Scientific American Supplement No. 275

Produced by Olaf Voss, Don Kretz, Juliet Sutherland, Charles Franks and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team. SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT NO. 275 NEW YORK, APRIL 9, 1881 Scientific American Supplement. Vol. XI, No. 275. Scientific American established 1845 Scientific American Supplement, $5 a year. Scientific American and Supplement, $7 a year. * * * * *
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  • 9/4/1881
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Produced by Olaf Voss, Don Kretz, Juliet Sutherland, Charles Franks and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team.




Scientific American Supplement. Vol. XI, No. 275.

Scientific American established 1845

Scientific American Supplement, $5 a year.

Scientific American and Supplement, $7 a year.

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I. ENGINEERING AND MECHANICS.–The Various Modes of Transmitting Power to a Distance. (Continued from No. 274.) By ARTHUR ARCHARD. of Geneva.–II. Compressed Air.–III. Transmission by Pressure Water.–IV. Transmission by Electricity.–General Results

The Hotchkiss Revolving Gun

Floating Pontoon Dock. 2 figures.–Improved floating pontoon dock

II. TECHNOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY.–Wheat and Wheat Bread. By H. MEGE MOURIES.–Color in bread.–Anatomical structure and chemical composition of wheat.–Embryo and coating of the embryo.– Cerealine–Phosphate of calcium.–1 figure, section of a grain of wheat, magnified.

Origin of New Process Milling.–Special report to the Census Bureau. By ALBERT HOPPIN.–Present status of milling structures and machinery in Minneapolis by Special Census Agent C. W. JOHNSON.–Communication from GEORGE T. SMITH.

Tap for Effervescing Liquids. 1 figure.

London Chemical Society.–Notes.–Pentathionic acid, Mr. VIVIAN LEWES.–Hydrocarbons from Rosin Spirit. Dr. ARMSTRONG.–On the Determination of the Relative Weight of Single Molecules. E. VOGEL.–On the Synthetical Production of Ammonia by the Combination of Hydrogen and Nitrogen in the Presence of Heated Spongy Platinum, G. S. JOHNSON.–On the Oxidation of Organic Matter in Water, A. DOWNS.

Rose Oil, or Otto of Roses. By CHAS. G. WARNFORD LOCK.–Sources of rose oil.–History–Where rose gardens are now cultivated for oil.–Methods of cultivation.–Processes of distillation.–Adulterations

A New Method of Preparing Metatoluidine. By OSCAR WIDMAN.

III. AGRICULTURE, HORTICULTURE, ETC.–The Guenon Milk Mirror. 1 figure. Escutcheon of the Jersey Bull Calf, Grand Mirror.

Two Good Lawn Trees

Cutting Sods for Lawns

Horticultural Notes: New apples, pears, grapes, etc.–Discussion on Grapes. Western New York Society.–New peaches.–Insects affecting horticulture.–Insect destroyers.

Observations on the Salmon of the Pacific. By DAVID S. JORDAN and CHARLES B. GILBERT. Valuable census report.

IV. LIGHT, ELECTRICITY ETC.–Relation between Electricity and Light. Dr. O. T. Lodge’s lecture before the London Institute.

Interesting Electrical Researches by Dr. Warren de La Rue and Dr. Hugo Miller.

Telephony by Thermic Currents

The Telectroscope. By Moxs. SENLECQ. 5 figures. A successful apparatus for transmitting and reproducing camera pictures by electricity.

V. HYGIENE, MEDICINE, ETC.–Rapid Breathing as a Pain Obtunde in Minor Surgery, Obstetrics, the General Practice of Medicine, and of Dentistry. Dr. W. G. A. Bonwill’s paper before the Philadelphia County Medical Society. 8 figures. Sphygmographic tracings.

VI. ARCHITECTURE, ART, ETC.–Artist’s Homes. No. 11. “Weirleigh.” Residence of Harrison Weir. Perspective and plans.

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In consequence of the interest that has been recently excited on the subject of bread reform, we have, says the London _Miller_, translated the interesting contribution of H. Mege-Mouries to the Imperial and Central Society of Agriculture of France, and subsequently published in a separate form in 1860, on “Wheat and Wheat Bread,” with the illustration prepared by the author for the contribution. The author says: “I repeat in this pamphlet the principal facts put forth in the notes issued by me, and in the reports furnished by Mr. Chevreul to the Academy of Science, from 1853 up to 1860.”

The study of the structure of the wheat berry, its chemical composition, its alimentary value, its preservation, etc., is not alone of interest to science, agriculture, and industry, but it is worthy of attracting the attention of governments, for this study, in its connection to political economy, is bound up with the fate and the prosperity of nations. Wheat has been cultivated from time immemorial. At first it was roughly crushed and consumed in the form of a thick soup, or in cakes baked on an ordinary hearth. Many centuries before the Christian era the Egyptians were acquainted with the means of making fermented or leavened bread; afterwards this practice spread into Greece, and it is found in esteem at Rome two centuries B.C.; from Rome the new method was introduced among the Gauls, and it is found to-day to exist almost the same as it was practiced at that period, with the exception, of course, of the considerable improvements introduced in the baking and grinding.

Since the fortunate idea was formed of transforming the wheat into bread, this grain has always produced white bread, and dark or brown bread, from which the conclusion was drawn that it must necessarily make white bread and brown bread; on the other hand, the flours, mixed with bran, made a brownish, doughy, and badly risen bread, and it was therefore concluded that the bran, by its color, produced this inferior bread. From this error, accepted as a truth, the most contradictory opinions of the most opposite processes have arisen, which are repeated at the present day in the art of separating as completely as possible all the tissues of the wheat, and of extracting from the grain only 70 per cent of flour fit for making white bread. It is, however, difficult for the observer to admit that a small quantity of the thin yellow envelope can, by a simple mingling with the crumb of the loaf, color it brown, and it is still more difficult to admit that the actual presence of these envelopes can without decomposition render bread doughy, badly raised, sticky, and incapable of swelling in water. On the other hand, although some distinguished chemists deny or exalt the nutritive properties of bran, agriculturists, taking practical observation as proof, attribute to that portion of the grain a physiological action which has nothing in common with plastic alimentation, and prove that animals weakened by a too long usage of dry fodder, are restored to health by the use of bran, which only seems to act by its presence, since the greater portion of it, as already demonstrated by Mr. Poggiale, is passed through with the excrement.

With these opinions, apparently so opposed, it evidently results that there is an unknown factor at the bottom of the question; it is the nature of this factor I wish to find out, and it was after the discovery that I was able to explain the nature of brown bread, and its _role_ in the alimentation of animals. We have then to examine the causes of the production of brown bread, to state why white bread kills animals fed exclusively on it, while bread mixed with bran makes them live. We have to explain the phenomena of panification, the operations of grinding, and to explain the means of preparing a bread more economical and more favorable to health. To explain this question clearly and briefly we must first be acquainted with the various substances forming the berry, their nature, their position, and their properties. This we shall do with the aid of the illustration given.



1.–Superficial Coating of the Epidermis, severed at the Crease of the Kernel.
2.–Section of Epidermis, Averages of the Weight of the Whole Grain, 1/2 %. 3.–Epicarp, do. do. do. 1 %. 4.–Endocarp, do. do. do. 1 1/2 %. 5.–Testa or Episperm, do. do. do. 2 %. 6.–Embryo Membrane (with imaginary spaces in white on both sides to make it distinct).
7.\ / Glutonous Cells \
8. > Endosperm < containing > do. do. 90 %. 9./ \ Farinaccous Matter /


The figure represents the longitudinal cut of a grain of wheat; it was made by taking, with the aid of the microscope and of photography, the drawing of a large quantity of fragments, which, joined together at last, produced the figure of the entire cut. These multiplied results were necessary to appreciate the insertion of the teguments and their nature in every part of the berry; in this long and difficult work I have been aided by the co-operation of Mr. Bertsch, who, as is known, has discovered a means of fixing rapidly by photography any image from the microscope. I must state, in the first place, that even in 1837 Mr. Payen studied and published the structure and the composition of a fragment of a grain of wheat; that this learned chemist, whose authority in such matters is known, perfectly described the envelopes or coverings, and indicated the presence of various immediate principles (especially of azote, fatty and mineral substances which fill up the range of contiguous cells between them and the periphery of the perisperm, to the exclusion of the gluten and the starchy granules), as well as to the mode of insertion of the granules of starch in the gluten contained in the cells, with narrow divisions from the perisperm, and in such a manner that up to the point of working indicated by the figure 1 this study was complete. However, I have been obliged to recommence it, to study the special facts bearing on the alimentary question, and I must say that all the results obtained by Mr. Bertsch, Mr. Trecul, and myself agree with those given by Mr. Payen.


No. 1 represents a superficial side of the crease.

No. 2 indicates the epidermis or cuticle. This covering is extremely light, and offers nothing remarkable; 100 lb. of wheat contain 1/2 lb. of it.

No. 3 indicates the epicarp. This envelope is distinguished by a double row of long and pointed vessels; it is, like the first one, very light and without action; 100 lb. of wheat contain 1 lb. of it.

No. 4 represents the endocarp, or last tegument of the berry; the sarcocarp, which should be found between the numbers 2 and 3, no longer exists, having been absorbed. The endocarp is remarkable by its row of round and regular cells, which appear in the cut like a continuous string of beads; 100 lb. of wheat contain 11/2 lb. of it.

These three envelopes are colorless, light, and spongy; their elementary composition is that of straw; they are easily removed besides with the aid of damp and friction. This property has given rise to an operation called decortication, the results of which we shall examine later on from an industrial point of view. The whole of the envelopes of the berry of wheat amount to 3 lb. in 100 lb. of wheat.


No. 5 indicates the testa or episperm. This external tegument of the berry is closer than the preceding ones; it contains in the very small cells two coloring matters, the one of a palish yellow, the other of an orange yellow, and according as the one or the other matter predominates, the wheat is of a more or less intense yellow color; hence come all the varieties of wheat known in commerce as white, reddish, or red wheats. Under this tegument is found a very thin, colorless membrane, which, with the testa or episperm, forms two per cent. of the weight of the wheat.

No. 6 indicates the embryous membrane, which is only an expansion of the germ or embryo No. 10. This membrane is seen purposely removed from its contiguous parts, so as to render more visible its form and insertions. Under this tissue is found with the Nos. 7, 8, and 9, the endosperm or perisperm, containing the gluten and the starch; soluble and insoluble albuminoids, that is to say, the flour.

The endosperm and the embryous membrane are the most interesting parts of the berry; the first is one of the depots of the plastic aliments, the second contains agents capable of dissolving these aliments during the germination, of determining their absorption in the digestive organs of animals, and of producing in the dough a decomposition strong enough to make dark bread. We shall proceed to examine separately these two parts of the berry.


This portion is composed of large glutinous cells, in which the granules of starch are found. The composition of these different layers offers a particular interest; the center, No. 9, is the softest part; it contains the least gluten and the most starch; it is the part which first pulverizes under the stone, and gives, after the first bolting, the fine flour. As this flour is poorest in gluten, it makes a dough with little consistency, and incapable of making an open bread, well raised. The first layer, No. 8, which surrounds the center, produces small white middlings, harder and richer in gluten than the center; it bakes very well, and weighs 20 lb. in 100, and it is these 20 parts in 100 which, when mixed with the 50 parts in the center, form the finest quality flour, used for making white bread.

