Produced by David Starner, Leah Moser and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team.
The Story of CRISCO
The Procter & Gamble Co.
_Price Twenty-Five Cents_
[Illustration: _The Story of CRISCO_]
TABLE OF CONTENTS
The Story of Crisco
Things To Remember
Hints To Young Cooks
How To Choose Foods
Methods of Cooking
Time Table for Cooking
The Art of Carving
Calendar of Dinners
Lettuce Cocktail 153 Onion Cocktail 161
Apple Strudel 221 Boston Brown 98 Brown Nut 98 Coffee 99 Coffee, Swedish 113 Corn 100 Crisco Milk 101 Fruit, Yorkshire 114 Gluten 104 Graham 102 Health 105 Hominy 105 Nut, Steamed 112 Raisin and Buttermilk 109 Raisin and Nut 221 Rolled Oats 109 Rye, Swedish 113 Savarin 110 Southern Spoon 112 Water 114 Wheat, Entire 102
Biscuits, Rolls, Etc.
Baking Powder Biscuit 97 Buttermilk Biscuit 98 Citron Buns 99 Cornmeal Rolls 100 Crisco Batter Cakes 101 Dessert Biscuit 101 Fruit Rolls 104 Hot Cross Buns 106 Lunch Rolls 107 Maryland Beaten Biscuits 107 Scones, Cream 100 Scones, Oven 108 Soda Beaten Biscuit 111 Sour Milk Biscuit 111 Twin Biscuit 113
Bran Gems 98 Columbia Muffins 100 Corn Cakes 194 Ginger Gems 104 Golden Corn Muffins 105 Imperial Muffins 106 Muffins 107 Pop Overs 198 Rye Muffins 110 Sour Milk Tea Cakes 112
Almond and Citron 130 Black Cake with Prune Filling 119 Boiling Water 120 Butterless-Milkless-Eggless 120 Caramel 121 Chocolate 121 Chocolate, Black 181 Cream Puffs 123 Cream Puff Balls 123 Cushion 198 Devil’s Food 124 Dutch Apple 214 Feather 210 Fig 125
Flag 194 Fruit Cake, Apple Sauce 119 Fruit Cake, Crisco 123 Fruit Cake, Southern 132 Fruit Drops 103 Genoa 185 Gennoise 125 Gingerbread 125 Gingerbread, Whole Wheat 132 Gold 126 Golden Orange 126 Hurry Up 126 Jam 207
Jelly Roll 129 Lady Baltimore 127 Layer Cake, Cocoanut 122 Layer Cake, Cocoanut 226 Layer Cake, Coffee 112 Layer Cake, Lemon 127 Lord Baltimore 128 Lunch Cakes 128 Marble 129 Marmalade 129 Mocha 196 Pound 120 Princess 205 Queen Cakes 215 Rose Leaf 131 Sand 127 Shortcake, Oyster 57 Shortcake, Peach 124 Shortcake, Red Raspberry 195 Shortcake, Strawberry 124 Shortcake, Scotch 131 Seed Cake, Old Fashioned 130 Silver Nut 131 Simnel 131 Sponge 127 Tilden 202 Walnut 130 Wholesome Parkin 132
Chocolate Fudge 144 Clear Almond Taffy 144 Cocoanut Caramels 144 Cream Candy 145 Crisco Drops 145 Crisco Fruit Fudge 145 Everton Taffy 145 Fig Fudge 146 Honey Squares 146 Maple Candy 146 Molasses Candy 146 Peanut Fudge 147
Aigrettes 197 Biscuit 151 Canapes 161 Cheese Balls 196 Croutons 214 Drops 194 Fondue 219 Ramekins 151
COOKIES, WAFERS, Etc.
Almond Fingers 211 Chocolate Wafers 99 Chocolate Brownies 99 Crisco Brownies 101 Filled Cookies 102 Fruit Cookies 103 Ginger Crisps 203 Ginger Snaps 104 Jumbles 97 Lemon Wafers 106 Maple Cookies 107 Oatmeal Cookies 108 Rose Leaves 110 Shortbread 111 Spice Cookies 112 White Cookies 114
Bean 178 Beef 193 Chicken 195 Chestnut Boulettes 231 Egg 141
Pea 227 Pear 227 Potato 152 Potato and Nut 136 Salmon 155 Tomato 228
Honey 105 Nut 108
Raised 109 Rich 109
Caramel Custard 178 Creole 140 Curried 140 Cutlets 165 Croquettes 141 Eggs with Cucumbers 141 Eggs with Tomatoes 141 Egg Sandwiches, Fried 85 Savory 142
Apricot 200 Baked 140 Friar’s 159 Kidney 63 Spanish 183 Cutlets 165 Croquettes 141 Eggs with Cucumbers 141 Eggs with Tomatoes 141 Egg Sandwiches, Fried 85 Savory 142
Blue, Baked 194 Cassolettes of Fish 53 Clams, Scalloped 183 Clams, Steamed 225 Codfish Balls 152 Cod, Boiled 169 Cod, Curried 54 Cod, Steamed 218 Crabs, Dressed 53 Fish, Fried 56 Fish, Fried 198 Fish Pudding 55 Flounder, a la Creme 54 Flounder, a la Turque 55 Gateau of Fish 56 Halibut, Baked 52 Halibut, Grilled with Parmesan 214 Halibut, a la Paulette 166 Halibut Ramekins 192 Halibut Turbans 154 Lobster, Broiled 171 Lobster, Fried with Horseradish Sauce 56 Lobster Newburg 175 Mackerel, Broiled Spanish 167 Mackerel, a la Claudine 175 Mackerel, Cold Vinaigrette 184 Oysters, Fried 171 Oyster Shortcake 57 Salmon, Baked with Colbert Sauce 52 Salmon, Boiled 167 Salmon Croquettes 155 Salmon Mold 57 Salmon, Planked 189 Sardine Canapes 167 Shad, Baked 53 Shad, Planked 170 Scallops 228 Scallops, Baked in Shells 220 Smelts, Broiled 214 Smelts, Fried 222 Smelts, Planked 207 Terrapin, a la Maryland 230 Trout, Baked 190
FRITTERS, GRIDDLE CAKES, Etc.
