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_#_Labor force: 11,145; government 48%, tuna canneries 33%, other
19% (1986 est.)

_#_Organized labor: NA

_#_Note: about 65,000 American Samoans live in the States of
California and Washington and 20,000 in Hawaii

_#_Long-form name: Territory of American Samoa

_#_Type: unincorporated and unorganized territory of the US

_#_Capital: Pago Pago

_#_Administrative divisions: none (territory of the US)

_#_Independence: none (territory of the US)

_#_Constitution: ratified 1966, in effect 1967

_#_National holiday: Flag Day, 17 April (1900)

_#_Executive branch: President of the US, governor, lieutenant

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Legislative Assembly (Fono) consists
of an upper house or Senate and a lower house or House of Representatives

_#_Judicial branch: High Court


Chief of State--President George BUSH (since 20 January 1989);
Vice President Dan QUAYLE (since 20 January 1989);

Head of Government--Governor Peter Tali COLEMAN (since 20
January 1989);
Lieutenant Governor Galea'i POUMELE (since NA 1989)

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18; indigenous inhabitants are US
nationals, not US citizens


Governor--last held 7 November 1988 (next to be held November
1992); results--Peter T. COLEMAN was elected (percent of vote NA);

Senate--last held 7 November 1988 (next to be held November
results--senators elected by county councils from 12 senate
seats--(18 total) number of seats by party NA;

House of Representatives--last held NA November 1990 (next to be
held November 1992);
results--representatives popularly elected from 17 house districts;
seats--(21 total, 20 elected and 1 nonvoting delegate from Swain's

US House of Representatives--last held 19 November 1990 (next
to be held November 1992);
results--Eni R. F. H. FALEOMAVAEGA reelected as a nonvoting delegate

_#_Communists: none

_#_Member of: IOC, SPC

_#_Diplomatic representation: none (territory of the US)

_#_Flag: blue with a white triangle edged in red that is based on the
fly side and extends to the hoist side; a brown and white American bald
eagle flying toward the hoist side is carrying two traditional Samoan
symbols of authority, a staff and a war club

_#_Note: administered by the US Department of Interior, Office of
Territorial and International Affairs; indigenous inhabitants are US
nationals, not citizens of the US

_#_Overview: Economic development is strongly linked to the US, with
which American Samoa does 90% of its foreign trade. Tuna fishing and tuna
processing plants are the backbone of the private-sector economy, with
canned tuna the primary export. The tuna canneries are the second-largest
employer, exceeded only by the government. Other economic activities
include meat canning, handicrafts, dairy farming, and a slowly developing
tourist industry.

_#_GNP: $190 million, per capita $5,210; real growth rate NA% (1985)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.3% (1989)

_#_Unemployment rate: 13.4% (1986)

_#_Budget: revenues $51.2 million; expenditures $59.9 million,
including capital expenditures of $NA million (1990)

_#_Exports: $288 million (f.o.b., 1987);

commodities--canned tuna 93%;

partners--US 99.6%

_#_Imports: $346 million (c.i.f., 1987);

commodities--building materials 18%, food 17%, petroleum
products 14%;

partners--US 72%, Japan 7%, NZ 7%, Australia 5%, other 9%

_#_External debt: $NA

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%

_#_Electricity: 42,000 kW capacity; 85 million kWh produced,
2,020 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: tuna canneries (largely dependent on foreign supplies
of raw tuna)

_#_Agriculture: bananas, coconuts, vegetables, taro, breadfruit, yams,
copra, pineapples, papayas

_#_Economic aid: $21,042,650 million in operational funds and
$5,948,931 million in construction funds for capital improvement projects
from the US Department of Interior (1991)

_#_Currency: US currency is used

_#_Exchange rates: US currency is used

_#_Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September

_#_Railroads: none

_#_Highways: 350 km total; 150 km paved, 200 km unpaved

_#_Ports: Pago Pago, Ta'u

_#_Airports: 4 total, 4 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440 to 3,659 m
(international airport at Tafuna, near Pago Pago); small airstrips on
Ta'u and Ofu

_#_Telecommunications: 6,500 telephones; stations--1 AM, 2 FM, 1 TV;
good telex, telegraph, and facsimile services; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT
earth station, 1 COMSAT earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the US
_#_Total area: 450 km2; land area: 450 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly more than 2.5 times the size of
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: 125 km total; France 60 km, Spain 65 km

_#_Coastline: none--landlocked

_#_Maritime claims: none--landlocked

_#_Climate: temperate; snowy, cold winters and cool, dry summers

_#_Terrain: rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys

_#_Natural resources: hydropower, mineral water, timber,
iron ore, lead

_#_Land use: arable land 2%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and
pastures 56%; forest and woodland 22%; other 20%

_#_Environment: deforestation, overgrazing

_#_Note: landlocked

_#_Population: 53,197 (July 1991), growth rate 2.4% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 11 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 4 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 16 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 7 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 74 years male, 81 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 1.3 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Andorran(s); adjective--Andorran

_#_Ethnic divisions: Catalan stock; Spanish 61%, Andorran 30%,
French 6%, other 3%

_#_Religion: virtually all Roman Catholic

_#_Language: Catalan (official); many also speak some French and

_#_Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%)

_#_Labor force: NA

_#_Organized labor: none

_#_Long-form name: Principality of Andorra

_#_Type: unique coprincipality under formal sovereignty of president
of France and Spanish bishop of Seo de Urgel, who are represented locally
by officials called verguers

_#_Capital: Andorra la Vella

_#_Administrative divisions: 7 parishes (parroquies,
singular--parroquia); Andorra, Canillo, Encamp, La Massana, Les
Escaldes, Ordino, Sant Julia de Loria

