker

_#_Civil air: 15 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 49 total, 40 usable; 10 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 20 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
12 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: the North has a poor but improving system with
new radio relay and cable networks, while the South has a small system of
open-wire, radio relay, multiconductor cable, and radio communications
stations; 65,000 telephones (est.); stations--4 AM, no FM, 22 TV;
satellite earth stations--2 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT, 1 Intersputnik, 2 ARABSAT; radio relay to Saudi Arabia, and

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Police

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 1,906,887;
1,084,122 fit for military service;
134,158 reach military age (14) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $1.06 billion, 20% of GDP (1990)
_#_Total area: 255,800 km2; land area: 255,400 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Wyoming

_#_Land boundaries: 2,961 km total; Albania 486 km, Austria 311 km,
Bulgaria 539 km, Greece 246 km, Hungary 631 km, Italy 202 km, Romania
546 km

_#_Coastline: 3,935 km (including 2,414 km offshore islands)

_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: Kosovo question with Albania; Macedonia question with
Bulgaria and Greece

_#_Climate: temperate; hot, relatively dry summers with mild, rainy
winters along coast; warm summer with cold winters inland

_#_Terrain: mostly mountains with large areas of karst topography;
plain in north

_#_Natural resources: coal, copper, bauxite, timber, iron ore,
antimony, chromium, lead, zinc, asbestos, mercury, crude oil, natural
gas, nickel, uranium

_#_Land use: arable land 28%; permanent crops 3%; meadows and pastures
25%; forest and woodland 36%; other 8%; includes irrigated 1%

_#_Environment: subject to frequent and destructive earthquakes

_#_Note: controls the most important land routes from
central and western Europe to Aegean Sea and Turkish straits

_#_Population: 23,976,040 (July 1991), growth rate 0.6% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 14 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 21 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 70 years male, 76 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 1.9 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Yugoslav(s); adjective--Yugoslav

_#_Ethnic divisions: Serb 36.3%, Croat 19.7%, Muslim 8.9%, Slovene
7.8%, Albanian 7.7%, Macedonian 5.9%, Yugoslav 5.4%, Montenegrin 2.5%,
Hungarian 1.9%, other 3.9% (1981 census)

_#_Religion: Eastern Orthodox 50%, Roman Catholic 30%, Muslim 9%,
Protestant 1%, other 10%

_#_Language: Serbo-Croatian, Slovene, Macedonian (all official);
Albanian, Hungarian

_#_Literacy: 90% (male 96%, female 84%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1981)

_#_Labor force: 9,600,000; agriculture 22%, mining and manufacturing
27%; about 5% of labor force are guest workers in Western Europe (1986)

_#_Organized labor: badly fractured labor movement, with no unified
national labor federation; several republics have competing union
federations within their borders

_#_Long-form name: Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia;
abbreviated SFRY

_#_Type: federal republic in form; four of six republics have
non-Communist governments

_#_Capital: Belgrade

_#_Administrative divisions: 6 republics (republike,
singular--republika); Bosna i Hercegovina (Bosnia and Hercegovina),
Crna Gora (Montenegro), Hrvatska (Croatia), Makedonija (Macedonia),
Slovenija (Slovenia), Srbija (Serbia);
note--there are two nominally autonomous provinces (autonomne pokajine,
singular--autonomna pokajina) within Srbija--Kosovo and Vojvodina

_#_Independence: 1 December 1918; independent monarchy established
from the Kingdoms of Serbia and Montenegro, parts of the Turkish Empire,
and the Austro-Hungarian Empire; SFRY proclaimed 29 November 1945

_#_Constitution: 21 February 1974, amendments to the Constitution
have passed the Federal Assembly and are being considered at the
republic level

_#_Legal system: mixture of civil law system and Communist legal
theory; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; a new legal
code is being formulated

_#_National holiday: Proclamation of the Socialist Federal Republic of
Yugoslavia, 29 November (1945)

_#_Executive branch: president of the Presidency, vice president of
the Presidency, Presidency, president of the Federal Executive
Council, two vice presidents of the Federal Executive Council, Federal
Executive Council

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Federal (Skupstina) consists of
an upper chamber or Chamber of Republics and Provinces (Vece Republika
i Pokrajina) and a lower chamber or Federal Chamber