Apple Fritters 78 Apricot Fritters 172 Anchovy Fritters 157 Carrot Fritters 175 Corn Fritters 68 Crisco Battercakes 101 French Pancake 199 Fried Cornmeal Nut Cakes 102 Fried Cakes with Apple Sauce 103 Fruit Pancake 195 Italian Fritters 222 Salsify Fritters 160 Sour Milk Griddle Cakes 111 Strawberry Fritters 187 Waffles 113
Apples with Red Currant Jelly 224 Apple Sauce 225 Baked Apples 229 Baked Bananas 181 Devilled Bananas 134
Beef, a la Mode 191 Beef, Braised Fillet 158 Beef Croquettes 193 Beef Collope 59 Beef, Chipped in Cream 183 Beef, Fillet 205 Beef Loaf 151 Beef Loaf 186 Beef Olives 200 Beef Steak Pudding 205 Beef Steak and Kidney Pie 151 Beef Tournedos with Olives 191 Bobotee 182 Brains, Baked 189 Calf’s Head Vinaigrette 161 Chops, Breaded 166 Ham, Baked 209 Hearts, Baked Stuffed 164 Indian Dry Curry 213 Kidneys, Broiled with Green Peppers 162 Kidney Omelet 63 Lamb, Casserole 218 Lamb Chops, Broiled 168 Lamb Chops, Stuffed 221 Lamb, Crown, with Peas 180 Lamb, Fricassee with Dumplings 197 Lamb, Leg, Boiled Stuffed 186 Lamb, Salmi 189 Lamb, Spring, Steak, a la Minute 173 Lamb, Tournedos 198 Live, Baked and Bacon 201 Liver, Stewed with Mushrooms 206 Mutton, Braised Loin 60 Mutton, Braised with Mushrooms 157 Mutton, Boiled 204 Mutton Cutlets 152 Mutton, a la Soubise 168 Meat Cakes 63 Ox Tongue, Braised 176 Ox Tongue, Curried 61 Roast, with Spaghetti 64 Roast, Pot, with Tomato 181 Shepherd’s Pie 210 Steak, Beef, Baked 224 Steak, Flank, Stuffed 200 Steak, Porterhouse 208 Steak, Round with Macaroni 63 Steak, Swiss 199 Steak, Sirloin with Fried Apples 65 Stew, Irish 156 Sweet Breads 183 Sweet Breads, Fried 62 Sweet Breads with Mushroom Puree 173 Tripe, Baked 229 Tripe, Fricasseed 197 Toad in the Hole 163 Veal, Blanquette 197 Veal, Braised Fillet 169 Veal Chops 196 Veal Cutlets, Breaded 193 Veal Goulash 159 Veal Haricot 216 Veal and Ham Pie 165 Veal Loaf 180 Veal Pot Pie 172 Venison, Cutlets 220 Venison, Spiced 224
Casserole 60 Country Club 201 Croquettes 195 Curried 192 Fried 61 Fried, Mexican Style 62 Fried, Swiss Style 213 Fricassee, Brown 153 Grilled 178 Hot Pot 226 Impanada 208 A la King 178 Pie 171
Planked 158 Planked 199 Roast Stuffed 150 Stewed 175 Stewed with Olives 168 Souffle 163 Supreme 160 A la Tartare 60
Duck, Braised with Turnips 217 Duckling, Roast 187 Fowl, Roast with Chestnuts and Mushrooms 202 Fowl, Pilau 211 Guinea Hen, Roasted 168 Guinea, Roast Chicken 218 Pigeons, Fried 169 Squab, Stewed 208 Turkey, Roast 64
Hare and Rabbit
Belgian en Casserole 230 Jugged 149 A la Marengo 217 Roast 152 Stewed 221
Cornstarch Pastry 90 Crisco, Plain 90 Crisco, New 90 Flake No. 1 91 Flake No. 2 92 German 93 Hot Water 93 Puff 92
Puff, Rough 93 Sugar for Tartlets 94 Tip Top 90
Cobblers and Dumplings
Apple Dumplings 78 Fig and Apple Cobbler 226 Peach Cobbler 204
Almond Layer 91 Apple 166 Apple 215 Beer Steak and Kidney 151 Blueberry 200 Butterscotch 94 Cherry 188 Chicken 171 Chocolate Cream 218 Cocoanut 227 Cream 181 Double 91 Mince 225 Orange 212 Pumpkin 223 Rhubarb Custard 94 Shepherd’s 210 Squash 224 Veal and Ham 165 Veal Pot 174 Washington 162
Apple 160 Apricot 95 Bakewell 95 Bartemian 95 Chestnut 217 Currant 94 Fruit 182 German 135 Lemon and Apple 226 Maids of Honor 190 Pastry Fingers 230 Peach Delights 82 Puffs, Orange 213 Puffs, Raisin 227 Roly Poly, Cherry 189 Roly Poly, Raisin 227 Rhubarb Fanchonettes 192 Windsor 201
Almond 192 Almond and Apple 221 Amber 210 Apple, Charlotte 212 Apricot 196 Baba with Syrup 222 Baked Indian 220 Beef Steak 205 Black Cap 216 Boston 230 Bird’s Nest 165 Bread 226 Bread, with Cherries 210 Cabinet 156 Canned Corn 179 Caramel Bread 79 Caramel Rice 79 Carrot 79 Cherry Blanc-Mange 199 Chestnut Dainty 217 Chocolate 202 Chocolate Bread 188 Chocolate Jelly 80 Chocolate with Macaroons 209 Coburg 159 Cocoanut 219 Conservative 211 Cottage 80 Countess 204 Cranberry 221 Cup 192
Date 222 Eve’s 229 Farina 225 Fish 55
Golden 219 Graham 223 Graham, Steamed 166 St. Leonard’s 204 Macaroon 201 Macaroni, Baked 223 Molasses Sponge 81 Monica 81 Noodle 81 Nut 211
Peach 199 Pineapple 82 Plum, English 229 Plum, Mrs. Vaughn’s 82 Raisin 163 Raisin Batter 213 Raspberry Batter 191 Rhubarb 137 Rhubarb, Baked 78 Rice 83
Rice, Ground 193 Snow Balls 197 Snow Balls, Fruit 158 Snow Pudding, with Custard 206 Sultana 228 Swiss 177 Walnut 83 Woodford 83
Brown Bread 219 Cherry 195 Cornstarch 228 Date 158 Pineapple 223 Rice 172 Snow 193 Squash 201 Vegetable 136 Vegetable 212
Apple, Celery and Nut 74 Asparagus 74 Cabbage 163 Carrot 186 Celery and Almond 74 Cheese 206 Cream Cheese and Pimiento 154 Daisy 179 Fruit 75 Grapefruit 189 Hungarian 75 Orange 150 Orange and Tomato 75 Pear and Pimiento 189 Potato and Nut 75 Potato and Pimiento 76 Shrimp 76 Waldorf 159 Watercress 190
Egg and Anchovy 85 Fried Egg 85 Hot Cheese 211 Hudson 86 Pimiento Cheese 86 Rice 86
Sardine 87 Tomato 87 Tomato and Horseradish 87
Artichoke 157 Asparagus 47 Bean, Black 149 Bonne Femme 228 Cauliflower 206 Cheese 48 Chestnut 207 Crab 187 Fish 48
Giblet 216 Hollandaise 174 Hotch Potch 180 Kidney 176 Lentil 49 Mulligatawney 161 Oxtail 164 Okra 216 Pepper Pot 179 Pilau a la Turque 198 Potato 175 Princess 168 Red Pottage 173 Rice (Thick) 50 Scotch Broth 164 Spring 182 Turnip 185 Turtle, Mock 176 Verte 50 White 172
Clam 167 Lobster 49 Lobster 150 Oyster 209
Clam 206 Corn 173 Fish 185
Corn, a la Creole 213 Cucumber 190 Lettuce 154 Tomato 48
Indienne 185 Norfolk 49 Peanut 214 Tapioca 165