_#_Independence: 1278

_#_Constitution: none; some pareatges and decrees, mostly custom and

_#_Legal system: based on French and Spanish civil codes; no judicial
review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Mare de Deu de Meritxell, 8 September

_#_Executive branch: two co-princes (president of France, bishop of
Seo de Urgel in Spain), two designated representatives (French veguer,
Episcopal veguer), two permanent delegates (French prefect for the
department of Pyrenees-Orientales, Spanish vicar general for the Seo
de Urgel diocese), president of government, Executive Council

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral General Council of the Valleys
(Consell General de las Valls)

_#_Judicial branch: civil cases--Supreme Court of Andorra at Perpignan
(France) or the Ecclesiastical Court of the bishop of Seo de Urgel
(Spain); criminal cases--Tribunal of the Courts (Tribunal des Cortes)


Chiefs of State--French Co-Prince Francois MITTERRAND (since 21
May 1981), represented by Veguer de Franca Jean Pierre COURTOIS;
Spanish Episcopal Co-Prince Mgr. Joan MARTI y Alanis (since 31
January 1971), represented by Veguer Episcopal Francesc BADIA Batalla;

Head of Government--Oscar RIBAS Reig (since NA January 1990)

_#_Political parties and leaders: political parties not yet legally
recognized; traditionally no political parties but partisans for
particular independent candidates for the General Council on the basis of
competence, personality, and orientation toward Spain or France; various
small pressure groups developed in 1972; first formal political party,
Andorran Democratic Association, was formed in 1976 and reorganized in
1979 as Andorran Democratic Party

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


General Council of the Valleys--last held 11 December 1989
(next to be held December 1993);
results--percent of vote NA;
seats--(28 total) number of seats by party NA

_#_Communists: negligible

_#_Member of: CSCE, INTERPOL, IOC

_#_Diplomatic representation: Andorra has no mission in the US;

US--includes Andorra within the Barcelona (Spain) Consular District
and the US Consul General visits Andorra periodically; Consul General
Ruth A. DAVIS; Consulate General at Via Layetana 33, Barcelona 3, Spain
(mailing address APO NY 09286); telephone [34] (3) 319-9550

_#_Flag: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and
red with the national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; the coat
of arms features a quartered shield; similar to the flags of Chad and
Romania which do not have a national coat of arms in the center
lar to the

_#_Overview: The mainstay of Andorra's economy is tourism. An
estimated 12 million tourists visit annually, attracted by Andorra's
duty-free status and by its summer and winter resorts. Agricultural
production is limited by a scarcity of arable land, and most food has to
be imported. The principal livestock activity is sheep raising.
Manufacturing consists mainly of cigarettes, cigars, and furniture. The
rapid pace of European economic integration is a potential threat to
Andorra's advantages from its duty-free status.

_#_GDP: $727 million, per capita $14,000; real growth rate NA%
(1990 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

_#_Unemployment rate: none

_#_Budget: revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital
expenditures of $NA

_#_Exports: $0.017 million (f.o.b., 1986);


partners--France, Spain

_#_Imports: $531 million (f.o.b., 1986);

commodities--consumer goods, food;

partners--France, Spain

_#_External debt: $NA

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%

_#_Electricity: 35,000 kW capacity; 140 million kWh produced,
2,800 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: tourism (particularly skiing), sheep, timber, tobacco,
smuggling, banking

_#_Agriculture: sheep raising; small quantities of tobacco, rye,
wheat, barley, oats, and some vegetables

_#_Economic aid: none

_#_Currency: French franc (plural--francs) and Spanish peseta
(plural--pesetas); 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes and 1 Spanish peseta
(Pta) = 100 centimos

_#_Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1--5.1307 (January 1991),
5.4453 (1990), 6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988), 6.0107 (1987), 6.9261
(1986), 8.9852 (1985); Spanish pesetas (Ptas) per US$1--95.20 (January
1991), 101.93 (1990), 118.38 (1989), 116.49 (1988), 123.48 (1987), 140.05
(1986), 170.04 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Highways: 96 km

_#_Telecommunications: international digital microwave network;
international landline circuits to France and Spain; stations--1 AM, no
FM, no TV; 17,700 telephones

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of France and Spain
_#_Total area: 1,246,700 km2; land area: 1,246,700 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

_#_Land boundaries: 5,198 km total; Congo 201 km, Namibia 1,376 km,
Zaire 2,511 km, Zambia 1,110 km

_#_Coastline: 1,600 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 20 nm

_#_Disputes: civil war since independence on 11 November 1975;
on 31 May 1991 Angolan President Jose Eduardo dos SANTOS
and Jonas SAVIMBI, leader of the National Union for the Total
Independence of Angola (UNITA), signed a peace treaty that calls for
multiparty elections between September and November 1992, an
internationally monitored cease-fire, and termination of outside
military assistance

_#_Climate: semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has
cool, dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to

_#_Terrain: narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior

_#_Natural resources: petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates,
copper, feldspar, gold, bauxite, uranium

_#_Land use: arable land 2%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 23%; forest and woodland 43%; other 32%

_#_Environment: locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on
plateau; desertification

_#_Note: Cabinda is separated from rest of country by Zaire

_#_Population: 8,668,281 (July 1991), growth rate 2.7% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 47 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 20 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 151 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 42 years male, 46 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 6.7 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Angolan(s); adjective--Angolan

_#_Ethnic divisions: Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%,
Mestico 2%, European 1%, other 22%

_#_Religion: indigenous beliefs 47%, Roman Catholic 38%, Protestant
15% (est.)

_#_Language: Portuguese (official); various Bantu dialects

_#_Literacy: 42% (male 56%, female 28%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 2,783,000 economically active; agriculture 85%,
industry 15% (1985 est.)

