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[34] The mediaeval guild was an important institution, and the guild idea was applied to many forms of mediaeval associations. Thus we read of guilds of notaries in Florence, pleaders’ and attorneys’ guilds in London, medical guilds and barber-surgeons’ guilds in various cities, and of the book-writers-and-sellers’ guild in Paris. In a religious pageant given at York, England, on Corpus Christi Day, 1415, fifty-one different local guilds presented each a scene. (See Cheyney, E. P., _English Towns and Gilds._, Pa. Sources, vol. II, no. I.)

[35] “The ready money of the merchant was as effective a weapon as the sword of the noble, or the spiritual arms of the Church. Very speedily, also, the men of the cities began to seize upon one of the weapons which up to that time had been the exclusive possession of the Church, and one of the main sources of its power,–knowledge and intellectual training. With these two weapons in its hands, wealth and knowledge, the Third Estate forced its way into influence, and compelled the other two (Estates) to recognize it as a partner with themselves in the management of public concerns.” (Adams, G. B., _Civilization during the Middle Ages_, 2d ed. p. 299.)

[36] In Hamburg, for example, the city council established four writing schools in 1402, to which the church authorities objected. The council refused to give them up, and for this was laid under the ban of the Church, compelled to recede, admit that it had no right to establish such schools, and pay the costs involved in the contest.

[37] For example, the three most widely read books of the thirteenth century were _Reynard the Fox_, a profoundly humorous animal epic; _The Golden Legend_, which so deeply impressed Longfellow; and the _Romance of the Rose_, for three centuries the most read book in Europe.

[38] Despite all the criticisms one may offer against business, commerce has always been a great civilizing force. While not anxious to pay heavy taxes, the merchant has always been willing to pay what has been necessary to support a public power capable of maintaining order and security for property. Feudal turmoil, private warfare, and plundering are deadly foes of commerce, and these have come to an end where commerce and industry have gained the ascendant.

[39] As a rule a master craftsman might teach his trade to all his sons, but could have only one other apprentice who received board, lodging, clothing, and training, as one of the family. The guild still supervised the apprentice, protecting him from bad usage or defective training by the master.

[40] This required the production of a “masterpiece.” This piece of work had to be produced to prove high competency. For example, in the shoemakers’ guild of Paris, a pair of boots, three pairs of shoes, and a pair of slippers, all done in the best possible manner, were required.

[41] Of thirty-three guilds investigated by Leach, all maintained song schools, and twenty-eight maintained a grammar school as well. In London, Merchant Taylors’ School, Stationers’ School, and the Mercers’ School are present-day survivals of these ancient guild foundations.


[1] By the twelfth century the cathedral schools had passed the monastic schools in importance, and had obtained a lead which they were ever after to retain (R. 71).

[2] As contrasted with the monasteries, which were under a “Rule.” The opportunities offered by such open institutions in the Middle Ages can hardly be overestimated.

[3] Frederick I, of the mediaeval Holy Roman Empire of Germany and Italy.

[4] “No individual during the Middle Ages was secure in his rights, even of life or property, certainly not in the enjoyment of ordinary freedom, unless protected by specific guarantees secured from some organization. Politically, one must owe allegiance to some feudal lord from whom protection was received; economically, one must secure his rights through merchant or craft guild; intellectual interests and educational activities were secured and controlled by the Church.” (Monroe, P., _Text Book in the History of Education_, p. 317.)

[5] At first the older institutions organized themselves without charter, securing this later, while the institutions founded after 1300 usually began with a charter from pope or king, and sometimes from both (R. 100).

[6] The degree of master was originally the license to practice the teaching trade, and analogous to a master shoemaker, goldsmith, or other master craftsmen.

[7] “The universities, then, at their origins, were merely academic associations, analogous, as societies of mutual guaranty, to the corporations of working men, the commercial leagues, the trade-guilds which were playing so great a part at the same epoch; analogous also, by the privileges granted to them, to the municipal associations and political communities that date from the same time.” (Compayre, G., _Abelard and the Rise of the Universities_, p. 33.)

[8] “M. Bimbenet, in his _History of the University of Orleans_ (Paris, 1853) reproduces several articles from the statutes of the guilds, the provisions of which are identical with those contained in the statutes of the universities.” (_Ibid._, p. 35.)

[9] Bologna and Paris were the great “master” universities of the thirteenth century, while those founded on a model of either were more in the nature of “journeymen” institutions.

[10] Between 1600 and 1700, although most of the cities capable of supporting universities were provided with them, twenty-one more were created, chiefly in Germany and Holland. The first American university (Harvard) was established in 1636, and the second (Yale) in 1702. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, without counting the United States or any western-hemisphere country, forty more were created. Among the important nineteenth-century creations were Berlin, 1810; Christiana, 1811; St. Petersburg, 1819; Brussels, 1834; London, 1836; and Athens, 1836.

[11] See Compayre, G., _Abelard_, pp. 87-90 for list of these “strikes.”

[12] “It is impossible to fix the period at which the system of degrees began to be organized. Things were done slowly. At the outset, and until towards the end of the twelfth century, there existed nothing resembling a real conferring of degrees in the rising universities. In order to teach it was necessary to have a respondent, a master authorized by age and knowledge….

“The ‘license to teach,’ nevertheless, became by slow degrees, as master and pupils multiplied, a preliminary condition of teaching, a sort of diploma more and more requisite, and of which the bishops (or their representatives, the chancellors) were the dispensers. Up to the fourteenth century there was hardly any other clearly-defined university title.” (Compayre, G., _Abelard_, pp. 142-43.)

[13] “It is manifest that the universities borrowed from the industrial corporations their ‘companionships,’ their ‘masterships,’ and even their banquets; a great repast being the ordinary sequel of the reception of the baccalaureate or doctorate.” (Compayre, G., _Abelard_, p. 141.)

[14] The term professor has become general in its significance, and is used in all countries. In England the term master was retained for the higher degree, while in Germany the term doctor was retained, and the doctorate made their one degree. America followed the English plan in the establishment of the early colleges, and the degree of A.B. and A.M. were provided for. Later, when the German university influence became prominent in the United States, the doctor’s degree was superimposed on the English plan.

[15] At Paris, for example, there were four nations–France, Picardy, Normandy, and England. These were again divided into tribes, as for example, there were five tribes of the French–Paris, Sens, Rheims, Tours, and Bourges. Orleans had ten nations–France, Germany, Lorraine, Burgundy, Champagne, Picardy, Normandy, Touraine, Guyenne, and Scotland. In those days these represented separate nationalities, who little understood one another, and carried their constant quarrels up to the very lecture benches of the professors.

[16] A contemporary writer, Jacobus de Vitriaco, has left us an account of student life at Paris, in which he says:

“The students at Paris wrangled and disputed not merely about the various sects or about some discussions; but the differences between the countries also caused dissensions, hatreds and virulent animosities among them, and they impudently uttered all kinds of affronts and insults against one another.

“They affirmed that the English were drunkards and had tails; the sons of France proud, effeminate and carefully adorned like women. They said that the Germans were furious and obscene at their feasts; the Normans vain and boastful; the Poitevins traitors and always adventurers. The Burgundians they considered vulgar and stupid. The Bretons were reputed to be fickle and changeable, and were often reproached for the death of Arthur. The Lombards were called avaricious, vicious and cowardly; the Romans, seditious, turbulent and slanderous; the Sicilians, tyrannical and cruel; the inhabitants of Brabant, men of blood, incendiaries, brigands and ravishers; the Flemish, fickle, prodigal, gluttonous, yielding as butter, and slothful. After such insults from words they often came to blows.” (Pa. Trans. and Repts. from _Sources_, vol. II, no. 3, pp. 19-20.)

[17] In an American university the term _college_ or _school_ has largely replaced the term _faculty_; in Europe the term _faculty_ is still used. Thus we say College of Liberal Arts, or School of Law, instead of Faculty of Arts, etc.

[18] For example, one of our modern state universities is organized into the following faculties, schools, and colleges:

(1) college of liberal arts;
(2) school of medicine;
(3) school of law;
(4) school of fine arts;
(5) school of pure science;
(6) college of engineering;
(7) college of agriculture;
(8) school of history, economics, and social sciences; (9) school of business administration; (10) college of education;
(11) school of household arts;
(12) school of pharmacy;
(13) school of veterinary medicine; (14) school of library science;
(15) school of forestry;
(16) school of sanitary engineering; (17) the graduate school; and
(18) the university-extension division.

[19] “He was called ‘The Philosopher’; and so fully were scholars convinced that it had pleased God to permit Aristotle to say the last word upon each and every branch of knowledge that they humbly accepted him, along with the Bible, the church fathers, and the canon and Roman law, as one of the unquestioned authorities which together formed a complete guide for humanity in conduct and in every branch of science.” (Robinson, J. H., _History of Western Europe_, p. 272.)

[20] This tendency increased with time, due both to the development of secondary schools which could give part of the preparation, and to the increasing number of students who came to the university for cultural or professional ends and without intending to pass the tests for the mastership and the license to teach. Finally the arts course was reduced to three or four years (the usual college course), and the master’s degree to one, and for the latter even residence was waived during the middle of the nineteenth century. The A.M. degree has recently been rehabilitated and now usually signifies a year of hard study in English and American universities, though a few eastern American institutions still play with it or even grant it as an honorary degree. In Germany the arts course disappeared, being given to the secondary schools entirely in the late eighteenth century, and the universities now confer only the degree of doctor.

[21] For a list of the books used in the faculty of medicine at Montpellier, in 1340, see Rashdall, H., _Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages_, vol. II, pt. I, p. 123; pt. II, p. 780.

[22] After the latter part of the thirteenth century the book-writing and selling trade was organized as a guild industry, and the copying of texts for sale became common. Then arose the practice of erasing as much of the writing from old books as could be done, and writing the new book crosswise of the page. In this way the expense for parchment was reduced, and in the process many valueless and a few valuable books were destroyed. Still, the cost for books during the days of parchment must have been high. Walsh estimates that “an ordinary folio volume probably cost from 400 to 500 francs in our [1914] values, that is, between $80 and $100.”

[23] In Germany the old mediaeval expression has been retained, and the announcements of instruction there still state that the professor will “read” on such and such subjects, instead of “offer courses,” as we say in the United States.

[24] Norton, in his _Readings in the History of Education; Mediaeval Universities_, pp. 59-75, gives an extract from a text (Gratian) and “gloss” by various writers, on the question–“Shall Priests be Acquainted with Profane Literature, or No?” which see for a good example of mediaeval university instruction and the manner in which a small amount of knowledge was spun out by means of a gloss.