Artichokes 215 Artichokes, Jerusalem 69 Asparagus Loaf 177 Asparagus, Italian Style 209 Asparagus, Plain 187 Beans 190 Beans, Baked 200 Bean Croquettes 178 Beans, Lima, Curried 220 Beans, String 188 Beets, Buttered 208 Beets, Creamed 177 Beets, New 203 Beets, Stuffed 71 Brussels Sprouts with Crisco 67 Cabbage, a la Creme 219 Cabbage, German Sour 179 Cabbage, Ladies’ 154 Carrot Fritters 175 Carrots, Glazed 188 Carrots, a la Poulette 203 Carrots, Viennese 72 Celeriac 217 Colcannon 67 Corn Creole 207 Corn Fritters 68 Corn Okra and Tomatoes 68 Cauliflower 207 Cauliflower, Curried 68 Cauliflower, au Gratin 155 Cauliflower, Fried 208 Egg Plant, en Casserole 69 Eggplant, Fried 205 Eggplant, Stuffed 71 Eggplant, Stuffed 216 Kohl Rabi, Creamed 203 Lentils and Rice 67 Lentils, Savory 70 Lettuce, Stewed 162 Mushrooms au Gratin 70 Mushrooms Cooked Under Glass Bells 154 Mushrooms, Grilled 164 Onions, Stewed 202 Onions, Stuffed 207 Onions, Stuffed with Nuts 184 Parsnips, Baked 67 Parsley, Fried 69 Peas 186 Peas, Green, a la Maitre d’Hotel 69 Peppers, Stuffed Green 162 Potatoes, Anna 184 Potatoes, Chantilly 203 Potatoes, Creamed au Gratin 68 Potato Croquettes 152 Potatoes, Duchesse 170 Potatoes, Franconia 157 Potatoes, French Fried 180 Potatoes, Grilled 215 Potatoes, Hashed Brown 203 Potatoes, New a la France 70 Potato Pone 70 Potato Puffs 174 Potatoes, Savory 215 Potato Souffle Austrian Style 181 Potatoes, Stuffed 71 Potatoes, Stuffed 186 Potatoes, Sweet, Baked 225 Potatoes, Sweet Candied 153 Potatoes, Sweet Southern Style 209 Scalloped Pumpkin and Rice 216 Slaw, Cold 210 Spinach, a la Creme 166 Spinach, Martha 184 Squash, Souffled 201 Squash, Summer 194 Succotash 204 Tomatoes, Baked Stuffed 208 Tomato Croquettes 228 Tomatoes, Escalloped 153 Tomatoes, Grilled 174 Tomatoes, Stewed 150 Turnips, Creamed 170 Turnips, Mashed 202 Vegetable Souffle 212
Asparagus Loaf 177 Bananas, Devilled 134 Bean Cutlets 133 Cauliflower Snow 134 Craigie Toast 134 Croquettes Marchette 135 Duck, Mock 210 Goose, Mock 174 Mincemeat, Lemon 134 Nut Loaf 212 Nut and Macaroni Savory 136 Nut Roast 220 Potato and Nut Croquettes 136 Potato Sausage 136 Potato Sefton 137 Rice a la Maigre 137 Rice, Spanish 137 Timbale, Molds 138 Veal Roast, Mock 162 Vegetable Souffle, Mixed 136 Vegetable Pie 138
Bombay Toast 160 Croutes, a la Marie 156 Croutes, a la Rosamonde 156 Macaroni a l’Italienne 182 Risotto 155
_”Man’s most important food, fat.”
“Those who say–‘The old fashioned things are good enough for us.'”
“The difference between substitute and primary.”
“That ‘Lardy’ taste.”
“Fry fish, then onions, then potatoes in the same Crisco.”
“We all eat raw fats.”
“A woman can throw out more with a teaspoon than a man can bring home in a wagon.”
“Keeping parlor and kitchen strangers.”
“Recipes tested by Domestic Scientists.”_
The word “fat” is one of the most interesting in food chemistry. It is the great energy producer. John C. Olsen, A.M., Ph.D., in his book, “Pure Food,” states that fats furnish half the total energy obtained by human beings from their food. The three _primary_, solid cooking fats today are:
[Illustration: _Butter Lard Crisco_]
There are numbers of substitutes for these, such as butterine, oleomargarine and “lard compounds.”
The following pages contain a story of unusual interest to _you_. For you _eat_.
See Page 233
_The Story of Crisco_
The culinary world is revising its entire cook book on account of the advent of Crisco, a new and altogether different cooking fat.
Many wonder that any product could gain the favor of cooking experts so quickly. A few months after the first package was marketed, practically every grocer of the better class in the United States was supplying women with the new product.
This was largely because four classes of people–housewives–chefs–doctors–dietitians–were glad to be shown a product which at once would make for more _digestible_ foods, more _economical_ foods, and better _tasting_ foods.
Cooking and History
Cooking methods have undergone a marked change during the past few years. The nation’s food is becoming more and more wholesome as a result of different discoveries, new sources of supply, and the intelligent weighing of values. Domestic Science is better understood and more appreciated.
People of the present century are fairer to their stomachs, realizing that their health largely depends upon this faithful and long-suffering servant. Digestion and disposition sound much the same, but a good disposition often is wrecked by a poor digestion.
America has been termed a country of dyspeptics. It is being changed to a land of healthy eaters, consequently happier individuals. Every agent responsible for this national digestive improvement must be gratefully recognized.
It seems strange to many that there can be anything _better_ than butter for cooking, or of greater utility than lard, and the advent of Crisco has been a shock to the older generation, born in an age less progressive than our own, and prone to contend that the old fashioned things are good enough.
But these good folk, when convinced, are the greatest enthusiasts. Grandmother was glad to give up the fatiguing spinning wheel. So the modern woman is glad to stop cooking with expensive butter, animal lard and their inadequate substitutes.
And so, the nation’s cook book has been hauled out and is being revised. Upon thousands of pages, the words “lard” and “butter” have been crossed out and the word “Crisco” written in their place.
A Need Anticipated
Great foresight was shown in the making of Crisco.
The quality, as well as the quantity, of lard was diminishing steadily in the face of a growing population. Prices were rising. “The high-cost-of-living” was an oft-repeated phrase. Also, our country was outgrowing its supply of butter. What was needed, therefore, was not a _substitute_, but something _better_ than these fats, some product which not only would accomplish as much in cookery, but _a great deal more_.
