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ambition met such a check by the death of the Queen.(404) She had great power with her, though the Queen pretended to despise her; but had unluckily told her, or fallen into her power by some secret.(405) I was saying to Lady Pomfret, to be sure she is dead very rich!” She replied, with some warmth, She never took money.” When I came home, I mentioned this to Sir R. “No,” said he, “but she took jewels; Lord Pomfret’s place of master of the horse to the Queen was bought of her for a pair of diamond earrings, of fourteen hundred pounds value.” One day that she wore them at a visit at old
Marlboro’s, as soon as she was gone, the Duchess said to Lady Mary Wortley,(406) “How can that woman have the impudence to go about in that bribe?”-,, Madam,” said Lady Mary, “how would you have people know where wine is to be sold, unless there is a sign hung out!” Sir R. told me, that in the enthusiasm of her vanity, Lady Sundon had proposed to him to unite with her, and govern the kingdom together: he bowed, begged her
patronage, but said he thought nobody fit to govern the kingdom, but the King and Queen.-Another day.

Friday morning. I was forced to leave off last night, as I found it would be impossible to send away this letter finished in any time. It will be enormously long, but I have prepared you for it. When I consider the beginning of my letter, it looks as if I were entirely of your opinion about the
agreeableness of them. I believe you will never commend them again, when you see how they increase upon your hands. I have seen letters of two or three sheets, written from merchants at Bengal and Canton to their wives: but then they contain the history of a twelvemonth: I grow voluminous from week to week. I can plead in excuse nothing but the true reason; you desired it; and I remember how I used to wish for such letters, when I was in Italy. My Lady Pomfret carries this humanity still farther, and because people were civil to her in Italy, she makes it a rule to visit all strangers in general. She has been to visit a Spanish Count (407) and his wife, though she cannot open her lips in their language. They fled from Spain, he and his brother having offended the Queen, (408) by their attachments to the Prince of Asturias; his brother ventured back to bring off this woman, who was engaged to him. Lord Harrington (409) has procured them a pension of six hundred a-year. They live chiefly with Lord Carteret and his
daughter,(410) who speak Spanish. But to proceed from where I left off last night, like the Princess Dinarzade in the Arabian Nights, for you will want to know what happened one day. Sir Robert was at dinner with Lady Sundon, who hated the Bishop of London, as much as she loved the Church. “Well,” said she to Sir R., “how does your pope do!”-“Madam,” replied he, “he is my pope, and shall be my Pope; every body has some pope or other; don’t you know that you are one! They call you Pope Joan.” She flew into a passion, and desired he would not fix any names on her; that they were not so easily got rid of.

We had a little ball the other night at Mrs. Boothby’s, and by dancing, did not perceive an earthquake, which frightened all the undancing part of the town.

We had a civility from his Royal Highness,(411) who sent for Monticelli the night he was engaged here, but, on hearing it, said he would send for him some other night. If I did not live so near St. James’s, I would find out some politics in this-should not one?

Sir William Stanhope (412) has had a hint from the same Highness, that his company is not quite agreeable: whenever he met any body at Carlton House whom he did not know, he said, “Your humble servant, Mr. or Mrs. Hamilton.”

I have this morning sent aboard the St. Quintin a box for you, with your secretary-not in it.

Old Weston of Exeter is dead. Dr. Clarke, the Dean, Dr. Willes, the decipherer, and Dr. Gilbert of Llandaff, are candidates to succeed him.(413) Sir R. is for Willes, who, he says, knows so many secrets, that he might insist upon being archbishop.

My dear Mr. Chute! how concerned I am that he took all that trouble to no purpose. I will not write to him this post, for as you show him my letters, this here will sufficiently employ any one’s patience-but I have done. I long to hear that the Dominichini is safe. Good night.
Yours, ever.

(391) The name of Lord Chesterfield.

(392) On the subject of Sir Robert’s alleged want of partiality for his son, the following passage occurs in the anecdotes prefixed to Lord Wharncliffe’s edition of the works of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu:-“Those ironical lines, where Pope says that Sir Robert Had never made a friend in private life, And was, besides, a tyrant to his wife,’ are well understood, as conveying a sly allusion to his good-humoured unconcern about some things which more strait-laced husbands do not take so coolly. In a word, Horace Walpole was generally supposed to be the son of Carr Lord Hervey, and Sir Robert not to be ignorant of it. One striking circumstance was visible to the naked eye; no beings in human shape could resemble each other less than the two passing for father and son; and while their reverse of personal likeness provoked a malicious whisper, Sir Robert’s marked neglect of Horace in his infancy tended to confirm it. Sir Robert took scarcely any notice of him till his proficiency in Eton school, when a lad of some standing, drew his attention, and proved that, whether he had or had not a right to the name he went by, he was likely to do it Honour.” Vol. i. 1). 33.-E.

(393) General Charles Churchill. (Whose character has been so inimitably sketched, at about the same period when this letter was written, by Sir Charles Hanbury Williams, in his poem of’, Isabella, or the Morning:”-

“The General, one of those brave old commanders, Who served through all our glorious wars in Flanders. Frank and good-natur’d, of an honest heart, Loving to act the steady friendly part;
None led through youth a gayer life than he, Cheerful in converse, smart in repartee; But with old age, its Vices Come along,
And in narration he’s extremely long; Exact in circumstance, and nice in dates, He each minute particular relates.
If you name one of marlbro’s ten campaigns, He gives you its whole history for your pains, And Blenheim’s field becomes by his reciting, As long in telling as it was in fighting. His old desire to please is still express’d, His hat’s well cock’d, his periwig’s well dress’d. He rolls his stockings still, white gloves he wears, And in the boxes with the beaux appears. His eyes through wrinkled corners cast their rays, Still he looks cheerful, still soft things he says, And still remembering that he once was young, He strains his crippled knees, and struts along.”-D.)

(394) Vide an account of the erection of Lord Perceval and one Edwin, in that Lord’s History of the House of Ivery.

(395) Philip Yorke, Lord, and afterwards Earl of Hardwicke, for twenty years Lord Chancellor of England.-D.

(396) William mathias Howard, Earl of Stafford.

(397) The Primate of Lorrain, eldest son of Prince Craon, was famous for his wit and vices of all kinds.

(398) Lady Dorothy Boyle, eldest daughter of Lord Burlington; Isabella, wife of Francis Lord Conway, and Caroline, afterwards married to Lord Petersham, were the daughter-in-law and daughters of Charles Fitzroy, Duke of grafton, lord chamberlain.

(399) Lepel, eldest daughter of John Lord Hervey, afterwards married to Mr. Phipps. (Constantine Phipps, in 1767 created Lord Mulgrave.]

(400) The effeminacy of Lord Hervey formed a continual subject for the satire of his opponents. Pope’s bitter lines on him- are well remembered. The old Duchess of Marlborough, too, in her “Opinions,” describes him as having “certainly parts and wit; but he is the most wretched profligate man that ever was born, besides ridiculous; a painted face, and not a tooth in his head.” on which the editor of that curious little book, Lord Hailes, remarks, “Lord Hervey, having felt some attacks of the epilepsy, entered upon and persisted in a very strict regimen, and thus stopped the progress and prevented the
effects of that dreadful disease. His daily food was a small quantity of asses’ milk and a flour biscuit. Once a week he indulged himself with eating an apple; he used emetics daily. Mr. Pope and he were once friends; but they quarrelled, and persecuted each other with virulent satire. Pope, knowing the abstemious regimen which Lord Hervey observed, was so ungenerous as to call him “mere cheese-curd of asses’ milk!” Lord Hervey used paint to soften his ghastly appearance. Mr. Pope must have known this also; and therefore it was unpardonable in him to introduce it into his “celebrated portrait.” It ought to be remembered, that Lord Hervey is very differently described by Dr. Middleton; who, in his dedication to him of “The History of the Life of Tully,” praises him for his strong good sense, patriotism, temperance, and information.-E.

(401) Jane, only daughter of Francis, the first Lord Conway, by his second wife, Mrs. Bodens. (She died unmarried, May 5, 1749.-D.)

(402) Author of some Love Elegies, and a favourite of Lord Chesterfield. He died this year. [Hammond was equerry to the Prince of Wales, and member for Truro. He died in June, 1742, at Stowe, the seat of Lord Cobham, in his thirty.second year. Miss Dashwood long survived him, and died unmarried in 1779. ” The character,” says Johnson, “which her lover gave her was, indeed, not likely to attract courtship.”]

(402) Wife of William Clayton, Lord Sundon, woman of the bedchamber and mistress of the robes to Queen Caroline. [She had been the friend and correspondent of Sarah Duchess of’ Marlborough; who, on the accession of George I , through Baron Bothmar’s influence, procured for her friend the place of lady of the bedchamber to the Princess with whom she grew as great a favourite as her colleague, Mrs. Howard, with the Prince; and eventually, on the Princess becoming Queen, exercised an influence over her, of which even sir Robert Walpole was jealous.]

(404) Queen Caroline, died November 1737.-D.

(405) This is now known to have been a rupture, with which the Queen was afflicted, and which she had the weakness to wish, and the courage to be able, to conceal.-E.

(406) The celebrated Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, oldest daughter of Evelyn, first Duke of Kingston, and wife of Wortley Montagu, Esq.-D.

(407) Marquis de Sabernego: he returned to Spain after the death of Philip V.

(408) The Princess of Parma, second wife of Philip V. King of Spain, and consequently stepmother to the Prince of Asturias, son of that King, by his first wife, a princess of Savoy.-D.

(409) William Stanhope, created Lord Harrington in 1729, and Earl of the same in 1741. He held various high offices, and was, at the time this was written, secretary of

(410) Frances, youngest daughter of Lord Carteret, afterwards married to the Marquis of Tweedale. (in 1748. The marquis was an extraordinary lord of session, and the last person who held a similar appointment.]

(411) Frederick Prince of Wales.-D.

(412) Brother to Lord Chesterfield. This bon mot was occasioned by the numbers of Hamiltons which Lady Archibald Hamilton, the Prince’s mistress, had placed at that court.

