Greek in a Nutshell by James Strong

Greek in a Nutshell, An Outline of GREEK GRAMMAR with BRIEF READING LESSONS; Designed for Beginners in the New Testament. BY JAMES STRONG, S.T.D., Professor of Exegetical Theology in Drew Theological Seminary NEW YORK: EATON & MAINS CINCINNATI: JENNINGS & GRAHAM Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1876, by NELSON & PHILLIPS,
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Greek in a Nutshell,

An Outline of




Designed for Beginners in the New Testament.


Professor of Exegetical Theology in Drew Theological Seminary


Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1876, by NELSON & PHILLIPS, In the Office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington.


This little Manual was originally prepared for the NORMAL CLASS, at the request of the editor of that Journal, and was at the same time expected to form an instruction book at the Sunday-School Assembly annually held at Chautauqua. This accounts for its form in twelve series of two pages each. The reading lessons, however, have been made sufficiently full for subsequent study. Of course the simplest elements only of the Greek language can be comprised in such narrow limits; nor can a full vocabulary or ready facility be acquired in so short a course. Nevertheless, a good beginning may be made, and that is “half the battle” in any enterprise. It is believed that a thorough mastery of this small volume will prove a conquest over all the real difficulties of the original tongue of the New Testament.

J. S.




Form. Name. Sound.
A α Al’pha _a_ in _man_, [_arm._[1]] Β β Be’ta _b_
Γ γ Gam’ma _g_ in _go_, [_king._[2]] Δ δ Del’ta _d_
Ε ε Ep’silon _e_ in _met_. Ζ ζ Ze’ta _dz_ in _adze_. Η η E’ta _e_ in _they_.
Θ ϑ or θ The’ta _th_ in _thin_. Ι ι Io’ta _i_ in _tin_, [_machine_[3]] Κ κ or ϗ Kap’pa _k_
Λ λ Lamb’da _l_
Μ μ Mu _m_
Ν ν Nu _n_
Ξ ξ Xi _x_
Ο ο Om’icron _ο_ in _not_. Π π Pi _p_
Ρ ρ Rho _r_
Σ σ, final ς Sig’ma _s_ in _this_. Τ τ Tau _t_ in _it_.
Î¥ υ U’psilon _u_ in _full_. Φ φ Phi _f_
χ χ Khi _kh_ (German _ch_.) ψ ψ Psi _ps_
Ω ω O’mega _ο_ in _no_.

§ 2. Notes on the Alphabet.

1. α sounds broad, like _a_ in _arm_, at the end of a word, and before ρ final or ρ followed by a different consonant.

2. γ has the nasal sound, like _ng_ in _king_, before γ, κ, χ, or ξ.

3. ι has its long sound, like _i_ in _machine_, at the end of a syllable.

Every letter is sounded, and, with the above exceptions, invariably the same.


§ 3. Each word, except a very few monosyllables, has one of the following accents written over a vowel in it, which marks the place of the spoken tone. A few small words, called _enclitics_, generally throw their accent, as an acute, on the last syllable of the preceding word.

§ 4. The _acute_ (‘), which is the foundation of all the accents, stands on one of the last three syllables. In verbs, with the exception of certain forms, it stands as far toward the beginning of the word as the rules below allow. In other parts of speech it stands on the same syllable as in the ground-form, (that given in the lexicon,) except as required by these rules. When the last syllable has a long vowel or diphthong it stands on the syllable before the last.

§ 5. The _grave_ accent (`) is only written in place of the acute on the last syllable when not before a pause, or when unemphatic. It is understood to belong to all other syllables.

§ 6. The _circumflex_ (~) is placed on a syllable formed by the combination of two, the first of which had an acute and the second a grave; hence only on the last, or next to the last syllable, and only on a long vowel or a diphthong. When the last syllable has a short vowel, such a penult, if accented, takes the circumflex.


§ 7. A vowel beginning a word takes either the _rough breathing_, (῾), which is pronounced like _h_, or else, to show the absence of that, _the smooth breathing_, (᾿), which has no appreciable sound. Initial ρ and υ always take the rough breathing; and double ρ in the middle of a word takes the smooth breathing on the first, and the rough on the second.

§ 8. The vowels are short, (ε and ο,) long, (η and ω,) or doubtful, (α, ι, and υ,) which last, although naturally short, are sometimes lengthened by derivation.

§ 9. The diphthongs are as follows:–

Proper. With Iota Subscript. Improper. αι sounds ay á¾³ = α ηυ = η and υ ει ” i ῃ = η ωυ = ω and υ οι ” oy ῳ = ω
υι ” we
αυ ” ow
ευ ” yu
ου ” oo

§ 10. In diphthongs the breathing and accent are written over the _second_ vowel. A capital (initial) letter in other cases takes them _before_ it.

§ 11. The punctuation marks are the comma, (,), the semicolon, (·), the period, (.), and the interrogation point, (;).



§ 12. When two _consonants_ come together the first is made homogeneous with the second, as follows:–

§ 13. Mutes of a different class must have the same degree of hardness according to the following classification:–

Smooth. Middle. Rough. Sibilant (with _s_.) Kappa-mutes. κ γ χ ξ Pi-mutes π β φ ψ Tau-mutes τ δ ϑ ζ

§ 14. A _smooth_ final mute is roughened before a vowel with the rough breathing. A rough mute is not doubled, nor can successive syllables begin with an aspirate. A tau-mute is sometimes dropped before σ, and always before κ; before a different tau-mute it is changed into σ.

§ 15. Before μ a kappa-mute is changed into γ, a pi-mute into μ, and a tau-mute into σ.

§ 16. ν before a kappa-mute becomes γ, before a pi-mute μ, before a liquid (λ, μ, ν, or ρ) it is changed into the same liquid, before σ or ζ it is dropped.

§ 17. ν is appended to certain endings in σι or ε before a pause or a vowel.

§ 18. There are several other less important rules, and some exceptions to most of the above.

§ 19. A _long vowel_ or _diphthong_ is used as an equivalent for two (usually short) vowels in immediate succession, or as a compensation for the omission of a consonant, sometimes for both.

§ 20. The changes in the union of two vowels are various, depending upon their comparative strength, position, and relation to the long vowels, or diphthongs respectively. They are readily learned by practice.

§ 21. Compensation is not always thus made for the omission of a consonant. Sometimes the omission occurs too far back in the derivation to be easily traced.

§ 22. A final vowel is sometimes elided before another vowel, and its place indicated by the apostrophe, (‘).

§ 23. There are several _dialects_, which chiefly affect the vowels, (like provincial pronunciation;) but in later Greek (to which the New Testament belongs) they were merged in “the common dialect,” the Attic pre-dominating.


Nouns are of three declensions, three genders, three numbers, and five cases, all indicated by changes of termination.

§ 24. The declensions (numbered 1, 2, and 3) are only different modes of inflection.

§ 25. Names and designations of males, nations, the months, rivers, and winds, are almost invariably _masculine_; those of females, countries, islands, cities, trees, and plants, are usually _feminine_; of the _neuter_ gender are most names of fruits and diminutives, and always the names of the letters, infinitives, clauses, indeclinable words, and words used as the symbol of a sound. In the third declension especially the (grammatical) gender in many instances is arbitrary.

§ 26. The _singular_ and _plural_ are used as in English. The _dual_ denotes two or a pair; it is comparatively rare, and never occurs in the New Testament.

§ 27. The _cases_ express the relations of words to each other in a sentence, as follows:–

Name. Use. Equivalent. Nominative. Subject of a finite verb. (Simple form.) Genitive. Origin or ownership. _From, of,_ etc. Dative. Position or manner. _In, by, for, to,_ etc. Accusative. Direction or object. _Toward, into,_ etc. Vocative. Address. _O!_

§ 28. The following are the terminations of the _First Declension_:–

Singular. Cases. Plural. _Masc._ _Fem._ _Masc. and Fem._ ας or ης α or η Nominative. αι ον ας or ης Genitive. ῶν ᾳ or η Dative. αις αν or ην Accusative. ας α or η Vocative. αι

_Dual._ Nom., Acc., Voc., α; Gen., Dat., αιν.

§ 29. The α in the terminations of the singular is mostly used when ρ, ε,or ι precedes it; and in the Nom., Acc., and Voc. when λ or σ, and frequently when ν, precedes it. A few nouns have α in the Gen. sing.



§ 30. The following are the terminations of the _Second Declension_:–

Singular. Cases. Plural. _Masc._ _Neut._ _Masc._ _Neut._ ος ον Nominative. οι α ου Genitive. ων ῳ Dative. οις ον Accusative. ους α ε ον Vocative. οι α

_Dual._ Nom., Acc., Voc., ω; Gen., Dat., οιν.