_#_Judicial branch: Federal Court (Savezna Sud), Constitutional Court


Chief of State--President of the Presidency Stjepan MESIC
from Hrvatska (Croatia), one-year term expires 15 May 1992;
Vice President of the Presidency Branko KOSTIC from Crna Gora
(Montenegro), one-year term expires 15 May 1992; note--the offices of
president and vice president rotate annually among members of the
Presidency with the current vice president assuming the
presidency and a new vice president selected from area which has gone the
longest without filling the position (the current sequence is
Hrvatska, Crna Gora, Vojvodina, Kosovo, Makedonija, Bosna i
Hercegovina, Slovenija, and Srbija);

Head of Government--President of the Federal Executive Council
Ante MARKOVIC (since 16 March 1989); Vice President of the Federal
Executive Council Aleksandar MITROVIC (since 16 March 1989);
Vice President of the Federal Executive Council Zivko PREGL
(since 16 March 1989)

_#_Political parties and leaders: there are over 100 political
parties operating, some only in one republic and others country-wide

_#_Suffrage: at age 16 if employed, universal at age 18

_#_Elections: direct federal elections may never be held because of
inter-republic differences over Yugoslavia's future structure

_#_Other political or pressure groups: there are no national
political groups; all significant groups are found within the republics

_#_Member of: AfDB, AG (observer), BIS, CCC, CERN (observer),

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Dzevad MUJEZINOVIC;
Chancery at 2410 California Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone
(202) 462-6566; there are Yugoslav Consulates General in Chicago,
Cleveland, New York, Pittsburgh, and San Francisco;

US--Ambassador Warren ZIMMERMAN; mailing address Box 5070,
Belgrade or APO New York 09213-5070; telephone [38] (11) 645-655; there
is a US Consulate General in Zagreb

_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and red
with a large red five-pointed star edged in yellow superimposed in the
center over all three bands

_#_Overview: For 20 years Communist Yugoslavia had been trying to
replace the Stalinist command economy with a decentralized semimarket
system that features worker self-management councils in all large plants.
This hybrid system neared collapse in late 1989 when inflation soared.
The government applied shock therapy in 1990 under an IMF standby
program that provides tight control over monetary expansion, a freeze
on wages, the pegging of the dinar to the deutsche mark, and a partial
price freeze on energy, transportation, and communal services. This
program brought hyperinflation to a halt and encouraged a rise in
foreign investment. Since June 1990, however, inflation has
rebounded and threatens to rise further in 1991. Estimated annual
inflation for 1990 is 164%. Other huge problems remain: rising
unemployment, the low quality of industrial output, and striking
differences in income between the poorer southern regions and the
comparatively well-off northern areas. Even so, political issues far
outweigh economic problems in importance.

_#_GNP: $120.1 billion, per capita $5,040; real growth rate - 6.3%
(1990 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 164% (1990)

_#_Unemployment rate: 16% (1990)

_#_Budget: revenues $6.4 billion; expenditures $6.4 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (1990)

_#_Exports: $13.3 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--raw materials and semimanufactures 50%, consumer goods
31%, capital goods and equipment 19%;

partners--EC 53%, USSR and Eastern Europe 27%,
less developed countries 12.9%, US 4.8%, other 2.3%

_#_Imports: $17.6 billion (c.i.f., 1990 est.);

commodities--raw materials and semimanufactures 79%, capital goods
and equipment 15%, consumer goods 6%;

partners--EC 53.5%, USSR and Eastern Europe 22.8%,
less developed countries 15.4%, US 4.6%, other 3.7%

_#_External debt: $18.0 billion, medium and long term (December 1990)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 10.9% (1990)

_#_Electricity: 21,000,000 kW capacity; 83,400 million kWh produced,
3,500 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: metallurgy, machinery and equipment, petroleum,
chemicals, textiles, wood processing, food processing, pulp and paper,
motor vehicles, building materials

_#_Agriculture: diversified, with many small private holdings and
large combines; main crops--corn, wheat, tobacco, sugar beets,
sunflowers; occasionally a net exporter of corn, tobacco, foodstuffs,
live animals

_#_Economic aid: donor--about $3.5 billion in bilateral aid to
non-Communist less developed countries (1966-89)

_#_Currency: Yugoslav dinar (plural--dinars);
1 Yugoslav dinar (YD) = 100 paras; note--on 1 January 1990, Yugoslavia
began issuing a new currency with 1 new dinar equal to 10,000 YD