[25] Not many early library catalogues have been preserved, but those which have all show small libraries before the days of printing. At Oxford, where the university was broken up into colleges, each of which had its own library, the following college libraries are known to have existed: Peterhouse College (1418), 304 volumes; Kings College (1453), 174 volumes; Queens College (1472), 199 volumes; University Library (1473), 330 volumes. The last two were just before the introduction of printing. The Peterhouse library (1418) was classified as follows:

Subject Chained Loanable
Theology………… 61 63
Natural Philosophy.. 26 |
Moral Philosophy…. 5 | 19
Metaphysics……… 3 |
Logic…………… 5 15
Grammar…………. 6 |
Poetry………….. 4 | 13
Medicine………… 15 3
Civil Law……….. 9 20
Canon Law……….. 18 19
Totals………….. 152 152
(Clarke. J. W., _The Care of Books_, pp. 145, 147.)

[26] Survivals of these old privileges still exist in the German universities which exercise police jurisdiction over their students and have a university jail, and in the American college student’s feeling of having the right to create a disturbance in the town and break minor police regulations without being arrested and fined.

[27] See Compayre, G., _Abelard_, p. 201, for illustrations.



[1] One of the best known of the Troubadours was Arnaul de Marveil. The following specimen of his art reveals both the new love of nature and the reaction which had clearly set in against the “other-worldliness” of the preceding centuries:

“Oh! how sweet the breeze of April,
Breathing soft as May draws near,
While, through nights of tranquil beauty, Songs of gladness meet the ear:
Every bird his well-known language Uttering in the morning’s pride.
Reveling in joy and gladness
By his happy partner’s side.

“When around me all is smiling,
When to life the young birds spring, Thoughts of love I cannot hinder
Come, my heart inspiriting-
Nature, habit, both incline me
In such joy to bear my part:
With such sounds of bliss around me Could I wear a sadden’d heart?”

[2] “In the Middle Ages man as an individual had been held of very little account. He was only part of a great machine. He acted only through some corporation–the commune, guild, the order. He had but little self- confidence, and very little consciousness of his ability single-handed to do great things or overcome great difficulties. Life was so hard and narrow that he had no sense of the joy of living, and no feeling for the beauty of the world around him, and, as if this world were not dark enough, the terrors of another world beyond were very near and real.” (Adams, G. B., _Civilization during the Middle Ages_, 2d ed., p. 363.)

[3] Adams, G. B., _Civilization during the Middle Ages_, 2d. ed., p. 364.

[4] Petrarch refused to have the works of the Scholastics in his library. Though a university man, he was out of sympathy with the university methods of his time.

[5] “Florence was essentially the city of intelligence in early modern times. Other nations have surpassed the Italians in their genius … but nowhere else except at Athens has the whole population of a city been so permeated with ideas, so highly intellectual by nature, so keen in perception, so witty and so subtle, as at Florence.” (Symonds, J. A., _The Renaissance in Italy_.)

[6] Sandys, J. E., in his _Harvard Lectures on the Revival of Learning_, pp. 35-41, gives a list of the more important later finds, which see.

[7] Of the Florentine scholars one of the most famous was Niccolo Niccoli (1363-1436), of whom Sandys says: “Famous for his beautiful penmanship, he was much more than a copyist. He collected manuscripts, compared and collated their various readings, struck out the more obvious corruptions, restored the true text, broke it up into convenient paragraphs, added suitable summaries at the head of each, and did much toward laying the foundation of textual criticism.” (Sandys, J. E., _Harvard Lectures on the Revival of Learning_, p. 39.)

[8] For example, Laurentius Valla (1407-57) of Pavia, exceeded Niccoli in ability in textual criticism. He extended this method to the New Testament and, at the request of King Alphonso, of Naples, subjected the so-called “Donation of Constantine,” a document upon which the Papacy based in part its claims to temporal power, to the tests of textual criticism and showed its historical impossibility. This, indeed, was a new and daring spirit in the mediaeval world, but it represented the spirit and method of the modern scholar.

[9] For example, Ciriaco, of Ancona (1391-1450), has been called “the Schliemann of his time.” He spent his life in travel and in copying and editing inscriptions. After exploring Italy, he visited the Greek isles, Constantinople, Ephesos, Crete, and Damascus. One of his contemporaries, Flavio Blondo, of Forli (1388-1463), published a four-volume work on the antiquities and history of Rome and Italy. These two men helped to found the new science of classical archaeology.

[10] Classical scholars assert that Greek became extinct in the Italy of the Roman Church in 690 A.D. Greek was taught at Canterbury in the days of the learned Theodore, of Tarsus (R. 59 a), who died in 690. Irish monks, who carried Greek from Gaul to Ireland in the fifth century, brought it back in the seventh century to Saint Gall, founded by them in 614. “John the Scot,” an Irish monk who was master of the Palace School under Charles the Bald (c. 845-55), is said to have been able to read Greek. Roger Bacon, the Oxford monk (1214-94), also knew a little Greek. William of Moerbeke, in 1260, was able to translate the _Rhetoric_ and _Politics_ of Aristotle for Thomas Aquinas. Greek monks were still found in the extreme south of Italy at the time of the Renaissance, and Greek has remained a living language in a few villages there up to the present time.

[11] Gian Antonio Campano; trans. by J. A. Symonds, _The Renaissance in Italy_, vol. II, p. 249.

[12] For long it was thought that the revival of the study of Greek in the West dated from the fall of Constantinople, in 1453, but this idea has been exploded by classical scholars. The events we have enumerated in this chapter show this, and at least five of the important Greek scholars who taught in Italy came before that date. As the Turks closed in on this wonderful eastern city, for so long the home of Greek learning and culture, many other Greek scholars fled westward. The principal Greek authors had, however, been translated into Latin before then.

[13] Some of the Italian universities participated but little in the new movement. Bologna and Pavia, in particular, held to their primacy in law and were but little affected by the revival.

[14] Bessarion (c. 1403-72), at one time Archbishop of Nicaea and afterwards a cardinal at Rome, is said to have been surrounded by a crowd of Greek and Latin scholars whenever he went out, and who escorted him every morning from his palace to the Vatican. He was a great patron of learned Greeks who fled to Italy. On his death he gave his entire library of Greek manuscripts to Venice, and this collection formed the foundation of the celebrated library of Saint Mark’s.

[15] Symonds, J. A., _The Renaissance in Italy_, vol. II, p. 139.

[16] In 1436, Niccolo de Niccoli, a copyist of Florence, died, leaving his collection of eight hundred manuscripts to the Medicean Library for the use of the public, meaning thereby any scholar. This is said to have been the first public-library collection in western Europe.

[17] Nicholas as a monk had had his enthusiasm for the new movement awakened, and had gone deeply into debt for manuscripts. He was helped by Cosimo de’ Medici. When he became Pope (1447-55) he collected scholars about him, built up the university at Rome, laid the foundations of the great Vatican Library, and made Rome a great literary center. After the death of Lorenzo the Magnificent at Florence, in 1492, the glory that had been Florence passed to Rome, and it in turn became the cultural center of Christendom.

[18] Much earlier, another Oxford man had returned from study under Guarino at Ferrara–William Gray (1449)–but he seems to have made no impression. A few other scholars went before Linacre and Grocyn and Colet, but these men were the first to attract attention on their return.

[19] Agricola’s real name was Roelof Huysman, meaning “Roelof the husbandman.” In keeping with a common practice of the time he Latinized his name, taking the equivalent Roman word.

[20] This was bound in two volumes, and in 1911 a copy of it was sold at a sale of old books, in New York City, for $50,000.

[21] A second edition of this Psalter was printed two years later, and contains at the end, in Latin, a statement which Robinson translates as follows: “The present volume of the Psalms, which is adorned with handsome capitals and is clearly divided by means of rubrics, was produced not by writing with a pen, but by an ingenious invention of printed characters: and was completed to the glory of God and the honor of Saint James by John Fust, a citizen of Mayence, and Peter Schoifher of Gernsheim, in the year of our Lord 1459, on the 29th of August.”

[22] The usual early edition was three hundred copies.

[23] At Florence about three hundred editions are said to have been printed before 1500; at Bologna, 298; at Milan, 625; and at Rome, 925.

[24] The following numbers of different editions are said to have been printed at the northern cities before 1500: Paris, 751; Cologne, 530; Strassburg, 526; Nuremberg, 382; Leipzig, 351; Basel, 320; Augsburg, 256; Louvain, 116; Mayence, 134; Deventer, 169; London, 130; Oxford, 7; Saint Albans, 4.

[25] By 1500 it is said that a book could be purchased for the equivalent of fifty cents which a half century before would have cost fifty dollars.


[1] Much as universities have contributed to intellectual progress, hostility to new types of thinking and to new subjects of study has been, through all time, a characteristic of many of their members, and often it has required much pressure from progressive forces on the outside to overcome their opposition to new lines of scholarship and public service.

[2] For a list of these treatises, see Monroe’s _Cyclopedia of Education_, vol. v, p. 154.

[3] The distinguished author, Montaigne, was mayor in 1580.

[4] This order had begun as an institution for the instruction of the poor, emphasizing the use of the Bible and the vernacular, but when the new learning came in from Italy, classical learning was added and the instruction of the brotherhood became largely humanistic.

[5] The influence of the old Greek classical terms in this connection is interesting, and is another evidence of the permanence of Greek ideas. Sturm here adopted the Italian nomenclature, Vittorino da Feltre having called his school a _Gymnasium Palatinum_, or Palace School. Guarino wrote of _gymnasia Italorum_. Both derived the term from the _Gymnasia_ of ancient Greece, just as the academies of the Italian cities took their name from the _Academy_ of Plato at Athens (p. 44). Another famous Greek school was the _Lyceum_, founded by Aristotle (p. 44). All these names came in during the Revival of Learning in Italy, and were applied to the new classical schools at a time when every term, and even the names of men, were given classical form. As a result the Italian secondary schools of to-day are known as _ginnasio_, and the German classical secondary schools as _gymnasia_. The French took their term from the _Lyceum_, hence the French _lycees_. The English named their classical schools after the chief subject of study, hence the English _grammar schools_. In 1638 Milton visited Italy, and was much entertained in Florence by members of the academy and university there. In 1644 he published his _Tractate on Education_, in which he outlined his plan for a series of classical _academies_ for England. Milton was a church reformer, as were the Puritans, and the Puritans, in settling America, brought over first the term _grammar school_, and later the term _academy_ to England.

[6] Melanchthon, in his famous Saxony plan of 1528, had provided for but three classes (R. 161). The class-for-each-year idea was new in German lands.

[7] This became a fixed practice, Latin being the one language of the school. A century later, when it was attempted by the Jansenists, in France, to teach Greek directly through the vernacular, the practice was loudly condemned by the Jesuits as impious, because it broke the connection between France and Rome.

[8] His phrase book, _De Copia Verborum et Rerum_, went through sixty editions in his lifetime, and was popular for a century after his death. His book of proverbs, the _Adagia_, was in both Latin and Greek, and was widely used. His Book of Sayings from the Ancients (_Apophthegmata_) was a collection of little stories, much like some of our best modern books for elementary-school use. His _Colloquies_, or Latin dialogues, were widely used for two centuries in Protestant countries. These four were written between 1511 and 1519, and largely for use in Saint Paul’s School. His Latin edition of Theodorus Gaza’s Greek Grammar (1516) gave English schools for the first time a standard text.