When, therefore, Crisco was perfected, and it was shown that here finally was an altogether _new_ and _better_ fat, cookery experts were quick to show their appreciation.
In reading the following pages, think of Crisco as a _primary_ cooking fat or shortening with even more individuality (because it does greater things), than all others.
Man’s Most Important Food, Fat
No other food supplies our bodies with the _drive_, the vigor, which fat gives. No other food has been given so little study in proportion to its importance.
Here are interesting facts, yet few housewives are acquainted with them:
Fat contains more than twice the amount of energy-yielding power or calorific value of proteids or carbohydrates. One half our physical energy is from the fat we eat in different forms. The excellent book, “Food and Cookery for the Sick and Convalescent,” by Fannie Merritt Farmer, states, “In the diet of children at least, a deficiency of fat cannot be replaced by an excess of carbohydrates; and that fat seems to play some part in the formation of young tissues which cannot be undertaken by _any other constituent of food_….”
The book entitled “The Chemistry of Cooking and Cleaning,” by the two authorities, Ellen H. Richards and S. Maria Elliott, states that the diet of school children should be regulated carefully with the fat supply in view. Girls, especially, show at times a dislike for fat. It therefore is necessary that the fat which supplies their growing bodies with energy should be in the purest and most inviting form and should be one that their digestions _welcome_, rather than repel.
The first step in the digestion of fat is its melting. Crisco melts at a lower degree of heat than body temperature. Because of its low melting point, thus allowing the digestive juices to mix with it, and because of its vegetable origin and its purity, Crisco is the easiest of all cooking fats to digest.
When a fat smokes in frying, it “breaks down,” that is, its chemical composition is changed; part of its altered composition becomes a non-digestible and irritating substance. The best fat for digestion is one which does _not_ decompose or break down at frying temperature. Crisco does not break down until a degree of heat is reached _above_ the frying point. In other words, Crisco does not break down at all in normal frying, because it is not necessary to have it “smoking hot” for frying. No part of it, therefore, has been transformed in cooking into an irritant. That is one reason why the stomach welcomes Crisco and carries forward its digestion with ease.
Working Towards an Ideal
A part of the preliminary work done in connection with the development of Crisco, described in these pages, consisted of the study of the older cooking fats. The objectionable features of each were considered. The good was weighed against the bad. The strength and weakness of each was determined. Thus was found what the ideal fat should possess, and what it should _not_ possess. It must have every good quality and no bad one.
After years of study, a process was discovered which made possible the ideal fat.
The process involved the changing of the composition of vegetable food oils and the making of the richest fat or solid _cream_.
The Crisco Process at the first stage of its development gave, at least, the basis of the ideal fat; namely, a purely _vegetable_ product, differing from all others in that absolutely no animal fat had to be added to the vegetable oil to produce the proper stiffness. This was but one of the many distinctive advantages sought and found.
Not Marketed Until Perfect
It also solved the problem of eliminating certain objectionable features of fats in general, such as rancidity, color, odor, smoking properties when heated. These weaknesses, therefore, were not a part of this new fat, which it would seem was the parent of the Ideal.
Then after four years of severe tests, after each weakness was replaced with strength the Government was given this fat to analyze and classify. The report was that it answered to none of the tests for fats already existing.
A Primary Fat
It was neither a butter, a “compound” nor a “substitute,” but _an entirely new product_. A _primary_ fat.
In 1911 it was named Crisco and placed upon the market.
Today you buy this rich, wholesome cream of nutritious food oils in sanitary tins. The “Crisco Process” alone can produce this creamy white fat. No one else can manufacture Crisco, because no one else holds the secret of Crisco and because they would have no legal right to make it. Crisco is Crisco, and nothing else.
At first, it looked very much as if Crisco must be a high-priced product. It cost its discoverers many thousands of dollars before ever a package reached the consumer’s kitchen.
Crisco was not offered for sale as a _substitute_, or for housewives to buy only to save money. The chief point emphasized was, that Crisco was a richer, more wholesome food fat for cooking. Naturally, therefore, it was good news to all when Crisco was found also to be more economical.
Crisco is more economical than lard in another way. It makes richer pastry than lard, and one-fifth less can be used. Furthermore it can be used over and over again in frying all manner of foods, and because foods absorb so little, Crisco is in reality more economical even than lard of _mediocre_ quality. The _price_ of Crisco is lower than the average price of the best pail lard throughout the year.
[Illustration: COOLING IN A ROOM WITH GLASS WALLS]
[Illustration: FILLING BY MACHINERY]
[Illustration: AUTOMATIC LABELLING]
It would be difficult to imagine surroundings more appetizing than those in which Crisco is manufactured. It is made in a building devoted exclusively to the manufacture of this one product. In sparkling bright rooms, cleanly uniformed employees make and pack Crisco.
The air for this building is drawn in through an apparatus which washes and purifies it, removing the possibility of any dust entering.
The floors are of a special tile composition; the walls are of white glazed tile, which are washed regularly. White enamel covers metal surfaces where nickel plating cannot be used. Sterilized machines handle the oil and the finished product. No hand touches Crisco until in your own kitchen the sanitary can is opened, disclosing the smooth richness, the creamlike, appetizing consistency of the product.
The Banishment of That “Lardy” Taste in Foods
It was the earnest aim of the makers of Crisco to produce a strictly _vegetable_ product without adding a hard, and consequently indigestible animal fat. There is today a pronounced partiality from a health standpoint to a vegetable fat, and the lardy, greasy taste of food resulting from the use of animal fat never has been in such disfavor as during the past few years.
So Crisco is absolutely _all_ vegetable. No stearine, animal or vegetable, is added. It possesses no taste nor odor save the delightful and characteristic aroma which identifies Crisco, and is suggestive of its purity.
Explanation of “Hidden” Food Flavors.
When the dainty shadings of taste are over-shadowed by a “lardy” flavor, the _true_ taste of the food itself is lost. We miss the “hidden” or _natural_ taste of the food. Crisco has a peculiar power of bringing out the very best in food flavors. Even the simplest foods are allowed a delicacy of flavor.
Take ginger bread for example: The real _ginger_ taste is there. The _molasses_ and spice flavors are brought out.
Or just plain, every-day fried potatoes; many never knew what the real _potato_ taste was before eating potatoes fried in Crisco.
Fried chicken has a newness of taste not known before.
New users of Crisco should try these simple foods first and later take up the preparation of more elaborate dishes.
Butter, Ever Popular
It is hard to imagine anything taking the place of butter upon the dining table. For seasoning in cooking, the use of butter ever will be largely a matter of taste. Some people have a partiality for the “butter flavor,” which after all is largely the salt mixed with the fat. Close your eyes and eat some fresh unsalted butter; note that it is practically tasteless.