(413) Nicholas Clagget, Bishop of St. David’s, succeeded, on Weston’s death, to the see of Exeter.-Dr. Clagget was, however, succeeded in the see of St. David’s by Dr. Edward Willes, Dean of Lincoln and decipherer to the King; and, in the following year, translated to the bishopric of Bath and Wells. The art of deciphering, for which Dr. Willes was so celebrated, has been the subject of many learned and curious works by Trithemius, Baptista Porta, the Duke Augustus of Brunswick, and other more recent writers. The Gentleman’s Magazine for 1742, contains a very ingenious system of deciphering: but the old modes of secret writing having been, for the most part, superseded by the modern system of cryptography, in which, according to a simple rule which may be communicated verbally, and easily retained in the memory, the signs for the letters can be changed continually; it is the chiffre quarr`e or chiffre ind`echiffrable, used, if not universally, yet by most courts. None of the old systems of deciphering are any longer available.]

212 Letter 51
To Sir Horace Mann.
Friday, Jan. 22, 1742.

Don’t wonder that I missed writing to you yesterday, my constant day: you will pity me when you hear that I was shut up in the House of Commons till one in the morning. I came away more dead than alive, and was forced to leave Sir R. at supper with my brothers: he was all alive and in spirits.(414) He says he is younger than me, and indeed I think so, in spite of his forty years more. My head aches to-night, but we rose early; and if I don’t write to-night when shall I find a moment to spare? Now you want to know what we did last night; stay, I will tell you presently in its place: it was well, and of infinite consequence-so far I tell you now. Our recess finished last Monday, and never at school did I enjoy holidays so much-but, les voil`a finis jusqu’au printefps! Tuesday (for you see I write you an absolute journal) we sat on a Scotch election, a double return; their man was Hume Campbell,(415) Lord Marchmont’s brother, lately made solicitor to the Prince, for being as troublesome, as violent, and almost as able as his brother. They made a great point of it, and gained so many of our votes, that at ten at night we were forced to give it up without dividing. Sandys, who loves persecution, even unto the death, moved to punish the sheriff; and as we dared not divide, they ordered him into custody, where by this time, I suppose, Sandys has eaten him.

On Wednesday, Sir Robert Godschall, the Lord Mayor, presented the Merchant’s petition, signed by three hundred of them, and drawn up by Leonidas Glover.(416) This is to be heard next Wednesday. This gold-chain came into parliament, cried up for his parts, but proves so dull, one would think he chewed opium. Earle says, “I have heard an oyster speak as well twenty times.”

Well, now I come to yesterday: we met, not expecting much business. Five of our members were gone to the York election, and the three Lord Beauclercs (417) to their mother’s funeral at Windsor; for that old beauty St. Albans (418) is dead at last. On this they depended for getting the majority, and towards three o’clock, when we thought of breaking up, poured in their most violent questions: one was a motion for leave to bring in the Place Bill to limit the number of placemen in the House. This was not opposed, because, out of decency, it is generally suffered to pass the Commons, and is thrown out by the Lords; only Colonel Cholmondeley (419) desired to know if they designed to limit the number of those that have promises of places, as well as of those that have places now. I must tell you that we are a very conclave; they buy votes with reversions of places on the change of the ministry. Lord Gage was giving an account in Tom’s coffeehouse of the intended alterations: that Mr. Pultney is to be chancellor of the exchequer, and Chesterfield and Carteret secretaries of state. Somebody asked who was to be paymaster? Numps Edwin,(420) who stood by, replied, “We have not thought so low as that yet.” Lord Gage harangues every day at Tom’s, and has read there a very false account of the King’S message to the Prince.(421) The Court, to show their contempt of Gage, have given their copy to be read by Swinny.(422) This is the authentic copy, which they have made the bishop write from the message which he carried, and as he and Lord Cholmondeley agree it was given.

On this Thursday, of which I was telling you, at three o’clock, Mr. Pultney rose up, and moved for a secret committee of twenty-one. This inquisition, this council of ten, was to sit and examine whatever persons and papers they should please, and to meet when and where they pleased. He protested much on its not being intended against any person, but merely to give the King advice, and on this foot they fought it till ten at night, when Lord Perceval blundered out what they had been cloaking with so @much art, and declared that he should vote for it as a committee of accusation. Sir Robert immediately rose, and protested that he should not have spoken, but for what he had heard last; but that now, he must take it to himself. He portrayed the malice of the Opposition, who, for twenty years, had not been able to touch him, and were now reduced to this infamous shift. He defied them to accuse him, and only desired that if they should, might be in an open and fair manner: desired no favour, but to be acquainted with his accusation. He spoke of Mr. Doddington, who had called his administration infamous, as of a person of great self-mortification, who, for sixteen years, had condescended to bear part of the odium. For Mr. Pultney, who had just spoken a second time, Sir R. said, he had begun the debate with great calmness, but give him his due, he had made amends for it in the end. In short, never was innocence so triumphant.

There were several glorious speeches on both sides: Mr. Pultney’s two, W. Pitt’s (423) and George Grenville’s,(424) Sir Robert’s, Sir W. Yonge’s, Harry Fox’s, (425) Mr. Chute’s, and the Attorney-General’s.(426) My friend Coke, for the first time, spoke vastly well, and mentioned how great Sir Robert’s character is abroad. ‘ Sir Francis Dashwood replied, that he had found quite the reverse from Mr. Coke, and that foreigners always spoke with contempt of the Chevalier de Walpole. That was going too far, and he was called to order, but got off well enough, by saying, that he knew it was contrary to rule to name any member, but that he only mentioned it as spoken by an impertinent Frenchman.

But of all speeches, none ever was so full of wit as Mr. Pultney’s last. He said, “I have heard this committee represented as a most dreadful spectre; it has been likened to all terrible things; it has been likened to the King; to the inquisition; it will be a committee of safety; it is a committee of danger; I don’t know what it is to be! One gentleman, I think, called it a cloud! (this was the Attorney) a cloud! I remember Hamlet takes Lord Polonius by the hand and shows him a cloud, and then asks him if he does not think it is like a whale.” Well, in short, at eleven at night we divided, and threw out this famous committee by 253 to 250, the greatest number that ever was in the house, and the greatest number that ever lost a question.

It was a most shocking sight to see the sick and dead brought in on both sides! Men on crutches, and Sir William Gordon (427) from his bed, with a blister on his head, and flannel hanging out from under his wig. I could scarce pity him for his ingratitude. The day before the Westminster petition, Sir Charles Wager (428) gave his son a ship, and the next day the father came down and voted against him. The son has since been east away; but they concealed it from the father, that he might not absent himself. However, as we have our good-natured men too on our side, one of his own countrymen went and told him of it in the House. The old man, who looked like Lazarus at his resuscitation, bore it with great resolution, and said, he knew why he was told of it, but when he thought his country in danger, he would not go away. As he is so near death, that it is indifferent to him whether he died two thousand years ago or to-morrow, it is unlucky for him not to have lived when such insensibility would have been a Roman virtue. (429)

There are no arts, no menaces, which the Opposition do not practise. They have threatened one gentleman to have a reversion cut off from his son, unless he will vote with them. To Totness there came a letter to the mayor from the Prince, and signed by two of his lords, to recommend a candidate in opposition to the solicitor-general. The mayor sent the letter to Sir Robert. They have turned the Scotch to the best account. There is a young Oswald (430) who had engaged to Sir R. but has voted against us. Sir R. sent a friend to reproach him: the moment the gentleman who had engaged for him came into the room, Oswald said, “You had liked to have led me into a fine error! did you not tell me that Sir R. would have the majority?”

When the debate was over, Mr. Pultney owned that he had never heard so fine a debate on our side; and said to Sir Robert, “Well, nobody can do what you can!” “Yes,” replied Sir R., “Yonge did better.” Mr. P. answered, “It was fine, but not of that weight with what you said.” They all allow it- and now their plan is to persuade Sir Robert to retire with honour. All that evening there was a report about the town, that he and my uncle were to be sent to the Tower, and people hired windows in the city to see them pass by-but for this time I believe we shall not exhibit so historical a parade.

The night of the committee, my brother Walpole (431) had got two or three invalids at his house, designing to carry them into the House by his door, as they were too ill to go round by Westminster hall: the patriots, who have rather more contrivances than their predecessors of Grecian and Roman memory, had taken the precaution of stopping the keyhole with sand. How Livy’s eloquence would have been hampered, if there had been back-doors and keyholes to the Temple of Concord!

A few days ago there were lists of the officers at Port Mahon laid before the House of Lords -. unfortunately, it appeared that two-thirds of the regiment had been absent. The Duke of Argyll said, “Such a list was a libel on the government;” and of all men, the Duke of Newcastle was the man who rose up and agreed with him: remember what I have told you once before of his union with Carteret. We have
carried the York election by a majority of 956.

The other night the Bishop of Canterbury(432) was with Sir ‘Robert, and on going away, said, “Sir, I have been lately reading Thaunus; he mentions a minister, who having long been persecuted by his enemies, at length vanquished them: the reason he gives, quia se non

Sir Thomas Robinson is at last named to the government of Barbadoes; he has long prevented its being asked for, by declaring that he had the promise of it. Luckily for him, Lord Lincoln liked his house, and procured him this government on condition of hiring it.

I have mentioned Lord Perceval’s speeches; he has a set who have a rostrum at his house, and harangue there. A gentleman who came thither one evening was refused, but insisting that he was engaged to come, “Oh, Sir,” said the porter, “what, are you one of those who play at members of Parliament?”

I must tell you something, though Mr. Chute will see my letter. Sir Robert brought home yesterday to dinner, a fat comely gentleman, who came up to me, and said he believed I knew his brother abroad. I asked his name; he replied, He is with Mr. Whithed.” I thought he said, It is Whithed.” After I had talked to him of Mr. Whithed, I said, There is a very sensible man with Mr. Whithed,
one Mr. Chute.” “Sir,” said he, “my name is Chute.” “My dear
Mr. Chute, now I know both your brothers. You will forgive my mistake.”

With what little conscience I begin a third sheet! but it shall be but half a one. I have received your vast packet of music by the messenger, for which I thank you a thousand times; and the political
sonnet, which is far from bad. Who translated it? I like the translation.

I am obliged to you about the gladiator, etc.: the temptation of having them at all is great, but too enormous. If I could have the gladiator for about an hundred pounds, I would give it.

I enclose one of the bills of lading of the things that I sent you by your secretary: he sets out tomorrow. By Oswald’s (433) folly, to whom I entrusted the putting them on board, they are consigned to Goldsworthy, (434) but pray take care that he does not open them. The captain mortifies me by proposing to stay three weeks at Genoa. I have sent away to-night a small additional box of steel wares, which I received but to-day from Woodstock. As they are better than the first, you will choose out some of them for Prince Craon, and give away the rest as you please.