The layer No. 7, which surrounds the preceding one, is still harder and richer in gluten; unfortunately in the reduction it becomes mixed with some hundredth parts of the bran, which render it unsuitable for making bread of the finest quality; it produces in the regrinding lower grade and dark flours, together weighing 7 per cent. The external layer, naturally adhering to the membrane, No. 6, becomes mixed in the grinding with bran, to the extent of about 20 per cent., which renders it unsuitable even for making brown bread; it serves to form the regrindings and the offals destined for the nourishment of animals; this layer is, however, the hardest, and contains the largest quantity of gluten, and it is by consequence the most nutritive. We now see the endosperm increasing from the center, formed of floury layers, which augment in richness in gluten, in proportion as they are removed from the center. Now, as the flours make more bread in proportion to the quantity of gluten they contain, and the gluten gives more bread in proportion to its being more developed, or having more consistence, it follows that the flour belonging to the parts of the berry nearest the envelopes or coverings should produce the greatest portion of bread, and this is what takes place in effect. The product of the different layers of the endosperm is given below, and it will be seen that the quantity of bread increases in a proportion relatively greater than that of the gluten, which proves once more that the gluten of the center or last formation has less consistence than that of the other layers of older formation.

The following are the results obtained from the same wheat:

Gluten. Bread. 100 parts of flour in center contain.. 8 and produce 128 ” ” first layer ” .. 9,2 ” 136 ” ” second ” ” .. 11 ” 140 ” ” external ” ” .. 13 ” 145

On the whole, it is seen, according to the composition of the floury part of the grain, that the berry contains on an average 90 parts in 100 of flour fit for making bread of the first quality, and that the inevitable mixing in of a small quantity of bran reduces these 90 to 70 parts with the ordinary processes; but the loss is not alone there, for the foregoing table shows that the best portion of the grain is rejected from the food of man that brown or dark bread is made of flour of very good quality, and that the first quality bread is made from the portion of the endosperm containing the gluten in the smallest quantity and in the least developed form.

This is a consideration not to be passed over lightly; assuredly the gluten of the center contains as much azote as the gluten of the circumference, but it must not be admitted in a general way that the alimentary power of a body is in connection with the amount of azote it contains, and without entering into considerations which would carry us too wide of the subject, we shall simply state that if the flesh of young animals, as, for instance, the calf, has a debilitating action, while the developed flesh of full-grown animals–of a heifer, for example–has really nourishing properties, although the flesh of each animal contains the same quantity of azote, we must conclude that the proportion of elements is not everything, and that the azotic or nitrogenous elements are more nourishing in proportion as they are more developed. This is why the gluten of the layers nearest the bran is of quite a special interest from the point of view of alimentation and in the preparation of bread.


To be intelligible, I must commence by some very brief remarks on the tissues of vegetables. There are two sorts distinguished among plants; some seem of no importance in the phenomena of nutrition; others, on the contrary, tend to the assimilation of the organic or inorganic components which should nourish and develop all the parts of the plant. The latter have a striking analogy with ferments; their composition is almost similar, and their action is increased or diminished by the same causes.

These tissues, formed in a state of repose in vegetables as in grain, have special properties; thus the berry possesses a pericarp whose tissues should remain foreign to the phenomena of germination, and these tissues show no particularity worthy of remark, but the coating of the embryo, which should play an active part, possesses, on the contrary, properties that may be compared to those of ferments. With regard to these ferments, I must further remark that I have not been able, nor am I yet able, to express in formula my opinion of the nature of these bodies, but little known as yet; I have only made use of the language mostly employed, without wishing to touch on questions raised by the effects of the presence, and by the more complex effects of living bodies, which exercise analogous actions.

With these reservations I shall proceed to examine the tissues in the berry which help toward the germination.

THE EMBRYO (10, see woodcut) is composed of the root of the plant, with which we have nothing to do here. This root of the plant which is to grow is embedded in a mass of cells full of fatty bodies. These bodies present this remarkable particularity, that they contain among their elements sulphur and phosphorus. When you dehydrate by alcohol 100 grammes of the embryo of wheat, obtained by the same means as the membrane (a process indicated later on), this embryo, treated with ether, produces 20 grammes of oils composed elementarily of hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, azote, sulphur, and phosphorus. This analysis, made according to the means indicated by M. Fremy, shows that the fatty bodies of the embryo are composed like those of the germ of an egg, like those of the brain and of the nervous system of animals. It is necessary for us to stop an instant at this fact: in the first place, because it proves that vegetables are designed to form the phosphoric as well as the nitrogenous and ternary aliments, and finally, because it indicates how important it is to mix the embryo and its dependents with the bread in the most complete manner possible, seeing that a large portion of these phosphoric bodies always become decomposed during the baking.

COATING OF THE EMBRYO.–This membrane (6), which is only an expansion of the embryo, surrounds the endosperm; it is composed of beautiful irregular cubic cells, diminishing according as they come nearer to the embryo. These cells are composed, first, of the insoluble cellular tissue; second, of phosphate of chalk and fatty phosphoric bodies; third, of soluble cerealine. In order to study the composition and the nature of this tissue, it must be completely isolated, and this result is obtained in the following manner.

The wheat should be damped with water containing 10 parts in 100 of alcoholized caustic soda; at the expiration of one hour the envelopes of the pericarp, and of the testa Nos. 2, 3, 4, 5, should be separated by friction in a coarse cloth, having been reduced by the action of the alkali to a pulpy state; each berry should then be opened separately to remove the portion of the envelope held in the fold of the crease, and then all the berries divided in two are put into three parts of water charged with one-hundredth of caustic potash. This liquid dissolves the gluten, divides the starch, and at the expiration of twenty-four hours the parts of the berries are kneaded between the fingers, collected in pure water, and washed until the water issues clear; these membranes with their embryos, which are often detached by this operation, are cast into water acidulated with one-hundredth of hydrochloric acid, and at the end of several hours they should be completely washed. The product obtained consists of beautiful white membranes, insoluble in alkalies and diluted acids, which show under the microscope beautiful cells joined in a tissue following the embryo, with which it has indeed a striking analogy in its properties and composition. This membrane, exhausted by the alcohol and ether, gives, by an elementary analysis, hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, and azote. Unfortunately, under the action of the tests this membrane has been killed, and it no longer possesses the special properties of active tissues. Among these properties three may be especially mentioned:

1st. Its resistance to water charged with a mineral salt, such as sea salt for instance

2d. Its action through its presence.

3d. Its action as a ferment.

The action of saltwater is explained as follows: When the berry is plunged into pure water it will be observed that the water penetrates in the course of a few hours to the very center of the endosperm, but if water charged or saturated with sea salt be used, it will be seen that the liquid immediately passes through the teguments Nos. 2, 3, 4, and 5, and stops abruptly before the embryo membrane No. 6, which will remain quite dry and brittle for several days, the berry remaining all the time in the water. Should the water penetrate further after several days, it can be ascertained that the entrance was gained through the part No 10 free of this tissue, and this notwithstanding the cells are full of fatty bodies. This membrane alone produces this action, for if the coatings Nos. 2, 3, 4, and 5 be removed, the resistance to the liquid remains the same, while if the whole, or a portion of it, be divided, either by friction between two millstones or by simple incisions, the liquid penetrates the berry within a few hours. This property is analogous to that of the radicules of roots, which take up the bodies most suitable for the nourishment of the plant. It proves, besides, that this membrane, like all those endowed with life, does not obey more the ordinary laws of permeability than those of chemical affinity, and this property can be turned to advantage in the preservation of grain in decortication and grinding.

To determine the action of this tissue through its presence, take 100 grammes of wheat, wash it and remove the first coating by decortication; then immerse it for several hours in lukewarm water, and dry afterwards in an ordinary temperature. It should then be reduced in a small coffee mill, the flour and middlings separated by sifting and the bran repassed through a machine that will crush it without breaking it; then dress it again, and repeat the operation six times at least. The bran now obtained is composed of the embryous membrane, a little flour adhering to it, and some traces of the teguments Nos. 2, 3, 4, and 5. This coarse tissue-weighs about 14 grammes, and to determine its action through its presence, place it in 200 grammes of water at a temperature of 86 deg.; afterwards press it. The liquid that escapes contains chiefly the flour and cerealine. Filter this liquid, and put it in a test glass marked No. 1, which will serve to determine the action of the cerealine.

The bran should now be washed until the water issues pure, and until it shows no bluish color when iodized water and sulphuric acid are added; when the washing is finished the bran swollen by the water is placed under a press, and the liquid extracted is placed, after being filtered, in a test tube. This test tube serves to show that all cerealine has been removed from the blades of the tissue. Finally, these small blades of bran, washed and pressed, are cast, with 50 grammes of lukewarm water, into a test tube, marked No. 3; 100 grammes of diluted starch to one-tenth of dry starch are then added in each test tube, and they are put into a water bath at a temperature of 104 deg. Fahrenheit, being stirred lightly every fifteen minutes. At the expiration of an hour, or at the most an hour and a half, No. 1 glass no longer contains any starch, as it has been converted into dextrine and glucose by the cerealine, and the iodized water only produces a purple color. No. 2 glass, with the same addition, produces a bluish color, and preserves the starch intact, which proves that the bran was well freed from the cerealine contained. No. 3 glass, like No. 1, shows a purple coloring, and the liquid only contains, in place of the starch, dextrine and glucose, _i. e_, the tissue has had the same action as the cerealine deprived of the tissue, and the cerealine as the tissue freed from cerealine. The same membrane rewashed can again transform the diluted starch several times. This action is due to the presence of the embryous membrane, for after four consecutive operations it still preserves its original weight. As regards the remains of the other segments, they have no influence on this phenomenon, for the coating Nos. 2, 3, 4, and 5, separated by the water and friction, have no action whatever on the diluted starch. Besides its action through its presence, which is immediate, the embryous membrane may also act as a ferment, active only after a development, varying in duration according to the conditions of temperature and the presence or absence of ferments in acting.

I make a distinction here as is seen, between the action through being present, and the action of real ferments, but it is not my intention to approve or disapprove of the different opinions expressed on this subject. I make use of these expressions only to explain more clearly the phenomena I have to speak of, for it is our duty to bear in mind that the real ferments only act after a longer or shorter period of development, while, on the other hand, the effects through presence are immediate.

I now return to the embryous membrane. Various causes increase or decrease the action of this tissue, but it may be said in general that all the agents that kill the embryous membrane will also kill the cerealine. This was the reason why I at first attributed the production of dark bread exclusively to the latter ferment, but it was easy to observe that during the baking, decompositions resulted at over 158 deg. Fah., while the cerealine was still coagulated, and that bread containing bran, submitted to 212 deg. of heat, became liquefied in water at 104 deg.. It was now easy to determine that dark flours, from which the cerealine had been removed by repeated washings, still produced dark bread. It was at this time, in remembering my experiences with organic bodies, I determined the properties of the insoluble tissue, deprived of the soluble cerealine, with analogous properties, but distinguished not alone by its solid organization and state of insolubility, but also by its resistance to heat, which acts as on yeast. There exists, in reality, I repeat, a resemblance between the embryous membrane and the yeast; they have the same immediate composition; they are destroyed by the same poisons, deadened by the same temperatures, annihilated by the same agents, propagated in an analogous manner, and it might be said that the organic tissues endowed with life are only an agglomeration of fixed cells of ferments. At all events, when the blades of the embryous membrane, prepared as already stated, are exposed to a water bath at 212 deg., this tissue, in contact with the diluted starch, produces the same decomposition; the contact, however, should continue two or three hours in place of one. If, instead of placing these membranes in the water bath, they are enveloped in two pounds of dough, and this dough put in the oven, after the baking the washed membranes produce the same results, which especially proves that this membrane can support a temperature of 212 deg. Fah. without disorganization. We shall refer to this property in speaking of the phenomena of panification.