_#_Organized labor: about 450,695 (1980)

_#_Long-form name: People's Republic of Angola

_#_Type: in transition from a one-party Marxist state to a multiparty
democracy with a strong presidential system

_#_Capital: Luanda

_#_Administrative divisions: 18 provinces (provincias,
singular--provincia); Bengo, Benguela, Bie, Cabinda, Cuando Cubango,
Cuanza Norte, Cuanza Sul, Cunene, Huambo, Huila, Luanda, Lunda Norte,
Lunda Sul, Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uige, Zaire

_#_Independence: 11 November 1975 (from Portugal)

_#_Constitution: 11 November 1975; revised 7 January 1978, 11
August 1980, and 6 March 1991

_#_Legal system: based on Portuguese civil law system and customary
law; recently modified to accommodate multipartyism and increased use of
free markets

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 11 November (1975)

_#_Executive branch: president, chairman of the Council of Ministers,
Council of Ministers (cabinet)

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral People's Assembly (Assembleia do

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Tribunal da Relacao)


Chief of State and Head of Government--President Jose Eduardo dos
SANTOS (since 21 September 1979)

_#_Political parties and leaders: only one party exists--the
Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola-Labor Party
(MPLA), Jose Eduardo dos SANTOS--although others are expected to
form as legalization of a multiparty system proceeds;
National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) lost to
the MPLA and Cuban military support forces in the immediate
postindependence struggle, but is to receive recognition as a legal party

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18

_#_Elections: first nationwide, multiparty elections to be held
between September and November 1992

_#_Member of: ACP, AfDB, CEEAC (observer), ECA, FAO,

_#_Diplomatic representation: none

_#_Flag: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black with a
centered yellow emblem consisting of a five-pointed star within half a
cogwheel crossed by a machete (in the style of a hammer and sickle)

_#_Overview: Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for
80 to 90% of the population, but accounts for less than 15% of GDP. Oil
production is the most lucrative sector of the economy, contributing
about 50% to GDP. In recent years, however, the impact of fighting an
internal war has severely affected the nonoil economy, and food has to be
imported. For the long run, Angola has the advantage of rich natural
resources, notably gold, diamonds, and arable land. To realize its
economic potential Angola not only must secure domestic peace but also
must reform government policies that have led to distortions and
imbalances throughout the economy.

_#_GDP: $7.9 billion, per capita $925; real growth rate 2.0% (1990

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 23.2% (1988)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $2.6 billion; expenditures $4.4 billion,
including capital expenditures of $963 million (1990 est.)

_#_Exports: $3.8 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--oil,liquified petroleum gas, diamonds, coffee, sisal,
fish and fish products, timber, cotton;

partners--US, USSR, Cuba, Portugal, Brazil, France

_#_Imports: $1.5 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--capital equipment (machinery and electrical
equipment), food, vehicles and spare parts, textiles and clothing,
medicines; substantial military deliveries;

partners--US, USSR, Cuba, Portugal, Brazil

_#_External debt: $7.0 billion (1990)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%; accounts for about 60%
of GDP, including petroleum output

_#_Electricity: 506,000 kW capacity; 770 million kWh produced,
90 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: petroleum, diamonds, mining, fish processing, food
processing, brewing, tobacco, sugar, textiles, cement, basic metal

_#_Agriculture: cash crops--coffee, sisal, corn, cotton, sugar,
manioc, tobacco; food crops--cassava, corn, vegetables, plantains,
bananas; livestock production accounts for 20%, fishing 4%, forestry
2% of total agricultural output; disruptions caused by civil war
and marketing deficiencies require food imports

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $265
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $1,005 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $1.3 billion

_#_Currency: kwanza (plural--kwanza); 1 kwanza (Kz) = 100 lwei

_#_Exchange rates: kwanza (Kz) per US$1--29.62 (fixed rate since 1976)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Railroads: 3,189 km total; 2,879 km 1.067-meter gauge, 310 km
0.600-meter gauge; limited trackage in use because of insurgent attacks;
sections of the Benguela Railroad closed because of insurgency

_#_Highways: 73,828 km total; 8,577 km bituminous-surface treatment,
29,350 km crushed stone, gravel, or improved earth, remainder unimproved

_#_Inland waterways: 1,295 km navigable

_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 179 km

_#_Ports: Luanda, Lobito, Namibe, Cabinda

_#_Merchant marine: 12 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
66,348 GRT/102,825 DWT; includes 11 cargo, 1 petroleum, oils, and
lubricants (POL) tanker

_#_Civil air: 27 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 315 total, 183 usable; 28 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways over 3,659 m; 13 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 58 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: fair system of wire, radio relay, and
troposcatter routes; high frequency used extensively for military/Cuban
links; 40,300 telephones; stations--17 AM, 13 FM, 2 TV; 2 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth stations

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force/Air Defense, People's Defense
Organization and Territorial Troops, Frontier Guard

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 2,080,837; 1,047,500 fit for
military service; 92,430 reach military age (18) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP
(dependent territory of the UK)
_#_Total area: 91 km2; land area: 91 km2

_#_Comparative area: about half the size of Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 61 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

_#_Climate: tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds

_#_Terrain: flat and low-lying island of coral and limestone

_#_Natural resources: negligible; salt, fish, lobster

_#_Land use: arable land NA%; permanent crops NA%; meadows and
pastures NA%; forest and woodland NA%; other NA%; mostly rock with sparse
scrub oak, few trees, some commercial salt ponds

_#_Environment: frequent hurricanes, other tropical storms (July
to October)

_#_Note: located 270 km east of Puerto Rico

_#_Population: 6,922 (July 1991), growth rate 0.6% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 24 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 10 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 18 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 71 years male, 77 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 3.1 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Anguillan(s); adjective--Anguillan

