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of Kuwait's 950 operating oil wells, as well as sabotaging key surface
facilities. Western firefighters had brought about 140 of the 600
oil well fires and blowouts under control as of early June 1991.
It could take two to three years to restore Kuwait's oil production to
its prewar level of about 2.0 million barrels per day.

_#_GDP: $19.8 billion, per capita $9,700; real growth rate 3.5%

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.3% (1989)

_#_Unemployment rate: 0% (1989)

_#_Budget: revenues $7.1 billion; expenditures $10.5 billion,
including capital expenditures of $3.1 billion (FY88)

_#_Exports: $11.5 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--oil 90%;

partners--Japan, Italy, FRG, US

_#_Imports: $6.3 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--food, construction materials, vehicles and parts,

partners--Japan, US, FRG, UK

_#_External debt: $7.2 billion (December 1989 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 3% (1988); accounts for
52% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 8,290,000 kW capacity; 10,000 million kWh produced,
5,000 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: petroleum, petrochemicals, desalination, food
processing, salt, construction

_#_Agriculture: virtually none; dependent on imports for food; about
75% of potable water must be distilled or imported

_#_Economic aid: donor--pledged $18.3 billion in bilateral aid to less
developed countries (1979-89)

_#_Currency: Kuwaiti dinar (plural--dinars);
1 Kuwaiti dinar (KD) = 1,000 fils

_#_Exchange rates: Kuwaiti dinars (KD) per US$1--0.2915 (January
1990), 0.2937 (1989), 0.2790 (1988), 0.2786 (1987), 0.2919 (1986), 0.3007

_#_Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

_#_Highways: 3,000 km total; 2,500 km bituminous; 500 km earth, sand,
light gravel

_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 877 km; refined products, 40 km; natural gas,
165 km

_#_Ports: Ash Shuaybah, Ash Shuwaykh, Mina al Ahmadi

_#_Merchant marine: 31 ships (1,000 GRT or over), totaling 1,332,159
GRT/2,099,303 DWT; includes 1 cargo, 4 livestock carrier,
20 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 5 liquefied gas, 1 bulk;
note--all Kuwaiti ships greater than 1,000 GRT were outside Kuwaiti
waters at the time of the Iraqi invasion; many of these ships transferred
to the Liberian flag or to the flags of other Persian Gulf states;
Kuwaiti tankers are currently managed from London and Kuwaiti cargo and
container ships are managed from Dubai

_#_Civil air: 19 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 7 total, 4 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 4 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
none with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: excellent international, adequate domestic
facilities; 258,000 telephones; stations--3 AM, 2 FM, 3 TV; satellite
earth stations--1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, and 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT; 1
INMARSAT, 1 ARABSAT; coaxial cable and radio relay to Iraq and Saudi

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police Force, National

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 738,812; 441,611 fit for
military service; 19,452 reach military age (18) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $1.1 billion, 4.8% of GDP (1990)
_#_Total area: 236,800 km2; land area: 230,800 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Utah

_#_Land boundaries: 5,083 km total; Burma 235 km, Cambodia 541 km,
China 423 km, Thailand 1,754 km, Vietnam 2,130 km

_#_Coastline: none--landlocked

_#_Maritime claims: none--landlocked

_#_Disputes: boundary dispute with Thailand

_#_Climate: tropical monsoon; rainy season (May to November); dry
season (December to April)

_#_Terrain: mostly rugged mountains; some plains and plateaus

_#_Natural resources: timber, hydropower, gypsum, tin, gold,

_#_Land use: arable land 4%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 3%; forest and woodland 58%; other 35%; includes irrigated 1%

_#_Environment: deforestation; soil erosion; subject to floods

_#_Note: landlocked

_#_Population: 4,113,223 (July 1991), growth rate 2.2% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 37 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 15 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 124 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 49 years male, 52 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 5.0 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Lao (sing., Lao or Laotian); adjective--Lao
or Laotian

_#_Ethnic divisions: Lao 50%, Phoutheung (Kha) 15%, tribal Thai 20%,
Meo, Hmong, Yao, and other 15%

_#_Religion: Buddhist 85%, animist and other 15%

_#_Language: Lao (official), French, and English

_#_Literacy: 84% (male 92%, female 76%) age 15 to 45 can
read and write (1985 est.)

_#_Labor force: 1-1.5 million; 85-90% in agriculture (est.)

_#_Organized labor: Lao Federation of Trade Unions is subordinate to
the Communist party

_#_Long-form name: Lao People's Democratic Republic

_#_Type: Communist state

_#_Capital: Vientiane

_#_Administrative divisions: 16 provinces (khoueng, singular and
plural) and 1 municipality* (kampheng nakhon, singular and plural);
Attapu, Bokeo, Bolikhamsai, Champasak, Houaphan, Khammouan, Louang
Namtha, Louangphrabang, Oudomxai, Phongsali, Saravan, Savannakhet,
Sekong, Vientiane, Vientiane*, Xaignabouri, Xiangkhoang

_#_Independence: 19 July 1949 (from France)

_#_Constitution: draft constitution under discussion since 1976

_#_Legal system: based on civil law system; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: National Day (proclamation of the Lao People's
Democratic Republic), 2 December (1975)

_#_Executive branch: president, chairman and four vice chairmen of the
Council of Ministers, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

_#_Legislative branch: Supreme People's Assembly

_#_Judicial branch: People's Supreme Court


Chief of State--President KAYSONE PHOMVIHAN (since 15
August 1991);

Head of Government--Chairman of the Council of Ministers General
Gen. KHAMTAI SIPHANDON (since 15 August 1991)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Lao People's Revolutionary Party (LPRP), KAYSONE PHOMVIHAN, party
includes Lao Patriotic Front and Alliance Committee of Patriotic
Neutralist Forces;
other parties moribund

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


Supreme People's Assembly--last held on 26 March 1989 (next to be
held NA); results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(79 total) number of seats by party NA

_#_Other political or pressure groups: non-Communist political groups
moribund; most leaders have fled the country