[9] They were _On the First Liberal Education of Children_ (1529), and _On the Order of Study_ (1511).

[10] His _Praise of Folly_ (1509), and his _Ciceronian_ (1528).

[11] The introduction of the new learning into the English universities was easier than elsewhere, because the English universities had broken up into groups of residence halls, known as _colleges_. If the old colleges could not be reformed new ones could be created, and this took place. Trinity College, at Cambridge, founded in 1540, was from the first a center of humanistic studies. That same year the King founded royal professorships of Civil Law, Hebrew, and Greek at Cambridge.

[12] Elizabeth had had for her tutor Roger Ascham, author of _The Scholemaster_, and a teacher of Greek at Cambridge (R. 139).

[13] For generations this famous grammar was to England what Donatus was to mediaeval Europe. It was also used in the grammar schools of New England. Lily visited Jerusalem and studied under the best Latin teachers in Rome, so that he ranks with Linacre, Grocyn, and Colet as an introducer of classical culture into England.

[14] Winchester was the first of the so-called “great public schools” of England, of which Eton, Saint Paul’s, Westminster, Harrow, Charterhouse, Rugby, Shrewsbury, and Merchant Taylors’ are the other eight. The foundation statutes of Winchester made elaborate provision for “a Warden, a Head Master, ten Fellows, three Chaplains, an Usher, seventy scholars, three Chapel Clerks, sixteen Choristers, and a large staff of servants,” as did Henry VIII later on for Canterbury (R. l72 a). The Warden and Fellows were the trustees. In addition to the seventy scholars (Foundationers) other non-foundationers (Commoners) were to be admitted to instruction. The admission requirements were to be “reading, plain song, and Old Donatus,” and the school was to teach Grammar, the first of the Liberal Arts. Except for the change in the nature of the instruction when the new learning came in, this and the other “public schools” remained almost unchanged until the second half of the nineteenth century.

[15] Statutes for this school had provided the following entrance regulations: “But first see that they can the Catechisme in English or Latyn, that every one of the said two hundred & fifty schollers can read perfectly & write competently, or els lett them not be admitted in no wise.”

[16] His _The Positions_ (1581), and _The Elementarie_ (1582). See Chapter XVIII.

[17] Solomon Lowe, in his Grammar, published in 1726, gives a bibliography of 128 _Phrase Books_ which had appeared by that time. The following selection from the _Colloquies_ of Corderius (R. 136) illustrates their nature:

Col. 7. Clericus Col. 7. Clericus, The Master. Magister.
C. Master, may not I and my uncle’s Licetne, Magister, ut ego & son go home? patruelis eamus domom? M. To what end? Quid eo?
C. To my sister’s daughter’s wedding. Ad nuptias consobrinae. M. When is she to be married? Quando est nuptura? C. To-morrow. Crastino die. M. Why will you go so quickly? Cur tam cito vultis ire? C. To CHANGE OUR CLOATHS. _Ut mutemus vestimenta_.

[18] Sturm, Trotzendorf, and Neander insisted on the use of Latin in all conversation in the school, and the Jesuits later on subjected boys to a whipping if reported as having used the vernacular.

[19] Leach, A. F., _English Schools at the Reformation_, p. 105.


[1] Up to this time the only Latin Bible had been the _Vulgate_ (p. 131), translated by Jerome in the fourth century. Erasmus went back to and edited the original Greek manuscripts, and then prepared a new parallel Latin translation, the two being printed side by side. He also added many explanations of his own which mercilessly exposed the mistakes of the theologians and the Church, and pointed out the errors in translation which were embodied in the _Vulgate_. This work passed through numerous editions and sold in thousands of copies all over Europe.

So dangerous was this comparative method that “Greek was judged a heretical tongue. No one should lecture on the New Testament, it was declared, without a previous theological examination. It was held to be heresy to say that the Greek or Hebrew text read thus, or that a knowledge of the original language is necessary to interpret the Scriptures correctly.”

[2] This was accomplished between 1382 and 1384. Wycliffe translated only a part of the Old Testament, and the Gospels of Saint Matthew and Saint Mark of the New. The remainder was done under his direction by others. The translation was from the Latin _Vulgate_, and was crude and imperfect. The large number of copies of parts of this translation which have survived, in manuscript form, to the present time show that it must have awakened much interest, and been widely copied and recopied during the century before the invention of printing.

[3] The heretic, it should be remembered, was the anarchist of the Middle Ages. The Church regarded heresy as a crime, worthy of the most severe punishments. The Church and the civil governments proceeded against the heretic as against an enemy of society and order. Heretics could not give evidence in a civil court, were prohibited from marrying or from giving a son or daughter in marriage, and even to speak with a heretic was an offense. Even torture and death were regarded as justified to stamp out heresy.

[4] “What would have been the result had the Council of Constance succeeded where it failed? It seems certain that one result would have been the formation of a government for the Church like that which was taking shape at the same time in England–a limited monarchy with a legislature gradually gaining more and more the real control of affairs. It seems almost equally certain that with this the churches of each nationality would have gained a large degree of local independence, and the general government of the Church have assumed by degrees the character of a great federal and constitutional State. If this had been the case, it is hard to see why all the results which were accomplished by the reformation of Luther might not have been attained as completely without the violent disruption of the Church.” (Adams, G. B., _Civilisation during the Middle Ages_, p. 403.)

[5] In 1302 the first “Estates-General” of France supported the King, and denied the right of the Pope to any supremacy over the State in France. In England, about the same time, the right of the Pope to levy taxation on the English was disputed by King and Parliament. In 1446 William III of Saxony limited the powers of ecclesiastical courts, and forbade appeals from Saxon decisions to any foreign court.

[6] The London _Academy_, 1893, p. 197, published evidence to show that there was a widespread demand among the bishops of Spain for church reformation, during the fifteenth century, and along the same lines that Luther advocated later.

[7] “But all these attempts at reformation in the Church, large and small, had failed, as had those of the early fifteenth century to reform its government, leaving the Church as thoroughly mediaeval in doctrine and in practical religion as it was in polity. It was the one power, therefore, belonging to the Middle Ages which still stood unaffected by the new forces and opposed to them. In other directions the changes had been many; here nothing had been changed. And its resisting power was very great. Endowed with large wealth, strong in numbers in every State, with no lack of able and thoroughly trained minds, its interests, as it regarded them, in maintaining the old were enormous, and its power of defending itself seemed scarcely to be broken….

“The Church had remained unaffected by the new forces which had transformed everything else. It was still thoroughly mediaeval. In government, in doctrine, and in life it still placed the greatest emphasis upon those additions which the peculiar conditions of the Middle Ages had built upon the foundations of the primitive Christianity, and it was determined to remain unchanged.” (Adams, G. B., _Civilization during the Middle Ages_, pp. 406, 412.)

[8] Every reform movement produces two kinds of reformers, each seeking the same ultimate goal, but differing materially as to methods of work. In the religious conflict these two types are well represented by Erasmus and Luther. Erasmus was as deeply interested in religious reform as Luther and devoted the energies of a lifetime to trying to secure reform, but he believed that reformation should come from within, and that the way to obtain it was to remain within the old organization and work to reform it. Luther represented the other type, the type which feels that things are too bad for mere reform to be effective, and that what is wanted is rebellion against the old. The two types seldom agree as to means, and usually part company. One is content to be known as a conservative or a conformer; the other delights in being classed as a progressive or even as a radical.

[9] “The early Protestant theory was that an individual’s Christian religious life, convictions, and salvation were to be worked out through a direct study of the Scriptures, acceptance of the obvious teachings of Christ as there presented, and direct appeal to God through prayer for help in leading a Christian life. The Catholic position, on the other hand, came to be that the individual’s religious life was to be achieved through the intervention of the Church, which claimed on historical grounds to have been founded by Christ, and to be his official representative and mediator in the world. It was through the teachings of this Church that the individual was to receive his ideas of the Christian religion, to be stimulated to believe these, to be kept in the path of righteousness, and to obtain salvation.” (Parker, S. C., _History of Modern Elementary Education_, p. 35.)

[10] Adams, G. B., _Civilization during the Middle Ages_, p. 413.

[11] A good illustration of the way parts of Germany and German Switzerland were divided by religious differences is to be found in the Canton of Appenzell, in northeastern Switzerland. As each small governmental division had to follow the religion of the ruling prince in Germany, so in Switzerland the cantons divided on religious lines. To compromise matters in Appenzell the canton was divided into two half cantons, following the religious wars of 1597–Inner Rhoden, of sixty- three square miles, exclusively Roman Catholic, and Outer Rhoden, of ninety-six square miles, entirely under the Swiss Reformed Church.

[12] Calvinism is also a product of the northern humanism, Calvin’s difficulties with the Church arising out of his study of the Greek texts. Calvin had received an excellent theological and legal education, and used the knowledge and training derived from both to help him formulate a comprehensive system of belief.

[13] Like the famous _Sentences_ of Peter Lombard (p. 171), it formed a splendid textbook of the new faith. Calvin based his work on the infallibility of the Bible, as against that of the Church and Pope, and presented, in a remarkably clear and logical manner, the principles of Calvinistic doctrine. Before 1630, as many as seventy-four full editions and fourteen partial editions of the _Institutes_ had been printed, and in nine different languages.

[14] This went through seventy-seven editions (fourteen in English) before 1630, and in nearly all the languages of Europe, and was one of four Catechisms, one of which was required of all Oxford undergraduates in 1578. It was adopted by the Scotch, Huguenot, French-Swiss, and Walloon (Dutch) churches, and was widely used in Holland, England, and America. (See “Calvin and Calvinism,” in Monroe’s _Cyclopedia of Education_, vol. I.)

[15] By 1560 the Calvinists had two thousand houses for religious worship in France, and demanded religious freedom. In 1562 the persecutions began in earnest, and for the next thirty-six years religious warfare ruled in France. In 1598 the Edict of Nantes established religious freedom, though this was revoked in 1685.

[16] Even the celebrated Peace of Augsburg (1555) which left to each German prince and each town and knight the liberty to choose between the beliefs of the Roman Church and the Lutheran, provided only for religious freedom for the rulers, and only one alternative. Calvinists, for example, hated equally by Catholic and Lutheran, were not included. So deeply was the idea of Church and State as inseparable embedded in the minds of men that no provision was made for the religious freedom of subjects. This was a much later evolution, coming first in America.

[17] In the proposals for the League of Nations Covenant, made at the conclusion of the World War, in 1919, religious freedom for all persons in any State in the League was finally decided to be a necessary principle for any world league.

[18] Paulsen, Fr., _German Education, Past and Present_, pp. 96-97.

[19] The terms _atheist_ and _atheism_ now arose, as the modern substitutes for excommunication and imprisonment, and during the next two centuries these were applied, by the churchmen of the time, to almost every prominent philosopher and scientist and independent thinker.