§ 31. The few fem. nouns of this declension take the masc. terminations. The Voc. masc. sing. is occasionally ος.

§ 32. The following are the terminations of the _Third Declension_:–

Singular. Cases. Plural. _Masc. and Fem._ _Neut._ _Masc. and Fem._ _Neut._ ς (or long vowel (naked stem.) Nominative. ες α before final letter.)
ος Genitive. ων ι Dative. σι(ν) ν or α (naked stem.) Accusative. ας α (like Nom. or Neut.) (naked stem.) Vocative. ες α

_Dual._ Nom., Acc., Voc., ε; Gen., Dat., οιν.

§ 33. The Nom. sing. is so often changed by the euphonic rules that the stem of the noun is best seen in the Gen. Nouns in ις, υς, and ευς take the (Attic) Gen. εως, (ω regarded as _short_.) The α of the Acc. sing. is usually after a consonant. Many irregularities and some anomalies occur, which may generally be learned from the lexicon.


§ 34. These are _declined_ like nouns, having sometimes three sets of terminations for the respective genders, sometimes two, (masc. and fem. alike,) rarely but one, (all genders alike.) The masc. and neut. are always of the same declension, (second or third,) and the fem., when different, always of the first. _Participles_ are declined like adjectives.

§ 35. Adjectives are _compared_ either by using an adverb expressive of degree, or, more regularly, by adding to the stem of the positive the syllables ότερος or ίων for the comparative, and ότατος or ιστος for the superlative. Some euphonic changes occur in making these additions, which then take the regular declensional endings.


§ 36. The _cardinal_ numbers are either simple, (the units, tens, and a few others,) or compound, (intermediate numbers.) Those from one to four inclusive, and the hundreds and thousands, are declined like adjectives. They may all be learned from the lexicon.

§ 37. The _ordinals_ are mostly formed from the cardinals by adjective endings.


§ 38. Of the _personal_ pronouns, those of the 1st and 2d persons only are specially noteworthy, being declined as nouns irregularly:–

_I_ or _Me_. _We_ or _Us_. _Thou_ or _Thee_. _Ye_ or _You_. Nominative. ἐγώ ἡμεῖς σύ ὑμεῖς Genitive. (ἐ)μοῦ ἡμῶν σοῦ ὑμῶν Dative. (ἐ)μοί ἡμῖν σοί ὑμῖν Accusative. (ἐ)μέ ἡμᾶς σέ ὑμᾶς

§ 39. The rest are declined as adjectives–masc. ος, fem, η, neut. ο; often compounded, one or both parts being declined; but, with the exception of τις, (interrogative τίς, indefinite τὶς,) neut. τι, Gen. τινος, of the third declension, the _article_ (definite only) and the _demonstrative_ alone are very peculiar in declension, as follows:–

Singular. The. Plural. _Masc. Neut. Fem._ _Masc. Neut. Fem._ ὁ τό ἡ Nominative. οἱ τά αἱ τοῦ τῆς Genitive. τῶν τῶν τῷ τῇ Dative. τοῖς ταῖς τόν τό τήν Accusative. -ούς τά τάς

_Dual._ Nom., Acc., Voc., τώ, τά; Gen., Dat., τοῖν, ταῖν.

Singular. This, These. Plural. _Masc. Neut. Fem._ _Masc. Neut. Fem._ οὗτος τοῦτο αὕτη Nominative. οὗτοι ταῦτα αὗται τούτου ταύτης Genitive. τούτων τούτων τούτῳ -αύτῃ Dative. τούτοις ταύταις τουτου τοῦτο ταυτην Accusative. τούτους ταῦτα ταύτας

_Dual._ Nom., Acc., Voc., τούτω, ταῦτα; Gen., Dat., τούτοιν, ταύταιν



§ 40. There are three VOICES, _Active, Middle,_ and _Passive,_ generally distinguished by the _termination_.

The Middle is properly _reflexive_. Some of its tenses have an _active_ meaning. A few verbs, called _deponent_, are throughout pass. in form, but act. or mid. in meaning.

§ 41. There are five MOODS in each voice, the _Indicative, Imperative, Subjunctive, Optative,_ and _Infinitive_, to which may be added the _Participles_; they are mostly known by means of the _union-vowel_–that which immediately precedes the termination.

§ 42. The Indic., Imper., Infin., and Participles correspond to the English, and have a _short_ union-vowel, (ε, ο, or α,) except the Perf. and Pluperf. pass., which have no union-vowel; the Pluperf. act. and mid., which have ει; and the Aorists pass., which have η or its equivalent.

§ 43. The Imper. has but two persons. 2d and 3d. The Infin. has but one termination for all numbers and persons, and is very often used as a neut. noun, with the article, etc., yet retaining its construction as a verb.

§ 44. The Subj. and Opt. are used in certain _dependent_ relations, like the English subjunctive and potential; the former has a _long_ union-vowel, (η or ω,) and the latter a diphthong, (οι, αι, or ει.) The former generally represents an act as contingent upon outward circumstances, and the latter upon a will.

§ 45. The TENSES are nine, the _Present, Imperfect, Perfect, Pluperfect,_ two _Aorists_, (1st and 2d, equivalent in sense,) and three _Futures_, (1st and 2d, equivalent to each other, and 3d, very rarely used;) they are distinguished by certain letters prefixed, inserted, or added to the stem or root of the verb. They represent time as compared with the _present_, and never date from that of a preceding verb.

§ 46. The Pres., Perf., Pluperf., and Fut. answer very nearly to the same tenses in English.

§ 47. The Imperf. denotes an act as going on, but incomplete or habitual at some time past: “was doing,” etc.

§ 48. The Aorists indicate a single act at a definite time, (past in the Indic., but undetermined in the others moods.)

§ 49. All the tenses with respect to form may be classed thus:–

I. _Primary_, or Absolute. Present. Perfect. Futures.

II. _Secondary_, or Historical. Imperfect. Pluperfect. Aorists.

These classes usually have the following endings respectively:–

Active Form. Persons. Middle and Passive. I. II. I. II. Pres. and Fut. Perf. Opt. Sing.
ο – ν μι 1st μαι μην ις ς 2d σαι (σ)ο ι – 3d ται το Plur.
μεν 1st μεϑα τε 2d σϑε (ντ) σι (ν) (σα)ν 3d νται ντο [2d, τον, 3d, την. Dual. 1st, μεϑον, 2d, σϑον, 3d, σϑην.]

_Notes on the Table of Verb Endings._

§ 50. In the Pres. and Fut. the ο of the 1st sing. act. is contracted (with the union-vowel) into ω, and the σαι of the 2d sing. pass. into ῃ or ει.

§ 51. Signification limits the primary terminations to the Indic. and Subj., and the secondary to the Indic. and Opt.: likewise the Imperf. and Pluperf. to the Indic., and the Imper. to the Pres., the Aorists and (rarely) the Perf.

§ 52. The _active_ terminations are assumed throughout by the Perf. and Pluperf. mid., and the Aorists pass.

§ 53. The terminations of the Imper. are analogous to the secondary in the act., and in the mid. and pass. they are merely the same strengthened, thus: _Sing._ 2d,–[Aor. pass, ϑι, 1st Aor. act. (σ)ov] (pass. ο [1st Aor. mid. ι] or σο); 3d, τω (pass. σϑω,) _Plur._ 2d, τε (pass. σϑε); 3d, τωσαν [or contr. ντων] (pass, σϑωσαν. [_Dual._ 2d, τον (σϑον); 3d, των (σϑων,)]

§ 54. The Infin. in the act. forms ends in εν, [contr., with union-vowel into ειν] (Pres., Fut., and 2d Aor.,) αι, (1st Aor.,) or ναι, (Perf. act. and mid. and both Aor. pass.;) elsewhere in σϑαι.

§ 55. In the Participles the stem ends in ντ in the act. forms, (except the Perf. act. and mid., which have ότ;) the rest take μεν, (Perf. pass, μέν.) These latter are [masc. and neut.] of the second declension, the others of the third.

§ 56. Verbs in μι insert σ before the final ι of the 3d pers. sing. Pres. Indic. act., and vary in a few other terminations, chiefly by contraction.