_#_Member of: ACCT (associate), AsDB, CP, ESCAP,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Charge d'Affaires LINTHONG PHETSAVAN;
Chancery at 2222 S Street NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 332-6416 or 6417;

US--Charge d'Affaires Charles B. SALMON, Jr.; Embassy at Rue
Bartholonie, Vientiane (mailing address is B. P. 114, Vientiane, or
Box V, APO San Francisco 96346); telephone 2220, 2357, 2384

_#_Flag: three horizontal bands of red (top), blue (double width), and
red with a large white disk centered in the blue band

_#_Overview: One of the world's poorest nations, Laos has had a
Communist centrally planned economy with government ownership and control
of productive enterprises of any size. Recently, however, the government
has been decentralizing control and encouraging private enterprise.
Laos is a landlocked country with a primitive infrastructure, that is,
it has no railroads, a rudimentary road system, limited external and
internal telecommunications, and electricity available in only a
limited area. Subsistence agriculture is the main occupation,
accounting for over 60% of GDP and providing about 85-90% of
total employment. The predominant crop is rice. For the foreseeable
future the economy will continue to depend for its survival on foreign
aid from the IMF and other international sources; foreign aid from the
USSR and Eastern Europe is being cut sharply.

_#_GDP: $600 million, per capita $150; real growth rate 5% (1990 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 22% (1990 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: 21% (1989 est.)

_#_Budget: revenues $83 million; expenditures $188.5 million,
including capital expenditures of $94 million (1990 est.)

_#_Exports: $72 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--electricity, wood products, coffee, tin;

partners--Thailand, Malaysia, Vietnam, USSR, US

_#_Imports: $238 million (c.i.f., 1990 est.);

commodities--food, fuel oil, consumer goods, manufactures;

partners--Thailand, USSR, Japan, France, Vietnam

_#_External debt: $1.1 billion (1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 8% (1989 est.); accounts
for about 20% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 176,000 kW capacity; 1,100 million kWh produced,
270 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: tin mining, timber, electric power, agricultural
processing, construction

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 60% of GDP and employs most of the
work force; subsistence farming predominates; normally self-sufficient
in non-drought years; principal crops--rice (80% of cultivated land),
sweet potatoes, vegetables, corn, coffee, sugarcane, cotton;
livestock--buffaloes, hogs, cattle, chicken

_#_Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis and opium poppy for the
international drug trade

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-79), $276
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $546 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $995 million

_#_Currency: new kip (plural--kips); 1 new kip (NK) = 100 at

_#_Exchange rates: new kips (NK) per US$1--695 (April 1991),
700 (September 1990), 576 (1989), 385 (1988), 200 (1987), 108 (1986),
95 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

_#_Highways: about 27,527 km total; 1,856 km bituminous or bituminous
treated; 7,451 km gravel, crushed stone, or improved earth; 18,220 km
unimproved earth and often impassable during rainy season mid-May to

_#_Inland waterways: about 4,587 km, primarily Mekong and tributaries;
2,897 additional kilometers are sectionally navigable by craft drawing
less than 0.5 m

_#_Pipelines: 136 km, refined products

_#_Ports: none

_#_Airports: 65 total, 51 usable; 9 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
13 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: service to general public considered poor;
radio network provides generally erratic service to government users;
7,390 telephones (1986); stations--10 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 1 satellite earth

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Lao People's Army (LPA; including naval, aviation, and
militia elements), Air Force, National Police Department

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 991,864; 531,084 fit for
military service; 45,548 reach military age (18) annually;
conscription age NA

_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, 3.8% of GDP (1987)
_#_Total area: 10,400 km2; land area: 10,230 km2

_#_Comparative area: about 0.8 times the size of Connecticut

_#_Land boundaries: 454 km total; Israel 79 km, Syria 375 km

_#_Coastline: 225 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: separated from Israel by the 1949 Armistice Line;
Israeli troops in southern Lebanon since June 1982; Syrian troops in
northern Lebanon since October 1976

_#_Climate: Mediterranean; mild to cool, wet winters with hot, dry

_#_Terrain: narrow coastal plain; Al Biqa (Bekaa Valley)
separates Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon Mountains

_#_Natural resources: limestone, iron ore, salt; water-surplus state
in a water-deficit region

_#_Land use: arable land 21%; permanent crops 9%; meadows and pastures
1%; forest and woodland 8%; other 61%; includes irrigated 7%

_#_Environment: rugged terrain historically helped isolate, protect,
and develop numerous factional groups based on religion, clan, ethnicity;
deforestation; soil erosion; air and water pollution; desertification

_#_Note: Nahr al Litani only major river in Near East
not crossing an international boundary

_#_Population: 3,384,626 (July 1991), growth rate 1.4% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 28 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 7 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 48 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 66 years male, 71 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 3.6 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Lebanese (sing., pl.); adjective--Lebanese

_#_Ethnic divisions: Arab 95%, Armenian 4%, other 1%

_#_Religion: Islam 75%, Christian 25%, Judaism NEGL%; 17 legally
recognized sects--4 Orthodox Christian (Armenian Orthodox, Greek
Orthodox, Nestorean, Syriac Orthodox), 7 Uniate Christian (Armenian
Catholic, Caldean, Greek Catholic, Maronite, Protestant, Roman Catholic,
Syrian Catholic), 5 Islam (Alawite or Nusayri, Druze, Ismailite,
Shia, Sunni), and 1 Jewish

_#_Language: Arabic and French (both official); Armenian, English

_#_Literacy: 80% (male 88%, female 73%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 650,000; industry, commerce, and services 79%,
agriculture 11%, goverment 10% (1985)

_#_Organized labor: 250,000 members (est.)

_#_Note: Between early 1975 and late 1976 Lebanon was torn by civil
war between its Christians--then aided by Syrian troops--and its Muslims
and their Palestinian allies. The cease-fire established in October
1976 between the domestic political groups generally held for about six
years, despite occasional fighting. Syrian troops constituted as the Arab
Deterrent Force by the Arab League have remained in Lebanon. Syria's
move toward supporting the Lebanese Muslims and the Palestinians and
Israel's growing support for Lebanese Christians brought the two sides
into rough equilibrium, but no progress was made toward national
reconciliation or political reforms--the original cause of the war.