[20] Very severe measures were enacted to prevent the spread of the contagion of heresy. All Protestant literature was forbidden circulation in Catholic lands. The printing-press, as a disseminator of heresy, was placed under strict license. Certain books were ordered burned. Perhaps the most extreme and ruthless measure was the prohibition, under penalty of death, of the reading of the Bible. That this harsh act was carried out the record of martyrs shows. As one example may be mentioned the sister of the Flemish artist Matsys and her husband, he being decapitated and she buried alive in the square fronting the cathedral at Louvain, in 1543, for having been caught reading the sacred Book.


[1] Dr. Philip Schaff, the Church historian, says: “Schleiermacher reduced the whole difference between Romanism and Protestantism to the formula, ‘Romanism makes the relation of the individual to Christ depend on his relation to the Church: Protestantism, _vice versa_, makes the relation of the individual to the Church depend on his relation to Christ.'” (Quoted by G. B. Adams, from a pamphlet, _Luther Symposiac_, Union Seminary, 1883.)

[2] The importance of writing before the days of printing can readily be appreciated. Just as the monk was carefully trained to copy manuscript, so the clerk for a city or a business house needed to be carefully trained to read and write. Writing formed a distinct profession, there being the “city writer” (city clerk, we say), Latin and vernacular secretaries, traveling writers, writing teachers, etc. Writing masters sometimes taught reading also, but usually not. In some French cities the guild of writing masters was granted an official monopoly of the privilege of teaching writing in the city.

[3] Reckoning schools were to meet direct commercial needs in the cities, and were seldom found outside of commercial towns. The arithmetic taught in the Latin schools as a part of the Seven Liberal Arts was largely theoretical; the arithmetic in the reckoning schools was practical. The work of the professional reckoner in time developed similarly to that of the professional writer, and often the two were combined in one person. When employed by a city he was known as the city clerk. In 1482 the first reckoning book to be published in Germany appeared, filled with merchant’s rules and applied problems in denominate numbers and exchange. See an interesting monograph by Jackson, L. L., _Sixteenth Century Arithmetic_ (Trs. College Pubs., No. 8, 1906).

[4] Luther tried to make a translation so simple that even the unlearned might profit by listening to its reading. To insure that his translation should be in a language that would be perfectly clear and natural to the common people, he went about asking questions of laborers, children, and mothers to secure good colloquial expressions. It sometimes took him weeks to secure the right word, but so satisfactory was the result that it fixed the standard for modern German, and still stands as the most conspicuous landmark in the history of the German language.

[5] The French version of this great original work represents the first use of French as a language for an argumentative treatise, and, as Calvin’s work was more widely discussed than any other Protestant theological treatise, it did much to fix the character of this national language.

[6] “Tyndale’s translation is not only the first which goes back to the original tongues, but it is so noble a translation in its mingled tenderness and majesty, its Saxon simplicity, and its smooth, beautiful diction that it has been but little improved on since. Every succeeding version is little more than a revision of Tyndale’s.” (J. Paterson Smyth, _How We Got Our Bible_.)

The following extract from Matthew is illustrative: “O oure father which art in heven, halewed be thy name. Let thy kingdom come. Thy wyll be fulfilled, as well in erth, as hit ys in heven. Geve vs this daye oure dayly breade. And forgeve vs oure treaspases, even as we forgeve them whych treaspas vs. Lede vs nott in to temptacion, but delyvre vs from yvell. Amen.”

[7] The most famous of Luther’s German hymns, and one expressive of the Protestant spirit, is the one beginning:

“Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott, “A mighty fortress is our God, Ein gute Wehr und Waffen.” A bulwark never failing.”

This hymn has often been called “The Marseillaise of the Reformation.”

[8] The evolution, during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, of the German vernacular school-teacher out of the parish sexton is one of the interesting bits of our educational history.

[9] Magdeburg is typical, where the Lutherans united all the parish schools under the supervision of one pastor.

[10] Wittenberg, founded in 1502 as a new-learning university, and in which Luther, Melanchthon, and Bugenhagen were professors, was the first of the universities to become Protestant. Gradually the other universities in Protestant Germany threw off their allegiance to the Pope, and took on that of the ruling prince.

[11] The first Protestant university to be founded was Marburg, in Hesse, in 1527. When this later went over to Calvinism, a new university was founded at Giessen, in 1607, by a migration of the Lutheran professors. Other Protestant universities founded were Koenigsberg (1544) Jena (1555), Helmstadt (1576), and the free-city universities of Altdorf (1573), Strassburg (1621), Rinteln (1621), Duisberg (1655) and Kiel (1665). The support of these came, to a considerable extent, from old monastic or ecclesiastical foundations which had been dissolved after the Reformation.

[12] This was in response to a petition to the King, nearly two years before. The King finally granted the request, “though maintaining that he was not compelled by God’s Word to set forth the Scriptures in English, yet ‘of his own liberality and goodness was and is pleased that his said loving subjects should have and read the same in convenient places and times.'” (Procter and Frere, _History of the Book of Common Prayer_, p. 30.)

[13] “The injunctions directed that ‘a Bible of the largest volume in English’ be set up in some convenient place in every church, where it might be read, only without noise, or disturbance of any public service, and without any disputation, or exposition.” (_Ibid._, p. 30.)

[14] The right to read the Bible was later revoked, during the closing years of Henry VIII’s reign (d. 1547), by an act of Parliament, in 1543, which provided that “no woman (unless she be a noble or gentle woman), no artificers, apprentices, journeymen, servingmen, under the degree of yeomen … husbandmen, or laborers” should read or use any part of the Bible under pain of fines and imprisonment.

[15] These were, distributed by reigns, as follows:

Henry VIII (1509-1547) 63 schools Edward VI (1547-1553) 50 “
Mary (1553-1558) 19 “
Elizabeth (1558-1603) 138 “
James I (1603-1625)
Charles I (1625-1649) 142 “
Protectorate (1649-1660)
Charles II (1660-1685)
James II (1685-1688) 146 “


[1] “These Calvinists had a common program of broad scope–not merely doctrinal, but also political, economic, and social. Their common program and their social ideals demanded education of all as instruments of Providence for church and commonwealth. Their industrious habits and productive economic life provided funds for education. Their representative institutions in both church and commonwealth not only necessitated general diffusion of knowledge, but furnished the organization necessary for founding, supervising, and maintaining, in wholesome touch with the common man, both elementary and higher institutions of learning. Their disciplined and responsive conscience, their consequent intensity of moral conviction and spirit of self- sacrifice for the common weal, compelled them to realize, in concrete and permanent form, their ideals of college and common school.” (Foster, H. D., In Monroe’s _Cyclopedia of Education_, vol. i, p. 499.)

[2] In 1625 a list of the famous men of the city of Louvain, in Belgium, was printed. More than one fourth of those listed had studied in the colleges of Geneva.

[3] Foster, H. D., Monroe’s _Cyclopedia of Education_, vol. I, p. 491.

[4] In Monroe’s _Cyclopedia of Education_, vol. I, p. 498.

[5] “That public schools abounded throughout the Netherlands is evident. Every study of the archives of town or province discloses their presence. The minutes of every religious body bear overwhelming testimony not only to the existence of schools, but also a zealous interest in their maintenance.” (Kilpatrick, W. H., _Dutch Schools of New Netherlands_, p. 37.)

[6] For long the Church had had the Inquisition, but, while it had rendered loyal and iniquitous service, the results had been in no way commensurate with the bitter hatred which its work awakened. Excommunication, persecution, imprisonment, the stake, and the sword had been tried extensively, but with only partial success. In education the reformers had shown the Church a new method, which was positive and effective and did not awaken opposition, and from the reformer’s zeal for Latin grammar schools to provide an intelligent ministry the Church took its cue of establishing schools to train its future leaders. It was a long-headed and far-sighted plan, and its success was proportionately large.

[7] This is not true of their missions in foreign lands, where the mission priests usually gave elementary instruction. Elementary schools were maintained in the Jesuit missions of North and South America. Thus a mission school was established at Quebec as early as 1635, and one at Newtown, in Catholic Maryland, in 1640. After 1740 elementary parish schools were opened by the Jesuits among the German Catholics in Pennsylvania. From these beginnings Catholic parish schools have been developed in the United States.

[8] The Order was reestablished in 1814 and it has since been allowed to reestablish itself in most countries, though not in France or Germany. There are 41 Jesuit colleges in America, in 21 states. (For list see Monroe’s _Cyclopedia of Education_, vol. III, p. 540.) In the revision of its course of instruction, in 1832, modern studies were added, but the Society has never played any such conspicuous part in education since its reestablishment as it did during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.

[9] It is an interesting speculation as to whether the fact that the Jesuits made such headway in German lands, and so deeply impressed their training on the children of the nobility there, has had any connection with the attitude of German and Austrian political leaders in their governmental and political policies since that time.

[10] By the middle of the eighteenth century the Jesuits had lost much of their former vigor, and their colleges their former large influence. They had become powerful and arrogant, mixed deeply in political intrigues, quarreled with any one who crossed their path, and refused to change their instruction to meet new intellectual needs. They were finally driven from France, Spain, Portugal, and German lands, and were ultimately abolished as an Order.

[11] The care with which the _Ratio Studiorum_ was worked out is typical of the thoroughness of the Order. A preliminary outline of work was followed for many years, the whole being experimental. Reports on it were made, and finally a preliminary Ratio was issued, in 1586. This was again revised and cast into final form, in 1599. In this form it remained until 1832, when some modern studies were added.

[12] Dabney, R. H., _The Causes of the French Revolution_, p. 203.

[13] For example, the “States-General” of France met four times during the seventeenth century, with weighty problems of religion and state for consideration, yet in three of the four meetings resolutions were passed urging the clergy to establish schoolmasters in all the towns and villages, and a general system of compulsory education for all.

[14] _Les vrais Constitutions des Religieuses de la Congregation de Nostre Dame_, chap. xi, sec. 6, 2d ed., Toul, 1694.

[15] See especially Felix Cadet, _Port-Royal Education_ (Scribners, New York, 1898), for translations of many of the brief pedagogical writings of members of the Order.

[16] Father Demia, at Lyons, had organized what was probably the first training-school for masters, in 1672. La Salle’s training-school dates from 1684. Francke’s German _Seminarium Praeceptorum_, at Halle, the first in German lands, dates from 1696.

[17] The numerous pictures of schools and educational literature well into the nineteenth century show the general prevalence of the individual method of instruction. It was the method in American schools until well toward the middle of the nineteenth century. To have graded the children and introduced class instruction in 1684 was an important advance which the world has been slow in learning.

[18] Everything was according to rule, even the ferule, which must be made of two strips of leather, ten to twelve inches long, sewed together. All offenses, and the number and location of the blows for each, were specified. Later the corporal punishment was replaced by penances.


[1] Representing not over one tenth of the population, the Protestants in France had from the first been subjected to much persecution. In the Massacre of Saint Bartholomew (1572) over one thousand had been massacred in Paris and ten thousand more in the provinces. After some warfare, a treaty was made, in 1598, under which the so-called “Edict of Nantes” guaranteed religious toleration for the Protestants. In 1685 this was revoked, and their ministers were given fifteen days to leave France. The members were, however, forbidden to leave. Many, though, got away, escaping to the Low Countries, England, and to America.