Crisco contains richer food elements than butter. As Crisco is richer, containing no moisture, one-fifth or one-fourth less can be used in each recipe.
Crisco always is uniform because it is a manufactured fat where quality and purity can be controlled. It works perfectly into any dough, making the crust or loaf even textured. It keeps sweet and pure indefinitely in the ordinary room temperature.
Keep Your Parlor and Your Kitchen Strangers
Kitchen odors are out of place in the parlor. When frying with Crisco, as before explained, it is not necessary to heat the fat to _smoking_ temperature, ideal frying is accomplished without bringing Crisco to its smoking point. On the other hand, it is necessary to heat lard “smoking hot” before it is of the proper frying temperature. Remember also that, when lard smokes and fills the house with its strong odor, certain constituents have been changed chemically to those which irritate the sensitive membranes of the alimentary canal.
[Illustration: The Lard Kitchen.]
[Illustration: The Crisco Kitchen–No Smoke.]
Crisco does not smoke until it reaches 455 degrees, a heat higher than is necessary for frying. You need not wait for Crisco to smoke. Consequently the house will not fill with smoke, nor will there be black, burnt specks in fried foods, as often there are when you use lard for frying.
Crisco gives up its heat very quickly to the food submerged in it and a tender, brown crust almost _instantly_ forms, allowing the inside of the potatoes, croquettes, doughnuts, etc., to become _baked_, rather than soaked.
[Illustration: Fry this, Then this, Then this–in the same Crisco.]
The same Crisco can be used for frying fish, onions, potatoes, or any other food. Crisco does not take up food flavors or odors. After frying each food, merely strain out the food particles.
We All Eat Raw Fats
The shortening fat in pastry or baked foods, is merely distributed throughout the dough. No chemical change occurs during the baking process. So when you eat pie or hot biscuit, in which animal lard is used, _you eat raw animal lard_. The shortening used in all baked foods therefore, should be just as pure and wholesome as if you were eating it like butter upon bread. Because Crisco digests with such ease, and because it is a pure vegetable fat, all those who realize the above fact regarding pastry making are now won over to Crisco.
A hint as to Crisco’s purity is shown by this simple test: Break open a hot biscuit in which Crisco has been used. You will note a sweet fragrance, which is most inviting.
A few months ago if you had told dyspeptic men and women that they could eat pie at the evening meal and that distress would not follow, probably they would have doubted you. Hundreds of instances of Crisco’s healthfulness have been given by people, who, at one time have been denied such foods as pastry, cake and fried foods, but who _now_ eat these rich, yet digestible Crisco dishes.
You, or any other normally healthy individual, whose digestion does not relish greasy foods, can eat rich pie crust. The richness is there, but not the unpleasant after effects. Crisco digests _readily_.
The Importance of Giving Children Crisco Foods
A good digestion will mean much to the youngster’s health and character. A man seldom seems to be stronger than his stomach, for indigestion handicaps him in his accomplishment of big things.
As more attention is given to _present_ feeding, less attention need be given to _future_ doctoring. Equip your children with good stomachs by giving them wholesome Crisco foods–foods which digest with ease.
They may eat the rich things they enjoy and find them just as digestible as many apparently simple foods, if Crisco be used properly.
They may eat Crisco doughnuts or pie without being chased by nightmares. Sweet dreams follow the Crisco supper.
The Great Variety of Crisco Foods
There are thousands of Crisco dishes. It is impossible to know the exact number, because Crisco is used for practically every cooking purpose. Women daily tell us of new uses they have found for Crisco.
Many women _begin_ by using Crisco in simple ways, for frying, for baking, in place of lard. Soon, however, they learn that Crisco _also_ takes the place of butter. “Butter richness without butter expense,” say the thousands of Crisco users.
Tasty scalloped dishes, salad dressing, rich pastry, fine grained cake, sauces and hundreds of other dishes, where butter formerly was used, now are prepared with Crisco.
“A Woman Can Throw Out More with a Teaspoon Than a Man Can Bring Home in a Wagon”
Kitchen expense comes by the _spoonful_. Think of the countless spoonfuls of expensive butter used daily, where economical Crisco would accomplish the same results at one-third the cost.
It should be remembered that one-fifth less Crisco than butter may be used, because Crisco is _richer_ than butter. The moisture, salt and curd which butter contains to the extent of about 20 per cent are not found in Crisco, which is _all_, (100 per cent) shortening.
Remember also that Crisco will average _a lower price per pound throughout the year than the best pail lard_. And you can use less Crisco than lard, which is a further saving. [Illustration: Hotel Kitchen]
[Illustration: Domestic Scientists Use Crisco]
Brief, Interesting Facts
Crisco is being used in an increasing number of the better class hotels, clubs, restaurants, dining cars, ocean liners.
Crisco has been demonstrated and explained upon the Chautauqua platform by Domestic Science experts, these lectures being a part of the regular course.
Domestic Science teachers recommend Crisco to their pupils and use it in their classes and lecture demonstrations. Many High Schools having Domestic Science departments use Crisco.
Crisco has taken the place of butter and lard in a number of hospitals, where purity and digestibility are of _vital_ importance.
[Illustration: Hospital Dietetic Class]
Crisco is Kosher. Rabbi Margolies of New York, said that the Hebrew Race had been waiting 4,000 years for Crisco. It conforms to the strict Dietary Laws of the Jews. It is what is known in the Hebrew language as a “parava,” or neutral fat. Crisco can be used with both “milchig” and “fleichig” (milk and flesh) foods. Special Kosher packages, bearing the seals of Rabbi Margolies of New York, and Rabbi Lifsitz of Cincinnati, are sold the Jewish trade. But all Crisco is Kosher and all of the same purity.
[Illustration: The Kosher Seal]
Campers find Crisco helpful in many ways. Hot climates have little effect upon its wholesomeness.
It is convenient; a handy package to pack and does not melt so quickly in transit. One can of Crisco can be used to fry fish, eggs, potatoes and to make hot biscuit, merely by straining out the food particles after each frying and pouring the Crisco back into the can to harden to proper consistency before the biscuit making.
Practically every grocer who has a good trade in Crisco, uses it in his own home.
Crisco is sold by net weight. You pay _only_ for the Crisco–not the can. Find the net weight of what you have been using.
Bread and cake keep fresh and moist much longer when Crisco is used.
Women have written that they use empty Crisco tins for canning vegetables and fruits, and as receptacles for kitchen and pantry use.
Crisco’s Manufacture Scientifically Explained
To understand something of the Crisco Process, it is necessary first to know that there are three main constituents in all the best edible oils.
Linoline, Oleine, Stearine.
The chemical difference between these three components is solely in the percentage of hydrogen contained, and it is possible by the addition of hydrogen, to transform one component into another.
Though seemingly so much alike, there is a marked difference in the physical properties of these components.
Linoline which has the lowest percentage of hydrogen, is unstable and tends to turn rancid.