Continuing Israeli concern about the Palestinian presence in
Lebanon led to the Israeli invasion of Lebanon in June 1982. Israeli
forces occupied all of the southern portion of the country and mounted a
summer-long siege of Beirut, which resulted in the evacuation of the
PLO from Beirut in September under the supervision of a multinational
force (MNF) made up of US, French, and Italian troops.

Within days of the departure of the MNF, Lebanon's newly elected
president, Bashir Gemayel, was assassinated. In the wake of his death,
Christian militiamen massacred hundreds of Palestinian refugees in two
Beirut camps. This prompted the return of the MNF to ease the security
burden on Lebanon's weak Army and security forces. In late March 1984
the last MNF units withdrew.

Lebanese Parliamentarians met in Taif, Saudi Arabia in late 1989
and concluded a national reconciliation pact that codified a new
power-sharing formula, specifiying a Christian president but giving
Muslims more authority. Rene Muawad was subsequently elected president on
4 November 1989, ending a 13-month period during which Lebanon had no
president and rival Muslim and Christian governments. Muawad was
assassinated 17 days later, on 22 November; on 24 November Ilyas Harawi
was elected to succeed Muawad.

In October 1990, the chances for ending the 16 year old civil war
and implementing Ta'if were markedly improved when Syrian and Lebanese
forces ousted renegade Christian General Awn from his stronghold in East
Beirut. Awn had defied the legitimate government and established a
separate mini-state within East Beirut after being appointed acting
Prime Minister by outgoing President Gemayel in 1988. Awn and his
supporters feared Ta'if would diminish Christian power in Lebanon
and increase the influence of Syria.

Since the removal of Awn, the Lebanese Government has reunited the
capital city and implemented a phased plan to disarm the militias
and gradually reestablish authority throughout Lebanon. The army has
deployed from Beirut north along the coast road to Tripoli, southeast
into the Shuf mountains, and south to the vicinity of Sidon. Many
militiamen from Christian and Muslim groups have evacuated Beirut
for their strongholds in the north, south, and east of the country.
Some heavy weapons possessed by the militias have been turned over to
the government, which has begun a plan to integrate some militiamen
into the military and the internal security forces.

Lebanon and Syria signed a treaty of friendship and cooperation in
May 1991. Lebanon continues to be partially occupied by Syrian troops,
which are deployed in East and West Beirut, its southern suburbs,
the Bekaa Valley, and throughout northern Lebanon.

Iran also maintains a small contingent of revolutionary guards
in the Bekaa Valley and South Lebanon to support Lebanese Islamic
fundamentalist groups.

Israel withdrew the bulk of its forces from the south in 1985,
although it still retains troops in a 10-km-deep security zone north
of its border with Lebanon. Israel arms and trains the Army of South
Lebanon (ASL), which also occupies the security zone and is Israel's
first line of defense against attacks on its northern border.

The following description is based on the present constitutional
and customary practices of the Lebanese system.

_#_Long-form name: Republic of Lebanon; note--may be changed to
Lebanese Republic

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: Beirut

_#_Administrative divisions: 5 governorates (muhafazat,
singular--muhafazah); Al Biqa, Al Janub, Ash Shamal,
Bayrut, Jabal Lubnan

_#_Independence: 22 November 1943 (from League of Nations mandate
under French administration)

_#_Constitution: 26 May 1926 (amended)

_#_Legal system: mixture of Ottoman law, canon law, Napoleonic code,
and civil law; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 22 November (1943)

_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet; note--by
custom, the president is a Maronite Christian, the prime minister is a
Sunni Muslim, and the speaker of the legislature is a Shia Muslim

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Arabic--Majlis
Alnuwab, French--Assemblee Nationale)

_#_Judicial branch: four Courts of Cassation (three courts for civil
and commercial cases and one court for criminal cases)


Chief of State--Ilyas HARAWI (since 24 November 1989);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Umar KARAMI (since 20
December 1990)

_#_Political parties and leaders: political party activity is
organized along largely sectarian lines; numerous political groupings
exist, consisting of individual political figures and followers
motivated by religious, clan, and economic considerations; most parties
have well-armed militias, which are still involved in occasional clashes

_#_Suffrage: compulsory for all males at age 21; authorized for women
at age 21 with elementary education


National Assembly--elections should be held every four years
but security conditions have prevented elections since May 1972

_#_Communists: the Lebanese Communist Party was legalized in 1970;
members and sympathizers estimated at 2,000-3,000

_#_Member of: ABEDA, ACCT, AFESD, AL, AMF, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-24,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Nassib S. LAHOUD;
Chancery at 2560 28th Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202)
939-6300; there are Lebanese Consulates General in Detroit, New York, and
Los Angeles;

US--Ambassador Ryan C. CROCKER; Embassy at Antelias, Beirut
(mailing address is P. O. Box 70-840, Beirut, and FPO New York 09530);
telephone [961] 417774 or 415802, 415803, 402200, 403300

_#_Flag: three horizontal bands of red (top), white (double width),
and red with a green and brown cedar tree centered in the white band

_#_Overview: Since 1975 civil war has seriously damaged Lebanon's
economic infrastructure, disrupted economic activity, and all but ended
Lebanon's position as a Middle Eastern entrepot and banking hub.
Following October 1990, however, a tentative peace has enabled the
central government to begin restoring control in Beirut, collect taxes,
and regain access to key port and government facilities. The battered
economy has also been propped up by a financially sound banking system
and resilient small- and medium-scale manufacturers. Family remittances,
foreign financial support to political factions, the narcotics trade, and
international emergency aid are main sources of foreign exchange.
Economic prospects for 1991 have brightened, particularly if the
Syrian-backed government is able to maintain law and order and
reestablish business confidence. Rebuilding war-ravaged Beirut is likely
to provide a major stimulus to the Lebanese economy in 1991.

_#_GDP: $3.3 billion, per capita $1,000; real growth rate - 15%
(1990 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 100% (1990 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: 35% (1990 est.)