CEREALINE.–The cells composing the embryous membrane contain, as already stated, the cerealine, but after the germination they contain cerealine and diastase, that is to say, a portion of the cerealine changed into diastase, with which it has the greatest analogy. It is known how difficult it is to isolate and study albuminous substances. The following is the method of obtaining and studying cerealine. Take the raw embryous membrane, prepared as stated, steep it for an hour in spirits of wine diluted with twice its volume of water, and renew this liquid several times until the dextrine, glucose, coloring matters, etc., have been completely removed. The membranes should now be pressed and cast into a quantity of water sufficient to make a fluid paste of them, squeeze out the mixture, filter the liquid obtained, and this liquid will contain the cerealine sufficiently pure to be studied in its effects. Its principal properties are: The liquid evaporated at a low temperature produces an amorphous, rough mass nearly colorless, and almost entirely soluble in distilled water; this solution coagulates between 158 deg. and 167 deg. Fah., and the coagulum is insoluble in acids and weak alkalies; the solution is precipitated by all diluted acids, by phosphoric acid at all the degrees of hydration, and even by a current of carbonic acid. All these precipitates redissolve with an excess of acid, sulphuric acid excepted. Concentrated sulphuric acid forms an insoluble downy white precipitate, and the concentrated vegetable acids, with the exception of tannic acid, do not determine any precipitate. Cerealine coagulated by an acid redissolves in an excess of the same acid, but it has become dead and has no more action on the starch. The alkalies do not form any precipitate, but they kill the cerealine as if it had been precipitated The neutral rennet does not make any precipitate in a solution of cerealine–5 centigrammes of dry cerealine transform in twenty-five minutes 10 grammes of starch, reduced to a paste by 100 grammes of water at 113 deg. Fah. It will be seen that cerealine has a grand analogy with albumen and legumine, but it is distinguished from them by the action of the rennet, of the heat of acids, alcohol, and above all by its property of transforming the starch into glucose and dextrine.

It may be said that some albuminous substances have this property, but it must be borne in mind that these bodies, like gluten, for example, only possess it after the commencement of the decomposition. The albuminous matter approaching nearest to cerealine is the diastase, for it is only a transformation of the cerealine during the germination, the proof of which may be had in analyzing the embryous membrane, which shows more diastase and less cerealine in proportion to the advancement of the germination: it differs, however, from the diastase by the action of heat, alcohol, etc. It is seen that in every case the cerealine and the embryous membrane act together, and in an analogous manner; we shall shortly examine their effects on the digestion and in the phenomena of panification.

PHOSPHATE OF CALCIUM.–Mr. Payen was the first to make the observation that the greatest amount of phosphate of chalk is found in the teguments adjoining the farinaceous or floury mass. This observation is important from two points of view; in the first place, it shows us that this mineral aliment, necessary to the life of animals, is rejected from ordinary bread; and in the next place, it brings a new proof that phosphate of chalk is found, and ought to be found, in everyplace where there are membranes susceptible of exercising vital functions among animals as well as vegetables.

Phosphate of chalk is not in reality (as I wished to prove in another work) a plastic matter suitable for forming bones, for the bones of infants are three times more solid than those of old men, which contain three times as much of it. The quantity of phosphate of chalk necessary to the constitution of animals is in proportion to the temperature of those animals, and often in the inverse ratio of the weight of their bones, for vegetables, although they have no bones, require phosphate of chalk. This is because this salt is the natural stimulant of living membranes, and the bony tissue is only a depot of phosphate of chalk, analogous to the adipose tissue, the fat of which is absorbed when the alimentation coming from the exterior becomes insufficient. Now, as we know all the parts constituting the berry of wheat, it will be easy to explain the phenomena of panification, and to conclude from the present moment that it is not indifferent to reject from the bread this embryous membrane where the agents of digestion are found, viz., the phosphoric bodies and the phosphate of chalk.

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The following article was written by Albert Hoppin, editor of the _Northwestern Miller_, at the request of Special Agent Chas. W. Johnson, and forms a part of his report to the census bureau on the manufacturing industries of Minneapolis.

“The development of the milling industry in this city has been so intimately connected with the growth and prosperity of the city itself, that the steps by which the art of milling has reached its present high state of perfection are worthy of note, especially as Minneapolis may rightly claim the honor of having brought the improvements, which have within the last decade so thoroughly revolutionized the art of making flour, first into public notice, and of having contributed the largest share of capital and inventive skill to their full development. So much is this the case that the cluster of mills around the Falls of St. Anthony is to-day looked upon as the head-center of the milling industry not only of this country, but of the world. An exception to this broad statement may possibly be made in favor of the city of Buda Pest, in Austro-Hungary, from the leading mills in which the millers in this country have obtained many valuable ideas. To the credit of American millers and millwrights it must, however, be said that they have in all cases improved upon the information they have thus obtained.

“To rightly understand the change that has taken place in milling methods during the last ten years, it is necessary to compare the old way with the new, and to observe wherein they differ. From the days of Oliver Evans, the first American mechanic to make any improvement in milling machinery, until 1870, there was, if we may except some grain cleaning or smut machines, no very strongly marked advance in milling machinery or in the methods of manufacturing flour. It is true that the reel covered with finely-woven silk bolting cloth had taken the place of the muslin or woolen covered hand sieve, and that the old granite millstones have given place to the French burr; but these did not affect the essential parts of the _modus operandi_, although the quality of the product was, no doubt, materially improved. The processes employed in all the mills in the United States ten years ago were identical, or very nearly so, with those in use in the Brandywine Mills in Evans’s day. They were very simple, and may be divided into two distinct operations.

“First. Grinding (literally) the wheat.

“Second. Bolting or separating the flour or interior portion of the berry from the outer husk, or bran. It may seem to some a rash assertion, but this primitive way of making flour is still in vogue in over one-half of the mills of the United States. This does not, however, affect the truth of the statement that the greater part of the flour now made in this country is made on an entirely different and vastly-improved system, which has come to be known to the trade as the new process.

“In looking for a reason for the sudden activity and spirit of progress which had its culmination in the new process, the character of the wheat raised in the different sections of the Union must be taken into consideration. Wheat may be divided into two classes, spring and winter, the latter generally being more starchy and easily pulverized, and at the same time having a very tough bran or husk, which does not readily crumble or cut to pieces in the process of grinding. It was with this wheat that the mills of the country had chiefly to do, and the defects of the old system of milling were not then so apparent. With the settlement of Minnesota, and the development of its capacities as a wheat-growing State, a new factor in the milling problem was introduced, which for a time bid fair to ruin every miller who undertook to solve it. The wheat raised in this State was, from the climatic conditions, a spring wheat, hard in structure and having a thin, tender, and friable bran. In milling this wheat, if an attempt was made to grind it as fine as was then customary to grind winter wheat, the bran was ground almost as fine as the flour, and passed as readily through the meshes of the bolting reels or sieves, rendering the flour dark, specky, and altogether unfit to enter the Eastern markets in competition with flour from the winter wheat sections. On the other hand, if the grinding was not so fine as to break up the bran, the interior of the berry being harder to pulverize, was not rendered sufficiently fine, and there remained after the flour was bolted out a large percentage of shorts or middlings, which, while containing the strongest and best flour in the berry, were so full of dirt and impurities as to render them unfit for any further grinding except for the very lowest grade of flour, technically known as ‘red dog.’ The flour produced from the first grinding was also more or less specky and discolored, and, in everything but strength, inferior to that made from winter wheat, while the ‘yield’ was so small, or, in other words, the amount of wheat which it took to make a barrel of flour was so large, that milling in Minnesota and other spring wheat sections was anything but profitable.

“The problem which ten years since confronted the millers of this city was how to obtain from the wheat which they had to grind a white, clear flour, and to so increase the yield as to leave some margin for profit. The first step in the solution of this problem was the invention by E. N. La Croix of the machine which has since been called the purifier, which removed the dirt and light impurities from the refuse middlings in the same manner that dust and chaff are removed from wheat by a fanning mill. The middlings thus purified were then reground, and the result was a much whiter and cleaner flour than it had been possible to obtain under the old process of low close grinding. This flour was called ‘patent’ or ‘fancy,’ and at once took a high position in the market. The first machine built by La Croix was immediately improved by George T. Smith, and has since then been the subject of numberless variations, changes, and improvements; and over the principles embodied in its construction there has been fought one of the longest and most bitter battles recorded in the annals of patent litigation in this country. The purifier is to-day the most important machine in use in the manufacture of flour in this country, and may with propriety be called the corner-stone of new process milling. The earliest experiments in its use in this country were made in what was then known as the ‘big mill’ in this city, owned by Washburn, Stephens & Co., and now known as the Washburn Mill B.

“The next step in the development of the new process, also originating in Minneapolis, was the abandonment of the old system of cracking the millstone, and substituting in its stead the use of smooth surfaces on the millstones, thus in a large measure doing away with the abrasion of the bran, and raising the quality of the flour produced at the first grinding. So far as we know, Mr. E. R. Stephens, a Minneapolis miller, then employed in the mill owned by Messrs. Pillsbury, Crocker & Fish, and now a member of the prominent milling firm of Freeman & Stephens, River Falls, Wisconsin, was the first to venture on this innovation. He also first practiced the widening of the furrows in the millstones and increasing their number, thus adding largely to the amount of middlings made at the first grinding, and raising the percentage of patent flour. He was warmly supported by Amasa K. Ostrander, since deceased, the founder and for a number of years the editor of the _North-Western Miller_, a trade newspaper. The new ideas were for a time vigorously combated by the millers, but their worth was so plain that they were soon adopted, not only in Minneapolis, but by progressive millers throughout the country. The truth was the ‘new process’ in its entirety, which may be summarized in four steps–first, grinding or, more properly, granulating the berry; second, bolting or separating the ‘chop’ or meal into first flour, middlings, and bran; third, purifying the middlings, fourth, regrinding and rebolting the middlings to produce the higher grade, or ‘patent’ flour. This higher grade flour drove the best winter wheat flours out of the Eastern markets, and placed milling in Minnesota upon a firm basis. The development of the ‘new process’ cannot be claimed by any one man. Hundreds of millers all over the country have contributed to its advance, but the millers of Minneapolis have always taken the lead.

“Within the past two or three years what may be distinctively called the ‘new process’ has, in the mills of Minneapolis and some few other leading mills in the country, been giving place to a new system, or rather, a refinement of the processes above described. This latest system is known to the trade as the ‘gradual reduction’ or high-grinding system, as the ‘new process’ is the medium high-grinding system, and the old way is the low or close grinding system. In using the gradual reduction in making flour the millstones are abandoned, except for finishing some of the inferior grades of flour, and the work is done by means of grooved and plain rollers, made of chilled iron or porcelain. In some cases disks of chilled iron, suitably furrowed, are used, and in others concave mills, consisting of a cylinder running against a concave plate. In Minneapolis the chilled iron rolls take the precedence of all other means.