§ 57. The root of every _primitive_ verb is a monosyllable, consisting of a short vowel (α, ε, ι, ο, or υ) between two (usually simple) consonants. Sometimes one or the other of the latter has been dropped far back in the etymology. This root is most readily found in the 1st Fut., subject only to euphonic changes. The 2d Aor. always has a monosyllabic root, with a single vowel never long; but this may be somewhat different from the true root. Primitive verbs only have a 2d Aor.

§ 58. The Pres. and Imperf. commonly _strengthen_ the root, either by adding a hard consonant, (sometimes more than one,) or (oftener) by changing the root vowel into the corresponding long one or diphthong.

§ 59. The following tenses add certain _characteristic_ letters to the root:–

1st Fut. and 1st Aor. act. and mid., (of verbs not liquid,) and 3d Fut. ο 1st Aor. pass. ϑ 1st Fut. pass. ϑησ 2d Fut. pass. ηο 2d (in liquid verbs 1st) Fut. act. and mid. ε Perf. and Pluperf. Act. of pure and liquid verbs κ Perf. and pluperf. act. ending in a pi- or kappa-mute (῾)

§ 60. Tenses expressing _past time_ (Imperf. and Aorists Indic.) prefix ε (“syllabic _augment”) to the root; this coalesces with an initial vowel (“temporal augment”) into the corresponding long vowel or diphthong. The Perf., Pluperf., and 3d Fut. not only do the same throughout the moods, but also prefix to the _syllabic_ augment the initial consonant of the root (“reduplication”) when this is a simple consonant or a mute followed by a liquid. The Pluperf. prefixes a second syllabic augment to the reduplication.

§ 61. Initial ρ, (which is doubled after the syllabic augment,) βλ, γλ, and γν, do not, except in a few cases, allow the reduplication. Verbs compounded with a preposition generally take the augment, etc., between it and the primitive. A few other irregularities occur.

§ 62. Verbs are classified in conjugation according to the radical letter following the root vowel, or diphthong, in the 1st pers. sing. Pres. Indic. act., lexicon form: in “liquid” verbs (not derivatives in άνω, which is merely strengthened for άω) this is a _liquid_; in “pure” verbs it is absent, so that the root appears to end in a vowel, etc. Very many verbs seem to be anomalous in some of their forms in consequence of deriving these from an obsolete kindred root. The lexicon gives most of these peculiarities.

§ 63. _Liquid_ verbs almost always strengthen their root in the Pres. and Imperf.; they lengthen it in the 1st Aor. act. and mid. by changing the root vowel, if α into η, if ε into ει, while ι and ν merely become long. ε as a root vowel is generally changed into α in the 1st Aor. and 1st Fut. pass., the Perf. and Pluperf. act. and pass., and the 2d Aor. and 2d Fut. throughout, and again into ο in the Perf. and Pluperf. mid.

§ 64. The above strengthening in the Pres. and Imperf. consists in doubling λ, annexing ν to μ; or, in case of ν or ρ, in adding ι to a preceding α or ε, or lengthening ι or υ. The radical ν is often dropped in Perf. and Pluperf.

§ 65. Verbs with ε followed by a pi- or kappa-mute in the root frequently neglect to strengthen it in the Pres. and Imperf.; and verbs with ε in the root preceded by a liquid, usually change it into α and ο in the same tenses as liquid verbs, except in the 1st Aor. and Fut. pass.

§ 66. _Pure_ verbs lengthen the root vowel before a tense characteristic, also in the Perf. and Pluperf. pass. A few occasionally neglect this, and some insert σ instead.

§ 67. Verbs in μι (lexicon form instead of ω) are but another mode of conjugating pure verbs (being the only primitives of that class whose root ends in α, ε, or o) in the Pres., Imperf., and 2d Aor.; in all which tenses the union-vowel coalesces with the root vowel. They have a peculiar inflection, chiefly by reason of the Imperf. and 2d Aor. act. taking throughout the terminations of the Aorists pass. The Pres. and Imperf. reduplicate with ι the initial consonant, (prefixing simply ί if that cannot be done, and sometimes adopting other modes of strengthening,) and in the act. they lengthen the root in the Indic., α or ε into η, ο into ω. The 2d Aor. (those in υμι being factitious have not this tense) has in the act. a long vowel or diphthong throughout, except the Imperative ε or o, and the Participle.

_Notes on Certain Verbs in μι._

§ 68. τίϑημι [_to put_] has, in the Act., 1st Aor. ἒϑηκα, Perf. τέϑεικα; ὀίὀωμι [_to give_] has, 1st Aor., ἒδωκα.

§ 69. εἰμί [_to be_] is inflected thus: εὶ [_thou art_], ἐστί(ν) [_is_], ἐσμέν, ἐστί, εἰσί(ν) [_we, ye, they are_], ἱσϑι [_be thou_], ὤν [_being_], etc.; the rest mostly regular. See the lexicon for these, and for ἵημι [_to send_], and εἰμι [_to go_].

§ 70. Several verbs annex σκω, ίνω, (ν)νυμι, etc., instead of μι, etc., in the Pres. and Imperf.



§ 71. All words placed under the same construction agree together in all the accidents which they possess in common.

§ 72. “Apposition” occurs as in English.

§ 73. Adjectives agree with their nouns in gender, number, and case.

§ 74. The noun is often understood, especially if neut., (“things.”)

§ 75. Sometimes a relative is “attracted” into the case of the omitted antecedent.

§ 76. A verb agrees with its subject nominative in number and person.

§ 77. The case of the subject of the Infin. depends upon other relations.

§ 78. Neuters plur. generally have a sing. verb.


§ 79. Any word may govern another (or others) which in sense is _dependent_ upon it in the case appropriate for expressing such relation either with or without a preposition.

| >>>—|—–> |
Genitive. Dative. Accusative.

§ 80. GENITIVE, denoting _origin_, answering to _Whence?_ and expressed by _from_.

§ 81. “_Local_,” involving _external_ relations of space, either in a literal or a figurative sense. This includes actual _motion_ from an object, generally with a preposition, (ἀπό ἐκ παρά;) _separation_ from it, usually with verbs compounded with a preposition; and _commencement_.

§ 82. “_Causal_,” denoting a more _internal_ relation, as if the outgoing of some agency or property, as follows:–

§ 83. _Active_, either direct, inferential, or metaphysical. This includes relations of source, (e.g., derivation, [commonly with ἐκ, sometimes ἀπό, direct authorship with ὐπό,] possession, property, [often with an Infin.]) _partitive_ use, (e.g., a class, material, partial relations,) and the Gen. of time, (in the _course_ of which,) especially the “Gen. absolute,” with a Participle, as affording occasion.

§ 84. _Passive_, that is, indirect, the act being for the sake of the Gen. This includes verbs implying a _mental operation_, adjectives, and other words denoting _skill_, and the Gen. of _crime_ or _purpose_, (the last mostly an Infin. with the article.)

§ 85. _Mutual_, e.g., _comparison_ and _price_ or _penalty_.

§ 86. The “attributive Gen.” is a comprehensive relation, arising under several of the above heads, between two nouns designating _different_ objects, which may be thus expressed: _When two nouns are connected with each other, that one which completes the idea of the other and defines it more fully is put in the Gen._

§ 87. DATIVE, denoting _position_, answering to _Where?_ and expressed by _at_.

§ 88. “_Local_,” involving the more palpable relations of position. This includes the place, (at, by, near, in the midst of; generally with ἐν, ἐπί, παρά, etc.,) _association, accompaniment,_ (frequently with σύν,) and the _time_ (as a date) or _circumstances_ of a transaction.

§ 89. “_Causal_,” denoting the object _upon which_ the act or state appears, thus conceived as sharing in producing it, as follows:–

§ 90. _Personal_, either actually or so imagined. This includes words expressing a _correlative_ idea, as community, (in varied relations,) likeness, possession, agency, reference, etc.

§ 91. _Instrumental_, as the mediate cause, e.g., the ground or reason, the means, the instrument, manner, and the measure of excess or deficiency.

§ 92. In comprehensive phrase the “attributive Dat.” expresses many indirect relations of an object _to_ or _for_ which an act is performed or a condition sustained.

§ 93. ACCUSATIVE, denoting _direction_, answering to _Whither?_ and expressed by _toward_.

§ 94. “_Local_” involving the boundary, place, or object of motion, especially with εἰς.

§ 95. “_Causal_,” involving an influence, change, or result, as impressed upon the object, as follows:–

§ 96. The _effect_, either the thing effected, an attribute of the effect, or the effect intended.

§ 97. The _object acted upon_, e.g., with directly transitive verbs, those expressing a good or bad influence, patience, swearing, sometimes a mental affection, etc.; also the _space_ or _way_ after a verb of motion; the time, (_throughout_ which,) measure, and weight; and finally (“Attributive Accusative”) with any verb or adj. (sometimes other words) to define its application more closely, especially if of kindred signification.