We have a new opera by Pescetti, but a very bad one; however, all the town runs after it, for it ends with a charming dance.(435) They have flung open the stage to a great length, and made a perfect view of Venice, with the Rialto, and numbers of gondolas that row about full of masks, who land and dance. You would like it.

Well, I have done. Excuse me if I don’t take the trouble to read it all over again, for it is immense, as you will find. Good night!

(414) Sir Robert Wilmot also, in a letter to the Duke of Devonshire, written on the 12th,
Sir Robert was today observed to be more naturally gay and full of spirits than he has been for some time past.”-E.

(415) HUme Campbell was twin brother of Hugh, third Earl of Marchmont. They were sons of Alexander, the second earl, who had quarrelled with Sir Robert Walpole at the time of the excise scheme in 1733. Sir Robert, in consequence, prevented him from being reelected one of the sixteen representative Scotch peers in 1734; in requital for which, the old earl’s two sons became the bitterest opponents of the Minister. They were both men of considerable talents; extremely similar in their characters and dispositions, and
so much so in their outward
appearance that it was very difficult to know them apart.-D. The estimation in which Lord Marchmont was held by his contemporaries, maybe judged of by the fact, that Lord Cobham gave his bust a place in the Temple of Worthies, at Stowe, and the mention of him in Pope’s inscription in his grotto at Twickenham;-

“Where British siglis from dying Wyndham stole, And the bright flame was shot through Marchmont’s soul.”

We are told by Coxe, that Sir Robert Walpole “used frequently to rally his sons, who were
praising the speeches of Pultney, Pitt, Lyttelton, and others, by saying, “You may cry up their speeches if you please, but when I have answered Sir John Barnard and
Lord Polwarth, I think I have concluded the debate.”]

(416) Glover, a merchant, author of “Leonidas,” a poem, “Boadicea,” a tragedy, etc.
[Glover’s talent for public speaking, and information concerning trade and Commerce,
naturally pointed him out to the merchants of London to conduct their application to parliament on the neglect of their trade.]

(417) Lord Vere, Lord Henry, and Lord Sidney Beauclerc, sons of the Duchess Dowager of St. Albans, who is painted among the beauties at Hampton Court.

(418) Lady Diana Vere, daughter, and at length sole heir, of Aubrey de Vere, twentieth and last Earl of Oxford. She married, in 1694, Charles, first Duke of St. Albans, natural son of Charles II. by Nell Gwin. She died Jan. 15, 1742.

(419) Colonel James Cholmondeley, only brother of the Earl. Afterwards distinguished himself at the battles of Fontenoy and Falkirk, and died in 1775.-E.

(420) Charles Edwin, Admiral Vernon’s unsuccessful colleague at Westminster.-E.

(421) During the holidays, Sir R. W. had prevailed on the King to send to the Prince of Wales, to offer to pay his debts and double his allowance. This negotiation was intrusted to Lord Cholmondeley on the King’s, and to Secker, Bishop of Oxford, on the Prince’s side, but came to nothing, [The Prince, in his answer, stated, that “he could not come to court while Sir Robert Walpole presided in His Majesty’s councils; that he looked on him as the sole author of our grievances at home, and of our ill success in the West Indies; and that the disadvantageous figure we at present made in all the courts of Europe was to be attributed alone to him.”]

(422) Owen MacSwinny, a buffoon; formerly director of the playhouse. [He had been a manager of Drury Lane Theatre, and was the author of several dramatic pieces. He resided in Italy for several years, and, on his return, was appointed keeper of the King’s Mews. He died in 1754, leaving his fortune to the celebrated Mrs. Woffington.](

423) Afterwards the great Lord Chatham.-D.

(424) First minister in the early part of the reign of George III.-D.

(425) Afterwards the first Lord Holland.-D.

(426) Sir Dudley Ryder.-D.

(427) Sir Robert Wilmot, in a letter to the Duke of Devonshire, says:-,,Sir William Gordon was brought in like a corpse. Some thought it had been an old woman in disguise, having a white cloth round his head:
others,, who found him out, expected him to expire every moment. Other incurables were introduced on their side. Mr. Hopton, for Hereford, w, is carried in with crutches. Sir Robert Walpole exceeded himself; Mr. Pelham, with the greatest decency, cut Pultney into a thousand pieces. Sir Robert actually dissected him, and laid his heart open to the view of the House.”-E.

(428) Admiral Sir Charles Wager. He had been knighted by Queen Anne, for his Gallantry in taking and destroying some rich Spanish galleons. He was at this time first lord of the Admiralty. He died in 1743.-D.

(429) Sir William died in the May following.

(430) James Oswald, afterwards one of the commissioners of trade and plantations.

(431) Robert, Lord Walpole, afterwards Earl of Orford. He was auditor of the Exchequer, and his house joined to the House of commons, to which he had a door: but it was soon afterwards locked up, by an order of the House.

(432) John Potter, Archbishop of Canterbury, translated, in 1737, from the see of Oxford. He died in 1747.-D.

)433) George Oswald, steward to Sir R. W.

(434) Mr. Goldsworthy, consul at Leghorn, had married Sir Charles Wager’s niece, and was endeavouring to supplant Mr. Mann at Florence.

(435) Vestris, the celebrated dancer, would have been delighted with it; for it is related of him, that when Gluck had finished his noble opera, “Iphigenia,” Vestris was sadly disappointed on finding that it did not end with a “chaconne,” and worried the composer to induce him to introduce one. At length Gluck, losing all patience, exclaimed, “Chaconne! chaconne! Had, then, the Greeks, whose manners we are to represent, chaconnes?” “Certainly not,” replied Vestris, “certainly not; but so much the worse for the Greeks.”-D.

218 Letter 52
To Sir Horace Mann.
London, Feb. 1741-2.

I am miserable that I have not more time to write to you, especially as you will want to know so much of what I have to tell you; but for a week or fortnight I shall be so hurried, that I shall scarce know what I say. I sit here writing to you, and receiving all the town, who flock to this house; Sir Robert has already had three levees this morning, and the rooms still overflowing-they overflow up to me. You will think this the prelude to some victory! On the contrary, when you receive this, there will be no longer a Sir Robert Walpole: you must know him for the future by the title of Earl of Orford. That other envied name expires next week with his ministry! Preparatory to this change. I should tell you, that last week we heard in the House of Commons the Chippenham election, when Jack Frederick and his brother-in-law, Mr. Hume, on our side, petitioned against Sir Edmund Thomas and Mr. Baynton Holt. Both sides made it the decisive question-but our people were not all equally true: and upon the previous question we had but 235 against 236, so lost it by one. From that time my brothers, my uncle, I, and some of his particular friends, persuaded Sir R. to resign. He was undetermined till Sunday night. Tuesday we were to finish the election, when we lost it by 16; upon which Sir Robert declared to some particular persons in the House his resolution to retire,(436) and had that morning sent the Prince of Wales notice of’ it. It is understood from the heads of the party, that nothing more is to be pursued against him. Yesterday (Wednesday) the King adjourned both Houses for a fortnight, for time to settle things. Next week Sir Robert resigns and goes into the House of Lords. The only change yet fixed, is, that Lord Wilmington (437) is to be at the head of the Treasury-but numberless other alterations and confusions must follow. The Prince will be reconciled, and the Whig-patriots will come in. There were a few bonfires last night, but they are very unfashionable, for never was fallen minister so followed. When he kissed the King’s hand to take his first leave, the King fell on his neck, wept and kissed him, and begged to see him frequently. He will continue in town, and assist the ministry in the Lords. Mr. Pelham has declared that he will accept nothing, that was Sir Robert’s; and this moment the Duke of Richmond has been here from court to tell Sir R. that he had resigned the mastership of the horse, having received it from him, unasked, and that he would not keep it beyond his ministry. This is the greater honour, as it was so unexpected, and as he had no personal friendship with the duke.

For myself, I am quite happy to be free from all the fatigue, envy, and uncertainty of our late situation. I go every where; indeed, to have the stare over, and to use myself to neglect, but I meet nothing but civilities. Here have been Lord Hartington, Coke, and poor Fitzwilliam,(438) and others crying: here has been Lord Deskford (439) and numbers to wish me joy; in short, it is a most extraordinary and various scene.(440)

There are three people whom I pity much; the King, Lord Wilmington, and my own sister; the first, for the affront, to be forced to part with his minister, and to be forced to forgive his son; the second, as he is too old, and (even when he was young,) unfit for the burthen: and the poor girl,(441) who must be created an earl’s daughter, as her birth would deprive her of the rank. She must kiss hands, and bear the flirts of impertinent real quality

I am invited to dinner to-day by Lord Strafford (442) Argyll’s son-in-law. You see we shall grow the fashion.

My dear child, these are the most material points: I am sensible how much you must want particulars; but you must be sensible, too, that just yet, I have not time.

Don’t be uneasy; your brother Ned has been here to wish me joy: your brother Gal. has been here and cried; your tender nature will at first make you like the latter; but afterwards you will rejoice with the elder and me. Adieu! Yours, ever, and the same.

(436) “Sir Robert,” says Coxe, “seemed to have anticipated this event, and met it with his usual fortitude and cheerfulness. While the tellers were performing their office, he beckoned Sir Edward Baynton, the member whose return was supported by the Opposition, to sit near him., spoke to him with great complacency, animadverted on the ingratitude of several individuals who were voting against him, on whom he had conferred great favour, and declared he would never again sit in that House.”-E.

(437) Sir Spencer Compton, Earl of Wilmington, knight of the garter, and at this time lord president of the council.

(438) william, Baron, and afterwards Earl Fitzwilliam; a young lord, much attached to Sir R. W.

(439) James Ogilvy, Lord Deskford succeeded his father, in 1764, as sixth Earl of Findlater, and third Earl of Seafield. He held some inconsiderable offices in Scotland, and died in 1770.-D.