“The system of gradual reduction is much more complicated than either of those which preceded it; but the results obtained are a marked advance over the ‘new process.’ The percentage of high-grade flour is increased, several grades of different degrees of excellence being produced, and the yield is also greater from a given quantity of wheat. The system consists in reducing the wheat to flour, not at one operation, as in the old system, nor in two grindings, as in the ‘new process,’ but in several successive reductions, four, five, or six, as the case may be. The wheat is first passed through a pair of corrugated chilled iron rollers, which merely split it open along the crease of the berry, liberating the dirt which lies in the crease so that it can be removed by bolting. A very small percentage of low-grade flour is also made in this reduction. After passing through what is technically called a ‘scalping reel’ to remove the dirt and flour, the broken wheat is passed through a second set of corrugated rollers, by which it is further broken up, and then passes through a second separating reel, which removes the flour and middlings. This operation is repeated successively until the flour portion of the berry is entirely removed from the bran, the necessary separation being made after each reduction. The middlings from the several reductions are passed through the purifiers, and, after being purified, are reduced to flour by successive reductions on smooth iron or porcelain rollers. In some cases, as stated above, iron disks and concave mills are substituted for the roller mill, but the operation is substantially the same. One of the principal objects sought to be attained by this high-grinding system is to avoid all abrasion of the bran, another is to take out the dirt in the crease of the berry at the beginning of the process, and still another to thoroughly free the bran from flour, so as to obtain as large a yield as possible. Incidental to the improved methods of milling, as now practiced in this country, is a marked improvement in the cleaning of the grain and preparing it for flouring. The earliest grain-cleaning machine was the ‘smutter,’ the office of which was to break the smut balls, and scour the outside of the bran to remove any adhering dust, the scouring machine being too harsh in its action, breaking the kernels of wheat, and so scratching and weakening the bran that it broke up readily in the grinding. The scouring process was therefore lessened, and was followed by brush machines, which brushed the dirt, loosened up and left by the scourer, from the berry. Other machines for removing the fuzzy and germ ends of the berry have also been introduced, and everything possible is done to free the grain from extraneous impurities before the process of reduction is commenced. In all the minor details of the mill there has been the same marked change, until the modern merchant mill of to-day no more resembles that of twenty-five years ago than does the modern cotton mill the old-fashioned distaff. The change has extended into the winter wheat sections, and no mill in the United States can hope to hold its place in the markets unless it is provided with the many improvements in machinery and processes which have resulted from the experiments begun in this city only ten years since, and which have made the name of Minneapolis and the products of her many mills famous throughout the world. The relative merits of the flour made by the new process and the old have been warmly discussed, but the general verdict of the great body of consumers is that the patent or new process flour is better in every way for bread making purposes, being clearer, whiter, more evenly granulated, and possessing more strength. Careful chemical analysis has confirmed this. As between winter and spring wheat flours made by the new process and gradual reduction systems, it maybe remarked that the former contain more starch and are whiter in color, while the latter, having more gluten, excel in strength. In milling all varieties of wheat, whether winter or spring, the new processes are in every way superior to the old, and, in aiding their inception and development, the millers of Minneapolis have conferred a lasting benefit on the country.

“Minneapolis, Minn., December 1, 1880.”


Mr. Johnson added the following, showing the present status of the milling industry in Minneapolis:

“The description of the process of the manufacture of flour so well given above, conveys no idea of the extent and magnitude of the milling structures, machinery, and buildings employed in the business. Many of the leading millers and millwrights have personally visited and studied the best mills in England, France, Hungary, and Germany, and are as familiar with their theory, methods, and construction as of their own, and no expense or labor has been spared in introducing the most approved features of the improvements in the foreign mills. Experimenting is constantly going on, and the path behind the successful millers is strewn with the wrecks of failures. A very large proportion of the machinery is imported, though the American machinists are fast outstripping their European rivals in the quality and efficiency of the machinery needed for the new mills constantly going up.

“There are twenty-eight of these mills now constructed and at work, operating an equivalent of 412 runs of stone, consuming over sixteen million bushels of wheat, and manufacturing over three million barrels of flour annually. Their capacities range from 250 to 1,500 barrels of flour per day. Great as these capacities are, there is now one in process of construction, the Pillsbury A Mill, which at the beginning of the harvest of 1881 will have a capacity of 4,000 barrels daily. The Washburn A Mill, whose capacity is now 1,500 barrels, is being enlarged to make 8,500 barrels a day, and the Crown Roller Mill, owned by Christian Bros. & Co., is also being enlarged to produce 3,000 barrels a day. The largest mill in Europe has a daily capacity of but 2,800 barrels, and no European mill is fitted with the exquisite perfection of machinery and apparatus to be found in the mills of this city.

“The buildings are mainly built of blue limestone, found so abundant in the quarries of this city, range and line work, and rest on the solid ledge. The earlier built mills are severely plain, but the newer ones are greatly improved by the taste of the architect, and are imposing and beautiful in appearance.”


The flour of Minneapolis, holding so high a rank in the markets of the world, is always in active demand, especially the best grades, and brings from $1.00 to $1.60 per barrel more than flour of the best qualities of southern, eastern, or foreign wheat. During the year nearly a million barrels were shipped direct to European and other foreign ports, on through bills of lading, and drawn for by banks here having special foreign exchange arrangements, at sight, on the day of shipment. This trade is constantly increasing, and the amount of flour handled by eastern commission men is decreasing in proportion.

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Referring to the foregoing, the following letter from Mr. Geo. T. Smith to the editor of the _London Miller_ is of interest:

SIR: I find published in the _North-western Miller_ of December 24, 1880, extracts from an article on the origin of new process milling, prepared by Albert Hoppin, Esq., editor of the above-named journal, for the use of one of the statistical divisions of the United States census, which is so at variance, in at least one important particular, with the facts set forth in the paper read by me before the British and Irish millers, at their meeting in May last, that I think I ought to take notice of its statements, more especially as the _North-Western Miller_ has quite a circulation on this side of the water.

As stated in the paper read by me above-mentioned, I was engaged in February, 1871, by Mr. Christian, who was then operating the “big,” or Washburn Mill at Minneapolis, to take charge of the stones in that mill. At this time Mr. Christian was very much interested in the improvement of the quality of his flour, which in common with the flour of Minneapolis mills, without exception, was very poor indeed. For some time previous to this I had insisted to him most strenuously that the beginning of any improvement must be found in smooth, true, and well balanced stones, and it was because he was at last convinced that my ideas were at least worthy of a practical test I was placed in charge of his mill. Nearly two months were consumed in truing and smoothing the stone, as all millers in the mill had struck at once when they became acquainted with the character of the changes I proposed to make.

I remained with Mr. Christian until the latter part of 1871, in all about eight months. During this time the flour from the Washburn Mill attained a celebrity that made it known and sought after all over the United States. It commanded attention as an event of the very greatest importance, from the fact that it was justly felt that if a mill grinding spring wheat exclusively was capable of producing a flour infinitely superior in every way to the best that could be made from the finest varieties of winter wheats, the new North Western territory, with its peculiar adaptation to the growing of spring grain, and its boundless capacity for production, must at once become one of the most important sections of the country.

Mr. Christian’s appreciation of the improvements I had made in his mill was attested by doubly-locked and guarded entrances, and by the stringent regulations which were adopted to prevent any of his employes carrying information with regard to the process to his competitors.

All this time other Minneapolis mills were doing such work and only such as they had done previously. Ought not the writer of an article on the origin of new process milling–which article is intended to become historical, and to have its authenticity indorsed by the government–to have known whether Mr. Christian, in the Washburn Mill, did or did not make a grade of flour which has hardly been excelled since for months before any other Minneapolis mill approached his product in any degree? And should he not be well enough acquainted with the milling of that period–1871-2–to know that such results as were obtained in the Washburn Mill could only be secured by the use of _smooth_ and _true_ stones? Mr. Stephens–whom I shall mention again presently–did _not_ work in the Washburn Mill while I was in charge of it.

In the fall of 1871 I entered into a contract with Mr. C. A. Pillsbury, owner of the Taylor Mill and senior partner in the firm by whom the Minneapolis Mill was operated, to put both those mills into condition to make the same grade of flour as Mr. Christian was making. The consideration in the contract was 5,000 dols. At the above mills I met to some extent the same obstruction in regard to millers striking as had greeted me at Mr. Christian’s mill earlier in the year; but among those who did not strike at the Minneapolis Mill I saw, for the first time, Mr. Stephens–then still in his apprenticeship–whom Mr. Hoppin declares to have been, “so far as I know,” the first miller to use smooth stones. If Mr. Hoppin is right in his assertion, perhaps he will explain why, during the eight months I was at the Washburn Mill, Mr. Stephens did not make a corresponding improvement in the product of the Minneapolis Mill. That he did not do this is amply proved by the fact of Mr. Pillsbury giving me 5,000 dols. to introduce improvements into his mills, when, supposing Mr. Hoppin’s statement to be correct, he might have had the same alterations carried out under Mr. Stephens’ direction at a mere nominal cost. As a matter of fact, the stones in both the Taylor and Minneapolis Mills were as rough as any in the Washburn Mill when I took charge of them.

Thus it appears (1) that the flour made by the mill in which Stephens was employed was not improved in quality, while that of the Washburn Mill, where he was not employed, became the finest that had ever been made in the United States at that time. That (2) the owner of the mill in which Mr. Stephens was employed, as he was not making good flour, engaged me at a large cost to introduce into his mills the alterations by which only, both Mr. Hoppin and myself agree, could any material improvement in the milling of that period be effected, .viz., smooth, true, and well-balanced stones.–GEO. T. SMITH.

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For breachy animals do not use barbed fences. To see the lacerations that these fences have produced upon the innocent animals should be sufficient testimony against them. Many use pokes and blinders on cattle and goats, but as a rule such things fail. The better way is to separate breachy animals from the lot, as others will imitate their habits sooner or later, and then, if not curable, _sell them_.

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The name of the simple Bordeaux peasant is, and should be, permanently associated with his discovery that the milking qualities of cows were, to a considerable extent, indicated by certain external marks easily observed. We had long known that capacious udders and large milk veins, combined with good digestive capacity and a general preponderance of the alimentary over the locomotive system, were indications that rarely misled in regard to the ability of a cow to give much milk; but to judge of the amount of milk a cow would yield, and the length of time she would hold out in her flow, two or three years before she could be called a cow–this was Guenon’s great accomplishment, and the one for which he was awarded a gold medal by the Agricultural Society of his native district. This was the first of many honors with which he was rewarded, and it is much to say that no committee of agriculturists who have ever investigated the merits of the system have ever spoken disparagingly of it. Those who most closely study it, especially following Guenon’s original system, which has never been essentially improved upon, are most positive in regard to its truth, enthusiastic in regard to its value.

The fine, soft hair upon the hinder part of a cow’s udder for the most part turns upward. This upward-growing hair extends in most cases all over that part of the udder visible between the hind legs, but is occasionally marked by spots or mere lines, usually slender ovals, in which the hair grows down. This tendency of the hair to grow upward is not confined to the udder proper; but extends out upon the thighs and upward to the tail. The edges of this space over which the hair turns up are usually distinctly marked, and, as a rule, the larger the area of this space, which is called the “mirror” or “escutcheon,” the more milk the cow will give, and the longer she will continue in milk.