§ 98. This is usually not, as in English, that of _grammatical_ dependence, but rather the order of _thought_; important or emphatic words come first, after the connecting particles; prepositions and the article precede their nouns; and qualifying terms are grouped in a harmonious balance around the principal ones.



1 Ἐν1 ἀρχῇ2 ἦν3 ὁ4 Λόγος,5 καὶ6 ὁ4 Λόγος6 ἦν3 In _the_ beginning was the Word, and the Word was

2 πρὸς7 τὸν8 θεόν,9 καὶ6 θεὸς10 ἦν3 ὁ4 Λόγος.5 Οὗτος11 with God, and God was the Word. This _one_

3 ἦν3 ἐν1 ἀρχῇ2 πρὸς7 τὸν8 θεόν.9 Πάντα12 δι’13 was in _the_ beginning with God. All _things_ by

αὐτοῦ14 ἐγένετο,15 καὶ6 χωρὶς16 αὐτοῦ14 ἐγένετο15 οὐδὲ17 him were made, and without him was made not even

4 ἓν18 ὃ19 γέγονεν.20 Ἐν1 αὐτῷ21 ζωὴ22 ἦν,3 καὶ6 one _thing_ which has been made. In him life was, and

5 ἡ23 ζωὴ22 ἦν3 τὸ24 φῶς25 τῶν26 ἀνϑρώπων·27 καὶ6 τὸ24 the life was the light of men; and the

φως25 ἐν1 τῇ28 σκοτίᾳ29 φαίνει,30 καὶ6 ἡ23 σκοτία31 light in the darkness shines, and the darkness

αὐτὸ32 οὐ33 κατέλαβεν.34 it not admitted.

DIRECTIONS.–Spell the Greek, giving the _English_ equivalents of the consonants, (as in § 1,) and the exact _phonetic_ value or sound of the vowels. Call the rough breathing _h_. Be careful to put the spoken _accent_ where it is written. Continue this practice through all the passages given in the following lessons, until the words can be pronounced readily and accurately. Familiarize yourself with the forms of the letters by _writing_ them. Let the pupil do this while learning the foregoing grammatical lessons, and after the recitation of each of them let the teacher direct attention, while the passage at the head of the reading lessons is pronounced, to the examples illustrating each point, as they occur–by way of paradigm.


1. Ἐν–prep. atonic, § 3; stands first, § 98.

2. ἀρχῇ–noun, from nom. ἀρχή, 1st decl. fem., § 28; circumflex, § 6; local dat., § 88; emphatic position, § 98.

3. ἦν–verb, irreg. in μι, § 69; 3d pers. sing. imperf. indic. act., § 47; ν appended irreg. as ending, § 49; long vowel, § 67.

4. ὁ–art., nom. masc. sing., § 39; agrees with its noun, § 73; following, § 98.

5. Αόγος–noun, 2d decl. nom. sing. masc., § 30; subject of ἡν, § 76; balances clause, § 98.

6. καί–conj., changed accent, § 5; position, § 98.

7. πρός–prep., lit., _towards_; gov. acc., § 27; accent, § 5.

8. τόν–art., acc. sing. masc., § 39; agreement, § 73.

9. θεόν–noun, lit., [the] _deity_; 2d decl. masc., § 25; acc. sing., § 30; government, §94; position, § 98.

10. θεός–same as 9; nom. agreeing with subj., § 71; without the art. because the predicate; emphatic position, § 98.

11. Οὖτος–pron., § 39; agrees with Αόγος, understood (§ 73) as subj. of sentence; first as connective; accent, § 6; and breathing, § 10.

12. Πάντα –adj. pron., from τάς, (stem, πάντ); 3d decl. nom. plur. neut., § 32; indef. without noun expressed, § 74; subject of sentence; emphatic position, § 98.

13. δι’–prep, for δια, with final letter elided, § 22.

14. αὐτοῦ–adj. pron. used as personal; gen. masc. sing., § 30; causal, § 82. Gen. and dat. of 1st and 2d decl. are always circumflex when accented on last syllable.

15. ἐγένετο–verb, _came to be_, lit., _was born_; from γίνομαι, (for γίγνομαι, strengthened [§ 63] by reduplication, [§ 67,] and then contracted for γιγεν;) depon., § 40; true root γεν, [our _kin_,] § 57, here appearing in 2d aor. mid., § 48; ἐ is simple aug., (hence the verb is in the indic., § 60;) third ε is mood-vowel, § 42; το is 3d pers. sing. mid., § 49; agreement with subj., § 78.

16. χωρίς–prep., lit., _apart_; accent, § 5; case after, § 81.

17. οὐδέ–compound neg. particle, from οὐ and δε.

18. ἓv–numeral adj., § 36; indef., § 74; 3d decl. nom. sing. neut., § 32; subj. of ἐγένετο.

19. ὃ–relative adj., § 39; 2d decl. nom. sing. neut., § 34; agreement, § 73; subj. of γέγονε.

20. γέγονεν–verb, same as 15; root-vowel changed in perf. mid., § 63; γε is reduplication, § 60; last ε is mood-vowel of indic., § 42; no additional ending, § 44; hence 3d pers. sing. (perf.) act., § 52; final ν added before pause, § 17.

21. αὐτῳ– pron., same as 14; dat. sing. masc., § 30; government, as 2.

22. ζωή –noun, 1st decl. fem. nom. sing., § 28; subject of verb following.

23. ἡ–art., fem. nom. sing., § 39; agrees with ζωή, § 73; atonic, § 3.

24. τό–art., neut. nom. sing., § 39; agrees with φῶς.

25. φῶς–noun, 3d. decl. nom. sing. neut., (stem φῶτ for φάοτ); ς here added (as some neut. nouns have) and τ dropped, § 14; predicate nom., § 71.

26. τῶν–art., gen. plur. masc., § 39; agreement, § 73.

27. ἀνϑρώπων–noun, from ἄν. ϑρωπος; 2d decl. gen. plur. masc., § 32; government, § 86; accent, § 4.

28. τῇ–art., dat. sing. fem., § 39; agreement, § 73.

29. σκοτία–noun from σκοτία; 1st decl. dat. sing. fem., § 29; final α, § 29; ι subscript, § 9; government, § 88.

30. φαίνει–verb, from φαίνω; root, φαν, strengthened, § 64; ε is mood-vowel of indic., § 42; final ι is tense-ending of pres. 3d sing. act., § 49; agrees with φῶς, § 76.

31. σκοτία–noun, as 29; nom. sing., subj. of clause.

32. αὐτό–pron., as 21; acc. neut. sing., § 39; object of κατέλαβε, § 97.

33. οὐ– simple neg. adv.; atonic, § 3.

34. κατέλαβεν–verb, from καταλαμβάνω; comp. of κατά, _down_, and λαμβάνω, _I receive_; the root of the simple verb is λαβ, here appearing in the 2d Aor., § 57; aug., § 60, excluding final α of prep., § 61; last ε likewise shows indic., § 42; no tense-ending in 3d pers. sing. act. secondary, § 49 ν appended. § 17. The tense expresses the act of the Jews in rejecting Christ.



6 Ἐγένετο1 ἄνϑρωπος2 ἀπεσταλμένος3 παρὰ4 θεοῦ,5 ὄνομα6 _There_ was a man sent from God, _the_ name

7 αὐτῷ7 Ἰωάννης8 οὗτος9 ἠλϑεν10 εἰς11 μαρτυρίαν,12 ἵνα13 to him was _John:_ this _one_ came for testimony that

μαρτυρήσῃ14 περὶ15 τοῦ16 Φωτός,17 ἵνα13 πάντες18 _he_ might testify concerning the Light, that all might

8 πιστεύσωσι19 δι’20 αὐτοῦ.21 Οὐκ22 ἦν23 ἐκεῖνος24 τὸ25 Φῶς,26 believe through him. Not was that _one_ the Light,

9 ἀλλ’27 ἵνα13 μαρτυρήσῃ14 περὶ15 τοῦ16 Φωτός.17 Ἠν23 but that _he_ might testify concerning the Light. _There_ was

τὸ25 Φῶς26 τὸ25 ἀληϑινόν,28 ὃ29 φωτίζει30 πάντα31 ἄνϑρωπον,32 the Light the true _one_, which lights every man,

10 ἐρχόμενον33 εἰς11 τὸν34 κόσμον.35 Ἐν36 τῷ37 κόσμῳ38 ἦv,23 coming into the world. In the world _he_ was,

καὶ39 ὁ40 κόσμος41 δι’20 αὐτοῦ21 ἐγένετο,1 καὶ39 ὁ40 κόσμος41 and the world through him was made, and the world

11 αὐτὸν42 οὐκ22 ἔγνω.43 Εἰς11 τὰ44 ἴδια45 ἧλϑε,10 καὶ39 οἱ46 him not knew. To the own _things he_ came, and the

ἴδιοι47 αὐτὸν42 οὐ22 παρέλαβαν.48 own _persons_ him not received.