_#_Budget: revenues $120 million; expenditures $1.0 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (1990 est.)

_#_Exports: $1.0 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities--agricultural products, chemicals, textiles, precious
and semiprecious metals and jewelry, metals and metal products;

partners--Saudi Arabia 16%, Switzerland 8%, Jordan 6%, Kuwait 6%,
US 5%

_#_Imports: $1.9 billion (c.i.f., 1989 est.);


partners--Italy 14%, France 12%, US 6%, Turkey 5%, Saudi Arabia 3%

_#_External debt: $900 million (1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%

_#_Electricity: 1,381,000 kW capacity; 3,870 million kWh produced,
1,170 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: banking, food processing, textiles, cement, oil
refining, chemicals, jewelry, some metal fabricating

_#_Agriculture: accounts for about one-third of GDP; principal
products--citrus fruits, vegetables, potatoes, olives, tobacco, hemp
(hashish), sheep, and goats; not self-sufficient in grain

_#_Illicit drugs: illicit producer of opium poppy and cannabis for the
international drug trade; opium poppy production in Al Biqa
is increasing; hashish production is shipped to Western Europe, Israel,
and the Middle East

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $356
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $608 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $962 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $9 million

_#_Currency: Lebanese pound (plural--pounds);
1 Lebanese pound (5L) = 100 piasters

_#_Exchange rates: Lebanese pounds (5L) per US$1--974.22 (January
1991), 695.09 (1990), 496.69 (1989), 409.23 (1988), 224.60 (1987), 38.37
(1986), 16.42 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Railroads: 378 km total; 296 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 82 km
1.050-meter gauge; all single track; system almost entirely inoperable

_#_Highways: 7,370 km total; 6,270 km paved, 450 km gravel and crushed
stone, 650 km improved earth

_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 72 km (none in operation)

_#_Ports: Beirut, Tripoli, Ras Silata, Juniyah, Sidon,
Az Zahrani, Tyre, Shikka; northern ports are occupied by Syrian
forces and southern ports are occupied or partially quarantined by
Israeli forces

_#_Merchant marine: 60 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 257,220
GRT/379,691 DWT; includes 39 cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo, 2 vehicle
carrier, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 container, 8 livestock carrier, 1
petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker,
1 specialized tanker, 3 bulk, 1 combination bulk

_#_Civil air: 15 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 9 total, 8 usable; 6 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m; none under the direct control of the
Lebanese Government

_#_Telecommunications: rebuilding program disrupted; had fair system
of radio relay, cable; 325,000 telephones; stations--5 AM, 3 FM, 15 TV;
1 inactive Indian Ocean INTELSAT satellite earth station; 3 submarine
coaxial cables; radio relay to Jordan and Syria, inoperable

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army (includes Navy and Air Force)

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 725,974; 449,912 fit for
military service

_#_Defense expenditures: $168 million, 7.3% of GDP (1991)
_#_Total area: 30,350 km2; land area: 30,350 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Maryland

_#_Land boundary: 909 km with South Africa

_#_Coastline: none--landlocked

_#_Maritime claims: none--landlocked

_#_Climate: temperate; cool to cold, dry winters; hot, wet summers

_#_Terrain: mostly highland with some plateaus, hills, and mountains

_#_Natural resources: some diamonds and other minerals, water,
agricultural and grazing land

_#_Land use: arable land 10%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and
pastures 66%; forest and woodland 0%; other 24%

_#_Environment: population pressure forcing settlement in marginal
areas results in overgrazing, severe soil erosion, soil exhaustion;

_#_Note: landlocked; surrounded by South Africa; Highlands Water
Project will control, store, and redirect water to South Africa

_#_Population: 1,801,174 (July 1991), growth rate 2.6% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 36 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 78 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 59 years male, 63 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 4.8 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Mosotho (sing.), Basotho (pl.);

_#_Ethnic divisions: Sotho 99.7%; Europeans 1,600, Asians 800

_#_Religion: Christian 80%, rest indigenous beliefs

_#_Language: Sesotho (southern Sotho) and English (official); also
Zulu and Xhosa

_#_Literacy: 59% (male 44%, female 68%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1966)

_#_Labor force: 689,000 economically active; 86.2% of resident
population engaged in subsistence agriculture; roughly 60% of active
male labor force works in South Africa

_#_Organized labor: there are two trade union federations; the
government favors formation of a single, umbrella trade union

_#_Long-form name: Kingdom of Lesotho

_#_Type: constitutional monarchy

_#_Capital: Maseru

_#_Administrative divisions: 10 districts; Berea, Butha-Buthe, Leribe,
Mafeteng, Maseru, Mohales Hoek, Mokhotlong, Qachas Nek, Quthing,

_#_Independence: 4 October 1966 (from UK; formerly Basutoland)

_#_Constitution: 4 October 1966, suspended January 1970

_#_Legal system: based on English common law and Roman-Dutch law;
judicial review of legislative acts in High Court and Court of Appeal;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 4 October (1966)

_#_Executive branch: monarch, chairman of the Military Council,
Military Council, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

_#_Legislative branch: none--the bicameral Parliament was dissolved
following the military coup in January 1986; note--a National Constituent
Assembly convened in June 1990 to rewrite the constitution and debate
issues of national importance, but it has no legislative authority

_#_Judicial branch: High Court, Court of Appeal


Chief of State--King LETSIE III (since 12 November 1990 following
dismissal of his father, exiled King MOSHOESHOE II, by Maj. Gen.