(440) the peculiar antipathy to Lord Hardwicke manifested by Horace Walpole on all occasions is founded, no doubt, upon the opinion which he had taken up, that the resignation of Sir Robert Walpole at this moment had been rendered necessary by the treachery and intrigues of that nobleman and the Duke of Newcastle. In his “Memoires” he repeatedly charges him with such treachery; and the Edinburgh reviewer of that work (xxxvi. 1). 29) favours this view, observing, “It appears that, unless there was a secret understanding of Newcastle and Hardwicke with Pulteney and Carteret, before Sir Robert’s determination to resign, the coalition was effected between the 31st of January and 2d of February; for on the 2d of February it was already settled that Lord Wilmington should be at the head of the Treasury in the new administration. So speedy an adjustment of a point of such consequence looks somewhat like previous concert.” However much appearances might favour this opinion, another writer has shown most satisfactorily that no such previous concert existed. The reviewer of the “Memoires” in the Quarterly Review (xxvii. p. 191) proves, in the first place, that it was Sir Robert himself who determined the course of events, and, as he emphatically said, turned the key of the closet on Mr. Pulteney; so that, if he was betrayed, it must have been by himself; and secondly, that we have the evidence of his family and friends, that he was lost by his own inactivity and timidity; in other words, the great minister was worn out with age and business.” And these views are confirmed by extracts from the “Walpoliana,” written, be it remembered, by Philip, second Earl -of Hardwicke, son of the chancellor, from the information of the Walpole family, and even of Sir Robert himself; who, after his retirement, admitted his young friend into his conversation and confidence-a fact totally inconsistent with a belief in his father’s treachery;-by Sir Robert’s own authority, who, in a private and confidential letter to the Duke of Devonshire, dated 2d of February, 1742, giving an account of his resignation, and the efforts of his triumphant antagonists to form a new ministry, distinctly states “that he himself prevented the Duke of Newcastle’s dismissal;” and lastly, by Horace Walpole’s own pamphlet, “A Detection of a late Forgery,” etc., in which he speaks of “the breach between the King and the Prince, as open, the known, avowed cause of the resignation, and which Sir Robert never disguised;”-and again, among the errors of the writer he notices, Sir Robert Walpole is made to complain of being abandoned by his friends. This is for once an undeserved satire on mankind: no fallen minister ever experienced such attachment from his friends as he did.”-E.

(441) Maria, natural daughter of Sir R. W. by Maria Skerret, his mistress, whom he afterwards married. She had a patent to take place as an earl’s daughter.

(442) William Wentworth, second Earl of Strafford, of the second creation. He married Anne Campbell, second daughter of John, Duke of Argyle.-D.

220 Letter 53
To Sir Horace Mann.
Feb. 9, 1741-2.

You will have had my letter that told you of the great change. The scene is not quite so pleasant as it was, nor the tranquility arrived that we expected. All is in confusion; no overtures from the Prince, who, it must seem, proposes to be King. His party have persuaded him not to make up, but on much greater conditions than he first demanded: in short, notwithstanding his professions to the Bishop,(443)-he is to insist on the impeachment of Sir R., saying now, that his terms not being accepted at first, he is not bound to stick to them. He is pushed on to this violence by Argyll, Chesterfield, Cobham,(444) Sir John Hind Cotton,(445) and Lord Marchmont. The first says, “What impudence it is in Sir R. to be driving about the streets!” and all cry out, that he is still minister behind the curtain. They will none of them come into the ministry, till several are displaced but have summoned a great meeting of the faction for Friday, at the Fountain Tavern, to consult measures against Sir R., and
to-morrow the Common Council meet, to draw up instructions for their members. They have sent into Scotland and into the counties for the same purpose. Carteret ind Pulteney@ pretend to be against this violence, but own that if their party insist upon it, they cannot desert them. The cry against Sir R. has been greater this week than ever; first, against a grant of four thousand pounds a-year, which the King gave him on his resignation, but which, to quiet them, he has given Up.(446) Then, upon making his daughter a lady; their wives and daughters declare against giving her place. He and she both kissed hands yesterday, and on Friday go to Richmond for a week. He seems quite secure in his innocence-but what
protection is that, against the power and malice of’ party! Indeed, his friends seem as firm is ever, and frequent him as much; but they are not now the strongest. As to an impeachment, I think they will not be so mad as to proceed to it: it is too solemn and too public to be attempted, without proof of crimes, of which he certainly is not guilty. For a bill of’ pains and penalties, they may, if they will, I believe, pass it through the Commons, but will scarce get the assent of the King and Lords. In a week more I shall be able to write with less uncertainty.

I hate sending you false news, as that was, of the Duke of Richmond’s resignation. It arose from his being two hours below with Sir R., and from some very warm discourse of his in the House of Lords, against the present violences; but went no further. Zeal magnified this, as she came up stairs to me, and I wrote to you before I had seen Sir Robert.

At a time when we ought to be most united, we are in the greatest confusion; such is the virtue of the patriots, though they have obtained what they professed alone to seek. They will not stir one step in foreign affairs, though Sir R. has offered to unite with them, with all his friends, for the common cause. It will now be seen whether he or they are most patriot. You see I call him Sir Robert still! after one has known him by that name for these threescore years, it is difficult to accustom one’s mouth to another title.

In the midst of all this, we are diverting ourselves as cordially as if Righteousness and Peace had just been kissing one another. Balls, operas, and masquerades! The Duchess of Norfolk (447) makes a grand masquing next week; and to-morrow there is one at the Opera-house.

Here is a Saxe-Gothic prince, brother to her Royal Highness:(448) he sent her word from Dover that he was driven in there, in his way to Italy. The man of the inn, Whom he consulted about lodgings in town, recommended him to one of very ill-fame in Suffolk-street. He has got a neutrality for himself, and goes to both courts.

Churchill (449) asked Pultney the other day, “Well, Mr. Pultney, will you break me too?”-“No, Charles,” replied he, “you break fast enough of yourself!” Don’t you think it hurt him more than the other breaking would? Good night! Yours, ever.

Thursday, Feb. 11, 1741-2.

P. S. I had finished my letter, and unwillingly resolved to send you all that bad news, rather than leave you ignorant of our doings; but I have the pleasure of mending your prospect a little. Yesterday the Common Council met, and resolved upon instructions to their members, which, except one not very descriptive paragraph, contains nothing personal -,against our new earl; and ends with resolutions “to stand by our present constitution.” Mind what followed! One of them proposed to insert “the King and Royal Family” before the words, “our present constitution;” but, on a division, it was rejected by three to one.

But to-day, for good news! Sir Robert has resigned; Lord Wilmington is first lord of the treasury, and Sandys has accepted the seals as chancellor of the exchequer, with Gibbon (450) and Sir John Rushout,(451) joined to him as other lords of the treasury. Waller was to have been the other, but has formally refused. So, Lord Sundon, Earle, Treby,(452) and Clutterbuck (453) are the first discarded, unless the latter saves himself by Waller’s refusal. Lord Harrington, who is created an earl, is made president of the council, and Lord Carteret has consented to be secretary of state in his room-but mind; not one of them has promised to be against the prosecution of Sir Robert, though I don’t believe now that it will go on. You see Pultney is not come in, except in his friend Sir John Rushout, but is to hold the balance between liberty and prerogative; at least, in this, he acts with honour. They say Sir John Hind Cotton and the Jacobites will be left out,,unless they bring in Dr. Lee and Sir John Barnard to the admiralty, as they propose; for I do not think it is decided what are their principles. Sir Charles Wager has resigned this morning:(454) he says, “We shall not die, but be all changed!” though he says, a parson lately reading this text in an old Bible, where the c was rubbed out, read it, not die, but be all hanged!

To-morrow our earl goes to Richmond Park, en retir`e; comes on Thursday to take his seat in the Lords, and returns thither again. Sandys is very angry at his taking the title of Orford, which belonged to his wife’s (455) great uncle. You know a step of that nature cost the great Lord Strafford (456) his head, at the prosecution of a less bloody-minded man than Sandys.

I remain in town, and have not taken at all to withdrawing, which I hear has given offence,(457) as well as my gay face in public; but as I had so little joy in the grandeur, I am determined to take as little part in the disgrace. I am looking about for a new house.

I have received two vast packets from you to-day, I believe from the bottom of the sea, for they have been so washed that I could scarce read them. I could read the terrible history of the earthquakes at Leghorn: how infinitely good you was to poor Mrs. Goldsworthy! How could you think I should not approve such vast humanity? but you are all humanity and forgiveness. I am only concerned that they will be present when you receive all these disagreeable accounts of your friends. Their support” is removed as well as yours. I only fear the interest of the Richmonds (458) with the Duke of Newcastle; but I will try to put you well with Lord Lincoln. We must write circumspectly, for our letters now are no longer safe.

I shall see Amorevoli to-night to give him the letter. Ah! Monticelli and the Visconti are to sing to-night at a great assembly at Lady Conway’s. I have not time to write more: so, good night, my dearest child! be in good spirits. Yours, most faithfully.

P. S. We have at last got Cr`ebillon’s “Sofa:” Lord Chesterfield received three hundred, and gave them to be sold at White’s. It is admirable! except the beginning of the first volume, and the last story, it is equal to any thing he has written. How he has painted the most refined nature in Mazulhim! the most retired nature in Mocles! the man of fashion, that sets himself above natural sensations, and the man of sense and devotion, that would skirmish himself from their influence, are equally justly reduced to the standard of their own weakness.(459)

(443) Secker, Bishop of Oxford.

(444) Richard Temple, Viscount Cobham, so created in 1717, with remainder to the issue male of his sister, Hester Grenville. He had served in Flanders under the Duke of Marlborough, and was upon the overthrow of Sir Robert Walpole’s administration promoted to the military rank of field marshal. He is now best remembered as the friend of pope and the creator of the gardens at Stowe.-D.

(445) Sir John Hinde Cotton, Bart. of Landwade, in Cambridgeshire; long a member of parliament, and one of the leaders of the Jacobite party. He died in 1752, and Horace Walpole, in his Memoires, in noticing this event, says, “Died Sir John Cotton, the last Jacobite of any sensible activity.”-D.

Lord Carteret and Mr. Pulteney had really betrayed their party, and so injudiciously, that they lost their old friends and gained no new ones.

(446) Sir Robert, at the persuasion of his brother, Mr. Selwyn, and others, desisted from this grant. Three years afterwards, when the clamour was at an end, and his affairs extremely involved, he sued for it; which Mr. Pelham, his friend and `el`eve, was brought with the worst grace in the world to ask, and his old obliged master the King prevailed upon, with as ill grace, to grant. [“February 6. Sir R. Walpole was presented at Court as Earl of Orford. He was persuaded to refuse a grant of four thousand pounds a-year during the King’s life and his own, but could not be dissuaded from accepting a letter of honour from the King, to grant his natural daughter Maria, precedence as an earl’s daughter; who was also presented this day. The same thing had been done for Scrope, Earl of Sunderland, who left no lawful issue, and from one of whom Lord Howe is descended.”-Secker MS.]

(447) Mary, daughter of Edward Blount, Esq. and wife of Edward, ninth Duke of Norfolk.-D.