_#_Ethnic divisions: mainly of black African descent

_#_Religion: Anglican 40%, Methodist 33%, Seventh-Day Adventist 7%,
Baptist 5%, Roman Catholic 3%, other 12%

_#_Language: English (official)

_#_Literacy: 95% (male 95%, female 95%) age 12 and over can
read and write (1984)

_#_Labor force: 2,780 (1984)

_#_Organized labor: NA

_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: dependent territory of the UK

_#_Capital: The Valley

_#_Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)

_#_Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

_#_Constitution: 1 April 1982

_#_Legal system: based on English common law

_#_National holiday: Anguilla Day, 30 May

_#_Executive branch: British monarch, governor, chief minister,
Executive Council (cabinet)

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral House of Assembly

_#_Judicial branch: High Court


Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor Brian G. J. CANTY (since NA 1989);

Head of Government--Chief Minister Emile GUMBS (since NA March
1984, served previously from February 1977 to May 1980)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Anguilla National Alliance (ANA), Emile GUMBS;
Anguilla United Party (AUP), Ronald WEBSTER;
Anguilla Democratic Party (ADP), Victor BANKS

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


House of Assembly--last held 27 February 1989 (next to
be held February 1994);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(11 total, 7 elected) ANA 3, AUP 2, ADP 1, independent 1

_#_Communists: none

_#_Member of: CARICOM (observer), CDB

_#_Diplomatic representation: none (dependent territory of the UK)

_#_Flag: two horizontal bands of white (top, almost triple width) and
light blue with three orange dolphins in an interlocking circular design
centered in the white band; a new flag may have been in use since
30 May 1990

_#_Overview: Anguilla has few natural resources, and the economy
depends heavily on lobster fishing, offshore banking, tourism, and
remittances from emigrants. In recent years the economy has benefited
from a boom in tourism. Development is planned to improve the
infrastructure, particularly transport and tourist facilities, and
also light industry. Improvement in the economy has reduced
unemployment from 40% in 1984 to about 5% in 1988.

_#_GDP: $23 million, per capita $3,300; real growth rate
8.2% (1988 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.5% (1988 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: 5.0% (1988 est.)

_#_Budget: revenues $10.4 million; expenditures $11.0 million,
including capital expenditures of $1.1 million (1989 est.)

_#_Exports: $NA;

commodities--lobster and salt;


_#_Imports: $NA;


partners --NA

_#_External debt: $NA

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%

_#_Electricity: 2,000 kW capacity; 6 million kWh produced, 870 kWh
per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: tourism, boat building, salt, fishing (including

_#_Agriculture: pigeon peas, corn, sweet potatoes, sheep, goats, pigs,
cattle, poultry

_#_Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-89), $38 million

_#_Currency: East Caribbean dollar (plural--dollars); 1 EC dollar
(EC$) = 100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1--2.70 (fixed
rate since 1976)

_#_Fiscal year: NA

_#_Highways: 60 km surfaced

_#_Ports: Road Bay, Blowing Point

_#_Civil air: no major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 3 total, 3 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways of
1,100 m (Wallblake Airport)

_#_Telecommunications: modern internal telephone system; 890
telephones; stations--3 AM, 1 FM, no TV; radio relay link to island of
Saint Martin

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK
_#_Total area: about 14,000,000 km2; land area: about 14,000,000 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly less than 1.5 times the size of the US;
second-smallest continent (after Australia)

_#_Land boundaries: see entry on _#_Disputes

_#_Coastline: 17,968 km

_#_Maritime claims: see entry on _#_Disputes

_#_Disputes: Antarctic Treaty defers claims (see Antarctic Treaty
Summary below); sections (some overlapping) claimed by Argentina,
Australia, Chile, France (Adelie Land), New Zealand (Ross Dependency),
Norway (Queen Maud Land), and UK; Brazil has noted possible Latin claims;
the US and USSR do not recognize the territorial claims of other nations
and have made no claims themselves (but reserve the right to do so); no
formal claims have been made in the sector between 90o west and
150o west

_#_Climate: severe low temperatures vary with latitude, elevation, and
distance from the ocean; East Antarctica colder than West Antarctica
because of its higher elevation; Antarctic Peninsula has most
moderate climate; warmest temperatures occur in January along the coast
and average slightly below freezing

_#_Terrain: about 98% thick continental ice sheet, with average
elevations between 2,000 and 4,000 meters; mountain ranges up to 4,897
meters high; ice-free coastal areas include parts of southern Victoria
Land, Wilkes Land, the Antarctic Peninsula area, and Ross Island on
McMurdo Sound; glaciers form ice shelves along about half of coastline
and floating ice shelves constitute 11% of the area of the continent

_#_Natural resources: none presently exploited; coal and iron ore;
chromium, copper, gold, nickel, platinum, and hydrocarbons have been
found in small uncommercial quantities

_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; pastures 0%;
meadows and forest and woodland 0%; other 100% (ice 98%, barren rock

_#_Environment: mostly uninhabitable; katabatic (gravity) winds blow
coastward from the high interior; frequent blizzards form near the foot
of the plateau; cyclonic storms form over the ocean and move clockwise
around the coast, as does a circumpolar ocean current; during
summer more solar radiation reaches the surface at the South Pole than
is received at the Equator in an equivalent period; in April 1991 it was
reported that the ozone shield, which protects the Earth's surface from
harmful ultraviolet radiation, had dwindled to its lowest level ever over
Antarctica; subject to active volcanism (Deception Island and isolated
areas of West Antarctica); other seismic activity rare and weak

_#_Note: the coldest, windiest, highest, and driest continent

_#_Population: no indigenous inhabitants; staffing of research
stations varies seasonally;