[2] The culmination of this dissatisfaction came in 1649, when Charles I was beheaded and “The Commonwealth” was established under Cromwell. During the troubled times which followed (1649-60) much damage was done to the churches of England by way of eliminating vestiges of “popery.”

[3] Some of these went back to England–many after the establishment of the Protestant Commonwealth under Cromwell (1649). It has been estimated, for three of the early colonies, that the population by decades was approximately as follows:

1630 1640 1650 1660
New Netherlands………….. 500 1000 3000 6000 Massachusetts……………. 1300 14000 18000 25000 Virginia…………………. 3000 8000 17000 33000

[4] The name and the form came alike from old England, where an irregular area known as a “town” or a “township,” constituted the unit of representation in the shiremoats and the membership of the church parish. Almost every town and parish officer known in England was created by the new towns in New England, with practically the same functions as in the old home.

[5] “The settlers were in the first freshness of their Utopian enthusiasm, and their church establishment was the very heart of their enterprise. It became therefore a matter of primary importance to educate preachers. For ages preparation for the ministry had consisted mainly in acquiring a knowledge of Latin, the sacred tongue of western Christendom. Though the Latin service was no longer used by Protestants, and the Vulgate Bible had been dethroned by the original text, and though the main stream of English theology was by this time flowing in the channel of the mother tongue, the notion that all ministers should know Latin had still some centuries of tough life in it.” (Eggleston, E., _The Transit of Civilization_, p. 225.)

[6] For example, the town of Boston, in 1641, devoted the income from Deere Island to the support of schools, and Plymouth, in 1670, appropriated the income from the Cape Cod fishing industry to the support of grammar schools (R. 194 c).

These are among the earliest of the permanent endowments for education in America.

[7] See _The Development of School Support in Colonial Massachusetts_, by George L. Jackson, for a careful study of the different early methods of school support.

[8] The Puritan emigrants to New England represented a sturdy and well- educated class of English country squires and yeomen. They came of thrifty and well-to-do stock, the shiftless and incompetent not being represented. All had had good educational advantages, and many were graduates of Cambridge University. It has been asserted that probably never since has the proportion of college men in the community been so large.

[9] Martin, Geo. H., _The Evolution of the Massachusetts Public-School System_, pp. 14-16.

[10] The charging of a tuition fee to those who could afford to pay was a common European practice of the time, nevertheless the public authorities –at that time a mixture of civil and church officials–provided the school, employed and licensed the teacher, determined the textbooks to be used, and laid down the conditions under which the school should be conducted. The schoolmaster assisted the church by participating in the Sunday services. The elementary school of the Dutch, which was copied in the New Netherland, was thus a combination of a public and parochial, and a free and pay school.

[11] This was, of course, much more true of New York City and Island than of the outlying Dutch villages. In these latter a public school was for long maintained.

[12] Draper, A. S., _Origin and Development of the New York Common School System_.

[13] Among the German Lutherans, who constituted nearly one fourth of the total population of the colony, a school is claimed to have been established alongside the church by each of the congregations “at the earliest possible period after its formation.” The close connection between these Lutheran congregations and their schools may be seen from the following contract, dated at Lancaster, in 1774:

“I, the undersigned, John Hoffman, parochial teacher of the church at Lancaster, have promised in the presence of the congregation, to serve as choirister, and, as long as we have no pastor, to read sermons on Sunday. In summer I promise to hold cathechetical instruction with the young, as becomes a faithful teacher, and also to lead them in the singing and attend to the clock.”

[14] The seventeenth-century Virginia legislation relating to education is as follows:

1643. Orphans to be educated “according to the competence of their estate.”
1646. “If the estate be so meane and inconsiderate that it will not reach to a free education, then that orphan [shall] be bound to some manuall trade … except some friends or relatives be willing to keep them.”
1660-61. “To avoid sloth and idleness … as also for the relief of parents whose poverty extends not to giving [their children] breeding, the justices of the peace should … bind out children to tradesmen or husbandmen to be brought up in some good and lawful calling.”

[15] “Perhaps the most remarkable, because the most widespread and complex illustration of the educational genius of Calvinism is to be found in the American colonies, where the various European streams of Calvinism so converged that the seventeenth-century colonists were predominantly Calvinists–not merely the Puritans of New England, but the Dutch, Walloons, Huguenots, Scotch, and Scotch-Irish, with a considerable Puritan admixture in Anglican Virginia and Catholic Maryland.” (Foster, H. D., in Monroe’s _Cyclopedia of Education_, vol. I, p. 498.)

[16] “To illustrate how omnipresent this religious atmosphere was, I cannot do better than to cite the occasion when Judge Sewell found that the spout which conducted the rain water from his roof did not perform its office. After patient searching, a ball belonging to the small childeren was found lodged in the spout. Thereupon the father sent for the minister and had a season of prayer with his boys that their mischief or carelessness might be set in its proper aspect and that the event might be sanctified to their spiritual good. Powers of darkness and of light were struggling for the possession of every soul, and it was the duty of parents, ministers, and teachers to lose no opportunity to pluck the children as brands from the burning.” (Johnson Clifton, _Old-Time Schools and Schoolbooks_, p. 12.)


[1] Thales had guessed that water was the primal element from which all had been derived; Anaximenes guessed air; Heraclitus fire; Pythagoras held that number was the essence of all things; Empedocles thought that fire and heat, accompanied by “indestructible forces,” formed the basis; Xenophanes had guessed air, fire, water, and earth, and had worked out a complete scheme of creation. For an interesting discussion of these early attempts to explain creation, see J. W. Draper, _History of the Intellectual Development of Europe_, vol. 1, chap. iv.

[2] Among the treatises by him accepted as genuine are _On Airs, Waters, and Places_; _On Epidemics_; _On Regimen in Acute Diseases_; _On Fractures_; and _On Injuries of the Head_.

[3] For example, Hippocrates had held that the human body contains four “humors”–blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile–and that disease was caused by the undue accumulation of some one of these humors in some organ, which it was the business of the physician to get rid of by blood- letting, blistering, purging, or other means.

[4] From a collection of doggerel rhymes put out by two pastors and doctors of theology at Basle, in 1618, by the names of Grassner and Gross, to interpret the orthodox theory of comets to peasants and school children.

[5] “The earth is a sphere, situated in the center of the heavens; if it were not, one side of the heavens would appear nearer to us than the other, and the stars would be larger there. The earth is but a point in comparison to the heavens, because the stars appear of the same magnitude and at the same distance _inter se_, no matter where the observer goes on the earth. It has no motion of translation…. If there were a motion, it would be proportionate to the great mass of the earth and would leave behind animals and objects thrown into the air. This also disproves the suggestion made by some, that the earth, while immovable in space, turns round on its own axis.” (Ptolemy, Digest of argument of Book 1 of the _Almagest_.)

[6] In the dedicatory letter Copernicus states that he had had the completed manuscript in his study for thirty-six years, and published it now only on the urging of friends.

[7] To secure the greatest possible accuracy he constructed a wooden outdoor quadrant some ten feet in radius, with a brass scale, thus permitting readings to a fraction of an inch.

[8] “The current view was that comets were formed by the ascending of human sins from the earth, that they were changed into a kind of gas, and ignited by the anger of God. This poisoned stuff then fell down on people’s heads, causing all kinds of mischief, such as pestilence, sudden death, storms, etc.” (Dryer, J. L. E., _Tycho Brahe_.)

[9] “For over fifty years he was the knight militant of science, and almost alone did successful battle with the hosts of Churchmen and Aristotelians who attacked him on all sides–one man against a world of bigotry and ignorance. If then… when face to face with the terrors of the Inquisition he, like Peter, denied his Master, no honest man, knowing all the circumstances, will be in a hurry to blame him.” (Fahie, J. J., _Galileo, His Life and Work_.)

[10] See Routledge, R., _A Popular History of Science_, pp. 135-36, for a good digest of Bacon’s inductive investigation, as a result of which he arrived at the conclusion that “Heat is an expansive bridled motion, struggling in the small particles of bodies.”

[11] Bacon himself died a victim of one of his inductive experiments. Wishing to try out his theory that cold would prevent or retard putrefaction, he killed a chicken, cleaned it, and packed it in snow. In so doing he contracted a cold which caused his death.


[1] See footnote 1, p. 272, on the origin of the term. Six years before the publication of the _Tractate_, Milton had visited Italy, and had been much entertained in Florence by members of the Academy and University there. In the _Tractate_ he outlined a plan for a series of classical Academies for England, many of which were established. From England the term was carried to America, and became the name for a great development of semi-private secondary schools which flourished during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.

[2] Unlike England and France, the German lands long remained feudal and not united. As late as the beginning of the nineteenth century Germany was made up of more than three hundred little principalities, of which sixty were free cities. Each little principality was self-governing and maintained its little court.

[3] Richard Mulcaster (1531-1611), for forty-eight years a famous London Latin grammar-school master, often classed as a precursor of the sense realists, in two books, published in 1581 and 1582, had urged the great importance of a study of the English tongue, and of using it as a medium for instruction. In his _Elementarie_ (1582) he had said: “Our own language bears the joyful title of our liberty and freedom, the Latin remembers us of our thralldom and bondage. I love Rome, but London better; I favor Italy, but England more. I honor the Latin, but I worship the English.” (R. 226.)

[4] The school was opened with 433 boys and girls enrolled. It was divided into six classes. In the first three German only was used. In the first two classes the children were taught to read and write German, Genesis being the reading book of the second class. In the third class German grammar was studied. Music, religion, and the elements of arithmetic were also taught in these classes. In the fourth class Latin was begun, studying Terence, and Latin grammar was worked out from the constructions. In the sixth and highest class Greek was taught. A good education was to be given in six years, through the saving of time.

[5] This was written out in his native Czech tongue, but was not published at the time. A quarter of a century later it appeared in Latin, with his collected works, as published by his patron at Amsterdam (1657). It was then forgotten for two centuries. In 1841 the manuscript was found at Lissa, and published in the original at Prague, in 1848. The first English edition appeared in 1896.

[6] See the English edition edited by M. W. Keatinge, A. and C. Black, London, 1896.

[7] The following is illustrative: “Sec. 518 (Geometria). Ex concursu linearum fit angulus qui est vel rectus, quern linea incidens perpendicularis efficit, ut est (in subjecto schemate) angulus A C B; vel acutus, minor recto, A ut B C D; vel obtusus, major recto, ut A C D.”

| /
|/ A————-
C ]

[8] A very good reprint of the 1727 English edition, with pictures from the first edition of 1658, was brought out by C. W. Bardeen, of Syracuse, New York, in 1887. This ought to be in all libraries where the history of education is taught.

[9] Basedow’s _Elementarwerk mit Kupfern_ (Elementary Reading Book, with copperplate pictures), published in 1773 (see p. 535), was the first attempt, and not a particularly successful one either, to improve on the _Orbis Pictus_.