(448) The Princess of Wales.-D.

(449)General Charles Churchill.-D.

(450) Philip Gibbons, Esq.-D.

(451) Sir John Rushout, the fourth baronet of the family, had particularly distinguished himself as an opponent of Sir R. Walpole’s excise scheme. He was made treasurer of the navy in 1743, and died in 1775, at the advanced age of ninety-one. His son was created Lord Northwick, in 1797.-D.

(452) George Treby, Esq.-D.

(453) Thomas Clutterbuck, Esq. He left the Treasury in February 1742, and was made treasurer of the navy.-D.

(454) “February II. Lord Orford and Sir Charles Wager resigned. Mr. Sandys kissed hands as chancellor of the exchequer: Lord Wilmington declared first commissioner of the Treasury: offers made to the Duke of Argyle, but refused: none to Lord Chesterfield.”-Secker MS.-E.

(455) Lady Sandys was daughter of Lady Tipping, niece of Russel, Earl of Orford.

(456) Sir Thomas Wentworth, the great Earl of Strafford, took the title of Raby from a castle of that name, which belonged to Sir Henry Vane, who, from that time, became his mortal foe.

(457) Sir Charles Wager. [In the following December Sir Charles was appointed treasurer of the navy, which office he held till his death, in May 1743.)

(458) Mrs. Goldsworthy had been a companion of the Duchess of Richmond.

(459) Posterity has not confirmed the eulogium here given to the indecent trash of the younger Cr`ebillon: but in the age of George II. coarseness passed for humour, and obscenity was wit.”-D

224 Letter 54
To Sir Horace Mann.
Feb. 18, 1741-2.

I write to you more tired, and with more headache, than any one but you could conceive! I came home at five this morning from the Duchess of Norfolk’s masquerade, and was forced to rise before eleven, for my father, who came from Richmond to take his seat in the Lords, for the Houses met to-day. He is gone back to his retirement. Things wear a better aspect: at the great meeting (460) on Friday, at the Fountain, Lord
Carteret and Lord Winchilsea (461) refused to go, only saying, that they never dined at a tavern. Pultney and the new chancellor of the exchequer went, and were abused by his Grace of Argyll. The former said he was content with what was already done, and would not be active in any further proceedings, though he would not desert the party. Sandys said the King had done him the honour to offer him that place; why should he not accept it? if he had not, another would: if nobody would, the King would be obliged to employ his old minister again, which he imagined the gentlemen present would not wish to see; and protested against screening, with the same conclusion as Pultney. The Duke of Bedford was very warm against Sir William Yonge; Lord Talbot (462) was so in general.(463)

During the recess, they have employed Fazakerley to draw up four impeachments; against Sir Robert, my uncle, Mr. Keene, and Colonel Bladen, who was only commissioner for the tariff at Antwerp. One of the articles against Sir R. is, his having at this conjuncture trusted Lord Waldegrave as ambassador, who is so near a relation (464) of the Pretender-. but these impeachments are likely to grow obsolete manuscripts. The minds of the people grow more candid: at first, they made one of the actors at Drury Lane repeat some applicable lines at the end of Harry the Fourth; but last Monday, when his Royal Highness-, had purposely bespoken “The Unhappy Favourite” (465) for Mrs. Porter’s benefit, they never once applied the most glaring passages; as where they read the indictment against Robert Earl of Essex, etc. The Tories declare against further prosecution-if Tories there are, for now one hears of nothing but the Broad Bottom: it is the reigning cant word, and means, the taking all parties and people, indifferently into the ministry. The Whigs are the dupes of this; And those in the Opposition affirm that Tories no longer exist. Notwithstanding this, they will not come into the new ministry, unless what were always reckoned Tories are admitted. The Treasury has gone a-begging: I mean one of the lordships, which is at last filled up with Major Compton, a relation of Lord Wilmington; but now we shall see a new scene. On Tuesday night Mr. Pultney went to the Prince, and, without the knowledge of Argyll, etc., prevailed on him to write to the King: he was so long determining, that it was eleven at night before the King received his letter. Yesterday morning the prince, attended by two of his lords, two grooms of the Bedchamber, and Lord Scarborough,(466) his treasurer went to the King’s levee.(467) The King said, “How does the Princess do? I hope she is well.” The Prince kissed his hand, and this was all! The Prince returned to Carlton House, whither crowds went to him. He spoke to the Duke of Newcastle and Mr. Pelham; but would not to the three dukes, Richmond, Grafton, and Marlborough.(468) At night the Royal Family were all at the Duchess of Norfolk’@’ and the streets were illuminated and bonfired. To-day, the Duke of Bedford, Lord Halifax, and some others, were at St. James’s: the King spoke to all the Lords. In a day or two, I shall go with my uncle and brothers to the Prince’s levee.

Yesterday there was a meeting of all the Scotch of our side, who, to a man, determined to defend Sir Robert

Lyttelton (469) is going to marry Miss Fortescue, Lord Clinton’s sister.

When our earl went to the House of lords to-day, he apprehended some incivilities from his Grace of Argyll, but he was not there. Bedford, Halifax, Berkshire,(470) and some more, were close by him, but would not bow to him. Lord Chesterfield wished him joy. This is all I know for certain; for I will not send you the thousand lies of every new day.

I must tell you how fine the masquerade of last night was. There were five hundred persons, in the greatest variety of handsome and rich dresses I ever saw, and all the jewels of London-and London has some! There were dozens of ugly Queens of Scots, of which I will only name to you the eldest Miss Shadwell! The Princess of Wales was one, covered with
diamonds, but did not take off her mask: none of the Royalties did, but every body else. Lady Conway (471) was a charming Mary Stuart: Lord and Lady Euston, man and woman huzzars. But the two finest and most charming masks were their Graces of Richmond,(472) like Harry the Eighth and Jane Seymour: excessively rich, and both so handsome @ Here is a nephew of the King of Denmark, who was in armour, and his governor, a most admirable Quixote. there were quantities of Vandykes, and all kinds of old pictures walked out of the frames. It was an assemblage of all ages and nations, and would look like the day of judgment, if tradition did not persuade us that we are all to meet naked, and if something else did not tell us that we shall not meet with quite so much indifference, nor thinking quite so much of the becoming. My dress was an
Aurungzebe: but of all extravagant figures commend me to our friend the Countess!(473) She and my lord trudged in like pilgrims with vast staffs in their hands; and she was so heated, that you would have thought her pilgrimage had been, like Pantagruel’s voyage, to the Oracle of the Bottle! Lady Sophia was in a Spanish dress-so was Lord Lincoln; not, to be sure, by design, but so it happened. When the King came in, the Faussans (474) were there, and danced an entr`ee. At the masquerade the King sat by Mrs. Selwyn, and with tears told her, that “the Whigs should find he loved them, as he had the poor man that was gone!” He had sworn that he would not speak to the Prince at their meeting, but was prevailed on.

I received your letter by Holland, and the paper about the Spaniards. By this time you will conceive that I can speak of nothing to any purpose, for Sir R. does not meddle in the least with business.

As to the Sibyl, I have not mentioned it to him; I still am for the other. Except that, he will not care, I believe, to buy more pictures, having now so many more than he has room for at Houghton; and he will have but a small house in town when we leave this. But you must thank the dear Chutes for their new offers; the obligations are too great, but I am most sensible to their goodness, and, were I not so excessively tired now, would write to them. I cannot add a word more, but to think of the Princess:(475) “Comment! vous avez donc des enfans!” You see how nature sometimes breaks out in spite of religion and prudery, grandeur and pride, delicacy and
`epuisements! Good night!
Yours ever.

(460) See an account of this meeting in Lord Egmonfs “Faction Detected.” [To this meeting at the Fountain tavern Sir Charles Hanbury Williams alludes in his Ode against the Earl of Bath, called the Statesman-

“Then enlarge on his cunning and wit: Say, how he harangued at the Fountain;
Say, how the old patriots were bit, And a mouse was produced by a mountain.”]

(461) Daniel Finch, seventh Earl of Winchilsea and third Earl of Nottingham. He was made first lord of the admiralty upon the breaking up of Sir R. Walpole’s government.-D.

(462) William, second Lord Talbot, eldest son of the lord chancellor of that name and title.-D.

(463) The following is from the Secker MS.-“Feb. 12. Meeting at the Fountain tavern of above two hundred commoners and thirty-five Lords. Duke of Argyle spoke warmly for prosecuting Lord Orford, with hints of reflection on those who had accepted. Mr. Pulteney replied warmly. Lord Talbot drank to cleansing the Augean stable of the dung and grooms. Mr. Sandys and Mr. Gibbon there. Lord Carteret and Lord Winchilsea not. Lord Chancellor, in the evening, in private discourse to me, strong against taking in any Tories: owning no more than that some of them, perhaps, were not for the Pretender, or, at least, did not know they were for him; though, when I gave him the account first of my discourse with the Prince, he said, the main body of them were of the same principles with the Tories.”-E.

(464) His mother was natural daughter of King James II. (James, first Earl Waldegrave, appointed ambassador to the court of France in 1730: died in 1741.-D.)

(465) banks’s tragedy of “The Unhappy Favourite; or, the Earl of Essex,” was first acted in 1682. The prologue and epilogue were written by Dryden. Speaking of this play, in the Tatler, Sir Richard Steele says, “there is in it not one good line, and yet it is a play which was never seen without drawing tears from some part of the audience; a remarkable instance, that the soul is not to be moved by words, but things; for the incidents in the drama are laid together so happily that the spectator makes the play for himself, by the force with which the circumstance has upon his imagination.”-E.

(466) Thomas Lumley, third Earl of Scarborough.-D.

(467) “February 17. Prince of Wales went to St. James’s. The agreement made at eleven the night before, and principally by Mr. Pultney; as Lord Wilmington told me. The King received him in the drawing-room: the Prince kissed his hand: he asked him how the Princess did: showed no other mark of regard. All the courtiers went the same day to Carlton House. The Bishop of Gloucester (Dr. Benson) and I went thither. The Prince and princess civil to us both.” Secker MS.-E.

(468) Charles Spencer, second duke of Marlborough succeeded to that title on the death of his aunt Henrietta, Duchess of Marlborough, in 1733.-D.

(469) Sir George Lyttelton, afterwards created Lord Lyttelton. Miss Fortescue was his first wife, and mother of Thomas, called the wicked Lord Lyttelton. She died in childbed and Lord Lyttelton honoured her Memory with the well-known Monody which was so unfeelingly parodied by Smollett.-D. [ Under the title of an “Ode on the Death of My Grandmother.”)