_#_Exchange rates: Yugoslav dinars (YD) per US$1--13.605 (January
1991), 11.318 (1990), 2.876 (1989), 0.252 (1988), 0.074 (1987), 0.038
(1986), 0.027 (1985); note--as of January 1991 the new dinar is linked to
the German deutsche mark at the rate of 9 new dinars per 1 deustche mark

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Railroads: 9,349 km total; (all 1.435-meter standard gauge)
including 931 km double track, 3,760 km electrified (1988)

_#_Highways: 122,062 km total; 73,527 km asphalt, concrete, stone
block; 33,663 km macadam, asphalt treated, gravel, crushed stone;
14,872 km earth (1988)

_#_Inland waterways: 2,600 km (1982)

_#_Pipelines: 1,373 km crude oil; 2,900 km natural gas; 150 km refined

_#_Ports: Rijeka, Split, Koper, Bar, Ploce; inland port is Belgrade

_#_Merchant marine: 277 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,780,095
GRT/6,031,359 DWT; includes 3 passenger, 4 short-sea passenger, 133
cargo, 5 refrigerated cargo, 19 container, 10 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 3
multifunction large-load carrier, 9 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL)
tanker, 3 chemical tanker, 2 combination ore/oil, 75 bulk, 11 combination
bulk; note--Yugoslavia owns 13 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 253,400
GRT/429,613 DWT under the registry of Liberia, Panama, and Cyprus

_#_Civil air: 57 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 179 total, 179 usable; 54 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 23 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
20 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: 1.6 million telephones (97% automatic); 7,500
public telephone booths; stations--85 AM, 69 FM, 103 TV; 4.65 million
radios; 4.1 million TVs (1990); 92% of country receives No. 1 television
program (1990)

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Yugoslav People's Army--Ground Forces, Naval Forces, Air
and Air Defense Forces, Frontier Guard, Territorial Defense Force, Civil

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 6,176,693; 5,001,024 fit for
military service; 189,886 reach military age (19) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: 70.85 billion dinars, 4-6% of GDP (1991
est.); note--conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the
official administratively set exchange rate would produce misleading
_#_Total area: 2,345,410 km2; land area: 2,267,600 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly more than one-quarter the size of US

_#_Land boundaries: 10,271 km total; Angola 2,511 km, Burundi 233 km,
Central African Republic 1,577 km, Congo 2,410 km, Rwanda 217 km, Sudan
628 km, Uganda 765 km, Zambia 1,930 km

_#_Coastline: 37 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: Tanzania-Zaire-Zambia tripoint in Lake Tanganyika may no
longer be indefinite since it is reported that the indefinite section of
the Zaire-Zambia boundary has been settled; long section with Congo along
the Congo River is indefinite (no division of the river or its islands
has been made)

_#_Climate: tropical; hot and humid in equatorial river basin; cooler
and drier in southern highlands; cooler and wetter in eastern highlands;
north of Equator--wet season April to October, dry season December to
February; south of Equator--wet season November to March, dry season
April to October

_#_Terrain: vast central basin is a low-lying plateau; mountains in

_#_Natural resources: cobalt, copper, cadmium, crude oil, industrial
and gem diamonds, gold, silver, zinc, manganese, tin, germanium, uranium,
radium, bauxite, iron ore, coal, hydropower potential

_#_Land use: arable land 3%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 4%; forest and woodland 78%; other 15%; includes irrigated

_#_Environment: dense tropical rainforest in central river basin and
eastern highlands; periodic droughts in south

_#_Note: straddles Equator; very narrow strip of land is only outlet
to South Atlantic Ocean

_#_Population: 37,832,407 (July 1991), growth rate 3.3% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 46 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 13 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 99 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 52 years male, 56 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 6.2 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Zairian(s); adjective--Zairian

_#_Ethnic divisions: over 200 African ethnic groups, the majority are
Bantu; four largest tribes--Mongo, Luba, Kongo (all Bantu), and the
Mangbetu-Azande (Hamitic) make up about 45% of the population

_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 50%, Protestant 20%, Kimbanguist 10%,
Muslim 10%, other syncretic sects and traditional beliefs 10%

_#_Language: French (official), Lingala, Swahili, Kingwana, Kikongo,

_#_Literacy: 72% (male 84%, female 61%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 15,000,000; agriculture 75%, industry 13%, services
12%; wage earners 13% (1981); population of working age 51% (1985)