That portion of the escutcheon which covers the udder and extends out on the inside of each thigh, has been designated as the udder or mammary mirror; that which runs upward towards the setting on of the tail, the rising or placental mirror. The mammary mirror is of the greater value, yet the rising mirror is not to be disregarded. It is regarded of especial moment that the mirror, taken as a whole, be symmetrical, and especially that the mammary mirror be so; yet it often occurs that it is far otherwise, its outline being often very fantastical–exhibiting deep _bays_, so to speak, and islands of downward growing hair. There are also certain “ovals,” never very large, yet distinct, which do not detract from the estimated value of an escutcheon; notably those occurring on the lobes of the udder just above the hind teats. These are supposed to be points of value, though for what reason it would be hard to tell, yet they do occur upon some of the very best milch cows, and those whose mirrors correspond most closely to their performances.

Mr. Guenon’s discovery enables breeders to determine which of their calves are most promising, and in purchasing young stock it affords indications which rarely fail as to their comparative milk yield. These indications occasionally prove utterly fallacious, and Mr. Guenon gives rules for determining this class, which he calls “bastards,” without waiting for them to fail in their milk. The signs are, however, rarely so distinct that one would be willing to sell a twenty-quart cow, whose yield confirmed the prediction of her mirror at first calving, because of the possibility of the going dry in two months, or so, as indicated by her bastardy marks.

It is an interesting fact that the mirrors of bulls (which are much like those of cows, but less extensive in every direction) are reflected in their daughters. This gives rise to the dangerous custom of breeding for mirrors, rather than for milk. What the results may be after a few years it is easy to see. The mirror, being valued for its own sake–that is, because it sells the heifers–will be likely to lose its practical significance and value as a _milk_ mirror.

We have a striking photograph of a young Jersey bull, the property of Mr. John L. Hopkins, of Atlanta, Ga., and called “Grand Mirror.” This we have caused to be engraved and the mirror is clearly shown. A larger mirror is rarely seen upon a bull. We hope in a future number to exhibit some cows’ mirrors of different forms and degrees of excellence.–_Rural New Yorker_.

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The negundo, or ash-leaved maple, as it is called in the Eastern States, better known at the West as a box elder, is a tree that is not known as extensively as it deserves. It is a hard maple, that grows as rapidly as the soft maple; is hardy, possesses a beautiful foliage of black green leaves, and is symmetrical in shape. Through eastern Iowa I found it growing wild, and a favorite tree with the early settlers, who wanted something that gave shade and protection to their homes quickly on their prairie farms. Brought east, its growth is rapid, and it loses none of the characteristics it possessed in its western home. Those who have planted it are well pleased with it. It is a tree that transplants easily, and I know of no reason why it should not be more popular.

For ornamental lawn planting, I give pre-eminence to the cut-leaf weeping birch. Possessing all the good qualities of the white birch, it combines with them a beauty and delicate grace yielded by no other tree. It is an upright grower, with slender, drooping branches, adorned with leaves of deep rich green, each leaf being delicately cut, as with a knife, into semi-skeletons. It holds its foliage and color till quite late in the fall. The bark, with age, becomes white, resembling the white birch, and the beauty of the tree increases with its age. It is a free grower, and requires no trimming. Nature has given it a symmetry which art cannot improve.


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I am a very good sod layer, and used to lay very large lawns–half to three-quarters of an acre. I cut the sods as follows: Take a board eight to nine inches wide, four, five, or six feet long, and cut downward all around the board, then turn the board over and cut again alongside the edge of the board, and so on as many sods as needed. Then cut the turf with a sharp spade, all the same lengths. Begin on one end, and roll together. Eight inches by five feet is about as much as a man can handle conveniently. It is very easy to load them on a wagon, cart, or barrow, and they can be quickly laid. After laying a good piece, sprinkle a little with a watering pot, if the sods are dry; then use the back of the spade to smooth them a little. If a very fine effect is wanted, throw a shovelful or two of good earth over each square yard, and smooth it with the back of a steel rake.


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The Western New York Society met at Rochester, January 26.

_New Apples, Pears, Grapes, etc._–Wm. C Barry, secretary of the committee on native fruits, read a full report. Among the older varieties of the apple, he strongly recommended Button Beauty, which had proved so excellent in Massachusetts, and which had been equally successful at the Mount Hope Nurseries at Rochester; the fine growth of the tree and its great productiveness being strongly in its favor. The Wagener and Northern Spy are among the finer sorts. The Melon is one of the best among the older sorts; the fruit being quite tender will not bear long shipment, but it possesses great value for home use, and being a poor grower, it had been thrown aside by nurserymen and orchardists. It should be top-grafted on more vigorous sorts. The Jonathan is another fine sort of slender growth, which should be top-grafted.

Among new pears, Hoosic and Frederic Clapp were highly commended for their excellence. Some of the older peaches of fine quality had of late been neglected, and among them Druid Hill and Brevoort.

Among the many new peaches highly recommended for their early ripening, there was great resemblance to each other, and some had proved earlier than Alexander.

Of the new grapes, Lady Washington was the most promising. The Secretary was a failure. The Jefferson was a fine sort, of high promise.

Among the new white grapes, Niagara, Prentiss, and Duchess stood pre-eminent, and were worthy of the attention of cultivators. The Vergennes, from Vermont, a light amber colored sort, was also highly commended. The Elvira, so highly valued in Missouri, does not succeed well here. Several facts were stated in relation to the Delaware grape, showing its reliability and excellence.

Several new varieties of the raspberry were named, but few of them were found equal to the best old sorts. If Brinckle’s Orange were taken as a standard for quality, it would show that none had proved its equal in fine quality. The Caroline was like it in color, but inferior in flavor. The New Rochelle was of second quality. Turner was a good berry, but too soft for distant carriage.

Of the many new strawberries named, each seemed to have some special drawback. The Bidwell, however, was a new sort of particular excellence, and Charles Downing thinks it the most promising of the new berries.

_Discussion on Grapes._–C. W. Beadle, of Ontario, in allusion to Moore’s Early grape, finds it much earlier than the Concord, and equal to it in quality, ripening even before the Hartford. S. D. Willard, of Geneva, thought it inferior to the Concord, and not nearly so good as the Worden. The last named was both earlier and better than the Concord, and sold for seven cents per pound when the Concord brought only four cents. C. A. Green, of Monroe County, said the Lady Washington proved to be a very fine grape, slightly later than Concord. P. L. Perry, of Canandaigua, said that the Vergennes ripens with Hartford, and possesses remarkable keeping qualities, and is of excellent quality and free from pulp. He presented specimens which had been kept in good condition. He added, in relation to the Worden grape, that some years ago it brought 18 cents per pound in New York when the Concord sold three days later for only 8 cents. [In such comparisons, however, it should be borne in mind that new varieties usually receive more attention and better culture, giving them an additional advantage.]

The Niagara grape received special attention from members. A. C. Younglove, of Yates County, thought it superior to any other white grape for its many good qualities. It was a vigorous and healthy grower, and the clusters were full and handsome. W. J. Fowler, of Monroe County, saw the vine in October, with the leaves still hanging well, a great bearer and the grape of fine quality. C. L. Hoag, of Lockport, said he began to pick the Niagara on the 26th of August, but its quality improved by hanging on the vine. J. Harris, of Niagara County, was well acquainted with the Niagara, and indorsed all the commendation which had been uttered in its favor. T. C. Maxwell said there was one fault–we could not get it, as it was not in market. W. C. Barry, of Rochester, spoke highly of the Niagara, and its slight foxiness would be no objection to those who like that peculiarity. C. L. Hoag thought this was the same quality that Col. Wilder described as “a little aromatic.” A. C. Younglove found the Niagara to ripen with the Delaware. Inquiry being made relative to the Pockington grape, H. E. Hooker said it ripened as early as the Concord. C. A. Green was surprised that it had not attracted more attention, as he regarded it as a very promising grape. J. Charlton, of Rochester, said that the fruit had been cut for market on the 29th of August, and on the 6th of September it was fully ripe; but he has known it to hang as late as November. J. S. Stone had found that when it hung as late as November it became sweet and very rich in flavor.

_New Peaches._–A. C. Younglove had found such very early sorts as Alexander and Amsden excellent for home use, but not profitable for market. The insects and birds made heavy depredations on them. While nearly all very early and high-colored sorts suffer largely from the birds, the Rivers, a white peach, does not attract them, and hence it may be profitable for market if skillfully packed; rough and careless handling will spoil the fruit. He added that the Wheatland peach sustains its high reputation, and he thought it the best of all sorts for market, ripening with Late Crawford. It is a great bearer, but carries a crop of remarkably uniform size, so that it is not often necessary to throw out a bad specimen. This is the result of experience with it by Mr. Rogers at Wheatland, in Monroe County, and at his own residence in Vine Valley. S. D. Willard confirmed all that Mr. Younglove had said of the excellence of the Rivers peach. He had ripened the Amsden for several years, and found it about two weeks earlier than the Rivers, and he thought if the Amsden were properly thinned, it would prevent the common trouble of its rotting; such had been his experience. E. A. Bronson, of Geneva, objected to making very early peaches prominent for marketing, as purchasers would prefer waiting a few days to paying high prices for the earliest, and he would caution people against planting the Amsden too largely, and its free recommendation might mislead. May’s Choice was named by H. E. Hooker as a beautiful yellow peach, having no superior in quality, but perhaps it may not be found to have more general value than Early and Late Crawford. It is scarcely distinguishable in appearance from fine specimens of Early Crawford. W. C. Barry was called on for the most recent experience with the Waterloo, but said he was not at home when it ripened, but he learned that it had sustained its reputation. A. C. Younglove said that the Salway is the best late peach, ripening eight or ten days after the Smock. S. D. Willard mentioned an orchard near Geneva, consisting of 25 Salway trees, which for four years had ripened their crop and had sold for $4 per bushel in the Philadelphia market, or for $3 at Geneva–a higher price than for any other sort–and the owner intends to plant 200 more trees. W. C. Barry said the Salway will not ripen at Rochester. Hill’s Chili was named by some members as a good peach for canning and drying, some stating that it ripens before and others after Late Crawford. It requires thinning on the tree, or the fruit will be poor. The Allen was pronounced by Mr. Younglove as an excellent, intensely high-colored late peach.

_Insects Affecting Horticulture_.–Mr. Zimmerman spoke of the importance of all cultivators knowing so much of insects and their habits as to distinguish their friends from their enemies. When unchecked they increase in an immense ratio, and he mentioned as an instance that the green fly (_Aphis_) in five generations may become the parent of six thousand million descendants. It is necessary, then, to know what other insects are employed in holding them in check, by feeding on them. Some of our most formidable insects have been accidentally imported from Europe, such as the codling moth, asparagus beetle, cabbage butterfly, currant worm and borer, elm-tree beetle, hessian fly, etc.; but in nearly every instance these have come over without bringing their insect enemies with them, and in consequence they have spread more extensively here than in Europe. It was therefore urged that the Agricultural Department at Washington be requested to import, as far as practicable, such parasites as are positively known to prey on noxious insects. The cabbage fly eluded our keen custom-house officials in 1866, and has enjoyed free citizenship ever since. By accident, one of its insect enemies (a small black fly) was brought over with it, and is now doing excellent work by keeping the cabbage fly in check.