(470 Henry Bowes Howard, fourth Earl of Berkshire. He succeeded, in 1745, as eleventh Earl of Suffolk, on the death, without issue, of henry, tenth earl. He died in 1757.-D.

(471) Lady Isabella Fitzroy, Youngest daughter of the Duke of grafton, and wife of Francis Seymour, Lord Conway of Hertford.

(472) Charles Lennox, master of the horse, and Sarah Cadogan, his duchess. He died in the year following.

(473) The Countess of Pomfret.

(474) Two celebrated comic dancers.

(475) Princess Craon, so often mentioned in these letters.-D.

227 Letter 55
To Sir Horace Mann.
London, Feb. 25, 1742.

I am impatient to hear that you have received my first account of the change; as to be sure you are now for every post. This last week has not produced many new events. The Prince of Wales has got the measles,(476) so there has been but little incense offered up to him: his brother of Saxe-Gotha has got them too. When the Princess went to St. James’s, she fell at the King’s feet and struggled to kiss his hand, and burst into tears. At the Norfolk masquerade she was vastly bejewelled; Frankz had lent her forty thousand pounds worth, and refused to be paid for the hire, only desiring that she would tell whose they were. All this is nothing, but to introduce one of Madame de Pomfret’s ingenuities, who. being dressed like a pilgrim, told the Princess, that she had taken her for the Lady of Loreto.

But you will wish for politics now, more than for histories of masquerades, though this last has taken up people’s thoughts full as much. The House met last Thursday and voted the army without a division: Shippen (477 alone, unchanged, Opposed it. They have since been busied on elections, turning out our friends and voting in their own.. almost without opposition. The chief affair has been the Denbighshire election, on the petition of Sir Watkyn William . ‘They have voted him into parliament and the high-sheriff into Newgate. Murray (478) was most eloquent: Lloyd,(479) the counsel on the other side, and no bad one, (for I go constantly, though I do not stay long, but “leave the dead to bury their dead,” said that it was objected to the sheriff, that he was related to the
sitting member; but, indeed, in that country (Wales) it would be difficult not to be related. Yesterday we had another hearing of the petition of the Merchants, when Sir Robert Godschall shone brighter than even his usual. There was a copy of a letter produced, the original having been lost: he asked whether the copy had been taken before the original was lost, or after!

Next week they commence their prosecutions, which they will introduce by voting a committee to inquire into all the offices: Sir William Yonge is to be added to the impeachments, but the chief whom they wish to punish is my uncle.(480) He is the more to be pitied, because nobody will pity him. They are not fond of a formal message which the States General have sent to Sir Robert, “to compliment him on his new honour, and to condole with him on being out of the ministry, which will be so detrimental to Europe!

The third augmentation in Holland is confirmed, and that the Prince of Hesse is chosen generallissimo, which makes it believed that his Grace of Argyll will not go over, but that we shall certainly have a war with France in the spring. Argyll has got the Ordnance restored to him, and they wanted to give him his regiment; to which Lord Hertford (481) was desired to resign it, with the offer of his old troop again. He said he had received the regiment from the King; if his Majesty pleased to take it back, he might, but he did not know why he should resign it. Since that, he wrote a letter to the King, and sent it by his son, Lord Beauchamp, resigning his regiment, his government, and his wife’s pension, as lady of the bedchamber to the late Queen.

No more changes are made yet. They have offered the Admiralty to Sir Charles Wager again, but he refused it: he said, he heard that he was an old woman, and that he did not know what good old women could do any where.

A comet has appeared here for two nights, which, you know, is lucky enough at this time and a pretty ingredient for making prophecies.

These are all the news. I receive your letters regularly, and hope you receive mine so: I never miss one week. Adieu! my dearest child! I am perfectly well; tell me always that you are. Are the good Chutes still at Florence? My best love to them, and services to all.

Here are some new Lines much in vogue:(482)


Unhappy England, still in forty-one (483) By Scotland art thou doom’d to be undone! But Scotland now, to strike alone afraid, Calls in her worthy sister Cornwall’s (484) aid; And these two common Strumpets, hand in hand, Walk forth, and preach up virtue through the land; Start at corruption, at a bribe turn pale, Shudder at pensions, and at placemen rail. Peace, peace! ye wretched hypocrites; or rather With Job, say to Corruption, ” Thou’rt our Father.”

But how will Walpole justify his fate? He trusted Islay (485) till it was too late. Where were those parts! where was that piercing mind! That judgment, and that knowledge of mankind! To trust a Traitor that he knew so well! (Strange truth! I)ctray’d, but not deceived, he fell!) He knew his heart was, like his aspect, vile; Knew him the tool, and Brother of Argyll! Yet to his hands his power and hopes gave up; And though he saw ’twas poison, drank the cup! Trusted to one he never could think true, And perish’d by a villain that he knew.

(476) “February 21. Prince taken ill of the measles. The King sent no message to him in his illnesses Secker MS.-E.

(477) William Shippen, a celebrated Jacobite. Sir R. Walpole said that he was the Only man whose price he did not know. [See ante, p. 194, Letter 45.]

(478) William Murray, Mr. Pope’s friend, afterwards Solicitor, and then Attorney-general.

(479) Sir Richard Lloyd, who succeeded Mr. Murray, in 1754, as Solicitor-general.

(480) Horace Walpole, brother of Sir Robert.

(481) Algernon Seymour, Earl of Hertford, eldest son of Charles, called the proud Duke of Somerset, whom he succeeded in that Title, and was the last Duke of Somerset of that branch; his son, who is here mentioned, having died before him.-D.

(482) These Lines were written by Sir Charles Hanbury Williams. [And are published in the edition of his works, in three volumes, 12 no.1.

(483) Alluding to the Grand Rebellion against Charles the First.

(484) The Parliament which overthrew Sir R. W. was carried against him by his losing the majority of the Scotch and Cornish boroughs; the latter managed by Lord Falmouth and Thomas Pitt.

(485) Archibald Campbell, Earl of Islay, brother of John, Duke of Argyll, in conjunction with whom (though then openly at variance) he was supposed to have betrayed Sir R.
W. and to have let the Opposition succeed in the Scotch elections, which were trusted to his management. It must be observed, that Sir R. W. would never allow that he believed himself betrayed by Lord Islay.

229 Letter 56
To Sir Horace Mann.
London, March 3d, 1742.

I am Obliged to write to you to-day, for I am sure I shall not have a moment to-morrow; they are to make their motion for a secret committee to examine into the late administration. We are to oppose it strongly, but to no purpose; for since the change, they have beat us on no division under a majority of forty. This last week has produced no new novelties; his Royal Highness has been shut up with the measles, of which he was near dying, by eating China oranges.

We are to send sixteen thousand men into Flanders in the spring, under his Grace of Argyll; they talk of the Duke of Marlborough and Lord Albemarle to command under him. Lord Cadogan (486) is just dead, so there is another regiment vacant: they design Lord Delawar’s for Westmoreland;(487) so now Sir Francis Dashwood (488) will grow as fond of the King again as he used to be-or as he has hated him since.

We have at last finished the Merchants’ petition, under the conduct of the Lord Mayor and Mr. Leonidas;(489) the greatest coxcomb and the greatest oaf that ever met in blank verse or prose. I told you the former’s question about the copy of a letter taken after the original was lost. They have got a new story of him; that hearing of a gentleman who had had the small-pox twice and died of it, he asked, if he died the first time or the second-if this is made for him, it is at least quite in his style. After summing up the evidence (in doing which, Mr. Glover literally drank several times to the Lord Mayor in a glass of water that stood by him,) Sir John Barnard moved to vote, that there had been great neglect in the
protection of the trade, to the great advantage of’ the enemy, and the dishonour of the nation. He said he did not mean to charge the Admiralty particularly, for then particular persons must have had particular days assigned to be heard in their own defence, which would take up too much time, as we are now going to make inquiries of a much higher nature. Mr. Pelham was for leaving out the last words. Mr. Doddington rose, and in a set speech declared that the motion was levelled at a particular person, who had so usurped all authority, that all inferior offices were obliged to submit to his will, and so either bend and bow, or be broken: but that he hoped the steps we were now going to take, would make the office of first minister so dangerous a post, that nobody would care to accept it for the future. Do but think of this fellow, who has so lost all character, and made himself so odious to both King, and Prince, by his alternate flatteries, changes, oppositions, and changes of flatteries and oppositions, that he can never expect what he has so much courted by all methods,-think of his talking of making it dangerous for any one else to accept the first ministership! Should such a period ever arrive, he would accept it with joy-the only chance he can ever have for it! But sure, never was impudence more put to shame! The whole debate turned upon him. Lord Doneraile (490) (who, by the way, has produced blossoms of Doddington like fruit, and
consequently is the fitter scourge for him) stood up and said, he did not know what that gentleman meant; that he himself was as willing to bring all offenders to justice as any man; but that he did not intend to confine punishment to those who had been employed only at the end of the last ministry, but proposed to extend it to all who had been engaged in it, and wished that that gentleman would speak with more lenity of an administration, in which he himself had been concerned for so many years. Winnington said, he did not know what Mr. Doddington had meant, by either bending or being broken; that he knew some who had been broken, though they had bowed an bended. Waller defended Doddington, and said, if he was gilty, at least Mr. Winnington was so too; on which Fox rose up, and, laying his hand on his breast, said, he never wished to have such a friend, as could only excuse him by bringing in another for equal share of his guilt. Sir John Cotton replied; he did not wonder that Mr. Fox (who had spoken with great warmth) was angry at hearing his friend in place, compared to one out of place. Do but figure how Doddington must have looked and felt during such dialogues! In short, it ended in Mr. Pultney’s rising, and saying, he could not be against the latter words, as he thought the former part of the motion had been proved . and wished both parties would join in carrying on the war vigorously, or in procuring a good peace, rather than in ripping open old sores, and continuing the heats and violences of parties. We came to no division-for we should have lost it by too many.

Thursday evening.

I had written all the former part of my letter, only reserving room to tell you, that they had carried the secret committee-but it is put off till next Tuesday. To-day we had nothing but the giving up the Heydon election, when Mr. Ppultney had an opportunity (as Mr. Chute and Mr. Robinson would not take the trouble to defend a cause which they could not carry) to declaim upon corruption: had it come to a trial, there were eighteen witnesses ready to swear positive bribery against Mr. Pultney. I would write to Mr. Chute, and thank him for his letter which you sent me, but I am so out of humour at his brother’s losing his seat, that I cannot speak civilly even to him to-day.