Summer (January) population--4,120; Argentina 207, Australia 268,
Belgium 13, Brazil 80, Chile 256, China NA, Ecuador NA, Finland 16,
France 78, Germany 32, Greenpeace 12, India 60, Italy 210, Japan 59,
South Korea 14, Netherlands 10, NZ 264, Norway 23, Peru 39, Poland NA,
South Africa 79, Spain 43, Sweden 10, UK 116, Uruguay NA, US 1,666,
USSR 565 (1989-90);

Winter (July) population--1,066 total; Argentina 150, Australia
71, Brazil 12, Chile 73, China NA, France 33, Germany 19, Greenpeace 5,
India 21, Japan 38, South Korea 14, NZ 11, Poland NA, South Africa 12,
UK 69, Uruguay NA, US 225, USSR 313 (1989-90);

Year-round stations--42 total; Argentina 6, Australia 3, Brazil 1,
Chile 3, China 2, France 1, Germany 2, Greenpeace 1, India 2, Japan 2,
South Korea 1, NZ 1, Poland 1, South Africa 1, UK 5, Uruguay 1, US 3,
USSR 6 (1990-91);

Summer only stations--34 total; Argentina 1, Australia 3, Chile 5,
Finland 1, Germany 4, India 1, Italy 1, Japan 1, NZ 2, Norway 1,
Peru 1, South Africa 1, Spain 1, Sweden 2, UK 1, US 3, USSR 5 (1989-90)

_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: The Antarctic Treaty, signed on 1 December 1959 and entered
into force on 23 June 1961, established for at least 30 years a legal
framework for peaceful use, scientific research, and deferral of legal
questions regarding territorial claims. Administration is carried out
through consultative member meetings--the last meeting was held in Madrid
(Spain) in April 1991.

Consultative (voting) members include seven nations that claim
portions of Antarctica as national territory (some claims overlap) and
nonclaimant nations. The US and other nations have made no claims, but
have reserved the right to claim territory. The US does not recognize the
claims of others. The year in parentheses indicates when an acceding
nation was voted to full consultative (voting) status, while no date
indicates an original 1959 treaty signatory. Claimant nations
are--Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, New Zealand, Norway, and the
UK. Nonclaimant consultative nations are--Belgium, Brazil (1983),
China (1985), Ecuador (1990), Finland (1989), Germany (1981), India
(1983), Italy (1987), Japan, South Korea (1989), Netherlands (1990), Peru
(1989), Poland (1977), South Africa, Spain (1988), Sweden (1988), Uruguay
(1985), the US, and the USSR.

Acceding (nonvoting) members, with year of accession in parenthesis,
are--Austria (1987), Bulgaria (1978), Canada (1988), Colombia (1988),
Cuba (1984), Czechoslovakia (1962), Denmark (1965), Greece (1987),
Hungary (1984), North Korea (1987), Papua New Guinea (1981), Romania
(1971), and Switzerland (1990).

Antarctic Treaty Summary:

Article 1--area to be used for peaceful purposes only; military
activity, such as weapons testing, is prohibited, but military personnel
and equipment may be used for peaceful scientific and logistics purposes;

Article 2--freedom of scientific investigation and cooperation
shall continue;

Article 3--free exchange of information and personnel in
cooperation with the UN and other international agencies;

Article 4--does not recognize, dispute, or establish territorial
claims and no new claims shall be asserted while the treaty is in force;

Article 5--prohibits nuclear explosions or disposal of radioactive

Article 6--includes under the treaty all land and ice shelves
south of 60o 00%19 south, but that the water areas be covered by
international law;

Article 7--treaty-state observers have free access, including
aerial observation, to any area and may inspect all stations,
installations, and equipment; advance notice of all activities
and the introduction of military personnel must be given;

Article 8--allows for jurisdiction over observers and scientists
by their own states;

Article 9--frequent consultative meetings take place among
member nations;

Article 10--treaty states will discourage activities by any
country in Antarctica that are contrary to the treaty;

Article 11--disputes to be settled peacefully by the parties
concerned or, ultimately, by the ICJ;

Articles 12, 13, 14--deal with upholding, interpreting, and
amending the treaty among involved nations.

Other agreements: more than 150 recommendations adopted at
treaty consultative meetings and ratified by governments
include--Agreed Measures for the Conservation of Antarctic Fauna and
Flora (1964); Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals (1972);
Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources
(1980); a mineral resources agreement was signed in 1988 but was
subsequently rejected by some signatories and is likely to be replaced in
1991 by a comprehensive environmental protection agreement that defers
minerals development for a long period.

_#_Overview: No economic activity at present except for fishing off
the coast and small-scale tourism, both based abroad. Exploitation of
mineral resources is unlikely because of technical difficulties, high
costs, and objections by environmentalists.

_#_Airports: 37 total; 27 usable; none with permanent hard-surface
runways; 2 with runways over 3,659 m; 5 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
4 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: none; Article 7 of the Antarctic Treaty states that advance
notice of all activities and the introduction of military personnel must
be given
_@_Antigua and Barbuda
_#_Total area: 440 km2; land area: 440 km2; includes Redonda

_#_Comparative area: slightly less than 2.5 times the size of
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 153 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation

_#_Terrain: mostly low-lying limestone and coral islands with some
higher volcanic areas

_#_Natural resources: negligible; pleasant climate fosters

_#_Land use: arable land 18%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and
pastures 7%; forest and woodland 16%; other 59%

_#_Environment: subject to hurricanes and tropical storms (July to
October); insufficient freshwater resources; deeply indented coastline
provides many natural harbors

_#_Note: 420 km east-southeast of Puerto Rico

_#_Population: 63,917 (July 1991), growth rate 0.4% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 18 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 9 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 22 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 70 years male, 74 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 1.7 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Antiguan(s); adjective--Antiguan

_#_Ethnic divisions: almost entirely of black African origin; some of
British, Portuguese, Lebanese, and Syrian origin

_#_Religion: Anglican (predominant), other Protestant sects, some
Roman Catholic

_#_Language: English (official), local dialects

_#_Literacy: 89% (male 90%, female 88%) age 15 and over having
completed 5 or more years of schooling (1960)

_#_Labor force: 30,000; commerce and services 82%, agriculture 11%,
industry 7% (1983)

_#_Organized labor: Antigua and Barbuda Public Service Association
(ABPSA), membership 500; Antigua Trades and Labor Union (ATLU), 10,000
members; Antigua Workers Union (AWU), 10,000 members (1986 est.)