_#_Organized labor: National Union of Zairian Workers (UNTZA) was
the only officially recognized trade union until April 1990; other unions
are now in process of seeking official recognition

_#_Long-form name: Republic of Zaire

_#_Type: republic with a strong presidential system

_#_Capital: Kinshasa

_#_Administrative divisions: 10 regions (regions,
singular--region) and 1 town* (ville); Bandundu, Bas-Zaire,
Equateur, Haut-Zaire, Kasai-Occidental, Kasai-Oriental, Kinshasa*,
Maniema, Nord-Kivu, Shaba, Sud-Kivu

_#_Independence: 30 June 1960 (from Belgium; formerly Belgian Congo,
then Congo/Leopoldville, then Congo/Kinshasa)

_#_Constitution: 24 June 1967, amended August 1974, revised 15
February 1978; amended 1990; new constitution to be promulgated in

_#_Legal system: based on Belgian civil law system and tribal law;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Anniversary of the Regime (Second Republic),
24 November (1965)

_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, Executive Council

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council (Conseil

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)


Chief of State--President Marshal MOBUTU Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu wa
Za Banga (since 24 November 1965);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Bernadin MUNGUL DIAKA
(since 23 October 1991)

_#_Political parties and leaders: sole legal party until January
1991--Popular Movement of the Revolution (MPR); other parties include
Union for Democracy and Social Progress (UDPS), Etienne TSHISEKEDI
wa Mulumba;
Democratic Social Christian Party (PDSC),
Union of Federalists and Independent Republicans (UFERI);
and Congolese National Movement-Lumumba (MNC-L)

_#_Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18


President--last held 29 July 1984 (next to be held before
December 1991);
results--President MOBUTU was reelected without opposition;

Legislative Council--last held 6 September 1987
(next to be held in 1991, probably on a multiparty basis);
results--MPR was the only party;
seats--(210 total) MPR 210; note--MPR still holds majority of seats
but some deputies have joined other parties

_#_Communists: no Communist party


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador TATANENE Manata;
Chancery at 1800 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington DC 20009;
telephone (202) 234-7690 or 7691;

US--Ambassador Melissa F. WELLS; Embassy at 310 Avenue des
Aviateurs, Kinshasa (mailing address is APO New York 09662); telephone
[243] (12) 21532; there is a US Consulate General in Lubumbashi

_#_Flag: light green with a yellow disk in the center bearing a black
arm holding a red flaming torch; the flames of the torch are blowing away
from the hoist side; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

_#_Overview: In 1990, in spite of large mineral resources and one
of the most developed and diversified economies in Sub-Saharan Africa,
Zaire had a GDP per capita of only about $200, one of the lowest on the
continent. The country's chronic economic problems worsened in 1990,
with copper production down 20% to a 20-year low, inflation near
250% compared with 100% in 1987-89, and IMF and most World Bank support
suspended until the institution of agreed-on changes. Agriculture, a key
sector of the economy, employs 75% of the population but generates
under 25% of GDP. The main potential for economic development has been
the extractive industries. Mining and mineral processing account for
about one-third of GDP and two-thirds of total export earnings.
Zaire is the world's largest producer of diamonds.

_#_GDP: $6.6 billion, per capita $180; real growth rate - 2% (1990

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 242% (1990)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $685 million; expenditures $1.1 billion, does
not include capital expenditures mostly financed by donors (1990)

_#_Exports: $2.2 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities--copper 37%, coffee 24%, diamonds 12%, cobalt, crude

partners--US, Belgium, France, FRG, Italy, UK, Japan, South Africa

_#_Imports: $2.1 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities--consumer goods, foodstuffs, mining and other
machinery, transport equipment, fuels;

partners--South Africa, US, Belgium, France, FRG, Italy, Japan, UK

_#_External debt: $7.9 billion (December 1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 3.1%; accounts for 30%
of GDP (1988)

_#_Electricity: 2,575,000 kW capacity; 5,550 million kWh produced,
150 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: mining, mineral processing, consumer products
(including textiles, footwear, and cigarettes), processed foods and
beverages, cement, diamonds

_#_Agriculture: cash crops--coffee, palm oil, rubber, quinine; food
crops--cassava, bananas, root crops, corn

_#_Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis, mostly for domestic

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.1
billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $6.4 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $35 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $263 million