1. Ἐγένετο–See lesson vii, No. 15.

2. ἄνϑρωπος–See vii, 27; subj. of sentence.

3. ἀπεσταλμένος–part. from ἀποστέλλω, lit., _I send away_; comp. of prep, ἀπό, _off_, and στέλλω, _I send_; root στελ, vowel changed, § 63; aug. cuts off final ο of prep., § 61; no reduplication, § 60; perf. tense because aug. beyond indic., § 60; and no union-vowel, § 42; pass. part. ending μεν, (§ 55,) accent; ος is nom. masc. sing., §§ 34, 30; agrees with ἄνϑρωπος, § 73.

4. παρά–prep., lit., _near_; with gen., =_from near_.

5. θεοῦ–See vii, 9, 10; here gen., § 81.

6. ὄνομα–noun; neut, 3d decl. nom. sing.; (stem, ονοματ, final mute always dropped for euphony;) subj. to _was_ understood, (copula may freely be supplied.)

7. αὐτῷ–pers. adj. pron.; dat. sing. masc. from αὐτός, vii, 14; governed, § 92.

8. Ἰωάννης–prop. noun; 1st decl. masc. nom. sing., § 28; predicate after neut. verb, (understood,) agreeing with subj., § 71.

9. οὗτος–See vii, 11.

10. ἠλϑεν–verb, assigned to ἔρχομαι, but really from defective ἐλεύϑω; root, ελϑ; temporal aug., [ε+ε=η,] § 60; hence indic., as union-vowel (ε) following also shows, § 42; simple root 2d aor., § 57; hence no tense ending in 3d pers. sing. act., § 49; ν appended, § 17; accent, § 6.

11. εἰς–prep., lit., _to_, that is, here, _for the purpose of_; atonic, § 3.

12. μαρτυρίαν–noun; 1st decl. fem. acc. sing., from ία, § 28; governed, § 96.

13. ἵνα–conj., meaning, _in order that_; introducing dependent clause.

14. μαρτυρήσῃ–verb, from μαρτυρέω; first η is root-vowel, lengthened before tense-sign, (§ 66,) which is σ of 1st fut., § 59; ῃ is union-vowel of subj., (§ 44,) the subscribed ι being 3d pers. sing. act., § 49; accent, § 4.

15. περῖ–prep., lit., _around_; governs gen., § 82.

16. τοῦ–art.; gen. sing. neut., § 39.

17. Φωτός–noun, see vii, 25. Gen. (sing.) and dat. (sing. and plur.) of monosyllables of 3d decl. accent the ultimate.

18. πάντες–See vii, 12; nom. masc. plur., _men_ being understood, § 74; subj. of clause.

19. πιστεύσωσι–verb, from πιστεύω; second σ is sign of 1st fut., § 59; ω sign of subj., § 44; σι 3d plur. act., § 49.

20. δἰ–See vii, 13.

21. αὐτοῦ–See vii, 14.

22. Οὐκ–neg. adv., same as οὐ, (vii, 83,) with euphonic κ before a vowel.

23. ἦν–See vii, 3.

24. ἐκεῖνος–demonst, adj. pron., § 39; =_he_, nom. masc. sing., subj. of sentence, § 27; accent, § 6.

25. τὸ–See vii, 24.

26. Φῶς–See vii, 25.

27. ἀλλ’–conj. for ἀλλά, final vowel elided, § 22.

28. ἀληϑινόν–adj., from ἀληϑινός; neut. 2d decl., § 34; nom. sing., § 30; agreeing with Φῶς, § 73.

29. ὃ–See vii, 19.

30. φωτίζει–verb, from φωτίζω; strengthened root, § 58; ε union vowel of indic., § 42; final ι 3d sing. (pres.) act., § 49.

31. πάντα–indef. adj., see No. 18; acc. sing. masc. agreeing with ἄνϑρωπον, § 73.

32. ἄνϑρωπον–noun, see No. 2; acc. sing., § 30; governed, § 97.

33. ἐρχόμενον–part. from ἔρχομαι, see No. 10; deponent, § 40; pres. pass., § 55; sing., § 30; either acc. masc., (and then agreeing with ἄνϑρωπον,) or, as is better, (see John iii, 19,) nom. neut., (and then agreeing with φῶς.)

34. τόν–See vii, 8.

35. κόσμον–noun, from κόσμος; acc. sing. 2d decl., § 30; governed, § 94.

36. ἐν–See vii, 1.

37. τῷ–art., dat. sing. masc., § 39; agrees with κοσμῳ, § 73.

38. κόσμῳ–noun, see No. 35; dat. sing., § 8.

39. καί–See vii, 6.

40. ὁ–See vii, 4.

41. κόσμος–noun, see No. 35; subj., § 27.

42. αὐτὸν–pron., see No. 7; acc. sing. masc., § 97.

43. ἔγνω–verb, from γιγνώσκω, (strengthened [§ 70] from root γνω, [§ 67,] =our _know_); 2d aor., § 57; ε is augment of indic., § 60; ω is root and union-vowel, § 67; no other ending, hence 3d sing. act., § 49.

44. τὰ–art., plur. neut. acc., § 39.

45. ἴδια–adj., fr. ἴδιος; plur. neut. acc., § 30; agreement, § 74; meaning _home_ here, (lit., _the own_ things of him;) government, § 44.

46. οἱ–art., nom. plur. masc., § 39.

47. ἴδιοι–adj., see No. 45; nom. plur. masc., § 30; meaning _family_ here, § 74; subj., § 27.

48. παρέλαβον–verb from παραλαμβάνω, compounded with παρά, _near_, (see No. 4,) as in vii, 34; 2d aor., § 57; indic., § 42; 3d plur., § 49.



12 Ὁσοι1 δὲ2 ἔλαβον3 αὐτόν,4 ἔδωκεν5 αὐτοῖς6 ἐξσυσίαν7 Whoever, however, received him, he gave to them privilege

τέκνα8 θεοῦ9 γενέσϑαι,10 τοῖς11 πιστεύουσιν12 εἰς13 τὸ14 children of God to become, to the _ones_ believing to the

13 ὄνομα15 αὐτοῦ·16 οἳ17 οὐκ18 ἐξ19 αἱμάτων,20 οὐδὲ21 ἐκ name of him; who not out of bloods, nor out of

ϑελήματος22 σαρκός,23 οὐδὲ ἐκ ϑελήματος22 ἀνδρός,24 ἀλλ’25 ἐκ will of flesh, nor out of will of man, but out

14 θεοῦ ἐγεννήϑησαν.26 Καὶ ὁ Λόγος27 σὰρξ28 ἐγένετο,29 καὶ of God were born. And the Word flesh became, and

ἐσκήνωσεν30 ἐν31 ἡμῖν,32 (καὶ ἐϑεασάμεϑα33 τὴν δόξαν34 tented among us, and we beheld the glory of

αὐτοῦ, δόξαν ὡς35 μονογενοῦς36 παρά37 Πατρός,38) πλήρης39 him, glory as of _an_ only-born near from _a_ Father,) full

15 χάριτος40 καὶ ἀληϑείας.41 Ἰωάννης42 μαρτυρεῖ43 περὶ44 of grace and truth. John testifies about

αὐτοῦ, καὶ κέκραγε45 λέγων·46 Οὗτος47 ἦν48 ὃν49 εἶπον·50 Ὁ him, and has cried, saying. This was _he_ whom I said, The

ὀπίσω51 μοῦ52 ἐρχόμενος53 ἔμπροσϑέν54 μου γέγονεν,55 ὅτι56 _one_ behind me coming, before me has become; because

16 πρῶτός57 μου ἦν. Καὶ ἐκ τοῦ πληρώματος58 αὐτοῦ ἡμεῖς59 first of me he was. And out of the fullness of him WE

17 πάντες60 ἐλάβομεν,61 καὶ62 χάριν63 ἀντὶ64 χάριτος· ὅτι ὁ all received, and grace for grace: because the

νόμος65 δίὰ Μωϋσέως66 εδόϑη,67 ἡ χάρις καὶ ἡ ἀλήϑεια law through Moses was given; the grace and the truth

18 διὰ Ἰησοῦ68 Χριστοῦ69 ἐγένετο.70 θεὸν71 οὐδείς72 ἐώρακε73 through Jesus Christ became. God no-one has seen

πώποτε·74 ὁ μονογενὴς75 Υἱός,76 ὁ ὢν77 εἰς78 τὸν ever; the only-born Son, the _one_ being into the

κόλπον79 τοῦ Πατρός, ἐκεῖνος80 ἐξηγήσατο.81 bosom of the Father, that _one_ explained _Him_.