[10] This term was at first applied in derision, just as Methodism was applied to the English religious reformers in the eighteenth century, but the term was soon made reputable by the earnestness and ability of those who accepted it.

[11] Francke’s father had been counselor to Duke Ernest of Gotha, who had created for his little duchy the most modern-type school system of the seventeenth century. How much Francke’s progressive ideas in educational matters go back to the work of Duke Ernest forms an interesting speculation.

[12] “Francke had the rare ability to see clearly what needed doing, and then to do it regardless of obstacles or consequences. The magnitude of his work in Halle is simply marvelous, and yet what he actually accomplished is insignificant in comparison with what he inspired others to do. He showed how practical Christianity could be incorporated in the work of the common schools; his plan was immediately adopted by Frederick William I and made well-nigh universal in Prussia. He showed how the Realien could be profitably employed in a Latin school, and even made a constituent part of a university preparatory course; as a result of his methods, and especially of his suggestion that schools should be founded for the exclusive purpose of fitting the youth of the citizen class for practical life, there has since grown up in Germany a class of Real- schools.” (Russell, J. E., _German Higher Schools_, p. 64.)

[13] Paulsen, Fr., _The German Universities_, p. 36.

[14] As late as 1805, according to Paulsen, of the whole number of students in the universities of Prussia, there were but 144 in the combined medical faculties, as against 555 in theology, and 1036 in law.

[15] Francke relates that, as a student at Erfurt (c. 1675), he was able to study physics and botany, along with his theological studies. Oxford records show the publication of a list of plants in the “Physick Garden” there as early as 1648. The garden was endowed about that time by the Earl of Danby, and in 1764 lectures on botany were begun there. Lord Bacon, in his _Advancement of Learning_ (1605), had written: “We see likewise that some places instituted for physic (medicinae) have annexed the commodity of gardens for simples of all sorts, and do likewise command the use of dead bodies for anatomies.”

[16] Thomasius was made professor of theology, and Francke professor of Greek and Oriental languages. Both had been expelled from the University of Leipzig. Christian Wolff, who had been banished by Frederick William I, was recalled and made professor of philosophy. It was he who “made philosophy talk German.”


[1] Quick, R. H., _Essays on Educational Reformers_, 26. ed., p. 97.

[2] Locke was the first to lay the basis for modern scientific psychology to supersede the philosophic psychology of Plato and Aristotle. In his _Essay on the Conduct of the Human Understanding_ (1690) upon which he spent many years of labor, he first applied the methods of scientific observation to the mind, analyzed experiences, and employed introspection and comparative mental study. He thus built up a psychology based on the analysis of experiences, and came to the conclusion that our knowledge is derived by reflection on experience coming through sensation. He is consequently called the founder of empirical psychology, and the forerunner of modern experimental psychology and child study. His philosophy, and his theory of education as well, thus came to be a philosophy of experience–a rejection of mere authority, and a constant appeal to reason as a guide.

[3] “Freedom and self-reliance, these are the watchwords of these two marvelously modern men (Montaigne and Locke). Expansion, real education, drawing out, widening out, that is the burden of their preaching; and voices in the wilderness theirs were! Narrowness, bigotry, flippancy, inertia, these were the rule until Rousseau’s time, and even his voice was to fall upon deaf ears in England.” (Monroe, Jas. P., _Evolution of the Educational Ideal_, p. 122.)

[4] Schmidt, Karl, _Geschichte der Paedagogik_, translated in Barnard’s _American Journal of Education_.

[5] Rules for the schools of Dorchester, Massachusetts.

[6] Duke Eberhard Louis’s _Renewed Organization of the German School_, 1729; republished 1782.

[7] One of the earliest horn books known appears in the illuminated manuscript shown in Figure 44, which dates from 1503. The first definitely known horn book in England dates from 1587, while most, of the specimens found in museums date from about the middle of the eighteenth century. As improvements or variations of the horn book, cardboard sheets and wooden squares, known as battledores, appeared after 1770. On these the illustrated alphabet was printed. (See Tuer, A. W., _History of the Horn Book_, 2 vols., illustrated, London, 1886, for detailed descriptions.)

[8] The diversity of religious primers which had grown up by 1565 led Henry VIII to cause to be issued a unified and official Primer, containing the Pater Noster, Ave Maria, Credo, and the Ten Commandments.

[9] The title-page of an edition of 1715 declares that edition to be: “_The Protestant Tutor_, instructing Youth and Others, in the compleat method of _Spelling, Reading, and Writing True English_: Also discovering to them the Notorious _Errors_, Damnable _Doctrines_, and cruel _Massacres_ of the bloody _Papists_ which _England_ may expect from a _Popish_ Successor.”

[10] This was compiled by the Westminster Assembly of Divines, called together by Parliament, in 1643, composed of 121 clergymen, 30 of the laity, and 5 special commissioners from Scotland. It held 1163 sessions, extending over six years, and framed the series of 107 questions and answers which appeared in the Primer as “The Shorter Catechism.”

[11] So great was the sale of this book that the author was able to support his family during the twenty years (1807-27) he was at work on his _Dictionary of the English Language_, entirely from the royalties from the _Speller_ though the copyright returns were less than one cent a copy. At the time of his death (1843), the sales were still approximately a million copies a year, and the book is still on sale.

[12] In Nuremberg, as an example of German practice, the guild of writing and arithmetic masters continued, throughout all of the eighteenth century, and even into the nineteenth, as an organization separate from that of other types of teachers.

[13] Francke, in his Institutions at Halle (p. 418), had tried to develop a number-concept, and apply the teaching. In the Braunschweig-Lueneburg school decree of 1737 appeared directions for beginning number work by counting the fingers, apples, etc., and basing the multiplication table on addition. A few German writers during the eighteenth century suggested better instruction, Basedow (chapter XXII) tried to institute reform in the teaching of the subject, but it was left for Pestalozzi (chapter XXI) to give the first real impetus to the rational teaching of the subject.

[14] Such offices were not considered in any sense as degrading, and the attaching of the new duty of instructing the young of the parish in reading and religion dignified still more the other church office. As schools grew in importance there was a gradual shifting of emphasis, and finally a dropping of the earlier duties. Many early school contracts in America (Rs. 105; 236) called for such church duties on the part of the parish teacher. See also footnote, p. 370.

[15] In 1722 country schoolmasters in Prussia were ordered selected from tailors, weavers, blacksmiths, wheelwrights, and carpenters, and in 1738 they were granted the tailoring monopoly in their villages, to help them to live. Later Frederick the Great ordered that his crippled and superannuated soldiers should be given teaching positions in the elementary vernacular schools of Prussia.

[16] The “Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge,” organized in 1609 to aid the Church and provide schools at home, and the “Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts,” organized in 1702 to supply ministers and teachers for churches and schools in the English colonies.

[17] In 1704 the ordinary charge in London for a “School of 50 Boys Cloathed comes to about L75 per Annum, for which a School-Room, Books, and Firing are provided, a Master paid, and to each Boy is given yearly, 3 Bands, 1 Cap, 1 Coat, 1 Pair of Stockings, and one Pair of Shooes.” A girls’ school of the same size cost L60 per annum, which paid for the room, books, mistress, fixing and providing each girl with “2 Coyfs, 2 Bands, 1 Gown and Petticoat, 1 Pair of knit Gloves, 1 Pair of Stockings, and 2 Pair of Shooes.”

[18] McCarthy, Justin H., _Ireland since the Union_, p. 13.

[19] Frederick the Great, in the General School Regulations issued in 1763 (R. 274, sec 15), strictly prohibited the keeping of “hedge schools” in the towns and rural districts of Prussia.

[20] Bunyan’s _Pilgrim’s Progress_ (1678,) Defoe’s _Robinson Crusoe_ (1719), and _Gulliver’s Travels_ (1726), The publication of these tremendously stimulated the desire to read.

[21] Strype, John, _Stowe’s Survey of London_, 1720; bk. 1, pp. 199, 201- 02.

[22] Paulsen, Friedrich, _German Education_, p. 141.

[23] Barnard, Henry. Translated from Karl von Raumer; in his _American Journal of Education_, vol. v., p. 509.

[24] Salmon, David, “The Education of the Poor in the Eighteenth Century”; in _Educational Record_, London, 1908.

[25] “If you would comprehend the success of Rousseau’s _Emile_, call to mind the children we have described, the embroidered, gilded, dressed-up, powdered little gentlemen, decked with sword and sash,… alongside of these, little ladies of six years, still more artificial,–so many veritable dolls to which rouge is applied, and with which a mother amuses herself for an hour and then consigns them to her maids for the rest of the day. This mother reads _Emile_. It is not surprising that she immediately strips the poor little thing (of its social harness of whalebone, iron, and hair) and determines to nurse her next child herself.” (Taine, H. A., _The Ancient Regime_, vol. II, p. 273.)

[26] Montmorency, J. E. G. de., _The Progress of Education in England_, pp. 46, 50.

[27] A change now took place in the intellectual life of Germany: “The nation began to make itself independent of French influence. In literature Klopstock and Lessing broke the fetters of French classicism. An ardent desire for a deeper culture peculiar to the German people asserted itself. But the soil of the national life was too poor in genus for a purely German culture, hence scholars looked for new models and found them in classical antiquity. The ancient authors became again the masters of culture and taste; with this difference, though, that it was not desired to learn how to express their thoughts as well as the learner’s thoughts in Latin, but to become familiar with their manner of thinking and feeling, for the purpose of enlarging and ennobling German thought and speech. From this standpoint Greek, on account of its more valuable literature, assumed a higher importance, and, by degrees, a superiority over Latin.” (Nohle, E., _History of the German School System_, pp. 48- 49.)

[28] “If any one be destined for a studious career, let him not shirk his Greek lessons, inasmuch as he would thereby suffer irretrievable loss…. He who reads the classic writers, studying mathematical reasoning at the same time, trains his mind to distinguish what is true or false, beautiful or unsightly, fills his memory with manifold fine thoughts, attains skill in grasping the ideas of others as well as in fluently expressing his own, acquires a number of excellent maxims for the improvement of the understanding and the will, and thus learns by practice nearly all that a good compendium of philosophy could teach him in systematic order and dogmatic form.” (School Regulations for Braunschweig-Lueneburg, of 1737.)

[29] “Be assured that if you forget your Greek, yes, even your Latin too, you still have the advantage of having given your mind a training and discipline that will go with you into your future occupation.” (Friedrich Gedike, 1755-1803.)



[1] “The Period of the Enlightenment” had two main aims: (1) the perfection of the individual, which gave a new emphasis to education, and (2) the mastery of man over his environment, which expressed itself through the new scientific studies. In German lands elementary education, a regenerated classical education, and the _Realschule_ were the fruits of this period.

[2] Frederick used to say that his subjects might think as they pleased so long as they behaved as he ordered.

[3] Though Prussia was primarily Lutheran, Catholics, Mennonites, Jews, and Huguenots early found a home in the kingdom. Frederick used to say that “all religions must be tolerated, for in this country every man must go to heaven in his own way.”