Oleine is stable, has no tendency to turn rancid and is easily digested.
Stearine is both hard and indigestible.
The Crisco process adds enough hydrogen to change almost all the linoline into nourishing digestible oleine.
Mark well the difference in manufacture between Crisco and lard compounds. In producing a lard compound, to the linoline, oleine and stearine of the original oil is added more stearine (usually animal), the hard indigestible fat, in order to bring up the hardness of the oil. The resultant compound is indigestible and very liable to become rancid.
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The following pages contain 615 recipes which have been tested by Domestic Science Authorities in the Cooking Departments of different colleges and other educational institutions, and by housewives in their own kitchens. Many have been originated by Marion Harris Neil and _all_ have been tested by her.
We have undertaken to submit a comprehensive list of recipes for your use, which will enable you to serve menus of wide variety.
We hope that you have enjoyed reading this little volume and that you will derive both help and satisfaction from the recipes.
We will go to any length to help you in the cause of Better Food. We realize that women must study this product as they would any other altogether new article of cookery, and that the study and care used will be amply repaid by the palatability and healthfulness of all foods. A can of Crisco is no Aladdin’s Lamp, which merely need be touched by a kitchen spoon to produce magical dishes. But _any_ woman is able to achieve excellent results by mixing thought with Crisco.
Let us know how you progress.
[Illustration: The Procter & Gamble Co.]
_Things to Remember in Connection with These Recipes_
No need for Crisco to occupy valuable space in the refrigerator. In fact, except in most unusual summer heat, it will be of a better consistency outside the refrigerator. Crisco keeps sweet indefinitely, summer and winter, at ordinary room temperature.
[Illustration: Use level measurements]
In making sauces, thoroughly blend the flour and Crisco before adding the milk.
In using melted Crisco in boiled dressing, croquettes, rolls, fritters, etc., be sure that the melted Crisco is cooled sufficiently so that the hot fat will not injure the texture of the foods.
When using in place of butter, add salt in the proportion of one level teaspoonful to one cup of Crisco.
Remember that Crisco, like butter, is susceptible to cold. It readily becomes hard. In creaming Crisco in winter use the same care as when creaming butter. Rinse pan in boiling water and have the Crisco of the proper creaming stiffness before using. Unlike butter, however, Crisco’s purity is not affected by weather. It remains sweet and pure indefinitely without refrigeration.
In deep frying, do not wait for Crisco to smoke. (See page 35.)
_When pie crust is tough:_ It is possible you have not used Crisco properly. Perhaps the measurements were not correct. Perhaps the water was too warm, or the dough was handled too much. Shortening cannot make pastry tough.
_When fried foods absorb:_ It is because Crisco is not hot enough, or because you have not used enough Crisco. Use plenty and the raw foods, if added in small quantities, will not reduce the heat of the fat. The absorption in deep Crisco frying should be less than that of another fat.
_When cake is not a success:_ It is not the fault of the Crisco. Either too much was used, the oven heat not perfectly controlled or some important ingredient was used in the wrong proportion. Crisco should be creamed with the sugar more thoroughly than butter, as Crisco contains no moisture to dissolve the sugar.
_When cake or other food is not flavory:_ Salt should have been added to the Crisco, for Crisco contains no salt.
_When there is smoke in the kitchen:_ Crisco has been burned or heated too high for frying. Or some may have been on the _outside_ of the pan or kettle.
_When Crisco is too hard:_ Like butter, it is susceptible to heat and cold. Simply put in a warmer place.
_Hints to Young Cooks_
_Also, How to Choose Foods, Methods of Cooking, Cooking Time Table, The Art of Carving_, by MARION HARRIS NEIL.
Before commencing to cook, look up the required recipe, read and think it out. Note down on a slip of paper the materials and quantities required. Collect all utensils and materials required before commencing. Success in cookery depends on careful attention to every detail from start to finish. Quantities, both liquid and dry, should be exact. Small scales and weights should form part of the kitchen equipment where possible, and the measuring cups cost so little that no one need be without them.
Throughout this book the measurements are level
_How to Choose Foods_
Money can be spent to infinitely better advantage in the store, than by giving orders at the door, by phone or mail. Every housekeeper knows how large a proportion of the housekeeping money is swallowed up by the butcher’s bill, so that with the meat item careful selection is most necessary in order to keep the bills within bounds.
In choosing meat of any kind the eye, the nose and the touch really are required, although it is not appetizing to see the purchaser use more than the eye.
In choosing meat it should be remembered that without being actually unwholesome, it varies greatly in quality, and often an inferior joint is to be preferred from a first class beast to a more popular cut from a second class animal. To be perfect the animal should be five or six years old, the flesh of a close even grain, bright red in color and well mixed with creamy white fat, the suet being firm and a clear white. Heifer meat is smaller in the bone and lighter in color than ox beef. Cow beef is much the same to look at as ox beef, though being older it is both coarser in the grain and tougher; bull beef, which is never seen however, in a first class butcher’s may be recognized by the coarseness and dark color of the flesh, and also by a strong and almost rank smell.
To be in perfection, mutton should be at least four, or better five or six years old, but sheep of this age are rarely if ever, met with now-a-days, when they are constantly killed under two years. To know the age of mutton, examine the breast bones; if these are all of a white gristly color the animal was four years old or over, while the younger it is the pinkier are the bones, which, in a sheep of under a year, are entirely red.
Good mutton should be of a clear dark red, the fat firm and white, and not too much of it; when touched the meat should feel crisp yet tender. If the fat is yellow and the lean flabby and damp, it is bad. A freshly scraped wooden skewer run into the meat along the bone will speedily enable anyone to detect staleness. For roasting mutton scarcely can be hung too long, as long as it is not tainted; but for boiling it must not be kept nearly so long or the meat will be of a bad color when cooked.
The freshness of lamb is comparatively easy to distinguish, as if fresh the neck vein will be a bright blue, the knuckles stiff, and the eyes bright and full.
Veal is at its best when the calf is from three to four months old. The meat should be of a close firm grain, white in color and the fat inclining to a pinkish tinge. Veal is sometimes coarser in the grain, and redder in the flesh, not necessarily a mark of inferiority, but denoting the fact that calf has been brought up in the open. Like all young meat, veal turns very quickly, therefore it never should hang more than two or three days. In choosing veal always examine the suet under the kidney; if this be clammy and soft, with a faint odor, the meat is not good, and always reject any that has greenish or yellowish spots about it. The head should be clean skinned and firm, the eyes full and clear, the kidneys large and well covered with fat, the liver a rich dark clear color, free from any spots or gristle, while the sweetbreads should be firm, plump, of a delicate color, and free from strings.
The flesh of pork, when in good condition, is a delicate pinky white, with a close fine grain; the fat, which should not be too abundant, of a white color, very faintly tinged with pink; the skin should be thin and elastic to the touch, and the flesh generally cool, clean, and smooth looking; if, on the contrary, the flesh is flabby and clammy when touched, it is not fresh.