Head of Government--Chairman of the Military Council Col.
Elias Phisoana RAMAEMA (since 30 April 1991)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Basotho National Party (BNP), Matete MAJARA (interim leader);
Basutoland Congress Party (BCP), Ntsu MOKHEHLE;
National Independent Party (NIP), A. C. MANYELI;
Marematlou Freedom Party (MFP), S. H. MAPHELEBA;
United Democratic Party, Charles MOFELI;
Communist Party of Lesotho (CPL), Jacob KENYA

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 21


National Assembly--dissolved following the military coup in
January 1986; military has pledged elections will take place in June 1992

_#_Communists: small Lesotho Communist Party

_#_Member of: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador W. T. VAN TONDER; Chancery at
2511 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202)
797-5 534;

US--Ambassador Leonard H.O. SPEARMAN, Jr.; Embassy at address NA,
Maseru (mailing address is P. O. Box 333, Maseru 100); telephone [266]

_#_Flag: divided diagonally from the lower hoist side corner; the
upper half is white bearing the brown silhouette of a large shield with
crossed spear and club; the lower half is a diagonal blue band with a
green triangle in the corner

_#_Overview: Small, landlocked, and mountainous, Lesotho has no
important natural resources other than water. Its economy is based on
agriculture, light manufacturing, and remittances from laborers employed
in South Africa ($153 million in 1989). The great majority of households
gain their livelihoods from subsistence farming and migrant labor.
Manufacturing depends largely on farm products to support the milling,
canning, leather, and jute industries; other industries include textile,
clothing, and light engineering. Industry's share of GDP rose from
6% in 1982 to 15% in 1989. Political and economic instability in South
Africa raise uncertainties for Lesotho's economy, especially with respect
to migrant worker remittances--over one-third of GDP.

_#_GDP: $420 million, per capita $240; real growth rate 4.0% (1990

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 15% (1990 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: 23% (1988)

_#_Budget: revenues $280 million; expenditures $288 million, including
capital expenditures of $NA (FY92 est.)

_#_Exports: $66 million (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--wool, mohair, wheat, cattle, peas, beans, corn, hides,
skins, baskets;

partners--South Africa 53%, EC 30%, North and South America 13%

_#_Imports: $499 million (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--mainly corn, building materials, clothing, vehicles,
machinery, medicines, petroleum, oil, and lubricants;

partners--South Africa 95%, EC 2% (1989)

_#_External debt: $370 million (December 1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 7.8% (1989 est.); accounts
for 15% of GDP

_#_Electricity: power supplied by South Africa

_#_Industries: food, beverages, textiles, handicrafts, tourism

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 18% of GDP and employs 60-70% of
all households; exceedingly primitive, mostly subsistence farming and
livestock; principal crops are corn, wheat, pulses, sorghum, barley

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $268
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $754 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $4 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $14 million

_#_Currency: loti (plural--maloti); 1 loti (L) = 100 lisente

_#_Exchange rates: maloti (M) per US$1--2.5625 (January 1991),
2.5863 (1990), 2.6166 (1989), 2.2611 (1988), 2.0350 (1987), 2.2685
(1986), 2.1911 (1985); note--the Basotho loti is at par with the South
African rand

_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

_#_Railroads: 1.6 km; owned, operated, and included in the statistics
of South Africa

_#_Highways: 5,167 km total; 508 km paved; 1,585 km crushed stone,
gravel, or stabilized soil; 946 km improved earth, 2,128 km unimproved

_#_Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 28 total, 28 usable; 3 with permanent surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: rudimentary system consisting of a few land
lines, a small radio relay system, and minor radiocommunication stations;
5,920 telephones; stations--2 AM, 2 FM, 1 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Royal Lesotho Defense Force (RLDF; includes Army, Air
Wing), Royal Lesotho Mounted Police

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 394,829; 212,967 fit for
military service

_#_Defense expenditures: $55 million, 8.6% of GDP (1990 est.)
_#_Total area: 111,370 km2; land area: 96,320 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Tennessee

_#_Land boundaries: 1,585 km total; Guinea 563 km, Ivory Coast 716 km,
Sierra Leone 306 km

_#_Coastline: 579 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Territorial sea: 200 nm

_#_Climate: tropical; hot, humid; dry winters with hot days and cool
to cold nights; wet, cloudy summers with frequent heavy showers

_#_Terrain: mostly flat to rolling coastal plains rising to rolling
plateau and low mountains in northeast

_#_Natural resources: iron ore, timber, diamonds, gold

_#_Land use: arable land 1%; permanent crops 3%; meadows and pastures
2%; forest and woodland 39%; other 55%; includes irrigated NEGL%

_#_Environment: West Africa's largest tropical rain forest, subject to

_#_Population: 2,730,446 (July 1991), growth rate 3.4% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 45 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 13 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 2 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 124 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 54 years male, 59 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 6.5 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Liberian(s); adjective--Liberian

_#_Ethnic divisions: indigenous African tribes, including Kpelle,
Bassa, Gio, Kru, Grebo, Mano, Krahn, Gola, Gbandi, Loma, Kissi, Vai, and
Bella 95%; descendants of repatriated slaves known as Americo-Liberians

_#_Religion: traditional 70%, Muslim 20%, Christian 10%

_#_Language: English (official); more than 20 local languages of the
Niger-Congo language group; English used by about 20%

_#_Literacy: 40% (male 50%, female 29%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 510,000, including 220,000 in the monetary economy;
agriculture 70.5%, services 10.8%, industry and commerce 4.5%, other
14.2%; non-African foreigners hold about 95% of the top-level management
and engineering jobs; 52% of population of working age

_#_Organized labor: 2% of labor force

_#_Long-form name: Republic of Liberia

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: Monrovia

_#_Administrative divisions: 13 counties; Bomi, Bong, Grand Bassa,
Grand Cape Mount, Grand Jide, Grand Kru, Lofa, Margibi, Maryland,
Montserrado, Nimba, Rivercess, Sino

_#_Independence: 26 July 1847

_#_Constitution: 6 January 1986

_#_Legal system: dual system of statutory law based on Anglo-American
common law for the modern sector and customary law based on unwritten
tribal practices for indigenous sector

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 26 July (1847)

_#_Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly consists of an
upper house or Senate and a lower house or House of Representatives

_#_Judicial branch: People's Supreme Court


Chief of State and Head of Government--interim President Dr.
Amos SAWYER (since 15 November 1990); interim Vice President Ronald DIGGS
(since 15 November 1990); note--this is an interim government appointed
by the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) that will be
replaced after elections are held under a West African-brokered
peace plan; rival rebel factions led by Prince Y. JOHNSON and Charles
TAYLOR are challenging the Sawyer government's legitimacy while
observing a tenuous cease fire; the former president, Gen. Dr. Samuel
Kanyon DOE, was ousted and killed on 9 September 1990 in a coup led by