_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: parliamentary democracy

_#_Capital: Saint John's

_#_Administrative divisions: 6 parishes and 2 dependencies*; Barbuda*,
Redonda*, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mary, Saint Paul, Saint Peter,
Saint Philip

_#_Independence: 1 November 1981 (from UK)

_#_Constitution: 1 November 1981

_#_Legal system: based on English common law

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 1 November (1981)

_#_Executive branch: British monarch, governor general, prime
minister, deputy prime minister, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house
or Senate and a lower house or House of Representatives

_#_Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court


Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Sir Wilfred Ebenezer JACOBS (since 1
November 1981, previously Governor since 1976);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Vere Cornwall BIRD, Sr. (since
NA 1976)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Antigua Labor Party (ALP), Vere C. BIRD, Sr., Lester BIRD;
United National Democratic Party (UNDP), Dr. Ivor HEATH

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


House of Representatives--last held 9 March 1989 (next to be
held 1994);
results--percentage of vote by party NA;
seats--(17 total) ALP 15, UNDP 1, independent 1

_#_Communists: negligible

_#_Other political or pressure groups: Antigua Caribbean Liberation
Movement (ACLM), a small leftist nationalist group led by Leonard (Tim)
HECTOR; Antigua Trades and Labor Union (ATLU), headed by Noel THOMAS

_#_Member of: ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Edmund Hawkins LAKE;
Chancery at Suite 2H, 3400 International Drive NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 362-5211 or 5166, 5122, 5225; there is an Antiguan
Consulate in Miami;

US--the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Antigua and
Barbuda, and in his absence, the Embassy is headed by Charge d'Affaires
Bryant SALTER; Embassy at Queen Elizabeth Highway, Saint John's
(mailing address is FPO Miami 34054); telephone (809) 462-3505 or 3506

_#_Flag: red with an inverted isosceles triangle based on the top edge
of the flag; the triangle contains three horizontal bands of black (top),
light blue, and white with a yellow rising sun in the black band

_#_Overview: The economy is primarily service oriented, with tourism
the most important determinant of economic performance. During the period
1983-89, real GDP expanded at an annual average rate of about 7%.
Tourism's contribution to GDP, as measured by value added tax in hotels
and restaurants, rose from about 14% in 1983 to 16% in 1989, and
stimulated growth in other sectors--particularly in construction,
communications, and public utilities. Antigua and Barbuda is one of the
few areas in the Caribbean experiencing a labor shortage in some sectors
of the economy.

_#_GDP: $350 million, per capita $5,470 (1989); real growth rate 3.0%
(1991 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7% (1990 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: 5.0% (1988 est.)

_#_Budget: revenues $92.8 million; expenditures $101 million,
including capital expenditures of $NA (1990 est.)

_#_Exports: $33.2 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--petroleum products 48%, manufactures 23%, food and
live animals 4%, machinery and transport equipment 17%;

partners--OECS 26%, Barbados 15%, Guyana 4%, Trinidad and Tobago
2%, US 0.3%

_#_Imports: $358.2 million (c.i.f., 1990 est.);

commodities--food and live animals, machinery and transport
equipment, manufactures, chemicals, oil;

partners--US 27%, UK 16%, Canada 4%, OECS 3%, other 50%

_#_External debt: $250 million (1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 3% (1989 est.); accounts
for 9% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 52,000 kW capacity; 95 million kWh produced, 1,490 kWh
per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: tourism, construction, light manufacturing (clothing,
alcohol, household appliances)

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 4% of GDP; expanding output of cotton,
fruits, vegetables, and livestock sector; other crops--bananas, coconuts,
cucumbers, mangoes, sugarcane; not self-sufficient in food

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, $10 million (1985-88); Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-88), $45

_#_Currency: East Caribbean dollar (plural--dollars); 1 EC dollar
(EC$) = 100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1--2.70 (fixed
rate since 1976)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

_#_Railroads: 64 km 0.760-meter narrow gauge and 13 km 0.610-meter
gauge used almost exclusively for handling sugarcane

_#_Highways: 240 km

_#_Ports: Saint John's

_#_Merchant marine: 86 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 319,477
GRT/497,194 DWT; includes 61 cargo, 5 refrigerated cargo, 6 container,
4 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 multifunction large load carrier, 3
petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 6 chemical tanker; note--a
flag of convenience registry

_#_Civil air: 10 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 3 total, 3 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 2 with runways less than 1,220 m

_#_Telecommunications: good automatic telephone system; 6,700
telephones; tropospheric scatter links with Saba and Guadeloupe;
stations--4 AM, 2 FM, 2 TV, 2 shortwave; 1 coaxial submarine cable;
1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Royal Antigua and Barbuda Defense Force, Royal Antigua
and Barbuda Police Force (includes the Coast Guard)

_#_Manpower availability: NA

_#_Defense expenditures: $1.4 million, less than 1% of GDP (FY91)
_@_Arctic Ocean
_#_Total area: 14,056,000 km2; includes Baffin Bay, Barents Sea,
Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea, East Siberian Sea, Greenland Sea, Hudson Bay,
Hudson Strait, Kara Sea, Laptev Sea, and other tributary water bodies