The codling moth, one of the most formidable fruit destroyers, may be reduced in number by the well-known paper bands; but a more efficient remedy is to shower them early in the season with Paris green, mixed in water at the rate of only one pound to one hundred gallons of water, with a forcing pump, soon after blossoming. After all the experiments made and repellents used for the plum curculio, the jarring method is found the most efficient and reliable, if properly performed. Various remedies for insects sometimes have the credit of doing the work, if used in those seasons when the insects happen to be few. With some insects, the use of oil is advantageous, as it always closes up their breathing holes and suffocates them. The oil should be mixed with milk, and then diluted as required, as the oil alone cannot be mixed with the water. As a general remedy, Paris green is the strongest that can be applied. A teaspoonful to a tablespoonful, in a barrel of water, is enough. Hot water is the best remedy for house plants. Place one hand over the soil, invert the pot, and plunge the foliage for a second only at a time in water heated to from 150 deg. to 200 deg.F, according to the plants; or apply with a fine rose. The yeast remedy has not proved successful in all cases.

Among beneficial insects, there are about one hundred species of lady bugs, and, so far as known, all are beneficial. Cultivators should know them. They destroy vast quantities of plant lice. The ground beetles are mostly cannibals, and should not be destroyed. The large black beetle, with coppery dots, makes short work with the Colorado potato beetles; and a bright green beetle will climb trees to get a meal of canker worms. Ichneumon flies are among our most useful insects. The much-abused dragon flies are perfectly harmless to us, but destroy many mosquitoes and flies.

Among insects that attack large fruits is the codling moth, to be destroyed by paper bands, or with Paris green showered in water. The round-headed apple-tree borer is to be cut out, and the eggs excluded with a sheet of tarred paper around the stem, and slightly sunk in the earth. For the oyster-shell bark louse, apply linseed oil. Paris green, in water, will kill the canker worm. Tobacco water does the work for plant lice. Peach-tree borers are excluded with tarred or felt paper, and cut out with a knife. Jar the grape flea beetle on an inverted umbrella early in the morning. Among small-fruit insects, the strawberry worms are readily destroyed with hellebore, an ounce to a gallon of warm water. The same remedy destroys the imported currant worm.

_Insect Destroyers_.–Prof. W. Saunders, of the Province of Ontario, followed Mr. Zimmerman with a paper on other departments of the same general subject, which contained much information and many suggestions of great value to cultivators. He had found Paris green an efficient remedy for the bud-moth on pear and other trees. He also recommends Paris green for the grapevine flea beetle. Hellebore is much better for the pear slug than dusting with sand, as these slugs, as soon as their skin is spoiled by being sanded, cast it off and go on with their work of destruction as freely as ever, and this they repeat. He remarked that it is a common error that all insects are pests to the cultivator. There are many parasites, or useful ones, which prey on our insect enemies. Out of 7,000 described insects in this country, only about 50 have proved destructive to our crops. Parasites are much more numerous. Among lepidopterous insects (butterflies, etc.), there are very few noxious species; many active friends are found among the Hymenoptera (wasps, etc.), the ichneumon flies pre-eminently so; and in the order Hemiptera (bugs proper) are several that destroy our enemies. Hence the very common error that birds which destroy insects are beneficial to us, as they are more likely to destroy our insect friends than the fewer enemies. Those known as _flycatchers_ may do neither harm nor good; so far as they eat the wheat-midge and Hessian fly they confer a positive benefit; in other instances they destroy both friends and enemies. Birds that are only partly insectivorous, and which eat grain and fruit, may need further inquiry. Prof. S. had examined the stomachs of many such birds, and particularly of the American robin, and the only curculio he ever found in any of these was a single one in a whole cherry which the bird had bolted entire. Robins had proved very destructive to his grapes, but had not assisted at all in protecting his cabbages growing alongside his fruit garden. These vegetables were nearly destroyed by the larvae of the cabbage fly, which would have afforded the birds many fine, rich meals. This comparatively feeble insect has been allowed by the throngs of birds to spread over the whole continent. A naturalist in one of the Western States had examined several species of the thrush, and found they had eaten mostly that class of insects known as our friends.

Prof. S. spoke of the remedies for root lice, among which were hot water and bisulphide of carbon. Hot water will get cold before it can reach the smaller roots, however efficient it may be showered on leaves. Bisulphide of carbon is very volatile, inflammable, and sometimes explosive, and must be handled with great care. It permeates the soil, and if in sufficient quantity may be effective in destroying the phylloxera; but its cost and dangerous character prevent it from being generally recommended.

Paris green is most generally useful for destroying insects. As sold to purchasers, it is of various grades of purity. The highest in price is commonly the purest, and really the cheapest. A difficulty with this variable quality is that it cannot be properly diluted with water, and those who buy and use a poor article and try its efficacy, will burn or kill their plants when they happen to use a stronger, purer, and more efficient one. Or, if the reverse is done, they may pronounce it a humbug from the resulting failure. One teaspoonful, if pure, is enough for a large pail of water; or if mixed with flour, there should be forty or fifty times as much. Water is best, as the operator will not inhale the dust. London purple is another form of the arsenic, and has very variable qualities of the poison, being merely refuse matter from manufactories. It is more soluble than Paris green, and hence more likely to scorch plants. On the whole, Paris green is much the best and most reliable for common use.

At the close of Prof. Saunders’ remarks some objections were made by members present to the use of Paris green on fruit soon after blossoming, and Prof. S. sustained the objection, in that the knowledge that the fruit had been showered with it would deter purchasers from receiving it, even if no poison could remain on it from spring to autumn. A man had brought to him potatoes to analyze for arsenic, on which Paris green had been used, and although it was shown to him that the poison did not reach the roots beneath the soil, and if it did it was insoluble and could not enter them, he was not satisfied until a careful analysis was made and no arsenic at all found in them. A member said that in mixing with plaster there should be 100 or 150 pounds of plaster to one of the Paris green, and that a smaller quantity, by weight, of flour would answer, as that is a more bulky article for the same weight.

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During the most of the present year, the writers have been engaged in the study of the fishes of the Pacific coast of the United States, in the interest of the U.S. Fish Commission and the U.S. Census Bureau. The following pages contain the principal facts ascertained concerning the salmon of the Pacific coast. It is condensed from our report to the U.S. Census Bureau, by permission of Professor Goode, assistant in charge of fishery investigations.

There are five species of salmon (Oncorhynchus) in the waters of the North Pacific. We have at present no evidence of the existence of any more on either the American or the Asiatic side.

These species may be called the quinnat or king salmon, the blue-back salmon or red-fish, the silver salmon, the dog salmon, and the hump-back salmon, or _Oncorhynchus chouicha, nerka, kisutch, keta_, and _gorbuscha_. All these species are now known to occur in the waters of Kamtschatka as well as in those of Alaska and Oregon.

As vernacular names of definite application, the following are on record:

a. Quinnat–Chouicha, king salmon, e’quinna, saw-kwey, Chinnook salmon, Columbia River salmon, Sacramento salmon, tyee salmon, Monterey salmon, deep-water salmon, spring salmon, ek-ul-ba (“ekewan”) (fall run).

b. Blue-bock–krasnaya ryba, Alaska red-fish, Idaho red fish, sukkegh, Frazer’s River salmon, rascal, oo-chooy-ha.

c. Silver salmon–kisutch, winter salmon, hoopid, skowitz, coho, bielaya ryba, o-o-wun.

d. Dog salmon–kayko, lekai, ktlawhy, qualoch, fall salmon, o-le-a-rah. The males of _all_ the species in the fall are usually known as dog salmon, or fall salmon.

e. Hump-back–gorbuscha, haddo, hone, holia, lost salmon, Puget Sound salmon, dog salmon (of Alaska).

Of these species, the blue-back predominates in Frazer’s River, the silver salmon in Puget Sound, the quinnat in the Columbia and the Sacramento, and the silver salmon in most of the small streams along the coast. All the species have been seen by us in the Columbia and in Frazer’s River; all but the blue-back in the Sacramento, and all but the blue-back in waters tributary to Puget Sound. Only the quinnat has been noticed south of San Francisco, and its range has been traced as far as Ventura River, which is the southernmost stream in California which is not muddy and alkaline at its mouth.

Of these species, the quinnat and blue-back salmon habitually “run” in the spring, the others in the fall. The usual order of running in the rivers is as follows: _nerka, chouicha, kisutch, gorbuscha, keta_.

The economic value of the spring running salmon is far greater than that of the other species, because they can be captured in numbers when at their best, while the others are usually taken only after deterioration.

The habits of the salmon in the ocean are not easily studied. Quinnat and silver salmon of every size are taken with the seine at almost any season in Puget Sound. The quinnat takes the hook freely in Monterey bay, both near the shore and at a distance of six or eight miles out. We have reason to believe that these two species do not necessarily seek great depths, but probably remain not very far from the mouth of the rivers in which they were spawned.

The blue-back and the dog salmon probably seek deeper water, as the former is seldom or never taken with the seine in the ocean, and the latter is known to enter the Straits of Fuca at the spawning season.

The great majority of the quinnat salmon and nearly all blue-back salmon enter the rivers in the spring. The run of both begins generally the last of March; it lasts, with various modifications and interruptions, until the actual spawning season in November; the time of running and the proportionate amount of each of the subordinate runs, varying with each different river. In general, the runs are slack in the summer and increase with the first high water of autumn. By the last of August only straggling blue-backs can be found in the lower course of any stream, but both in the Columbia and the Sacramento the quinnat runs in considerable numbers till October at least. In the Sacramento the run is greatest in the fall, and more run in the summer than in spring. In the Sacramento and the smaller rivers southward, there is a winter run, beginning in December.

The spring salmon ascend only those rivers which are fed by the melting snows from the mountains, and which have sufficient volume to send their waters well out to sea. Such rivers are the Sacramento, Rogue, Klamath, Columbia, and Frazer’s rivers.

Those salmon which run in the spring are chiefly adults (supposed to be at least three years old). Their milt and spawn are no more developed than at the same time in others of the same species which will not enter the rivers until fall. It would appear that the contact with cold fresh water, when in the ocean, in some way caused them to turn toward it and to “run,” before there is any special influence to that end exerted by the development of the organs of generation.

High water on any of these rivers in the spring is always followed by an increased run of salmon. The canners think, and this is probably true, that salmon which would not have run till later are brought up by the contact with the cold water. The cause of this effect of cold fresh water is not understood. We may call it an instinct of the salmon, which is another way of expressing our ignorance. In general, it seems to be true that in those rivers and during those years when the spring run is greatest, the fall run is least to be depended on.

As the season advances, smaller and younger salmon of these two species (quinnat and blue-back) enter the rivers to spawn, and in the fall these young specimens are very numerous. We have thus far failed to notice any gradations in size or appearance of these young fish by which their ages could be ascertained. It is, however, probable that some of both sexes reproduce at the age of one year. In Frazer’s River, in the fall, quinnat male grilse of every size, from eight inches upward, were running, the milt fully developed, but usually not showing the hooked jaws and dark colors of the older males. Females less than eighteen inches in length were rare. All, large and small, then in the river, of either sex, had the ovaries or milt well developed.

Little blue-backs of every size down to six inches are also found in the Upper Columbia in the fall, with their organs of generation fully developed. Nineteen twentieths of these young fish are males, and some of them have the hooked jaws and red color of the old males.