Pork, like all white meat, is quick to taint, and never should be kept long before cooking. If you have the slightest doubt about pork, it is best to reject it, for unlike other meat which may be quite wholesome and usable, though not of precisely prime quality, pork _must_ be in really first class condition to be wholesome, and therefore it is impossible to be too particular in the choice of it. Always if possible look at the tongue, for, as in beef, this is a very fair criterion of the condition of the animal; a freshly scraped new wooden skewer run into the meat along the bone is a good test of the freshness of the pork, and be careful especially to examine the fat, for if there be little kernels in it the pork is “measly,” a very common disease among pigs, and one particularly unwholesome to the consumer.
Pigs for fresh pork should be of medium size, not over fat, and under a year old. Pigs destined to become bacon are usually older and larger. Sucking pigs should be small, and are best when about three weeks old. A sucking pig should be cooked as soon as possible after it is killed, as it taints very quickly; unless fresh, no care in the cooking will make the crackling crisp, as it should be.
Good bacon has the lean of a bright pink and fine in the grain, while the fat is white and firm. If the lean is high colored, it probably has been over salted and is old besides, and in consequence will be hard and salty; while if there be yellow marks in the fat, and a curious, rather musty smell, it will have an unpleasant taste. In choosing a ham always run a clean knife or skewer in at the knuckle, and also at the center; if it comes out clean and smelling sweet, the ham is good; but if out of order the blade of the knife will be smeared and greasy looking, and have a disagreeable, strong odor.
The condition of venison is judged chiefly by the fat, which should be a clear creamy white color, and close in texture. Always try venison by running a sharp knife along the haunch bone, which is usually the first to turn; if, in taking it out, the knife has a blackish-green look and an unpleasant odor, the meat is tainted, and unfit for use. Venison requires to be kept a considerable time before it is in proper condition, and needs great care in its management. It must be examined carefully every day, and if there is the slightest doubt, it should be washed in lukewarm milk and water, then dried in clean cloths, and when perfectly dry, should be covered thickly all over with ground ginger and pepper; when required for use, dust off the pepper and ginger, and wash the meat in a little lukewarm water, and dry it thoroughly. Venison, like mutton, improves with age, and this can be judged by the condition of the hoof, which in a young animal has a small, smooth cleft, while in an old one it is deeply cut and rugged. The haunch is the prime joint, its perfection depending on the greater or less depth of the fat on it. The neck and shoulder also are very good. They are used chiefly for stews or pies.
Hares and Rabbits
A hare when fresh killed is stiff and red; when stale, the body is supple and the flesh in many parts black. If the hare be old the ears will be tough and dry, and will not tear readily. Rabbits may be judged in the same manner. In both, the claws should be smooth and sharp. In a young hare the cleft in the lip is narrow, and the claws are cracked readily if turned sideways.
Poultry to be perfect, should have just reached their full growth (the only exceptions to this are “spring chickens,” ducklings, goslings, etc., which are considered delicacies at certain seasons); they should be plump, firm fleshed, and not over fatted. Over-fed fowls are often a mass of greasy fat, which melts in the cooking and spoils the flavor of the bird. A hen is at her best just before she begins to lay; her legs should be smooth, her comb small, bright, and soft. A young cock has the comb full, bright colored, and smooth, the legs smooth, the spurs short, and in both the toes should break easily when turned back, and the weight of the birds should be great in proportion to their size. Contrary to the practice with game, poultry never should be kept long, as they turn easily, and are spoilt if the least high. They also require longer cooking, in proportion to their size, than game, and never should be underdone. Dark-legged fowls are best for roasting, as their flesh is moister and better flavored cooked in this way than the white-legged ones, which from their greater daintiness of appearance are to be preferred for boiling.
_Turkeys_ should be plump, white-fleshed, young, the legs plump and firm, black and smooth, with (in the cock) short spurs, the feet soft and supple; the eyes should be full and clear, the neck long, and the wattles of a bright color. A hen turkey is best for boiling. Like fowls, an old turkey is fit for nothing but the stewpan or the stockpot. Turkeys require hanging for at least a week, though they must never be “high” or “gamey.”
_Geese_ always should be chosen young, plump, and full breasted, a white skin, a yellow smooth bill, the feet yellow and pliable. If the feet and bill are red and hard, and the skin hairy and coarse, the bird is old. Geese should be hung for a few days. Ducks, like geese, should have yellow, supple feet; the breasts full and hard, and the skin clear. Wild ducks should be fat, the feet small, reddish, and pliable, the breast firm and heavy. If not fresh, there will be a disagreeable smell when the bill is open. The male is generally the more expensive, though the female is usually more delicate in flavor.
_Pigeons_ always should be young and extremely fresh, and when so, they are plump and fat, with pliable smooth feet.
NOTE–In selecting game pluck a few feathers from the under part of the leg; if the skin is not discolored the bird is fresh. The age may be known by placing the thumb into the beak, and holding the bird up with the jaw apart; if it breaks it is young; if not, it is old, and requires longer keeping before cooking to be eatable.
_Guinea-fowl_ are judged like poultry, but require hanging for some time.
Fish in good condition usually is firm and elastic to the touch, eyes bright and prominent, gills fresh and rosy. If the fish is flabby, with sunken eyes, it either is stale or out of condition.
_Salmon_ should have a small head and tail, full thick shoulders, clean silvery scales, and its flesh of a rich yellowish pink. When quite fresh there is a creamy curd between the flakes, which are stiff and hard; but if kept this melts, softening the flesh and rendering it richer, but at the same time less digestible.
_Trout_, in spite of the difference in size, may be judged by the same rule as salmon. However, it will not bear keeping, deteriorating rapidly.
_Cod_, unlike salmon, should have a large head and thick shoulders; the flesh being white and clear, and separating easily into large flakes, the skin clean and silvery. Most people consider cod improves by being kept for a day or two and very slightly salted.
_Herrings_ must be absolutely fresh to be good, and when in this state their scales shine like silver. If kept over long their eyes become suffused with blood.
_Mackerel_ also must be quite fresh. They never should be bought if either out of condition or season. If fresh they are peculiarly beautiful fish, their backs of an iridescent blue green barred with black, and their bellies of a pearly whiteness.
_Smelts_ should be stiff and silvery, with a delicate perfume faintly suggestive of cucumber.
_Halibut_ is a wholesome fish. It should be middling size, thick and of a white color.
_Lobsters, Crabs, Prawns, and Shrimps_ are stiff, and with the tails tightly pressed against the body. With the former, weight is a great guide, as the heavier they are the better; but if there be the least sign of wateriness, they should be rejected at once.