_#_Comparative area: slightly more than 1.5 times the size of the US;
smallest of the world's four oceans (after Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean,
and Indian Ocean)

_#_Coastline: 45,389 km

_#_Climate: persistent cold and relatively narrow annual temperature
ranges; winters characterized by continuous darkness, cold and stable
weather conditions, and clear skies; summers characterized by continuous
daylight, damp and foggy weather, and weak cyclones with rain or snow

_#_Terrain: central surface covered by a perennial drifting polar
icepack which averages about 3 meters in thickness, although pressure
ridges may be three times that size; clockwise drift pattern in the
Beaufort Gyral Stream, but nearly straight line movement from the New
Siberian Islands (USSR) to Denmark Strait (between Greenland and
Iceland); the ice pack is surrounded by open seas during the summer, but
more than doubles in size during the winter and extends to the encircling
land masses; the ocean floor is about 50% continental shelf (highest
percentage of any ocean) with the remainder a central basin interrupted
by three submarine ridges (Alpha Cordillera, Nansen Cordillera, and
Lomonsov Ridge); maximum depth is 4,665 meters in the Fram Basin

_#_Natural resources: sand and gravel aggregates, placer deposits,
polymetallic nodules, oil and gas fields, fish, marine mammals (seals,

_#_Environment: endangered marine species include walruses and whales;
ice islands occasionally break away from northern Ellesmere Island;
icebergs calved from western Greenland and extreme northeastern Canada;
maximum snow cover in March or April about 20 to 50 centimeters over the
frozen ocean and lasts about 10 months; permafrost in islands; virtually
icelocked from October to June; fragile ecosystem slow to change and slow
to recover from disruptions or damage

_#_Note: major chokepoint is the southern Chukchi Sea (northern
access to the Pacific Ocean via the Bering Strait); ships subject to
superstructure icing from October to May; strategic location between
North America and the USSR; shortest marine link between the extremes of
eastern and western USSR; floating research stations operated by the US
and USSR

_#_Overview: Economic activity is limited to the exploitation of
natural resources, including crude oil, natural gas, fishing, and

_#_Ports: Churchill (Canada), Murmansk (USSR), Prudhoe Bay (US)

_#_Telecommunications: no submarine cables

_#_Note: sparse network of air, ocean, river, and land routes; the
Northwest Passage (North America) and Northern Sea Route (Asia) are
important waterways
_#_Total area: 2,766,890 km2; land area: 2,736,690 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly more than four times the size of Texas

_#_Land boundaries: 9,665 km total; Bolivia 832 km, Brazil 1,224 km,
Chile 5,150 km, Paraguay 1,880 km, Uruguay 579 km

_#_Coastline: 4,989 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Territorial sea: 200 nm (overflight and navigation permitted beyond
12 nm)

_#_Disputes: short section of the boundary with Uruguay is in dispute;
short section of the boundary with Chile is indefinite; claims
British-administered Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas); claims
British-administered South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands;
territorial claim in Antarctica

_#_Climate: mostly temperate; arid in southeast; subantarctic in

_#_Terrain: rich plains of the Pampas in northern half, flat to
rolling plateau of Patagonia in south, rugged Andes along western border

_#_Natural resources: fertile plains of the pampas, lead, zinc,
tin, copper, iron ore, manganese, crude oil, uranium

_#_Land use: arable land 9%; permanent crops 4%; meadows and
pastures 52%; forest and woodland 22%; other 13%; includes irrigated

_#_Environment: Tucuman and Mendoza areas in Andes subject to
earthquakes; pamperos are violent windstorms that can strike Pampas and
northeast; irrigated soil degradation; desertification; air and water
pollution in Buenos Aires

_#_Note: second-largest country in South America (after Brazil);
strategic location relative to sea lanes between South Atlantic and
South Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage)

_#_Population: 32,663,983 (July 1991), growth rate 1.1% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 20 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 31 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 68 years male, 74 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 2.7 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Argentine(s); adjective--Argentine

_#_Ethnic divisions: white 85%; mestizo, Indian, or other nonwhite
groups 15%

_#_Religion: nominally Roman Catholic 90% (less than 20% practicing),
Protestant 2%, Jewish 2%, other 6%

_#_Language: Spanish (official), English, Italian, German, French

_#_Literacy: 95% (male 96%, female 95%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 10,900,000; agriculture 12%, industry 31%, services
57% (1985 est.)

_#_Organized labor: 3,000,000; 28% of labor force

_#_Long-form name: Argentine Republic

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: Buenos Aires (tentative plans to move to Viedma by
1990 indefinitely postponed)

_#_Administrative divisions: 22 provinces (provincias,
singular--provincia), 1 national territory* (territorio nacional), and 1
district** (distrito); Buenos Aires, Catamarca, Chaco, Chubut, Cordoba,
Corrientes, Distrito Federal**, Entre Rios, Formosa, Jujuy, La Pampa,
La Rioja, Mendoza, Misiones, Neuquen, Rio Negro, Salta, San Juan, San
Luis, Santa Cruz, Santa Fe, Santiago del Estero, Tierra del Fuego,
Antartida e Islas del Atlantico Sur*, Tucuman; note--the national
territory is in the process of becoming a province; the US does not
recognize claims to Antarctica

_#_Independence: 9 July 1816 (from Spain)

_#_Constitution: 1 May 1853

_#_Legal system: mixture of US and West European legal systems; has
not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Revolution Day, 25 May (1810)

_#_Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional)
consists of an upper chamber or Senate (Senado) and a lower chamber or
Chamber of Deputies (Camara de Diputados)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)


Chief of State and Head of Government--President Carlos Saul
MENEM (since 8 July 1989); Vice President Eduardo DUHALDE (since 8 July