_#_Currency: zaire (plural--zaire); 1 zaire (Z) = 100 makuta

_#_Exchange rates: zaire (Z) per US$1--2,113.55 (January 1991),
718.58 (1990), 381.445 (1989), 187.070 (1988), 112.403 (1987), 59.625
(1986), 49.873 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Railroads: 5,254 km total; 3,968 km 1.067-meter gauge (851 km
electrified); 125 km 1.000-meter gauge; 136 km 0.615-meter gauge;
1,025 km 0.600-meter gauge

_#_Highways: 146,500 km total; 2,550 km bituminous, 46,450 km gravel
and improved earth; remainder unimproved earth

_#_Inland waterways: 15,000 km including the Congo, its tributaries,
and unconnected lakes

_#_Pipelines: refined products 390 km

_#_Ports: Matadi, Boma, Banana

_#_Merchant marine: 4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 41,802
GRT/60,496 DWT; includes 1 passenger cargo, 3 cargo

_#_Civil air: 38 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 308 total, 255 usable; 24 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways over 3,659 m; 6 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
71 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: barely adequate wire and radio relay service;
31,200 telephones; stations--10 AM, 4 FM, 18 TV; satellite earth
stations--1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 14 domestic

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary National Gendarmerie,
paramilitary Civil Guard

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 8,240,412; 4,192,991 fit for
military service

_#_Defense expenditures: $49 million, 0.8% of GDP (1988)
_#_Total area: 752,610 km2; land area: 740,720 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Texas

_#_Land boundaries: 5,664 km total; Angola 1,110 km, Malawi 837 km,
Mozambique 419 km, Namibia 233 km, Tanzania 338 km, Zaire 1,930 km,
Zimbabwe 797 km

_#_Coastline: none--landlocked

_#_Maritime claims: none--landlocked

_#_Disputes: quadripoint with Botswana, Namibia, and Zimbabwe is in
disagreement; Tanzania-Zaire-Zambia tripoint in Lake Tanganyika may no
longer be indefinite since it is reported that the indefinite section of
the Zaire-Zambia boundary has been settled

_#_Climate: tropical; modified by altitude; rainy season (October to

_#_Terrain: mostly high plateau with some hills and mountains

_#_Natural resources: copper, cobalt, zinc, lead, coal, emeralds,
gold, silver, uranium, hydropower potential

_#_Land use: arable land 7%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 47%; forest and woodland 27%; other 19%; includes irrigated

_#_Environment: deforestation; soil erosion; desertification

_#_Note: landlocked

_#_Population: 8,445,724 (July 1991), growth rate 3.5% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 49 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 12 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 2 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 79 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 55 years male, 58 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 6.9 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Zambian(s); adjective--Zambian

_#_Ethnic divisions: African 98.7%, European 1.1%, other 0.2%

_#_Religion: Christian 50-75%, Muslim and Hindu, remainder indigenous
beliefs 1%

_#_Language: English (official); about 70 indigenous languages

_#_Literacy: 73% (male 81%, female 65%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 2,455,000; 85% agriculture; 6% mining, manufacturing,
and construction; 9% transport and services

_#_Organized labor: about 238,000 wage earners are unionized

_#_Long-form name: Republic of Zambia

_#_Type: multiparty system; on 17 December 1990, President Kenneth
KAUNDA signed into law the constitutional amendment that officially
reintroduced the multiparty system in Zambia and ending 17 years of
one-party rule

_#_Capital: Lusaka

_#_Administrative divisions: 9 provinces; Central, Copperbelt,
Eastern, Luapula, Lusaka, Northern, North-Western, Southern, Western

_#_Independence: 24 October 1964 (from UK; formerly Northern Rhodesia)

_#_Constitution: 25 August 1973

_#_Legal system: based on English common law and customary law;
judicial review of legislative acts in an ad hoc constitutional council;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 24 October (1964)

_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


Chief of State--President Dr. Kenneth David KAUNDA (since 24
October 1964);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Gen. Malimba MASHEKE (since
15 March 1989)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
United National Independence Party (UNIP), Kenneth KAUNDA;
Movement for Multiparty Democracy (MMD), Frederick CHILUBA;
National Democratic Alliance (NADA), leader NA;
Democratic Party, leader NA; note--the first Extraordinary
Congress of UNIP began on 6 August 1991

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


President--last held 26 October 1988
(next to be held mid-1991);
results--President Kenneth KAUNDA was reelected without opposition;