1. Comp. ὅσος, § 39; nom. plur. masc., § 30.

2. Not first, § 98.

3. λαμβάνω, vii, 34; 3 plur. 2 aor. act.

4. vii, 14; acc. sing. masc., § 39; gov., § 97.

5. διδωμι, § 68; 3 sing., § 49; aug., § 60; mood-vowel, § 42; ν, § 17.

6. No. 4; dat. plur. masc., § 92.

7. ἐξονσία, § 28; acc. sing., § 97.

8. τέκυον, § 30; acc. sing., after neut. verb γενέσϑαι, § 72.

9. vii, 9; gen. sing. § 86.

10. vii, 15; 2 aor. mid. infin., § 54; accent peculiar.

11. vii, 4; dat. plur. masc., § 73.

12. πιστεύω; str. pres., § 58; act. part., § 55; οντς (§ 42) becomes ους, §§ 14, 16, 19; 3 decl., § 55; dat. plur., § 32; agrees with αὐτοῖς, § 72; as if a noun, § 74.

13. viii, 9; denotes _close union_.

14. § 39; agree., § 73.

15. neut. 3 decl. acc. sing., § 32; τ dropped in stem υατ, § 18; gov., § 94.

16. As No. 6; gov., § 86.

17. vii, 19; nom. plur. masc., § 30; subj. of ἐγεννήϑησαν, § 27.

18. viii, 8.

19. For ἐκ before a vowel, § 18; atonic, § 3.

20. αἷμα, neut. 3 decl. like No. 15; gen., § 81; plur. is Hebraistic, of natural descent; accent, § 4.

21. vii, 17, used as conj.

22. ϑέλημα, like No. 15; gov., § 81.

23. σάρξ, fem. 3 decl., § 32; gov., § 86; accent special.

24. ἀνήρ, irreg. 3 decl.; gen. sing., § 86.

25. vii, 20.

26. γεννάω, strictly, _I beget_; prim. as vii, 15; 2 aor. pass. 3 plur., (analyze.)

27. vii, 5.

28. No. 23; nom. sing., § 32; ξ, § 13.

29. vii, 15.

30. σκηνόω, from σκῆνος, _a tent_; 1 aor. act. 3 sing., (analyze.)

31. vii, 1.

32. § 38; gov., § 88.

33. ϑείομαι, depon., § 40; 1 aor, mid., 1 plur., (analyze;) subj. ἡμεῖς understood, _unemphatic_.

34. δόξα, § 29; acc. sing., § 97.

35. atonic, § 3.

36. μονογενής, 3 decl., two term., § 34; gen. sing. masc., § 86; έος becomes οῦς, § 6.

37. Takes gen., dat., or acc.

38. πατήρ, 3 decl., contr. like No. 24; gov., § 81.

39. 3 decl., like No. 36; nom. sing. masc., § 73.

40. χάρις, (τ dropped, § 14); 3 decl. fem. sing., § 83.

41. ἀλήϑεια, § 29; gen.sing., § 83; accent, § 4.

42. 1 decl. masc., § 28.

43. μαρτυρέω, § 62; pres. ind. act., § 42; 3 sing., § 49; έει becomes εῖ, § 20.

44. Gen. as if _from_ the center, § 81.

45. κράξω, (§ 58) for κραγ, § 57; perf. act., § 60; irreg., § 59; 3 sing., § 49.

46. λέγω, § 65; pres. part. act., § 55; nom. masc. sing., § 32; ων for οντς, § 19, and viii, 5.

47. § 39.

48. vii, 3.

49. vii, 19; acc. sing. masc., attrib., § 97.

50. Def. verb; 2 aor. act. ind., 3 sing. for εεπ, (analyze.)

51. Gov. gen. like No. 44.

52. § 38.

53. ἔρχομαι, depon., § 40; pres. part., § 55; nom. masc. sing., § 30.

54. No. 51; accent from “enclitic,” § 3.

55. vii, 20.

56. Conj.

57. For πρότατος, § 35; gov. gen. compar., (§ 85,) or attrib., § 86.

58. πλήρωμα, like No. 22; gov., § 81.

59. § 38; emphat., No. 33.

60. vii, 12; nom. plur. masc., § 73.

61. No. 3; 1 plur., § 49.

62. _Even._

63. No. 40; acc. sing., § 32; depends upon ἐλάβομεν, § 97; τ of stem dropped, § 18.

64. Gov. gen., § 85.

65. § 30.

66. Μωϋσέως, § 32; Attic gen., § 33; gov., § 82.

67. δίδωμι, § 67; reg. in 1 aor. pass., § 59; irreg. short root vowel, § 66; long union-vowel, § 42; 3 sing., § 52.

68. Irreg. gen. sing. from Ἰησοῦς, § 30.

69. Χριστός, § 40.

70. vii, 15.

71. vii, 9.

72. Comp. of οὐδέ, vii, 17, and εἷς, numeral, irreg.

73. ὁράω, irreg. redup., § 60; perf. act., § 59; 3 sing.

74. Comp. adv.

75. No. 36.

76. § 30.

77. εἰμί, § 69; like No. 46.

78. No 13.

79. § 30.

80. viii, 19.

81. Depon. ἐξηγήομαι, § 40; 1 aor. mid., § 59; aug. merged in first η, § 61; indic., § 42; 3 sing., § 49.


EXERCISE ON OUR LORD’S PRAYER, (Matt, vi, 9-13; Luke xi, 2-4.)

Οὕτως οὖν προσεύχεσϑε1 ὑμεῖς· (Ὅταν προσεύχησϑε,2 Thus therefore pray YE: (Whenever ye pray,

λέγετε·3) Πάτερ4 ἡμῶν ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς,5 ἁγιασϑήτω6 τὸ say:) Father of us, the _one_ in the heavens, let be hallowed the

ὄνομά7 σου, έλϑέτω8 ἡ βασιλεία9 σον, γενηϑήτω10 τὸ name of thee; let come the kingdom of thee; let be done the

ϑέλημἄ11 σου ως ἐν οὐρανῷ12 καὶ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς,13 τὸν ἄρτον14 will of thee, as in heaven, also upon the earth; the bread

ἡμῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον15 δὸς16 (δίδον17) ἡμῖν σήμερον,18 (τὸ19 of us, the needful, give (give) to us to-day; _as to_ the _time_

καϑ᾽20 ἡμέραν,21) καὶ ἄφες22 ἡμῖν τὰ ὀφειλήματα23 (τὰς ἁμαρτίας24) by day; and forgive to us the debts (the sins)

ἡμῶν, ὡς καὶ ἡμεῖς ἀφίεμεν25 τοῖς ὀφειλέταις26 ἡμῶν, (καὶ of us, as also we forgive to the debtors of us; (and _this do_,

γὰρ αὐτοἱ27 ἀφίεμεν25 παντὶ28 ὀφε λοντι29 ἡμῖν,) καὶ μὴ for _our_selves _we_ forgive to every _one_ owing to us;) and not

εἰσενέγκῃς30 ἡμᾶς εἰς πειρασμόν,31 ἀλλὰ ῥῦσαι32 ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ mayest thou lead us into trial; but deliver thou us away

τοῦ πονηροῦ·33 [ὅτι σοῦ ἐστὶν34 ἡ βασιλεία,9 καὶ ἡ from the evil: [because of THEE is the kingdom, and the

δύναμις,35 καὶ ἡ δόξα36 εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας.37 ἀμήν.38] power, and the glory to the ages. Amen.]

REMARK.–The words above in parentheses are the variations in the passage of Luke. The concluding doxology in brackets is not found in the oldest manuscripts, and is probably spurious.

1. προσεύχομαι, lit., _pray towards_; depon., § 40; pres., § 58; indic., § 42; 2d plur. mid., § 49.

2. Subj., § 42; required by conditional particle preceding, § 44.

3. λέγω; pres., § 65; imper., § 42; 2d plur. act., § 49.