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Justicialist Party (JP), Carlos Saul MENEM, Peronist umbrella political
Radical Civic Union (UCR), Raul ALFONSIN, moderately left of center;
Union of the Democratic Center (UCD), Alvaro ALSOGARAY, conservative
Intransigent Party (PI), Dr. Oscar ALENDE, leftist party;
several provincial parties

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


President--last held 14 May 1989 (next to be held May 1995);
results--Carlos Saul MENEM was elected;

Chamber of Deputies--last held 14 May 1989 (next to be
held October 1991); results--JP 47%, UCR 30%, UCD 7%, other 16%;
seats--(254 total); JP 122, UCR 93, UCD 11, other 28

_#_Communists: some 70,000 members in various party organizations,
including a small nucleus of activists

_#_Other political or pressure groups: Peronist-dominated labor
movement, General Confederation of Labor (Peronist-leaning umbrella labor
organization), Argentine Industrial Union (manufacturers' association),
Argentine Rural Society (large landowners' association), business
organizations, students, the Roman Catholic Church, the Armed Forces

_#_Member of: AfDB, AG (observer), CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-6, G-11,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Ortiz de ROZAS;
Chancery at 1600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington DC 20009; telephone
(202) 939-6400 through 6403; there are Argentine Consulates General in
Houston, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, and San Juan
(Puerto Rico), and Consulates in Baltimore, Chicago, and Los Angeles;

US--Ambassador Terence A. TODMAN; Embassy at 4300 Colombia,
1425 Buenos Aires (mailing address is APO Miami 34034);
telephone [54] (1) 774-7611 or 8811, 9911

_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of light blue (top), white, and
light blue; centered in the white band is a radiant yellow sun with a
human face known as the Sun of May

_#_Overview: Argentina is rich in natural resources and has a highly
literate population, an export-oriented agricultural sector, and a
diversified industrial base. Nevertheless, following decades of
mismanagement and statist policies, the economy has encountered
major problems in recent years, leading to escalating inflation and
a recession in 1988-90. A widening public-sector deficit and a
multidigit inflation rate have dominated the economy over the past
three years; retail prices rose nearly 5,000% in 1989 and another
1,345% in 1990. Since 1978, Argentina's external debt has nearly doubled
to $60 billion, creating severe debt-servicing difficulties and hurting
the country's creditworthiness with international lenders.

_#_GNP: $82.7 billion, per capita $2,560; real growth rate - 3.5%
(1990 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1,350% (1990)

_#_Unemployment rate: 8.6% (May 1990)

_#_Budget: revenues $12.2 billion; expenditures $17.3 billion,
including capital expenditures of $2.8 billion (1989)

_#_Exports: $12.4 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities--meat, wheat, corn, oilseed, hides, wool;

partners--US 12%, USSR, Italy, Brazil, Japan, Netherlands

_#_Imports: $4.1 billion (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities--machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals, fuels and
lubricants, agricultural products;

partners--US 22%, Brazil, FRG, Bolivia, Japan, Italy, Netherlands

_#_External debt: $60 billion (December 1990)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 5% (1991 est.); accounts for
30% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 16,749,000 kW capacity; 45,580 million kWh produced,
1,410 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: food processing, motor vehicles, consumer durables,
textiles, chemicals and petrochemicals, printing, metallurgy, steel

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 15% of GNP (including fishing); produces
abundant food for both domestic consumption and exports; among world's
top five exporters of grain and beef; principal crops--wheat, corn,
sorghum, soybeans, sugar beets; 1987 fish catch estimated at 500,000 tons

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.0
billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $4.0 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $718 million

_#_Currency: austral (plural--australes); 1 austral (2) = 100

_#_Exchange rates: australes (2) per US$1--9,900 (April 1991),
4,707 (1990), 423 (1989), 8.7526 (1988), 2.1443 (1987), 0.9430 (1986),
0.6018 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Railroads: 34,172 km total (includes 169 km electrified); includes
a mixture of 1.435-meter standard gauge, 1.676-meter broad gauge,
1.000-meter gauge, and 0.750-meter gauge

_#_Highways: 208,350 km total; 47,550 km paved, 39,500 km gravel,
101,000 km improved earth, 20,300 km unimproved earth

_#_Inland waterways: 11,000 km navigable

_#_Pipelines: 4,090 km crude oil; 2,900 km refined products; 9,918 km
natural gas

_#_Ports: Bahia Blanca, Buenos Aires, Necochea, Rio Gallegos, Rosario,
Santa Fe

_#_Merchant marine: 129 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,663,884
GRT/2,689,645 DWT; includes 42 cargo, 7 refrigerated cargo, 6 container,
1 railcar carrier, 47 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker,
4 chemical tanker, 4 liquefied gas, 18 bulk; additionally, 2 naval
tankers and 1 military transport are sometimes used commercially

_#_Civil air: 54 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 1,763 total, 1,575 usable; 135 with permanent-surface
runways; 1 with runways over 3,659 m; 31 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 336
with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: extensive modern system; 2,650,000 telephones
(12,000 public telephones); radio relay widely used; stations--171 AM,
no FM, 231 TV, 13 shortwave; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations;
domestic satellite network has 40 stations

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Argentine Army, Navy of the Argentine Republic, Argentine
Air Force, National Gendarmerie, Argentine Naval Prefecture (Coast Guard
only), National Aeronautical Police Force

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 7,992,140; 6,478,730 fit for
military service; 285,047 reach military age (20) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $700 million, 1% of GNP (1990)
(part of the Dutch realm)
_#_Total area: 193 km2; land area: 193 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 68.5 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation

_#_Terrain: flat with a few hills; scant vegetation

_#_Natural resources: negligible; white sandy beaches

_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and

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