[4] After the revocation of the Edict of Nantes (p. 301; 1685), over 20,000 French Huguenots–merchants, manufacturers, skilled workmen–found an asylum in Prussia alone. Settling in the Rhine countries, they contributed much to the future development of this region.

[5] “For the first time since Luther, the German people could call a great hero their own, whether they were the subjects of Frederick or not. Joyous pride in this prince, whose achievements in times of peace were no less than those in time of war, brought national consciousness to life again and this national feeling found expression in literature. It was the restoration of confidence in themselves that gave the Germans the courage to break with French rules and French models, and to seek independently after ideals of beauty. And this self-confidence they owed to Frederick the Great.” (Priest, G. M., _History of German Literature_, p. 116.)

[6] Though Joseph II claimed to be a good Catholic, he felt that monasticism had outlived its usefulness as an institution, and that its continuance was inimical to the interests of organized society and the State. This view has since been taken by the rulers of every progressive modern nation.

[7] The Cortes, or National Parliament, met but three times during the century, and when it did meet possessed but few powers and exercised but little influence.

[8] The first Russian university was established at Kiev, in 1588; the second at Dorpat, in 1632; the third at Moscow, in 1755; and the fourth at Kasan, in 1804. The University of Petrograd dates from 1819.

[9] The great difference between a church and true religion must always be kept in mind. Religion is a thing of the spirit, and its principle represents the loftiest thoughts of the race; a church is a human governing institution, and clearly subject to its own ambitions and the human frailties of its age.

[10] That is, 25,000 to 30,000 families. There were also, in even numbers, 83,000 monks in 2500 monasteries (one for every ninety square miles in France), 37,000 nuns in 1500 convents, and 60,000 priests. Of the soil of France, the King and towns owned one fifth, the clergy and the monks one fifth, the nobility one fifth, the bourgeoisie one fifth, and the peasantry one fifth.

[11] In 1788 the 131 bishops and archbishops of France had an average income of 100,000 francs, and 33 abbots and 27 abbesses had incomes ranging from 80,000 to 500,000 francs. The Cardinal de Rohan, Archbishop of Strasbourg, had an income of more than 1,000,000 francs, and the 300 Benedictine monks at Cluny had an income of more than 1,800,000 francs.

[12] “The real importance of _Esprit des lois_ is not that of a formal treatise on law, or even on polity. It is that of an assemblage of the most fertile, original, and inspiriting views on legal and political subjects, put in language of singular suggestiveness and vigour, illustrated by examples which are always apt and luminous, permeated by the spirit of temperate and tolerant desire for human improvement and happiness, and almost unique in its entire freedom at once from doctrinairism, visionary enthusiasm, egotism, and an undue spirit of system. The genius of the author for generalization is so great, his instinct in political science so sure, that even the falsity of his premises frequently fails to vitiate his conclusions.” (Saintsbury, George, in _Encyclopedia Britannica_, vol. XVIII, p. 777.)

[13] “By the captivating prospects which he held out of future progress, and by the picture which he drew of the capacity of society to improve itself, Turgot increased the impatience which his countrymen were beginning to feel against the despotic government, in whose presence amelioration seemed to be hopeless. These, and similar speculations of the time, stimulated the activity of the intellectual classes, cheered them under the persecutions to which they were exposed, and emboldened them to attack the institutions of their native land.” (Buckle, H. T., _History of Civilisation in England_, vol. I, p. 597.)

[14] Duruy, V., _History of France_, p. 523.

[15] _Encyclopaedia Britannica_, 11th ed., vol. viii, p. 204.

[16] “The real king of the eighteenth century was Voltaire; but Voltaire, in his turn, was a pupil of the English. Before Voltaire became acquainted with England, through his travels and his friendships, he was not Voltaire, and the eighteenth century was still undeveloped.” (Cousin, _History of Philosophy_.)

[17] “The first Frenchmen who in the eighteenth century turned their attention to England were amazed at the boldness with which, in that country, political and religious questions of the deepest moment were discussed–questions which no Frenchman in the preceding age had dared to broach. With wonder they discovered in England a comparative freedom of the public press, and saw with astonishment how in Parliament itself the government of the Crown was attacked with impunity, and the management of its revenues actually kept under control. To see the civilization and prosperity of England increasing, while the power of the upper classes and the King diminished, was to them a revelation…. England, said Helvetius, is a country where the people are respected, a country where each citizen has a part in the management of affairs, where men of genius are allowed to enlighten the public upon its true interests.” (Dabney, R. H., _Causes of the French Revolution_, p. 141.)

[18] Tennyson, in his “You ask me why,” well describes the growth of constitutional liberty in England when he says that England is:

“A land of settled government,
A land of just and old renown,
Where freedom broadens slowly down, From precedent to precedent.”

[19] James I, in 1604, had declared: “As it is atheism to dispute what God can do, so it is presumption and a high contempt in a subject to dispute what a king can do.” For this attitude the Commons continually contested his authority, his son lost his crown and his head, and his grandson was driven from the throne and from England. By contrast, and as showing the different attitude toward self-government of the two peoples, the German Emperor William II, three centuries later, so continually boasted of his rule by divine right that “Me and God” became an international joke, and to his assumption the German people took little or no exception.

[20] The passage of the Bill of Rights (1689) ended the divine-right-of- kings idea in England for all time. This prohibited the King from keeping a standing army in times of peace, gave every subject the right to petition for a redress of grievances, gave Parliament the right of free debate, prohibited the King from interfering in any way with the proper execution of the laws, declared that members ought to be elected to Parliament without interference, and gave the Commons control of all forms of taxation.

[21] Though the English first developed regulated or constitutional government, they themselves have no single written constitution. Instead, the foundations of English constitutional government rest on _Magna Charta_ (1215), the Petition of Rights (1628), and the Bill of Rights (1689), these three constituting “the Bible of English Liberty.”

[22] At first used as a term of ridicule, from the very methodical manner in which the Wesleyans organized their campaigns.

[23] “If we except the great Puritan movement of the seventeenth century, no such appeal had been heard since the days when Augustine and his band of monks landed in Kent and set forth on their mission among the barbarous Saxons. The results answered fully to the zeal that awakened them. Better than the growing prosperity of extending commerce, better than all the conquests of the East or the West, was the new religious spirit which stirred the people of both England and America, and provoked the National Church to emulation in good works–which planted schools, checked intemperance, and brought into vigorous activity all that was best and bravest in a race that when true to itself is excelled by none.” (Montgomery, D. H., _English History_, p. 322.)

[24] The contrast between eighteenth-century England and France, in the matter of religious liberty, is interesting. In France the Church took care, during the whole of the eighteenth century, that the persecution process should go on. “In 1717 an assembly of seventy-four Protestants having been surprised at Andure, the men were sent to the galleys and the women to prison. An edict of 1724 declared that all who took part in a Protestant meeting, or who had any direct or indirect communication with a Protestant preacher, should have their heads shaved and be imprisoned for life, and the men condemned to perpetual servitude in the galleys. In 1745 and 1746, in the province of Dauphine, 277 Protestants were condemned to the galleys and a number of women flogged. From 1744 to 1752 six hundred Protestants in the east and south of France were condemned to various punishments. In 1774 the children of a Calvinist of Rennes were taken from him. Up to the very eve of the Revolution Protestant ministers were hanged in Languedoc, and dragoons were sent against their congregations.” (Dabney, R. H., _Causes of the French Revolution_, p. 42.)

[25] Back as early as 1695 the Commons had refused to renew the press- licensing act, enacted in 1637, to control heresy. This had confined printing to London, Oxford, and Cambridge, and to twenty master printers and four letter founders for the realm. This refusal marks the beginning of the freedom of the press in England. In 1709 the copyright law was enacted, and in 1776 the redress against publishers of libelous articles was confined to the ordinary courts of law. A century ahead of France, and more than two centuries ahead of Teutonic and Romanic lands, England provided for a free press and open discussion.

[26] George III, always consistently wrong, opposed this extension of popular rights. In 1771 he wrote the Prime Minister, Lord North: “It is highly necessary that this strange and lawless method of publishing debates in the papers should be put a stop to. But is not the House of Lords the best court to bring such miscreants before; as it can fine, as well as imprison, and has broader shoulders to support the odium of so salutary a measure.”

[27] “It is evident that a nation perfectly ignorant of physical laws will refer to supernatural causes all the phenomena by which it is surrounded. But as soon as natural science begins to do its work there are introduced the elements of a great change. Each successive discovery, by ascertaining the law that governs events, deprives them of that apparent mystery in which they were formerly involved. The love of the marvelous becomes proportionally diminished; and when any science has made such progress as to enable it to fortell the events with which it deals, it is clear that the whole of those events are at once withdrawn from the jurisdiction of the supernatural, and brought under the authority of natural power? Hence it is that, supposing other things equal, the superstition of a nation must always bear an exact proportion to the extent of its physical knowledge.” (Buckle, H. T., _History of Civilization in England_, vol. 1, p. 269.)

[28] The Charter of this Society stated the purpose to be to increase knowledge by direct experiment, and that the object of the Society was the extension of natural knowledge, as opposed to that which is supernatural. As an institution embodying the idea of intellectual progress it was most bitterly assailed by partisans of the old flunking.

[29] Birmingham, Sheffield, Leeds, and Manchester, for example, great manufacturing cities early in the nineteenth century, were insignificant villages in Cromwell’s day. The steam engine made the coal and iron deposits of northern England of immense value, and the “smoky mill towns” that arose in the north began to displace southern agricultural England in population, wealth, and importance.

[30] For example, in 1774 John Howard began his great work in prison reform; in 1772 pressing to death was abolished; in 1780 the ducking-stool was used for the last time; and soon thereafter the earlier laws relating to the death penalty were modified, and the slave trade abolished. Up to the middle of the eighteenth century as many as one hundred and sixty offenses were punishable by death.

[31] The Declaration of Independence was written by Thomas Jefferson, a great admirer of French life and a propagandist for French ideas.

[32] Compare the American preamble with the following sentence from the _Social Contract_ (Book I, chap, ix) of Rousseau:

“I shall close this chapter and this book with a remark which ought to serve as a basis for the whole social system; it is that instead of destroying natural equality, the fundamental pact, on the contrary, substitutes a moral and lawful equality for the physical inequality which nature imposed upon men, so that, although unequal in strength or intellect, they all become equal by convention and legal right.”

[33] “I read attentively the _cahiers_ drawn up by the three Orders before their union in 1789. I see that here the change of a law is demanded, and there of a custom–and I make note of them. I continue thus to the end of this immense task, and, when I come to put side by side all these particular demands, I see, with a sort of terror, that what is called for is the simultaneous and systematic abolition of all the laws and of all the customs existing in the country; whereupon I instantly perceive the approach of the vastest and most dangerous revolutions that have taken place in the world.” (De Tocqueville, A. C., _State of Society in France before the Revolution of 1789_, p. 219.)