The average weight of the quinnat in the Columbia in the spring is twenty-two pounds; in the Sacramento about sixteen. Individuals weighing from forty to sixty pounds are frequently found in both rivers, and some as high as eighty pounds are reported. It is questioned whether these large fishes are:

(_a_.) Those which, of the same age, have grown more rapidly;

(_b_.) Those which are older but have, for some reason, failed to spawn; or,

(_c_.) Those which have survived one or more spawning seasons.

All of these origins may be possible in individual cases; we are, however, of the opinion that the majority of these large fish are those which have hitherto run in the fall and so may have survived the spawning season previous.

Those fish which enter the rivers in the spring continue their ascent until death or the spawning season overtakes them. Probably none of them ever return to the ocean, and a large proportion fail to spawn. They are known to ascend the Sacramento as far as the base of Mount Shasta, or to its extreme head-waters, about four hundred miles. In the Columbia they are known to ascend as far as the Bitter Root Mountains, and as far as the Spokan Falls, and their extreme limit is not known. This is a distance of six to eight hundred miles.

At these great distances, when the fish have reached the spawning grounds, besides the usual changes of the breeding season, their bodies are covered with bruises on which patches of white fungus develop. The fins become mutilated, their eyes are often injured or destroyed; parasitic worms gather in their gills, they become extremely emaciated, their flesh becomes white from the loss of the oil, and as soon as the spawning act is accomplished, and sometimes before, all of them die. The ascent of the Cascades and the Dalles probably causes the injury or death of a great many salmon.

When the salmon enter the river they refuse bait, and their stomachs are always found empty and contracted. In the rivers they do not feed, and when they reach the spawning grounds their stomachs, pyloric coeca and all, are said to be no larger than one’s finger. They will sometimes take the fly, or a hook baited with salmon roe, in the clear waters of the upper tributaries, but there is no other evidence known to us that they feed when there. Only the quinnat and blue-back (then called red-fish) have been found in the fall at any great distance from the sea.

The spawning season is probably about the same for all the species. It varies for all in different rivers and in different parts of the same river, and doubtless extends from July to December.

The manner of spawning is probably similar for all the species, but we have no data for any except the quinnat. In this species the fish pair off, the male, with tail and snout, excavates a broad shallow “nest” in the gravelly bed of the stream, in rapid water, at a depth of one to four feet; the female deposits her eggs in it, and after the exclusion of the milt, they cover them with stones and gravel. They then float down the stream tail foremost. A great majority of them die. In the head-waters of the large streams all die, unquestionably. In the small streams, and near the sea, an unknown percentage probably survive. The young hatch in about sixty days, and most of them return to the ocean during the high water of the spring.

The salmon of all kinds in the spring are silvery, spotted or not according to the species, and with the mouth about equally symmetrical in both sexes.

As the spawning season approaches the female loses her silvery color, becomes more slimy, the scales on the back partly sink into the skin, and the flesh changes from salmon red and becomes variously paler, from the loss of the oil, the degree of paleness varying much with individuals and with inhabitants of different rivers.

In the lower Sacramento the flesh of the quinnat in either spring or fall is rarely pale. In the Columbia, a few with pale flesh are sometimes taken in spring, and a good many in the fall. In Frazer’s River the fall run of the quinnat is nearly worthless for canning purposes, because so many are white meated. In the spring very few are white meated, but the number increases towards fall, when there is every variation, some having red streaks running through them, others being red toward the head and pale toward the tail. The red and pale ones cannot be distinguished externally, and the color is dependent neither on age nor sex. There is said to be no difference in the taste, but there is no market for canned salmon not of the conventional orange color.

As the season advances, the differences between the males and the females become more and more marked, and keep pace with the development of the milt, as is shown by dissection.

The males have: (_a_.) The premaxillaries and the tip of the lower jaw more and more prolonged; both of them becoming finally strongly and often extravagantly hooked, so that either they shut by the side of each other like shears, or else the mouth cannot be closed. (_b_.) The front teeth become very long and canine-like, their growth proceeding very rapidly, until they are often half an inch long. (_c_.) The teeth on the vomer and tongue often disappear. (_d_.) The body grows more compressed and deeper at the shoulders, so that a very distinct hump is formed; this is more developed in _0. gorbuscha_, but is found in all. (_e_.) The scales disappear, especially on the back, by the growth of spongy skin. (_f_.) The color changes from silvery to various shades of black and red or blotchy, according to the species. The blue-back turns rosy red, the dog salmon a dull, blotchy red, and the quiunat generally blackish.

These distorted males are commonly considered worthless, rejected by the canners and salmon-salters, but preserved by the Indians. These changes are due solely to influences connected with the growth of the testes. They are not in any way due to the action of fresh water. They take place at about the same time in the adult males of all species, whether in the ocean or in the rivers. At the time of the spring runs all are symmetrical. In the fall, all males of whatever species are more or less distorted. Among the dog salmon, which run only in the fall, the males are hooked-jawed and red-blotched when they first enter the Straits of Fuca from the outside. The hump-back, taken in salt water about Seattle, shows the same peculiarities. The male is slab-sided, hook-billed, and distorted, and is rejected by the canners. No hook-jawed _females_ of any species have been seen.

It is not positively known that any hook-jawed male survives the reproductive act. If any do, their jaws must resume the normal form.

On first entering a stream the salmon swim about as if playing: they always head toward the current, and this “playing” may be simply due to facing the flood tide. Afterwards they enter the deepest parts of the stream and swim straight up, with few interruptions. Their rate of travel on the Sacramento is estimated by Stone at about two miles per day; on the Columbia at about three miles per day.

As already stated, the economic value of any species depends in great part on its being a “spring salmon.” It is not generally possible to capture salmon of any species in large numbers until they have entered the rivers, and the spring salmon enter the rivers long before the growth of the organs of reproduction has reduced the richness of the flesh. The fall salmon cannot be taken in quantity until their flesh has deteriorated: hence the “dog salmon” is practically almost worthless, except to the Indians, and the hump-back salmon is little better. The silver salmon, with the same breeding habits as the dog salmon, is more valuable, as it is found in Puget Sound for a considerable time before the fall rains cause the fall runs, and it may be taken in large numbers with seines before the season for entering the rivers. The quinnat salmon, from its great size and abundance, is more valuable than all other fishes on our Pacific coast together. The blue back, similar in flesh but much smaller and less abundant, is worth much more than the combined value of the three remaining species.

The fall salmon of all species, but especially the dog salmon, ascend streams but a short distance before spawning. They seem to be in great anxiety to find fresh water, and many of them work their way up little brooks only a few inches deep, where they soon perish miserably, floundering about on the stones. Every stream, of whatever kind, has more or less of these fall salmon.

It is the prevailing impression that the salmon have some special instinct which leads them to return to spawn in the same spawning grounds where they were originally hatched. We fail to find any evidence of this in the case of the Pacific coast salmon, and we do not believe it to be true. It seems more probable that the young salmon, hatched in any river, mostly remain in the ocean within a radius of twenty, thirty, or forty miles of its mouth. These, in their movements about in the ocean, may come into contact with the cold waters of their parent rivers, or perhaps of any other river, at a considerable distance from the shore. In the case of the quinnat and the blue-back, their “instinct” leads them to ascend these fresh waters, and in a majority of cases these waters will be those in which the fishes in question were originally spawned. Later in the season the growth of the reproductive organs leads them to approach the shore and to search for fresh waters, and still the chances are that they may find the original stream. But undoubtedly many fall salmon ascend, or try to ascend, streams in which no salmon was ever hatched.

It is said of the Russian River and other California rivers, that their mouths in the time of low water in summer generally become entirely closed by sand bars, and that the salmon, in their eagerness to ascend them, frequently fling themselves entirely out of water on the beach. But this does not prove that the salmon are guided by a marvelous geographical instinct which leads them to their parent river. The waters of Russian River soak through these sand bars, and the salmon “instinct,” we think, leads them merely to search for fresh waters.

This matter is much in need of further investigation; at present, however, we find no reason to believe that the salmon enter the Rogue River simply because they were spawned there, or that a salmon hatched in the Clackamas River is any the more likely on that account to return to the Clackamas than to go up the Cowlitz or the Deschutes.

“At the hatchery on Rogue River, the fish are stripped, marked and set free, and every year since the hatchery has been in operation some of the marked fish have been re-caught. The young fry are also marked, but none of them have been recaught.”

This year the run of silver salmon in Frazer’s River was very light, while on Puget Sound the run was said by the Indians to be greater than ever known before. Both these cases may be due to the same cause, the dry summer, low water, and consequent failure of the salmon to find the rivers. The run in the Sound is much more irregular than in the large rivers. One year they will abound in one bay and its tributary stream and hardly be seen in another, while the next year the condition will be reversed. At Cape Flattery the run of silver salmon for the present year was very small, which fact was generally attributed by the Indians to the birth of twins at Neah Bay.

In regard to the diminution of the number of salmon on the coast. In Puget’s Sound, Frazer’s River, and the smaller streams, there appears to be little or no evidence of this. In the Columbia River the evidence appears somewhat conflicting; the catch during the present year (1880) has been considerably greater than ever before (nearly 540,000 cases of 48 lb. each having been packed), although the fishing for three or four years has been very extensive. On the other hand, the high water of the present spring has undoubtedly caused many fish to become spring salmon which would otherwise have run in the fall. Moreover, it is urged that a few years ago, when the number caught was about half as great as now, the amount of netting used was perhaps one-eighth as much. With a comparatively small outfit the canners caught half the fish, now with nets much larger and more numerous, they catch them all, scarcely any escaping during the fishing season (April 1 to August 1). Whether an actual reduction in the number of fish running can be proven or not, there can be no question that the present rate of destruction of the salmon will deplete the river before many years. A considerable number of quinnat salmon run in August and September, and some stragglers even later; these now are all which keep up the supply of fish in the river. The non-molestation of this fall run, therefore, does something to atone for the almost total destruction of the spring run.

This, however, is insufficient. A well-ordered salmon hatchery is the only means by which the destruction of the salmon in the river can be prevented. This hatchery should be under the control of Oregon and Washington, and should be supported by a tax levied on the canned fish. It should be placed on a stream where the quinnat salmon actually come to spawn.

It has been questioned whether the present hatchery on the Clackamas River actually receives the quinnat salmon in any numbers. It is asserted, in fact, that the eggs of the silver salmon and dog salmon, with scattering quinnat, are hatched there. We have no exact information as to the truth of these reports, but the matter should be taken into serious consideration.

On the Sacramento there is no doubt of the reduction of the number of salmon; this is doubtless mainly attributable to over-fishing, but in part it may be due to the destruction of spawning beds by mining operations and other causes.

As to the superiority of the Columbia River salmon, there is no doubt that the quinnat salmon average larger and fatter in the Columbia than in the Sacramento and in Puget Sound. The difference in the canned fish is, however, probably hardly appreciable. The canned salmon from the Columbia, however, bring a better price in the market than those from elsewhere. The canners there generally have had a high regard for the reputation of the river, and have avoided canning fall fish or species other than the quinnat. In the Frazer’s River the blue-back is largely canned, and its flesh being a little more watery and perhaps paler, is graded below the quinnat. On Puget Sound various species are canned; in fact, everything with red flesh. The best canners on the Sacramento apparently take equal care with their product with those of the Columbia, but they depend largely on the somewhat inferior fall run. There are, however, sometimes salmon canned in San Francisco, which have been in the city markets, and for some reason remaining unsold, have been sent to the canners; such salmon are unfit for food, and canning them should be prohibited.