_#_Political parties and leaders:
National Democratic Party of Liberia (NDPL), Augustus CAINE, chairman;
Liberian Action Party (LAP), Emmanuel KOROMAH, chairman;
Unity Party (UP), Carlos SMITH, chairman;
United People's Party (UPP), Gabriel Baccus MATTHEWS, chairman

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


President--last held on 15 October 1985 (next to be held NA);
results--Gen. Dr. Samuel Kanyon DOE (NDPL) 50.9%, Jackson DOE (LAP)
26.4%, other 22.7%; note--President Doe was killed by rebel forces
on 9 September 1990;

Senate--last held on 15 October 1985 (next to be held NA);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(26 total) NDPL 21, LAP 3, UP 1, LUP 1;

House of Representatives--last held on 15 October 1985 (next
to be held NA); results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(64 total) NDPL 51, LAP 8, UP 3, LUP 2

_#_Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Eugenia A.
WORDSWORTH-STEVENSON; Chancery at 5201 16th Street NW, Washington DC
20011; telephone (202) 723-0437 through 0440; there is a Liberian
Consulate General in New York;

US--Ambassador Peter J. de VOS; Embassy at 111 United Nations
Drive, Monrovia (mailing address is P. O. Box 98, Monrovia, or APO New
York 09155); telephone [231] 222991 through 222994

_#_Flag: 11 equal horizontal stripes of red (top and bottom)
alternating with white; there is a white five-pointed star on a blue
square in the upper hoist-side corner; the design was based on the US

_#_Overview: Civil war during 1990 destroyed much of Liberia's
economy, especially the infrastructure in and around Monrovia. Expatriate
businessmen fled the country, taking capital and expertise with them.
Many will not return. Richly endowed with water, mineral resources,
forests, and a climate favorable to agriculture, Liberia had been a
producer and exporter of basic products, while local manufacturing,
mainly foreign owned, had been small in scope. Political instability
threatens prospects for economic reconstruction and repatriation of
some 750,000 Liberian refugees who fled to neighboring countries.

_#_GDP: $988 million, per capita $400; real growth rate 1.5% (1988)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 12% (1989)

_#_Unemployment rate: 43% urban (1988)

_#_Budget: revenues $242.1 million; expenditures $435.4 million,
including capital expenditures of $29.5 million (1989)

_#_Exports: $505 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities--iron ore 61%, rubber 20%, timber 11%, coffee;

partners--US, EC, Netherlands

_#_Imports: $394 million (c.i.f., 1989 est.);

commodities--rice, mineral fuels, chemicals, machinery,
transportation equipment, other foodstuffs;

partners--US, EC, Japan, China, Netherlands, ECOWAS

_#_External debt: $1.6 billion (December 1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 1.5% in manufacturing (1987);
accounts for 22% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 400,000 kW capacity; 730 million kWh produced,
290 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: rubber processing, food processing, construction
materials, furniture, palm oil processing, mining (iron ore, diamonds)

_#_Agriculture: accounts for about 40% of GDP (including fishing and
forestry); principal products--rubber, timber, coffee, cocoa, rice,
cassava, palm oil, sugarcane, bananas, sheep, and goats; not
self-sufficient in food, imports 25% of rice consumption

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $665
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $853 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $25 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $77 million

_#_Currency: Liberian dollar (plural--dollars);
1 Liberian dollar (L$) = 100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: Liberian dollars (L$) per US$1--1.00 (fixed rate
since 1940); unofficial parallel exchange rate of L$2.5 = US$1, January

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Railroads: 480 km total; 328 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 152 km
1.067-meter narrow gauge; all lines single track; rail systems owned and
operated by foreign steel and financial interests in conjunction with
Liberian Government

_#_Highways: 10,087 km total; 603 km bituminous treated, 2,848 km
all weather, 4,313 km dry weather; there are also 2,323 km of private,
laterite-surfaced roads open to public use, owned by rubber and timber

_#_Ports: Monrovia, Buchanan, Greenville, Harper (or Cape Palmas)

_#_Merchant marine: 1,563 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
53,053,254 DWT/94,597,871 DWT; includes 18 passenger, 1 short-sea
passenger, 156 cargo, 47 refrigerated cargo, 15 roll-on/roll-off cargo,
67 vehicle carrier, 74 container, 5 barge carrier, 450 petroleum, oils,
and lubricants (POL) tanker, 104 chemical, 60 combination ore/oil, 44
liquefied gas, 6 specialized tanker, 485 bulk, 1 multifunction large-load
carrier, 30 combination bulk; note--a flag of convenience registry; all
ships are foreign owned; the top four owning flags are US 19%, Japan 17%,
Hong Kong 12%, and Norway 10%; China owns at least 28 ships, Bulgaria
owns 3, and Poland owns 1

_#_Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 75 total, 58 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 4 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: telephone and telegraph service via radio relay
network; main center is Monrovia; 8,500 telephones; stations--3 AM, 4 FM,
5 TV; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Armed Forces of Liberia (includes Army, Navy, Air Force),
Coast Guard, National Police Force

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 648,636; 346,349 fit for
military service; no conscription

_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, 2.4% of GDP (1987)
_#_Total area: 1,759,540 km2; land area: 1,759,540 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Alaska

_#_Land boundaries: 4,383 km total; Algeria 982 km, Chad 1,055 km,
Egypt 1,150 km, Niger 354 km, Sudan 383 km, Tunisia 459 km

_#_Coastline: 1,770 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 12 nm;

Gulf of Sidra closing line: 32o 30%19 N

_#_Disputes: claims and occupies the 100,000 km2 Aozou Strip in
northern Chad; maritime boundary dispute with Tunisia; Libya claims about
19,400 km2 in northern Niger; Libya claims about 19,400 km2 in
southeastern Algeria