4. πατήρ, (accent irregularly shifted;) 3d decl., § 32; voc. sing., § 27.

5. οὐρανός, § 30; dat. plur., § 88.

6. ἁγιάζω, root ἁγιαδ, from ἅγιος =_holy_; 1st aor. pass., § 59; σ for δ, § 14; η in imper., § 42; 3d pers. sing., § 53; as if act., § 52.

7. ix, 5; accent, § 3.

8. viii, 8; 2d aor. § 48; imper. § 42; 3d sing. act., § 53.

9. Nom. sing. fem., § 29; cannot take the enclitic’s accent (§ 3) like No. 7, as another acute immediately precedes.

10. γίνομαι, vii, 15; 1st aor. pass., No. 6; first η assumed irreg. as if a deriv.

11. No. 7.

12. No. 5; dat. sing., § 88.

13. γῆ, § 28; gen. sing., of place all _over_, like time, § 83.

14. ἄρτος. § 30; acc. sing. § 97.

15. ἐπιούσιος, prob. comp. of ἐπί, _for_, and οὐσία, _subsistence_; used only here; acc. sing. masc., § 34.

16. From δίδωμι, § 67; irreg,, 2d aor. imp. 2d sing. act.

17. Same verb; irreg. pres. imper. 2d sing. act.

18. Compound adv.

19. Elliptical, § 74; “attrib. acc.” § 97.

20. For κατά, §§ 22, 14.

21. From ἡμέρα, § 29; acc. sing. of time, § 97; here distributive, _daily_.

22. From ἀφίημι=_send away_; ἀπό and ἵημι, § 69; irreg. 2d aor. imper.; 2d sing. act., like No. 16.

23. From ὀφείλημα, like No. 7; acc. plur. neut., § 32.

24. From ἁμαρτία. § 28.

25. From same as No. 22; pres. ind. 1st plur. act., § 49;

26. From ὀφειλέτης, § 28; dat. plur., § 92.

27. Def. adj. pron., § 39; used as pers. of all persons.

28. From πᾶς, see vii, 12; dat. sing. masc., § 32.

29. Pres. act. part, of ὀφείλω, like ix, 12; dat. sing. masc., § 92.

30. Assigned to εἰσφέρω, but really belonging to the defective cognate, εἰσήνεγκα, irreg. reduplicate, 1st aor., from εἰς, _into_, and an obsolete ἔγκω, (for ενκω, § 16;) subj., § 41, (dependent end upon an implied verb of wishing or deprecating § 44;) 2d sing. act., § 51.

31. From πειρασμός, § 30; acc. sing., § 94.

32. From ῥύομαι, § 62; depon., § 40; 1st aor., § 59; imper. union-vowel α, § 42; 2d sing. mid., § 53.

33. Noun implied, § 74; 2d decl., § 34; gen. sing. neut., § 81.

34. From εἰμί, § 69.

35. See § 33.

36. See ix, 34.

37. From αἰών, § 32; acc. plur., § 94.

38. Adv. from the Heb., _verily_.



Ἐπειδήπερ1 πολλοὶ2 ἐπεχείρησαν3 ἀνατάξασϑαι4 διήγησιν5 περὶ Inasmuch as many undertook to arrange a narrative about

τῶν πεπλήροφορημένων6 ἐν ἡμῖν7 πραγμάτων,8 καϑὼς9 παρέδοσαν10 the fully believed among us transactions, just as transmitted _them_

ἡμῖν7 oἱ ἀπ᾽11 ἀρχῆς12 αὐτόπται13 καὶ ὑπηρέται14 to us the from _the_ beginning eye-witnesses and ministers

τοῦ λόγον·15 ἔόοξε16 κάμοί17 παρηκολονϑηκότι18 ἄvωϑεν19 of the word; it seemed _good_ to me also, having followed close from _the_ first

πᾶσιν20 ἀκριβῶς,21 καϑεξῆς22 σοι γράψαι,23 κράτιστε24 to all _things_ carefully, regularly to thee to write, most excellent

Θεόφιλε,25 ἵνα ἐπιγνῷς26 περὶ ὧν27 κατηχήϑης28 Theophilus, in order that thou mayest recognize about what thou wast instructed

λόγων τὴν ἀσφάλειαν.29 words the certainty.

1. Comp. of ἐπεί, _since_, (from ἐπί, _upon_, εἴ, _if_,) δή, _now_, and the intensive particle, περ.

2. Irreg. from πολύς, really an old πολλός; nom. plur. masc., § 34; _persons_ understood, § 74.

3. From ἐπιχείρέω, _lay hand upon_, from ἐπί, _upon_, and χείρ, _a hand_; aug., § 61; η, § 66; 1st aor., § 59; Ind., § 42; 3d plur. act.; § 49.

4. From ἀνατάσσομαι, (comp. of ἀνά, _up_, i.e., _thoroughly_, and τάσσω, _arrange_;) depon., § 40; 1st aor., (root, ταγ, str. in pres. by σσ, § 58, which excludes the γ,) § 59, (ξ=γσ, § 13;) infin. mid., § 54; depends, like a nom. (§ 25) in the acc. upon ἐπεχ., § 97.

5. From διήγησις, (like πολις in the paradigm,) § 33; acc. sing. depend. on ἀνατ., § 97.

6. From πληροφορέω, comp. of πλήρης, _full_, φορέω, _bear_, i.e., in mind; redupl., § 60; η, § 66; no tense sign, § 59; perf. pass. part., § 55; gen. plur., § 30; agrees with πραγμ., § 73.

7. See § 38.

8. Like σῶμα in the paradigm; gen. plur., see viii, 13.

9. Comp. of κατά, (see x, 20,) _down_, i.e., _exactly_, and ὠς, _as_.

10. From παραδίδωμι, comp. of παρά, _near_, i.e., from one to another, and δίδωμι, § 68; 2d aor., (δο,) § 57; indic., § 60, also § 42; 3d plur. act., § 49.

11. See § 22.

12. See vii. 2.

13. From αὐτόπτης, comp. of αὐτός, self, and ὄπτομαι, _I see_; nom. plur. masc., § 28.

14. From ὑπηρέτης, (comp. of ὐπό, _under_, and ἐρέτης, _rower_,) § 28.

15. See paradigm.

16. From δοκέω, really an obsol. δόκω; 1st aor., § 59; indic., § 60; 3d sing. act., § 49.

17. Comp. of καί, (§ 22,) and ἐμοί, § 38; case, § 92.

18. From παρακολουϑέω, comp. of παρά, _near_, and ἀκολονϑέω; aug., (α+ε=η,) § 60; perf. act., § 59; second η, § 66; part., § 55; dat. sing., (§ 32,) masc., § 34; agrees with ἐμοί, § 73.

19. Deriv. adv., lit., _from above_, i.e., from top to bottom.

20. See viii, 16; dat. plur., § 88.

21. Adv. from ἀκριβής, _exact_.

22. Adv. comp. of κατά, (as No. 17,) and ἑξῆς, _orderly_, an old gen., § 31.

23. From γράφω, (_not_ str., § 58;) 1st aor., as No. 4; infin. act., § 54; subj. of ἔδοξε.

24. From κράτιστος, § 34; superl., (§ 35,) of an obsol. κρατύς, _strong_, assigned to ἀγαϑός, _good_; Voc. sing. masc., § 30.

25. Nom, Θεόφιλος, § 30.

26. From ἐπιγινώκω, comp. of ἐπί, _upon_, i.e., by means of some reminding or determining circumstance, and γινώσκω, _I know_, for γίγνωσκω, § 70, (root γνο, know,) contracted like γίνομαι, vii, 15; 2d aor., § 57; subj., § 44; 2d sing. act., § 51.

27. Rel., § 39; gen. plur., § 30; agrees with λόγων, § 75; for τῶν λόγων, (§ 75,) οἶς, § 91.

28. From κατηχέω, (comp. of κατά, _down_, as in No. 17, and ἠχέω, _I echo_,) whence our _catechize_; 1st. aor. pass., § 59; exception to § 14; second η, § 66; third η, § 42; 2d sing., § 52.