The fact that the hump-back salmon runs only on alternate years in Puget Sound (1875, 1877, 1879, etc.) is well attested and at present unexplained. Stray individuals only are taken in other years. This species has a distinct “run,” in the United States, only in Puget Sound, although individuals (called “lost salmon”) are occasionally taken in the Columbia and in the Sacramento.–_American Naturalist._

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[Footnote: A lecture by Dr. O. J. Lodge, delivered at the London Institution on December 16, 1880.]

Ever since the subject on which I have the honor to speak to you to-night was arranged, I have been astonished at my own audacity in proposing to deal in the course of sixty minutes with a subject so gigantic and so profound that a course of sixty lectures would be quite inadequate for its thorough and exhaustive treatment.

I must indeed confine myself carefully to some few of the typical and most salient points in the relation between electricity and light, and I must economize time by plunging at once into the middle of the matter without further preliminaries.

Now, when a person is setting off to discuss the relation between electricity and light, it is very natural and very proper to pull him up short with the two questions: What do you mean by electricity? and What do you mean by light? These two questions I intend to try briefly to answer. And here let me observe that in answering these fundamental questions, I do not necessarily assume a fundamental ignorance on your part of these two agents, but rather the contrary; and must beg you to remember that if I repeat well-known and simple experiments before you, it is for the purpose of directing attention to their real meaning and significance, not to their obvious and superficial characteristics; in the same way that I might repeat the exceedingly familiar experiment of dropping a stone to the earth if we were going to define what we meant by gravitation.

Now, then, we will ask first, What is electricity? and the simple answer must be, We don’t know. Well, but this need not necessarily be depressing. If the same question were asked about matter, or about energy, we should have likewise to reply, No one knows.

But then the term Matter is a very general one, and so is the term Energy. They are heads, in fact, under which we classify more special phenomena.

Thus, if we were asked, What is sulphur? or what is selenium? we should at least be able to reply, A form of matter; and then proceed to describe its properties, _i. e._, how it affected our bodies and other bodies.

Again, to the question, What is heat? we can reply, A form of energy; and proceed to describe the peculiarities which distinguish it from other forms of energy.

But to the question. What is electricity? we have no answer pat like this. We can not assert that it is a form of matter, neither can we deny it; on the other hand, we certainly can not assert that it is a form of energy, and I should be disposed to deny it. It may be that electricity is an entity _per se_, just as matter is an entity _per se_.

Nevertheless, I can tell you what I mean by electricity by appealing to its known behavior.

Here is a battery, that is, an electricity pump; it will drive electricity along. Prof. Ayrtou is going, I am afraid, to tell you, on the 20th of January next, that it _produces_ electricity; but if he does, I hope you will remember that that is exactly what neither it nor anything else can do. It is as impossible to generate electricity in the sense I am trying to give the word, as it is to produce matter. Of course I need hardly say that Prof. Ayrton knows this perfectly well; it is merely a question of words, _i. e._, of what you understand by the word electricity.

I want you, then, to regard this battery and all electrical machines and batteries as kinds of electricity pumps, which drive the electricity along through the wire very much as a water-pump can drive water along pipes. While this is going on the wire manifests a whole series of properties, which are called the properties of the current.

[Here were shown an ignited platinum wire, the electric arc between two carbons, an electric machine spark, an induction coil spark, and a vacuum tube glow. Also a large nail was magnetized by being wrapped in the current, and two helices were suspended and seen to direct and attract each other.]

To make a magnet, then, we only need a current of electricity flowing round and round in a whirl. A vortex or whirlpool of electricity is in fact a magnet; and _vice versa_. And these whirls have the power of directing and attracting other previously existing whirls according to certain laws, called the laws of magnetism. And, moreover, they have the power of exciting fresh whirls in neighboring conductors, and of repelling them according to the laws of diamagnetism. The theory of the actions is known, though the nature of the whirls, as of the simple stream of electricity, is at present unknown.

[Here was shown a large electro-magnet and an induction-coil vacuum discharge spinning round and round when placed in its field.]

So much for what happens when electricity is made to travel along conductors, _i. e._, when it travels along like a stream of water in a pipe, or spins round and round like a whirlpool.

But there is another set of phenomena, usually regarded as distinct and of another order, but which are not so distinct as they appear, which manifest themselves when you join the pump to a piece of glass, or any non-conductor, and try to force the electricity through that. You succeed in driving some through, but the flow is no longer like that of water in an open pipe; it is as if the pipe were completely obstructed by a number of elastic partitions or diaphragms. The water can not move without straining and bending these diaphragms, and if you allow it, these strained partitions will recover themselves, and drive the water back again. [Here was explained the process of charging a Leyden jar.] The essential thing to remember is that we may have electrical energy in two forms, the static and the kinetic; and it is, therefore, also possible to have the rapid alternation from one of these forms to the other, called vibration.

Now we will pass to the second question: What do you mean by light? And the first and obvious answer is, Everybody knows. And everybody that is not blind does know to a certain extent. We have a special sense organ for appreciating light, whereas we have none for electricity. Nevertheless, we must admit that we really know very little about the intimate nature of light–very little more than about electricity. But we do know this, that light is a form of energy, and, moreover, that it is energy rapidly alternating between the static and the kinetic forms–that it is, in fact, a special kind of energy of vibration. We are absolutely certain that light is a periodic disturbance in some medium, periodic both in space and time; that is to say, the same appearances regularly recur at certain equal intervals of distance at the same time, and also present themselves at equal intervals of time at the same place; that in fact it belongs to the class of motions called by mathematicians undulatory or wave motions. The wave motion in this model (Powell’s wave apparatus) results from the simple up and down motion popularly associated with the term wave. But when a mathematician calls a thing a wave he means that the disturbance is represented by a certain general type of formula, not that it is an up-and-down motion, or that it looks at all like those things on the top of the sea. The motion of the surface of the sea falls within that formula, and hence is a special variety of wave motion, and the term wave has acquired in popular use this signification and nothing else. So that when one speaks ordinarily of a wave or undulatory motion, one immediately thinks of something heaving up and down, or even perhaps of something breaking on the shore. But when we assert that the form of energy called light is undulatory, we by no means intend to assert that anything whatever is moving up and down, or that the motion, if we could see it, would be anything at all like what we are accustomed to in the ocean. The kind of motion is unknown; we are not even sure that there is anything like motion in the ordinary sense of the word at all.

Now, how much connection between electricity and light have we perceived in this glance into their natures? Not much, truly. It amounts to about this: That on the one hand electrical energy may exist in either of two forms–the static form, when insulators are electrically strained by having had electricity driven partially through them (as in the Leyden jar), which strain is a form of energy because of the tendency to discharge and do work; and the kinetic form, where electricity is moving bodily along through conductors or whirling round and round inside them, which motion of electricity is a form of energy, because the conductors and whirls can attract or repel each other and thereby do work.

And, on the other hand, that light is the rapid alternation of energy from one of these forms to the other–the static form where the medium is strained, to the kinetic form when it moves. It is just conceivable, then, that the static form of the energy of light is _electro_ static, that is, that the medium is _electrically_ strained, and that the kinetic form of the energy of light is _electro_-kinetic, that is, that the motion is not ordinary motion, but electrical motion–in fact, that light is an electrical vibration, not a material one.

On November 5, last year, there died at Cambridge a man in the full vigor of his faculties–such faculties as do not appear many times in a century–whose chief work has been the establishment of this very fact, the discovery of the link connecting light and electricity; and the proof–for I believe it amounts to a proof–that they are different manifestations of one and the same class of phenomena–that light is, in fact, an electro-magnetic disturbance. The premature death of James Clerk-Maxwell is a loss to science which appears at present utterly irreparable, for he was engaged in researches that no other man can hope as yet adequately to grasp and follow out; but fortunately it did not occur till he had published his book on “Electricity and Magnetism,” one of those immortal productions which exalt one’s idea of the mind of man, and which has been mentioned by competent critics in the same breath as the “Principia” itself.

But it is not perfect like the “Principia;” much of it is rough-hewn, and requires to be thoroughly worked out. It contains numerous misprints and errata, and part of the second volume is so difficult as to be almost unintelligible. Some, in fact, consists of notes written for private use and not intended for publication. It seems next to impossible now to mature a work silently for twenty or thirty years, as was done by Newton two and a half centuries ago. But a second edition was preparing, and much might have been improved in form if life had been spared to the illustrious author.

The main proof of the electro-magnetic theory of light is this: The rate at which light travels has been measured many times, and is pretty well known. The rate at which an electro-magnetic wave disturbance would travel if such could be generated (and Mr. Fitzgerald, of Dublin, thinks he has proved that it can not be generated directly by any known electrical means) can be also determined by calculation from electrical measurements. The two velocities agree exactly. This is the great physical constant known as the ratio V, which so many physicists have been measuring, and are likely to be measuring for some time to come.

Many and brilliant as were Maxwell’s discoveries, not only in electricity, but also in the theory of the nature of gases, and in molecular science generally, I can not help thinking that if one of them is more striking and more full of future significance than the rest, it is the one I have just mentioned–the theory that light is an electrical phenomenon.

The first glimpse of this splendid generalization was caught in 1845, five and thirty years ago, by that prince of pure experimentalists, Michael Faraday. His reasons for suspecting some connection between electricity and light are not clear to us–in fact, they could not have been clear to him; but he seems to have felt a conviction that if he only tried long enough and sent all kinds of rays of light in all possible directions across electric and magnetic fields in all sorts of media, he must ultimately hit upon something. Well, this is very nearly what he did. With a sublime patience and perseverance which remind one of the way Kepler hunted down guess after guess in a different field of research, Faraday combined electricity, or magnetism, and light in all manner of ways, and at last he was rewarded with a result. And a most out-of-the-way result it seemed. First, you have to get a most powerful magnet and very strongly excite it; then you have to pierce its two poles with holes, in order that a beam of light may travel from one to the other along the lines of force; then, as ordinary light is no good, you must get a beam of plane polarized light, and send it between the poles. But still no result is obtained until, finally, you interpose a piece of a rare and out-of-the-way material, which Faraday had himself discovered and made–a kind of glass which contains borate of lead, and which is very heavy, or dense, and which must be perfectly annealed.

And now, when all these arrangements are completed, what is seen is simply this, that if an analyzer is arranged to stop the light and make the field quite dark before the magnet is excited, then directly the battery is connected and the magnet called into action, a faint and barely perceptible brightening of the field occurs, which will disappear if the analyzer be slightly rotated. [The experiment was then shown.] Now, no wonder that no one understood this result. Faraday himself did not understand it at all. He seems to have thought that the magnetic lines of force were rendered luminous, or that the light was magnetized; in fact, he was in a fog, and had no idea of its real significance. Nor had any one. Continental philosophers experienced some difficulty and several failures before they were able to repeat the experiment. It was, in fact, discovered too soon, and before the scientific world was ready to receive it, and it was reserved for Sir William Thomson briefly, but very clearly, to point out, and for Clerk-Maxwell more fully to develop, its most important consequences. [The principle of the experiment was then illustrated by the aid of a mechanical model.]

This is the fundamental experiment on which Clerk-Maxwell’s theory of light is based; but of late years many fresh facts and relations between