National Assembly--last held 26 October 1988
(next to be held mid-1991);
results--UNIP was the only party;
seats--(136 total, 125 elected) UNIP 125

_#_Communists: no Communist party

_#_Member of: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, FLS, G-19, G-77, GATT,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Paul J. F. LUSAKA; Chancery
at 2419 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202)
265-9717 through 9721;

US--Ambassador Gordon L. STREET; Embassy at corner of Independence
Avenue and United Nations Avenue, Lusaka (mailing address is P. O. Box
31617, Lusaka); telephone [2601] 228-595, 228-596, 228-598, 228-601,
228-602, 228-603, 251-419

_#_Flag: green with a panel of three vertical bands of red (hoist
side), black, and orange below a soaring orange eagle, on the outer
edge of the flag

_#_Overview: The economy has been in decline for more than a decade
with falling imports and growing foreign debt. Economic difficulties
stem from a sustained drop in copper production and ineffective economic
policies. In 1990 real GDP stood only slightly higher than that of 10
years before, while an annual population growth of more than 3% has
brought a decline in per capita GDP of 25% during the same period. A
high inflation rate has also added to Zambia's economic woes in recent

_#_GDP: $4.7 billion, per capita $580; real growth rate - 2% (1990)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 80% (1990)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $1.5 billion; expenditures $1.5 billion,
including capital expenditures of $300 million (1991 est.)

_#_Exports: $1.1 million (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities--copper, zinc, cobalt, lead, tobacco;

partners--EC, Japan, South Africa, US

_#_Imports: $1.1 million (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities--machinery, transportation equipment, foodstuffs,
fuels, manufactures;

partners--EC, Japan, South Africa, US

_#_External debt: $7.2 billion (December 1990)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 2.9% (1990); accounts for
one-third of GDP

_#_Electricity: 1,900,000 kW capacity; 8,245 million kWh produced,
1,050 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: copper mining and processing, transport, construction,
foodstuffs, beverages, chemicals, textiles, and fertilizer

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 15% of GDP and 85% of labor force;
crops--corn (food staple), sorghum, rice, peanuts, sunflower, tobacco,
cotton, sugarcane, cassava; cattle, goats, beef, eggs;
marginally self-sufficient in corn

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (1970-89), $484
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $4.5 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $60 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $533 million

_#_Currency: Zambian kwacha (plural--kwacha);
1 Zambian kwacha (ZK) = 100 ngwee

_#_Exchange rates: Zambian kwacha (ZK) per US$1--43.2900 (January
1991), 28.9855 (1990), 12.9032 (1989), 8.2237 (1988), 8.8889 (1987),
7.3046 (1986), 2.7137 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Railroads: 1,266 km, all 1.067-meter gauge; 13 km double track

_#_Highways: 36,370 km total; 6,500 km paved, 7,000 km crushed stone,
gravel, or stabilized soil; 22,870 km improved and unimproved earth

_#_Inland waterways: 2,250 km, including Zambezi and Luapula Rivers,
Lake Tanganyika

_#_Pipelines: 1,724 km crude oil

_#_Ports: Mpulungu (lake port)

_#_Civil air: 6 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 121 total, 106 usable; 13 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways over 3,659 m; 4 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 23 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: facilities are among the best in Sub-Saharan
Africa; high-capacity radio relay connects most larger towns and cities;
71,700 telephones; stations--11 AM, 3 FM, 9 TV; satellite earth
stations--1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Air Force, Police, paramilitary

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 1,755,585; 920,878 fit for
military service

_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP
_#_Total area: 390,580 km2; land area: 386,670 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Montana

_#_Land boundaries: 3,066 km total; Botswana 813 km, Mozambique
1,231 km, South Africa 225 km, Zambia 797 km

_#_Coastline: none--landlocked

_#_Maritime claims: none--landlocked

_#_Disputes: quadripoint with Botswana, Namibia, and Zambia is in

_#_Climate: tropical; moderated by altitude; rainy season (November to

_#_Terrain: mostly high plateau with higher central plateau (high
veld); mountains in east

_#_Natural resources: coal, chromium ore, asbestos, gold, nickel,
copper, iron ore, vanadium, lithium, tin, platinum group metals

_#_Land use: arable land 7%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 12%; forest and woodland 62%; other 19%; includes irrigated

_#_Environment: recurring droughts; floods and severe storms are rare;
deforestation; soil erosion; air and water pollution

_#_Note: landlocked

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