It is said, that my Lord’s Grace of Argyll has carried his great point of the Broad Bottom-as I suppose you will hear by rejoicings from Rome. The new Admiralty is named; at the head is to be Lord Winchilsea, with Lord Granard,(491) Mr. Cockburn, his Grace’s friend, Dr. Lee, the chairman, Lord Vere Beauclerc;(492) one of the old set, by the interest of the Duke of Dorset, and the connexion of Lady Betty Germain, whose niece Lord Vere married; and two Tories, Sir John Hind Cotton and Will. Chetwynd,(493) an agent of Bolingbroke’s-all this is not declared yet, but is believed.

This great Duke has named his four aid-de-camps-Lord Charles Hay; George Stanhope, brother of Earl Stanhope; Dick Lyttelton, who Was page; and a Campbell. Lord Cadogan is not dead, but has been given over.

We are rejoicing over the great success of the Queen of Hungary’s arms, and the number of blows and thwarts which the French have received. It is a prosperous season for our new popular generals to grow glorious!

But, to have done with politics. Old Marlborough has at last published her Memoirs; they are digested by one Hooke, (494) who wrote a Roman history; but from her materials which are so womanish, that I am sure the man might sooner have made a gown and petticoat with them. There are some choice letters from Queen Anne, little inferior in the fulsome to those from King James to the Duke of Buckingham.

Lord Oxford’s (495) famous sale begins next Monday, where there is as much rubbish of another kind as in her grace’s history. Feather bonnets presented by the Americans to Queen Elizabeth; elks’-horns -cups; true copies converted into candle of original pictures that never existed; presents to himself from the Royal Society, etc. particularly forty volumes of prints of illustrious English personages; which collection is collected from frontispieces to godly books, bibles and head-pieces and tail-pieces to Waller’s works; views of King Charles’s sufferings; tops of ballads; particularly earthly crowns for heavenly ones, and streams of glory. There are few good pictures. for the miniatures are not to be sold, nor the manuscripts , the books not till next year. There are a few fine bronzes, and a very fine collection of English coins.

We have got another opera,(496) which is liked. There was to have been a vast elephant, but the just directors, designing to give the audience the full weight of one for their money, made it so heavy that at the prova it broke through the stage. It was to have carried twenty soldiers, with Monticelli on a throne in the middle. There is a new subscription begun for next year, thirty subscribers at two hundred pounds each. Would you believe that I am one? You need not believe it
quite, for I am but half an one; Mr. Conway and I take a share between us. We keep Monticelli and Amorevoli, and to please Lord Middlesex, that odious Muscovita; but shall discard Mr. Vaneschi. We are to have the Barberina and the two Faussans; so, at least, the singers and dancers will be equal to any thing in Europe.

Our earl is still at Richmond: I have not been there yet; I shall go once or twice; for however little inclination I have to it, I would not be thought to grow cool just now. You know I am above such dirtiness, and you are sensible that my coolness is of much longer standing. Your sister is with mine at the Park; they came to town last Tuesday for the opera, and returned next day. After supper, I prevailed on your sister (497) to sing, and though I had heard her before, I thought I never heard any thing beyond it; there is a sweetness in her voice equal to Cuzzoni’s, with a better manner. ‘

I was last week at the masquerade, dressed like an old woman, and passed for a good mask. I took the English liberty of teasing whomever I pleased, particularly old Churchill. I told him I was quite ashamed. of being there till I met him, but was quite comforted with finding one person in the room older than myself. The Duke,(498) who had been told who I was, came up and said, “Je connois cette poitrine.” I took him for some Templar, and replied, “Vous! vous ne connoissez que des poitrines qui sont bien plus us`ees.” It was unluckily pat. The next night, at the drawing-room, he asked me, very good-humouredly, if I knew who was the old woman that had
teased every body at the masquerade. We were laughing so much at this, that the King crossed the room to Lady Hervey, who was with us, and said, “What are those boys laughing at set” She told him, and that I had said I was so awkward at
undressing myself, that I had stood for an hour in my stays and under-petticoat before my footman. My thanks to Madame Grifoni. I cannot write more now, as I must not make my letter too big, when it appears at the secretary’s office nouc. As to my sister, I am sure Sir Robert would never have accepted Prince Craon’s offer, who now, I suppose, would not be eager to repeat it.

(486) Charles, Lord Cadogan, of Oakley, to which title he succeeded on the death of his elder brother, William, Earl Cadogan, who was one of the most distinguished “of Marlborough’s captains.” Charles, Lord Cadogan, did not die at the period when this letter was written. On the contrary, he lived, till the year 1776.-D.

(487) John, seventh Earl of Westmoreland. He built the Palladian Villa of Mereworth, in Kent, which is a nearly exact copy of the celebrated Villa Capra, near Vicenza. He died in 1762. Sir Francis Dashwood succeeded, on his decease, to the barony in fee of Le Despencer.-D.

(488) Sir Francis Dashwood, nephew to the Earl of Westmoreland, had gone violently into Opposition, on that lord’s losing his regiment.

(489) Mr. Glover. (Walpole always depreciates Glover; but his conduct, upon the occasion referred to in the text, displayed considerable ability.-D.) [His speech upon this occasion was afterwards published in a pamphlet, entitled, ,A short Account of the late Application to Parliament, made by the Merchants of London, upon the Neglect of their Trade; with the Substance thereof, as summed up by Mr. Glover.,,]

(490) Arthur Mohun St. Leger, third Viscount Doneraile, in Ireland, of the first creation.
He was at this time member for Winchilsea, was appointed a lord of the bedchamber to Frederick Prince of Wales in 1747, and died at Lisbon in 1749.-D.

(491) George Forbes, third Earl of Granard in Ireland; an admiral, and a member of the House of Commons.-D.

(492) Third son of the first Duke of St. Albans, created in 1750 Lord Vere of Hanworth in Middlesex. He was the direct ancestor of the present line of the St. Albans family. His wife was Mary, daughter and heiress of Thomas Chambers, Esq. of Hanworth, by Lady Mary Berkeley, the sister of lady Betty Germain.-D.

(493) William Richard Chetwynd ‘second brother of the first viscount of that name; member of parliament successively for Stafford and Plymouth. He had been envoy at Genoa, and a lord of the Admiralty; and he finally succeeded his two elder brothers as third Viscount Chetwynd, in 1767.-D. [He was familiarly called “Black Will,” and sometimes “Oroonoka Chetwynd,” from his dark complexion. He died in 1770.]

(494) Nathaniel Hooke, a laborious compiler, but a very bad writer. It is said, that the Duchess of Marlborough gave him 5000 pounds for the services he rendered her, in the composition and publication of her apology. She, however, afterwards quarrelled with him, because she said he tried to convert her to Popery. Hooke was himself of that religion, and was also a Quietist, and an enthusiastic follower of Fenelon. It was Hooke who brought a Catholic priest to attend the deathbed of Pope; a proceeding which excited such bitter inclination in the infidel Bolingbroke. Hooke died July 19, 1763. [When Hooke asked Pope, “whether he should not send for a priest, the dying poet replied, “I do not suppose that is essential, but it will look right.”-Spence, p. 322.)

(495) Edward second Earl of Oxford and Earl Mortimer, only son of the minister, he was a great and liberal patron of literature and learned men, and completed the valuable collection of manuscripts commenced by his father, which is now in the British Museum. He married the great Cavendish heiress, Lady Henrietta Cavendish Holles, daughter of Holles, Duke of Newcastle, and died June 16, 1741.-D.

(496) By Buranello, and called “Scipione in Cartagine.”-E. (497) Mary Mann, afterwards married to Mr. Foote.

(498) Of Cumberland. [William Augustus, third son of George II.)

234 Letter 57
To Sir Horace Mann.
March 10, 1742.

I will not work you up into a fright only to have the pleasure of putting you out of it, but will tell you at once that we have gained the greatest victory! I don’t mean in the person of Admiral Vernon, nor of Admiral Haddock; no. nor in that of his Grace of Argyll. By we, I don’t mean we; England, but we, literally we; not you and I, but we, the House of Orford. The certainty that the Opposition (or rather the Coalition, for that is the new name they have taken) had of carrying every point they wished, made them, in the pride of their hearts, declare that they would move for the Secret Committee yesterday (Tuesday), and next Friday would name the list, by which day they should have Mr. Sandys from his reelection. It was, however, expected to be put off, as Mr. Pultney could not attend the House, his only daughter was dying-they say she is dead.(499) But an affair of consequence to them, and indeed to the nation in general, roused all their rage, and drove them to determine on the last violences. I told you in my last, that the new Admiralty was named, with a mixture of Tories; that is, it was named by my Lord of Argyll; but the King flatly put his negative on Sir John Cotton. They said he was no Tory now, (and, in truth, he yesterday in the House professed himself a Whig,) and that there were no Tories left in the nation. The King replied, “that might be; but he was determined to stand by those who had set him and his family upon the throne.” This refusal enraged them so much, that they declared they would force him, not only to turn out all the old ministry, but the new too, if he wished to save Sir R. and others of his friends; and that, as they supposed he designed to get the great bills passed, and then prorogue the Parliament, they were determined to keep back some of the chief bills, and sit all the summer, examining into the late administration. Accordingly, yesterday, in a most full house, Lord Limerick (500) (who, last year, seconded the famous motion )501)) moved for a committee to examine into the conduct of the last twenty years, and was seconded by Sir John St. Aubin.(502) In short, (for I have not time to tell you the debate at length,) we divided, between eight and nine, when there was not a man of our party that did not expect to lose it by at least fifteen or twenty, but, to our great amazement, and their as great confusion, we threw out the motion, by a majority of 244 against 242.(503) Was there ever a more surprising event! a disgraced minister, by his personal interest, to have a majority to defend him even from inquiry! What was ridiculous, the very man who seconded the motion happened to be shut out at the division; but there was one on our side shut out too.

I don’t know what violent step they will take next; it must be by surprise, for when they could not carry this, it will be impossible for them to carry any thing more personal. We trust that the danger is now past, though they had a great meeting to-day at Doddington ‘S,(504) and threaten still. He was to have made the motion, but was deterred by the treatment he met last week. Sir John Norris was not present; he has resigned all his employments, in a pique for not being named of the new Admiralty. His old Grace of Somerset (505) is reconciled to his son, Lord Hertford, on his late affair of having the regiment taken from him: he sent for him, and told him he had behaved like his son.