_#_Climate: Mediterranean along coast; dry, extreme desert interior

_#_Terrain: mostly barren, flat to undulating plains, plateaus,

_#_Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, gypsum

_#_Land use: arable land 1%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
8%; forest and woodland 0%; other 91%; includes irrigated NEGL%

_#_Environment: hot, dry, dust-laden ghibli is a southern wind lasting
one to four days in spring and fall; desertification; sparse natural
surface-water resources

_#_Note: the Great Manmade River Project, the largest water
development scheme in the world, is being built to bring water from large
aquifers under the Sahara to coastal cities

_#_Population: 4,350,742 (July 1991), growth rate 3.0% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 36 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 62 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 66 years male, 71 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 5.1 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Libyan(s); adjective--Libyan

_#_Ethnic divisions: Berber and Arab 97%; some Greeks, Maltese,
Italians, Egyptians, Pakistanis, Turks, Indians, and Tunisians

_#_Religion: Sunni Muslim 97%

_#_Language: Arabic; Italian and English widely understood in major

_#_Literacy: 64% (male 75%, female 50%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 1,000,000, includes about 280,000 resident
foreigners; industry 31%, services 27%, government 24%, agriculture 18%

_#_Organized labor: National Trade Unions' Federation, 275,000
members; General Union for Oil and Petrochemicals; Pan-Africa Federation
of Petroleum Energy and Allied Workers

_#_Long-form name: Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

_#_Type: Jamahiriya (a state of the masses); in theory, governed by
the populace through local councils; in fact, a military dictatorship

_#_Capital: Tripoli

_#_Administrative divisions: 46 municipalities (baladiyat,
singular--baladiyah); Ajdabiya, Al Abyar, Al
Aziziyah, Al Bayda, Al Jufrah, Al Jumayl, Al Khums, Al
Kufrah, Al Marj, Al Qarabulli, Al Qubbah, Al Ujaylat, Ash
Shati, Awbari, Az Zahra, Az Zawiyah, Banghazi,
Bani Walid, Bin Jawwad, Darnah, Ghadamis, Gharyan,
Ghat, Jadu, Jalu, Janzur, Masallatah, Misratah,
Mizdah, Murzuq, Nalut, Qaminis, Qasr Bin Ghashir, Sabha,
Sabratah, Shahhat, Surman, Surt, Tajura,
Tarabulus, Tarhunah, Tubruq, Tukrah, Yafran, Zlitan,
Zuwarah; note--the number of municipalities may have been reduced to
13 named Al Jabal al-Akhdar, Al Jabal al-Gharbi, Al Jabal al-Khums, Al
Batnam, Al Kufrah, Al Marqab, Al Marzuq, Az Zawiyah, Banghazi,
Khalij Surt, Sabha, Tripoli, Wadi al-Hayat

_#_Independence: 24 December 1951 (from Italy)

_#_Constitution: 11 December 1969, amended 2 March 1977

_#_Legal system: based on Italian civil law system and Islamic law;
separate religious courts; no constitutional provision for judicial
review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Revolution Day, 1 September (1969)

_#_Executive branch: revolutionary leader, chairman of the General
People's Committee, General People's Committee (cabinet)

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral General People's Congress

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


Chief of State--Revolutionary Leader Col. Muammar Abu Minyar
al-QADHAFI (since 1 September 1969);

Head of Government--Chairman of the General People's Committee
(Premier) Abu Zayd Umar DURDA (since 7 October 1990)

_#_Political parties and leaders: none

_#_Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18

_#_Elections: national elections are indirect through a hierarchy of
revolutionary committees

_#_Political parties: none

_#_Communists: no organized party, negligible membership

_#_Other political or pressure groups: various Arab nationalist
movements and the Arab Socialist Resurrection (Ba'th) party with
almost negligible memberships may be functioning clandestinely, as
well as some Islamic elements


_#_Diplomatic representation: none

_#_Flag: plain green; green is the traditional color of Islam (the
state religion)

_#_Overview: The socialist-oriented economy depends primarily upon
revenues from the oil sector, which contributes practically all export
earnings and about one-third of GNP. Since 1980, however, the sharp
drop in oil prices and the resulting decline in export revenues have
adversely affected economic development. In 1988 per capita GNP was the
highest in Africa at $5,410, but it had been $2,000 higher in 1982.
Severe cutbacks in imports over the past five years have led to shortages
of basic goods and foodstuffs, although the reopening of the
Libyan-Tunisian border in April 1988 and the Libyan-Egyptian border in
December 1989 have somewhat eased shortages. Austerity budgets and a lack
of trained technicians have undermined the government's ability to
implement a number of planned infrastructure development projects.
Windfall profits from the hike in world oil prices in late 1990 improved
the foreign payments position and may permit Tripoli to ease austerity
measures. The nonoil industrial and construction sectors, which account
for about 22% of GDP, have expanded from processing mostly agricultural
products to include petrochemicals, iron, steel, and aluminum. Although
agriculture accounts for less than 5% of GNP, it employs 18% of the labor
force. Climatic conditions and poor soils severely limit farm output,
requiring Libya to import about 75% of its food requirements.

_#_GNP: $24 billion, per capita $5,860; real growth rate 3% (1989

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 20% (1988 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: 2% (1988 est.)

_#_Budget: revenues $8.1 billion; expenditures $9.8 billion, including
capital expenditures of $3.1 billion (1989 est.)