[34] For example, the clergy of Rodez and Saumur demanded “that there may be formed a plan of national education for the young”; the clergy of Lyons that education be restricted “to a teaching body whose members may not be removable except for negligence, misconduct, or incapacity; that it may no longer be conducted according to arbitrary principles, and that all public instructors be obliged to conform to a uniform plan adopted by the States- General”; the clergy of Blois that a system of colleges under church control be formed (R. 252); the nobility of Lyons that “a national character be impressed on the education of both sexes”; the nobility of Paris that “public education be perfected and extended to all classes of citizens”; the nobility of Blois that “better facilities for the education of children, and elementary textbooks adapted to their capacity, wherein the rights of man and the social duties shall be clearly set forth” shall be provided, and to this end that “there be established a council composed of the most enlightened scholars of the capital and of the provinces and of the citizens of the different orders, to formulate a plan of national education, for the benefit of all classes of society, and to edit elementary textbooks.” The Third Estate of Blois demanded the establishment of free schools in all the rural parishes.

[35] See footnote 1, page 165. One of the great results of the French Revolution was the abolition of serfdom in central and western Europe. The last European nation to emancipate its serfs was Russia, where they were freed in 1861.

[36] “Great was the difference between France at the end of 1791 and at the end of 1793. At the former date all looked hopeful for the future; the king was the father of his people; the Constitution of 1791 was to regenerate France, and set an example to Europe; all old institutions had been renovated; everything was new, and popular on account of its novelty…. By the end of 1793 all looked threatening for the future; for the purpose of repelling her foreign foes, who included nearly the whole of Europe, France submitted to be ground down by the most despotic and arbitrary government ever known in modern history,–the Great Committee of Public Safety; the Reign of Terror was in full exercise, and it was doubtful whether the energy, audacity, and concentrated vigour of the Great Committee would enable France to be victorious over Europe, and thus secure for her the right of deciding on the character of their own government. She was to be successful, but at what a cost!” (Stephens, H. M., _The French Revolution_, vol. II, p. 512.)

[37] The _Code Napoleon_, prepared in 1804, was the first modern code of civil laws, though Frederick the Great had earlier prepared a partial code of Prussian laws. What the _Justinian Code_ was to ancient Rome, this, organized into better form, was to modern France. This _Code_, prepared under Napoleon’s direction, substituted one uniform code of laws worthy of a modern nation for the thousands of local laws which formerly prevailed in France.


[1] The complaints were largely along such lines as that the instruction was confined to a few Latin authors; that instruction in the French language was neglected; that instruction in the history and geography of France should be introduced; that time was wasted “in copying and learning notebooks filled with vain distinctions and frivolous questions”; that training in the use of the French language should be substituted for the disputations in Latin; that in religion the study of the Bible was neglected for books of devotion and propaganda compiled by the members of the Order; that moral casuistry and religious bigotry were taught; and that the discipline was unnecessarily severe and wrong in character.

[2] In 1759 the Jesuits were expelled from Portugal, in 1767 from Spain, and in 1773 the Pope at Rome, “recognizing that the members of this Society have not a little troubled the Christian commonwealth, and that for the welfare of Christendom it were better that the Order should disappear,” abolished the Society entirely. Forty years later it was reconstituted in a modernized form.

[3] Little boys wore their hair long and powdered, carried a sword, and had coats with gilded cuffs, while little girls were dressed in imitation of the lady of fashion. Proper deportment was an important part of a child’s training.

[4] The iconoclastic nature of Rousseau’s volume may be inferred from its opening sentence, in which he says: “Everything is good as it comes from the hand of the author of nature; everything degenerated in the hand of man.” In another place he breaks out: “Man is born, lives, and dies in a state of slavery. At his birth he is stitched into swaddling clothes, at his death he is nailed in his coffin; and as long as he preserves the human form he is held captive by our institutions.”

[5] “I do not presume to exclude ecclesiastics, but I protest against the exclusion of laymen. I dare claim for the nation an education which depends only on the State, because it belongs essentially to the State; because every State has an inalienable and indefeasible right to instruct its members; because, finally, the children of the State ought to be educated by the members of the State.” (La Chalotais.)

[6] “Education cannot be too widely diffused, to the end that there may be no class of citizens who may not be brought to participate in its benefits. It is expedient that each citizen receive the education which is adapted to his needs.” (Rolland.)

[7] Condorcet had not been a member of the Constituent Assembly, but for some years had been deeply interested in the idea of public education, and had published five articles on the subject. His Report was a sort of embodiment, in legal form, of his previous thinking on the question.

[8] All the educational aims of the past were now relegated to a second place, and man became a political animal, “brought into the world to know, to love, and to obey the Constitution.” The _Declaration of the Rights of Man_ became the new Catechism of childhood.

[9] This was created on a grand and visionary scale. Its purpose was to supply professors for the higher institutions. It opened with a large attendance, and lectures on mathematics, science, politics, and languages were given by the most eminent scholars of the time. A normal school, though, it hardly was, and in 1795 it closed–a virtual failure. In 1808 Napoleon re-created it, on a less pretentious and a more useful scale, and since then it has continued and rendered useful service as a training- school for teachers for the higher secondary schools of France.

[10] A total of 105 of these Central Schools were to be established, five in Paris, and one in each of the one hundred chief towns in the departments. By 1796 there were 40, by 1797 there were 52, by 1798 there were 59, by 1799 there were 86, and by 1800 there were 91 such schools in existence. This, times considered, was a remarkable development.

[11] “The commercial depression of 1740 fell upon a generation of New Englanders whose minds no longer dwelt preeminently upon religious matters, but who were, on the contrary, preeminently commercial in their interests.” (Green, M, L., _Development of Religious Liberty in Connecticut_, p, 226.)

[12] Prominent in the Indiana constitutional convention of 1816 were a number of Frenchmen of bearing and ability, then residing in the old territorial capital–Vincennes. How much they influenced the statement of the article on education is not known, but it reads as though French revolutionary ideas had been influential in shaping it.

[13] For the original Bill of 1779 in full, in the original spelling, see the _Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction for Virginia_, 1900-01, pp. lxx-lxxv.

[14] Though Jefferson had been Governor of Virginia during the Revolutionary War; had repeatedly served in the Virginia legislature and in Congress; and had twice been President of the United States, he counted all these as of less importance than the three services mentioned, and in preparing the inscription to be placed on his tomb he included only these three.


[1] “As a man who sought after glory, and whose gloomy temper took umbrage at everything, Rousseau complained that his _Emile_ did not obtain the same success as his other writings. He was truly hard to please! The anger of some, the ardent sympathy of others; on the one hand, the parliamentary decrees condemning the book and issuing a warrant for the author’s arrest, the thunders of the Church, and the famous mandate of the Archbishop of Paris; on the other hand, the applause of the philosophers, of Clairant, Duclos, and d’Alembert,–what more, then, did he want? _Emile_ was burned in Paris and Geneva, but it was read with passion; it was twice translated in London, an honor which no French work had received up to then. In truth never did a book make more noise and thrust itself so much on the attention of men. By its defects, no less than by its qualities, by the inspired and prophetic character of its style, as well as by the paradoxical audacity of its ideas, _Emile_ swayed opinion and stirred up the more generous parts of the human soul.” (Compayre, G., _Jean-Jacques Rousseau_, p. 100.)

[2] Paulsen, Fr., _German Education, Past and Present_, p. 157.

[3] Within three years Basedow had collected seven thousand _Reichsthaler_, subscriptions coming to him from such widely scattered sources as Joseph II of Austria, Empress Catherine of Russia, King Christian VII of Denmark, “the wealthy class in Basle,” the Abbot of the monastery of Einsiedel in Switzerland, “the royal government of Osnabruck,” the Grand Prince Paul, and others. Jews and Freemasons seem to have taken particular interest in his ideas. Freemason lodges in Hamburg, Leipzig, and Goettingen were among the generous contributors.

[4] See Barnard’s _American Journal of Education_, vol. v, pp. 487-520, for an account of the examinations and the institution.

[5] “The pedagogical character of the _Real_ school was established by Basedow and his followers. Originally the plan was to provide for the middle classes what would be called nowadays manual training schools, in which the scientific principles underlying the various trades and business vocations should have a prominent place. These schools were to be one step removed from the trade schools for the lower classes. But under the influence of the Philanthropinists the _Real_ school was transformed into a modern humanistic school, and placed in competition with the humanistic _Gymnasium_.” (Russell, J. E., _German Higher Schools_, pp. 65-66.)

[6] His two most important followers were Joachim Heinrich Campe (1746- 1818), who succeeded Basedow at Dessau and later founded a Philanthropinum at Hamburg, and Christian Gotthilf Salzmann (1744-1811), who founded a school at Schnepfenthal, in Saxe-Gotha. Both these men had for a time been teachers with Basedow at Dessau. Campe translated Locke’s _Thoughts_ and Rousseau’s _Emile_ into German, wrote a number of books for children (chief among which was the famous _Robinson der Juenger_), and also prepared a number of treatises for teachers. Salzmann’s school, opened in 1784 in the Thuringen forest, made much of gardening, agricultural work, animal study, home geography, nature study, gymnastics, and recreation, as well as book study. It was distinctively a small but high-grade experimental school, so successful that in 1884 it celebrated its one hundredth anniversary. A pupil in the school was Carl Ritter, the founder of modern geographical study.

[7] “The picture shown in _Leonard and Gertrude_ is very crude. Everywhere is visible the rough hand of the painter, a strong, untiring hand, painting an eternal image, of which this in paper and print is the merest sketch…. Read it and see how puerile it is, how too obvious are its moralities. Read it a second time, and note how earnest it is, how exact and accurate are its peasant scenes. Read it yet again, and recognize in it the outpouring of a rare soul, working, pleading, ready to be despised, for fellow souls.” (J. P. Monroe, _The Educational Ideal_, p. 182.)

[8] “When I now look back and ask myself: What have I specially done for the very being of education, I find I have fixed the highest supreme principle of instruction in the recognition of _sense impression as the absolute foundation of all knowledge_. Apart from all special teaching I have sought to discover the _nature of teaching itself_, and the prototype, by which nature herself has determined the instruction of our race.” (Pestalozzi, _How Gertrude teaches her Children_, X, Section 1.)

[9] “What he did was to emphasize the new purpose in education, but vaguely perceived, where held at all, by others; to make clear the new meaning of education which existed in rather a nebulous state in the public mind; to formulate an entirely new method, based on new principles, both of which were to receive a further development in subsequent times, and to pass under his name; and finally, to give an entirely new spirit to the schoolroom.” (Monroe, Paul, _Text Book in the History of Education_, p. 600.)

[10] In 1809 the German, Carl Ritter, a former pupil of Salzmann (see footnote 2, p. 538) and the creator of modern geographical study, visited Pestalozzi at Yverdon. Of this visit he writes:

“I have seen more than the paradise of Switzerland, I have seen Pestalozzi, I have learned to know his heart and his genius. Never have I felt so impressed with the sanctity of my vocation as when I was with this noble son of Switzerland. I cannot recall without emotion this society of strong men, struggling with the present, with the aim of clearing the way for a better future, men whose only joy