My dearest child, I have this moment received a most unexpected and most melancholy letter from you, with an account of your fever and new operation. I did not in the least dream of your having any more trouble from that disorder! are YOU never to be delivered from it? Your letter has shocked me extremely; and then I am terrified at the Spaniards passing so near Florence. If they should, as I fear they will, stay there, how inconvenient and terrible it would be for you, now you are ill! You tell me, and my good Mr. Chute tells me, that you are out of all danger, and much better; but to what can I trust, when you have these continual relapses? The vast time that passes between your writing and my receiving your letters, makes me flatter myself, that by now you are out of all pain: but I am miserable, with finding that you may be still subject to new torture! not all your courage, which is amazing can give me any about you. But how can you write to me? I will not suffer it-and now, good Mr. Chute will write for you. I am so angry at your writing
immediately after that dreadful operation, though I see your goodness in it, that I will not say a word more to you. All the rest is to Mr. Chute.

What shall I say to you, my dearest Sir, for all your tenderness to poor Mr. Mann and me? as you have so much friendship for him, you may conceive how much I am obliged to you. How much do I regret not having had more opportunities of showing you my esteem and love, before this new attention, to Mr. Mann. You do flatter me, and tell me he is recovering–nay I trust you? and don’t you say it, only to comfort me?-Say a great deal for me to Mr. Whithed; he is excessively good to me; I don’t know how to thank him. I am happy that you are so well yourself, and so constant to your fasting. To reward your virtues, I will tell you the news I know; not much, but very extraordinary. What would be the most extraordinary event that you think could happen? Would not-next to his becoming a real patriot-the Duke of Argyll’s resigning be the most unexpected? would any thing be more surprising than his immediately resigning power at having felt the want of them? Be that as it will, he literally, actually, resigned all his new commissions yesterday, because the King refused to employ the Tories.(506) What part he will act next is yet to come. Mrs. Boothby said, upon the occasion, “that in one month’s time he had contrived to please the whole
nation-the Tories, by going to court; the Whigs, by leaving it.”

They talk much of impeaching my father, since they could not committee him; but as they could not, I think they will scarce be able to carry a more violent step. However, to show how little Tory resentments are feared, the King has named a new Admiralty; Lord Winchilsea, Admiral Cavendish, Mr. Cockburn, Dr. Lee, Lord Baltimore, young Trevor,(507) (which is much disliked, for he is of no consequence for estate, and less for parts, but is a relation of the Pelhams,) and Lord Archibald Hamilton,(508)-to please his Royal Highness. Some of his
people (not the Lytteltons and Pitts) stayed away the other night upon the Secret Committee, and they think he will at last rather take his father’s part, than Argyll’s.

Poor Mr. PUltney has lost his girl: she was an only daughter, and sensible and handsome. He has only a son left, and, they say, is afflicted to the greatest degree.

I will say nothing about old Sarah’s Memoirs; for, with some spirit they are nothing but remnants of old women’s frippery. Good night! I recommend my poor Mr. Mann to you, and am yours, most faithfully.

P. S. My dearest child, how unhappy I shall be, till I hear you are quite recovered

(499) The young lady died on the preceding evening. She was in her fourteenth year.-E.

(500) William Hamilton, Lord Viscount Limerick. (According to the peerages, Lord Limerick’s Christian name was James, and not William.-D.)

(501) For removing Sir Robert Walpole.

(502) Sir John St. Aubyn, of Clowance in Cornwall, third baronet of that family.-D. [He died in 1744.

(503) March 9. Motion in the House of Commons for a secret committee to inquire into our affairs for twenty or twenty-one years. The Speaker said Ayes had it: one that was for it divided the House. The Noes carried it by 244 against 242. Mr. Sandys at Worcester, Mr. Pulteny at home-his daughter dying. The Prince at New. Several of his servants, and several Scotch members, not at the House; nor Lord Winchelsea’s brothers. Gibbon, Rushout, Barnard voted for the committee, but did not speak. It is said that the Prince had before this written to Lord Carteret, to desire that Lord Archibald Hamilton and Lord Baltimore might be lords of the Admiralty, and that this had been promised.”-Secker, MS.-E.

(504) “Never was there,” writes Mr. Orlebar to the Rev. Mr. Elough, “a greater disappointment. Those who proved the minority, were so sure of being the majority, that the great Mr. Dodington harangued in the lobby those who went out at the division to desire them not to go away, because there were several other motions to be made in consequence of that: and likewise to bespeak their attendance at the Fountain, in order to settle the committee. Upon which Sir George Oxenden, after they found it was lost, whispered -@t friend thus: I Suppose we were to desire Mr. D. to print the speeches he has just now made in the lobby.”

(505) Charles, commonly called “the proud Duke of Somerset.” An absurd, vain, pompous man, who appears to have been also most harsh and unfeeling to those who depended on him.-D.

(506) March 10. Duke of argyle resigned his places to the King. He gave for a reason, that a proposal had been made to him for going ambassador to Holland, which he understood to be sending him out of the way.” Secker MS.-E.

(507) The Hun. John Trevor, second son of Thomas, first Lord Trevor. He succeeded his elder brother Thomas, as third Lord Trevor, in 1744.-D.

(508) Lord Archibald Hamilton was the seventh and youngest son of Anne, Duchess of Hamilton, in her own right, and of William, Earl of Selkirk, her husband, created by Charles II. Duke of Hamilton, for life b. Lord Archibald married Lady Jane Hamilton, daughter of James, Earl of Abercorn, and by her had three sons; of whom the youngest was Sir William Hamilton, so long the British envoy at the court of Naples.-D.

237 Letter 58
To Sir Horace Mann.
Monday, March 22, 1742.
[Great part of this letter is lost.]

*** I have at last received a letter from you in answer to the first I wrote you upon the change in the ministry. I hope you have received mine regularly since, that you may know all the consequent steps. I like the Pasquinades you sent me, and think the Emperor’s(509) letter as mean as you do. I hope his state will grow more abject every day. It is amazing, the progress and success of the Queen of Hungary’s arms! It is said to-day, that she has defeated a great body of the
Prussians in Moravia. We are going to extend a helping hand to her at last. Lord Stair (510) has accepted what my Lord Argyll resigned, and sets out ambassador to Holland in two days; and afterwards will have the command of’ the troops that are to be sent into Flanders. I am sorry I must send away this to-night, without being able to tell you the event of to-morrow; but I will let you know it on Thursday, if I write but two lines. You have no notion how I laughed at Mrs.
Goldsworthy’s “talking from hand to mouth.”(511) How happy I am that you have Mr. Chute still with you; you would have been distracted else with that simple woman; for fools prey upon one when one has no companion to laugh Them off.

I shall say every thing that is proper for you to the earl, and shall take care about expressing you to him, as I know you have your gratitude far more at heart, than what I am thinking of for you, I mean your stay at Florence. I have spoken very warmly to Lord Lincoln about you, who, I am sure, will serve you to his power. Indeed, as all changes are at a stop, I am convinced there will be no thought of removing you. However, till I see the situation of next winter, I cannot be easy on your account.

I have made a few purchases at Lord Oxford’s sale; a small Vandyke, in imitation of Teniers; an old picture of the Duchess of Suffolk, mother of Lady Jane Grey, and her young husband; a sweet bronze vase by Flamingo, and two or three other trifles. The things sold dear; the antiquities and pictures for about five thousand pounds, which yet, no doubt, cost him much more, for he gave the most extravagant prices. His coins and medals are now selling, and go still dearer. Good night! How I wish for every letter to hear how you mend!

(509) Charles VII. the Emperor of the Bavarian family.-D.

(510) John Dalrymple, second Earl of Stair, a man much distinguished both as a general and a diplomatist. [He served with credit at Dettingen; but, after that battle, resigned his military rank, indignant at the King’s unjust partiality to the Hanoverians. However, on the rebellion of 1745, he was made commander-in-chief, and materially assisted the Duke of Cumberland in the campaign which ended at Culloden. He died in 1747.]

(511) An expression of Mr. Chute.

238 Letter 59
To sir Horace Mann.
March 24, 1742.

I promised you in my last letter to send you the event of yesterday.(512) It was not such as you would wish, for on the division, at nine o’clock at night, we lost it by 242 against 245. We had three people shut out, so that a majority of three (513) is so small that it is scarce doubted, but that, on Friday, when we ballot for the twenty-one to form the committee, we shall carry a list composed of our people, so that then it will be better that we lost it yesterday, as they never can trouble my Lord Orford more, when the Secret Committee consists of his own friends. The motion was made and seconded by the same people as before: Mr. Pultney had been desired, but refused, yet spoke very warmly for it. He declared, “that if they found any proofs against the earl, he would not engage in the prosecution;” and especially protested against resumptions of grants to his family, of which. he said, “there had been much talk, but they were what he would never come into, as being very illegal and unjust.” The motion was quite personal against lord Orford, singly and by name, for his last ten years-the former question had been for twenty years, but as the rules of Parliament do not allow of repeating any individual motion in the same session of its rejection, and as ‘every’ evasion is allowed in this country, half the term was voted by the same House of Commons that had refused an inquiry into the whole; a sort of proof that every omne majus does not continere in se minus-but Houses of Commons can find out evasions to logical axioms, as well as to their own orders. If they carry their list, my lord will be obliged to return from Houghton.

After the division. Mr. Pultney(514) moved for an address to the King; to declare their resolution of standing by him, especially in assisting the Queen of Hungary-but I believe, after the loss of the question, he will not be in very good humour with this address.

I am now going to tell you what you, will not have expected-that a particular friend of yours opposed the motion, and it was the first time he ever spoke. To keep you not in suspense, though you must have guessed, it was 220.(515) As the speech was very favourably heard, and has done him service, I prevailed with him to give me a copy-here it is:-

Mr. Speaker,(516)-I have always thought, Sir, that incapacity and inexperience must prejudice the cause they undertake to defend; and it has been diffidence of myself, not distrust of the cause, that has hitherto made me so silent upon a point on which I ought to have appeared so zealous.

“While the attempts for this inquiry were made in general terms, I should have thought it presumption in me to stand up and defend measures in which so many abler men have been engaged, and which, consequently, they could so much better support; but when the attack grows more personal, it grows my duty to oppose it more particularly, lest I be suspected of an ingratitude which my heart disdains. But I think, Sir, I cannot be suspected of that, unless my not having abilities to defend my father can be construed into a desire not to defend him.