Green vegetables always are at their best when cheapest and most plentiful. Out of season they never have the same flavor, however well they may be grown. Excepting artichokes, all summer vegetables, as lettuce, peas, beans, and asparagus should be cooked as soon as possible after gathering. The freshness of most vegetables may be ascertained easily by taking a leaf or a pod between the fingers. If fresh this will snap off short and crisp, while if stale it will be limp and soft. It is an economy to buy winter vegetables, such as carrots, parsnips, turnips, beets, celery, and potatoes in large quantities, if you have storage room, as if buried in sand and kept from the frost they may be kept a considerable time. Onions should be kept hung up in a cool, dry place. If allowed to sprout the flavor becomes rank and coarse.
A mode of ascertaining the freshness of eggs is to hold them before a lighted candle or to the light, and if the egg looks clear, it will be tolerably good; if thick, it is stale; and if there is a black spot attached to the shell, it is worthless. No egg should be used for culinary purposes with the slightest taint in it, as it will render perfectly useless those with which it has been mixed. Eggs may be preserved, however, for a considerable time without any further special precaution than that of keeping them in a cool place. A very effective method of preserving eggs for winter use is to rub a little melted Crisco over each to close the pores, and then to pack the eggs in bran, salt or sawdust, not allowing them to touch each other.
_Methods of Cooking_
There are seven chief methods of cooking meat–roasting, boiling, baking, stewing, frying, broiling and poaching.
The first three are most suitable for joints weighing four pounds or more, but not satisfactory for smaller pieces which are liable to become hard and flavorless by the drying up or loss of their juices.
Of the other three methods, stewing may be applied to fairly large and solid pieces, but it is better for smaller thin ones, while frying and broiling can be used only for steaks, chops, and similar cuts.
Braising and steaming are combinations and modifications of these methods.
Roasting is one of the oldest methods of cooking on record, and still remains the favorite form of cooking joints of meat or birds. The success of every method of cooking depends largely upon the correct management of the fire. In roasting, this is particularly the case, as a clear, brisk and yet steady fire is needed. To roast a joint it should be placed before great heat for the first ten minutes and then allowed to cook more slowly. The great heat hardens the outside of the meat and keeps in the juices. If allowed to cook quickly all the time the meat is likely to be tough. The fire should be bright and clear. The joint should be basted about every ten minutes, as this helps to cook it, keeps it juicy and improves the flavor. The time allowed is fifteen minutes for every pound, twenty minutes over for beef and mutton; for veal and pork twenty minutes for every pound and thirty minutes over.
Roasting in the oven of ordinary coal stoves or ranges is not considered so good as roasting before an open fire; nevertheless it may be said safely that the greatest part of meat roasting is done in close ovens. It appears, from various experiments that meat roasted or baked in a close oven loses rather less of its weight than if roasted by an open fire.
The excellence of a roast depends to a great extent upon the amount of basting it receives.
Some cooks season a joint before it is cooked, while others season it with salt and pepper just before it is served. There is a difference of opinion as to which is the more correct way of the two. Meat of newly killed animals requires longer cooking than meat which has been hung for a time.
In warm weather joints require slightly less time for roasting than in cold.
Boned and rolled or stuffed meats require longer cooking than the same joints would if neither rolled nor stuffed. The meat of young animals and that of old ones requires different treatment. As a rule young flesh, containing less fibrine, requires longer cooking. White meat, such as pork, veal and lamb, always should be well cooked and never must be served rare. The exact time and process of roasting must be left to the good management of the cook, who must be guided by circumstances and conditions. The cook’s business is to serve the joint as full of nourishing qualities as possible. Though roasting is considered one of the easiest and most simple processes of cookery, it really requires quite as much attention to obtain perfect results as is necessary to prepare so-called “made” dishes, the recognized test for good cooks.
Boiling (of fresh meat).–This is cookery by immersion in boiling liquid, which after a few minutes is reduced to simmering. The object of the high temperature at first is to harden the surface albumen and so seal the pores and prevent the escape of the juices. If continued too long, this degree of heat would tend to toughen the joint throughout; after the first few minutes, therefore, the heat must be reduced to about 180 deg. F. The pan used for boiling meat should be only just large enough to hold the joint, and the quantity of liquid no more than is required to cover it. For the boiling of salt meat the general rule of first hardening the surface is not to be followed. The salting of meat withdraws a large proportion of its juices, while at the same time the salt hardens the fibres, and this hardness would be intensified by extreme heat. Very salt meat sometimes is soaked in cold water to extract some of the salt, but whether this is done or not, the rule for boiling salt meat is to immerse it in cold or tepid water and bring slowly to boiling point; boil for five minutes to seal the pores and prevent any further loss of juice, then reduce to 180 deg. F., and maintain a uniform temperature till the meat is cooked. Salt meat takes longer to cook than fresh meat, and the saltness may be qualified by boiling vegetables with the meat, turnips especially being useful for this purpose.
The actual differences between roasting and baking are not great, the terms being frequently interchanged. Meat loses rather less weight when baked than when roasted, but the flavor of meat is inferior and less developed. The heat of an oven being steadier, baking takes somewhat less time than roasting. In a gas oven having an open floor the current of air is not impeded, and such baking very nearly approaches roasting, and the flavor generally is acknowledged to be the same.
Stewing is cooking slowly with a small quantity of liquid in a covered vessel. The method is specially suitable for the coarser and cheaper parts of meat, which are rendered tender without loss of their juices. The usual plan is to make a gravy flavored and colored to suit the stew, and after the ingredients are well blended and cooked to lay the meat in the boiling liquid. After about two minutes boiling, the temperature is reduced to simmering, about 160 deg. F., a lower temperature than that required for a large joint of “boiled” meat. The time depends greatly on the quality of the meat, but none will stew satisfactorily in less than from one and a half to two hours, and the longer allowance is to be preferred.
Broiling, sometimes called grilling, is cooking by the direct action of fire brought almost into contact with the meat. The outer surface is burned or seared, the albumen hardened and the juices, which have a tendency to escape on the side turned from the heat, are retained in the meat by frequent turning. The fire for broiling must be very clear, intensely hot and high in the grate. The utensil required for broiling is a gridiron, the bars of which are greased and heated to prevent sticking and subsequent tearing of the meat. The gridiron is laid quite close over the heat, so that the lower surface is dried and hardened at once.
The meat must be turned at very short intervals before the juices have been driven from the heat to the opposite surface. If once allowed to reach the surface, they will be thrown off in turning and lost, the meat being correspondingly impoverished. By constant turning the juices are kept moving backwards and forwards, and the meat remains moist and full of flavor. Each side should be exposed to the fire about three times, and it is not desirable to use meat less than one inch or more than one and a half to two inches thick for the purpose.
The thinner pieces should have even greater heat applied than the thick ones, as the longer thin ones are exposed to the fire the more dry and tasteless they become, while the thicker pieces may be slightly withdrawn after thoroughly hardening the surface and cooked