_#_Exports: $6.1 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities--petroleum, peanuts, hides;

partners--Italy, USSR, FRG, Spain, France, Belgium/Luxembourg,

_#_Imports: $6.2 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities--machinery, transport equipment, food, manufactured

partners--Italy, USSR, FRG, UK, Japan

_#_External debt: $3.5 billion, excluding military debt (December
1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%; accounts for 43% of GDP
(including oil)

_#_Electricity: 4,705,000 kW capacity; 13,600 million kWh produced,
3,220 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: petroleum, food processing, textiles, handicrafts,

_#_Agriculture: 5% of GNP; cash crops--wheat, barley, olives, dates,
citrus fruits, peanuts; 75% of food is imported

_#_Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-87), $242 million; no longer a recipient

_#_Currency: Libyan dinar (plural--dinars);
1 Libyan dinar (LD) = 1,000 dirhams

_#_Exchange rates: Libyan dinars (LD) per US$1--0.2669 (January 1991),
0.2699 (1990), 0.2922 (1989), 0.2853 (1988), 0.2706 (1987), 0.3139
(1986), 0.2961 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Highways: 32,500 km total; 24,000 km bituminous and bituminous
treated, 8,500 km gravel, crushed stone and earth

_#_Pipelines: crude oil 4,383 km; natural gas 1,947 km; refined
products 443 km (includes 256 km liquid petroleum gas)

_#_Ports: Tobruk, Tripoli, Banghazi, Misratah, Marsa el Brega

_#_Merchant marine: 30 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 807,539
GRT/1,452,847 DWT; includes 3 short-sea passenger, 11 cargo, 4
roll-on/roll-off cargo, 11 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker,
1 chemical tanker

_#_Civil air: 59 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 131 total, 123 usable; 53 with permanent-surface runways;
7 with runways over 3,659 m; 31 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 44 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: modern telecommunications system using radio
relay, coaxial cable, tropospheric scatter, and domestic satellite
stations; 370,000 telephones; stations--18 AM, 3 FM, 13 TV; satellite
earth stations--1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, and
14 domestic; submarine cables to France and Italy; radio relay to
Tunisia; tropospheric scatter to Greece; planned ARABSAT and Intersputnik
satellite stations

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Armed Peoples of the Libyan Arab Jamahariya (includes
Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Command), National Police

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 1,023,335; 603,886 fit for
military service; 52,059 reach military age (17) annually;
conscription now being implemented

_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, 11.1% of GNP (1987)
_#_Total area: 160 km2; land area: 160 km2

_#_Comparative area: about 0.9 times the size of Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: 78 km total; Austria 37 km, Switzerland 41 km

_#_Coastline: none--landlocked

_#_Maritime claims: none--landlocked

_#_Climate: continental; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow or
rain; cool to moderately warm, cloudy, humid summers

_#_Terrain: mostly mountainous (Alps) with Rhine Valley in western

_#_Natural resources: hydroelectric potential

_#_Land use: arable land 25%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
38%; forest and woodland 19%; other 18%

_#_Environment: variety of microclimatic variations based on elevation

_#_Note: landlocked

_#_Population: 28,476 (July 1991), growth rate 0.6% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 13 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 5 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 73 years male, 81 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 1.5 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Liechtensteiner(s); adjective--Liechtenstein

_#_Ethnic divisions: Alemannic 95%, Italian and other 5%

_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 87.3%, Protestant 8.3%, unknown 1.6%,
other 2.8% (1988)

_#_Language: German (official), Alemannic dialect

_#_Literacy: 100% (male 100%, female 100%) age 10 and over can
read and write (1981)

_#_Labor force: 12,258; 5,078 foreign workers (mostly from
Switzerland and Austria); industry, trade, and building 54.4%; services
41.6%; agriculture, fishing, forestry, and horticulture 4.0%

_#_Organized labor: NA

_#_Long-form name: Principality of Liechtenstein

_#_Type: hereditary constitutional monarchy

_#_Capital: Vaduz

_#_Administrative divisions: 11 communes (gemeinden,
singular--gemeinde); Balzers, Eschen, Gamprin, Mauren, Planken, Ruggell,
Schaan, Schellenberg, Triesen, Triesenberg, Vaduz

_#_Independence: 23 January 1719, Imperial Principality of
Liechtenstein established

_#_Constitution: 5 October 1921

_#_Legal system: local civil and penal codes; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations

_#_National holiday: Saint Joseph's Day, 19 March

_#_Executive branch: reigning prince, hereditary prince, head
of government, deputy head of government

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Diet (Landtag)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Oberster Gerichtshof) for criminal
cases and Superior Court (Obergericht) for civil cases


Chief of State--Prince HANS ADAM II (since 13 November 1989;
assumed executive powers 26 August 1984);
Heir Apparent Prince ALOIS von und zu Liechtenstein (born 11 June 1968);

Head of Government--Hans BRUNHART (since 26 April 1978);
Deputy Head of Government Dr. Herbert WILLE (since 2 February 1986)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Fatherland Union (VU), Dr. Otto HASLER;
Progressive Citizens' Party (FBP), Emanuel VOGT;
Free Electoral List (FW)

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


Diet--last held on 5 March 1989 (next to be held by March 1993);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(25 total) VU 13, FBP 12

_#_Communists: none


_#_Diplomatic representation: in routine diplomatic matters,
Liechtenstein is represented in the US by the Swiss Embassy;

US--the US has no diplomatic or consular mission in Liechtenstein,
but the US Consul General at Zurich (Switzerland) has consular
accreditation at Vaduz

_#_Flag: two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a
gold crown on the hoist side of the blue band

_#_Overview: The prosperous economy is based primarily on small-scale
light industry and tourism. Industry accounts for 54% of total
employment, the service sector 42% (mostly based on tourism), and
agriculture and forestry 4%. The sale of postage stamps to collectors is
estimated at $10 million annually. Low business taxes (the maximum tax
rate is 20%) and easy incorporation rules have induced about 25,000
holding or so-called letter box companies to establish nominal offices in
Liechtenstein. Such companies, incorporated solely for tax purposes,
provide 30% of state revenues. The economy is tied closely to that of
Switzerland in a customs union, and incomes and living standards parallel
those of the more prosperous Swiss groups.

_#_GDP: $630 million, per capita $22,300; real growth rate NA% (1990

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.0% (1989 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: 0.1% (December 1986)

_#_Budget: revenues $240 million; expenditures $197 million, including
capital expenditures of NA (1988)

_#_Exports: $1.28 billion (1988);

commodities--small specialty machinery, dental products, stamps,
hardware, pottery;

partners--EC 40%, EFTA 22% (Switzerland 18%) (1988)

_#_Imports: $NA;

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