29. From ἀσφάλεια, lit., _non-tottering_; acc. sing., § 29; depends upon ἐπιγ., § 97.


Feminine. Masculine. Cases. Shadow. Door. Root. Honor. Youth. Judge. Nominative. σκιά ϑύρα ῥίζα τιμή νεανίας κριτής Genitive. σκιᾶς ϑύρας ῥίζης τιλῆς νεανίου κριτοῖ Dative. σκιᾷ ϑύρᾳ ῥίζῃ τιμῇ νεανίᾳ κριτῇ Accusative. σκιάν ϑύραν ῥίζαν τιμήν νεανίαν κριτήν Vocative. σκιά ϑύρα ῥίζα τιμή νεανία κριτά

Nominative. σκιαί ϑύραι ῥίζαι τιμαί νεανίαι κριταί Genitive. σκιῶν ϑυρῶν ῥιζῶν τιμῶν νεανιῶν κριτῶν Dative. σκιαῖς ϑύραις ῥίζαις τιμαῖς νεανίαις κριταῖς Accusative. σκιάς ϑύρας ῥίζας τιμάς νεανίας κριτάς Vocative. σκιαί ϑύραι ῥίζαι τιμαί νεανίαι κριταί


Masculine. Neuter. Word. Jesus. Fig.
Cases. Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur. Nominative. λόγος λόγοι Ἰησοῦς σῦκον σῦκα Genitive. λόγου λόγων Ἰησοῦ σύκου σύκων Dative. λόγῳ λόγοις Ἰησοῦ σύκῳ σύκοις Accusative. λόγον λόγους Ἰησοῦν σῦκον σῦκα Vocative. λόγε λόγοι Ἰησοῦ σῦκον σῦκα


Masculine and Feminine. Neuter. Cases. Shepherd. Lion. Hair. City. Body. Light. Wall. Sing.
Nominative. ποιμήν λέων ϑρίξ πόλις σῶμα φῶς τεῖχος Genitive. ποιμένος λέοντος τρίχός πόλεως σώματος φωτός τείχους Dative. ποιμένι λέοντι τριχί πόλει σώματι φωατί τείχει Accusative. ποιμένα λέοντα τρίχα πόλιν σῶμα φῶς τεῖχος Vocative. ποιμήν λέον ϑρίξ πόλι σῶμα φῶς τεῖχος

Nominative. ποιμένες λέοντες τρίχες πόλεις σώματα φῶτά τείχη Genitive. ποιμένων λεόντων τριχῶυ πόλεων σωμάτων φωτῶν τειχῶν Dative. ποιμέσι λέονσι ϑριξί πόλεσι σώμασι φωσί τείχεσι Accusative. ποιμένας λέοντας τρίχας πόλεις σώματα φῶτα τείχη Vocative. ποιμένες λέοντες τρίχες πόλεις σώματα φῶτα τείχη

PARADIGMS OF ADJECTIVES, (of three terminations, § 34.) 1st and 2d Decl.–καλός, _Fair_.

Singular. Plural.
Cases. Masc. Fem. Neut. Masc. Fem. Neut. Nominative. καλός καλή καλόν καλοί καλαί καλά Genitive. καλοῦ καλῆς καλοῦ καλῶν καλῶν καλῶν Dative. καλῷ καλῇς καλῷ καλοῖς καλαῖς καλοῖς Accusative. καλόν καλήν καλόν καλούς καλάς καλά Vocative. καλέ καλή καλόν καλοί καλαί καλά Similarly, δίκαιος, δικαία, δίκαιον, _Just_.

1st and 3d Decl.–πᾶς, _All_.

Singular. Plural.
Cases. Masc. Fem. Neut. Masc. Fem. Neut. Nominative. πᾶς πᾶσα πᾶν πάντες πᾶσαι πάντα Genitive. παντός πάσης παντός πάντων πᾶσών πάντων Dative. παντί πάσῃ παντί πᾶσι πάσαις πᾶσι Accusative. πάντα πάσην πᾶν παντας πάσας πάντα Vocative. πᾶς πᾶσα πᾶν πάντες πᾶσαι πάντα

Similarly those ending in

M. F. N. M.&N. M. F. N. M.&N. M. F. N. M.&N. ας αινα αν G. ανος ούς οῦσα όν G. όντος ώς νῖα ός G. ότος εις εσσα εν G. εντος ων ουσα ον G. οντος ῶς ῶσα ῶς G. ῶτός είς εῖσα έν G. έντος ῶν ῶσα ῶν G. ῶντος ύς εῖα ύ G. έος ην εινα εν G. ενος ῶν οῦσα οῦν G. οῦντος ύς ῦσα ύν G. ύντος

Forms in two terminations are similar; for example:–

M.&F. N. Gen. M.&F. N. Gen. M.&F. N. Gen. ας αν αντος ις ι ιτος ων ον ονος ην εν ενος ος ον ου ωρ ορ ορος ής έν έος ους ουν οδος ως ων ω υς υ υος

SYNOPSIS (1st sing., etc.) OF REGULAR (Mute) VERBS.–τύπτω, Strike.

_Active Voice._

Indic. Imper. Optat. Subj. Infin. Part. Pres. τύπτω τύπτε τύπτω τύπτειν τύπτων Imp’f. ἔτυπτον τύπτοιμι 1st A. τύψω τύψοιμι τύψειν τύψων 1st F. ἔτυψα τύψον τύψαιμι τύψω τύψαι τύψας Perf. τέτυφα τέτυφε τετύφω τετυφέναι τετυφώς Plup. ἐτετύφειν τετύφοιμι 2d A. ἔτυπον τύπε τύποιμι τύπω τυπεῖν τυπών 2d F. τυπῶ τυποῖμι τυπεῖν τυπῶν

_Passive Voice._

Indic. Imper. Optat. Subj. Infin. Part. Pres. τύπτομαι τύπτου τύπτωμαι τύπτεσϑαι τυπτόμενος Imp’f. ἐτυπτόμην τυπτοίμην [á½  Perf. τέτυμμαι τέτυψο [εἴην τετυμμένος τετύφϑαι τετυμμένος Plup. ἐτετύμμην τετυμμένος 1st A. ἐτύφϑην τύφϑητι τυφϑείην τυφϑὼ τυφϑῆναι τυφϑείς 1st F. τυφϑήσομαι τυφϑησοίμην τυφϑήσεσϑαι τυφϑησόμενος 2d A. ἐτύπην τύπηϑι τυπείην τυπῶ τυπῆναι τυπείς 2d F. τυπήσομαι τυπησοίμην τυπήσεσϑαι τυπησόμενος 3d F. τετύψομαι τετυψοίμην τετύψεσϑαι τετυψόμενος

_Middle Voice._

Indic. Imper. Optat. Subj. Infin. Part. Pres. Same throughout as the Passive. Imp’f. Same throughout as the Passive. Perf. τέτυπα τέτυπε τετύπω τετυπέναι τετυπώς Plup. ἐτετύπειν τετύποιμι 1st A. ἐτυψάμην τύψαι τυψαίμην τύψωμαι τύψασϑαι τυψάμενος 1st F. τύψομαι τυψοίμην τύψεσϑαι τυψόμενος 2d A. ἐτυπόμην τυποῦ τυποίμην τύπωμαι τυπέσϑαι τυπόμενος 2d F. τυποῦμαι τυποίμην τυπεῖσϑαι τυπούμενος

REGULAR VERB-ENDINGS, (including mood-vowel.)

_Active_ (includ. § 52.)
1 2 3
Ind.of Pres. and Fut. _s._ ω εις ει _p._ ομεν ετε ουσι

Subjunctive throughout _s._ ω ης ῃ _p._ ωμεν ητε ωσι

Ind. of Perf. and 1 Aor. _s._ α ας ε _p._ αμεν ατε ασι[1]

Ind. of Imp. and 2 Aor. _s._ ον ες ε _p._ ομεν ετε ον

Ind. of Aor., Pass., & Opt.[2] _s._ ην ης η _p._ ημεν ητε ησαν

Indic. of Plup. _s._ ειν εις ει _p._ ειμεν ειτε εισαν

Opt., exc. as ab’ve & bel’w _s._ οιμι οις οι _p._ οιμεν οιτε οιεν

Opt. of 1 Aor. _s._ αιμι αις αι _p._ αιμεν αιτε αιεν

Imp. of Pres., 2 Aor., & Perf. _s._ ε έτω _p._ ετε έτωσαν

Imper. of 1 Aor. _s._ ον άτω _p._ ατε άτωσαν

Imper. of Aor. Pass. _s._ ηθι[3] ήτω _p._ ητε ήτωσαν

_Mid._ and _Pass._ (except § 52.)
1 2 3
Ind. of Pres. and Fut. _s._ ομαι ῃ εται _p._ όμεϑα εσϑε ονται

Subj. throughout _s._ ωμαι ῃ ηται (exc. Perf. Pass.[4]) _p._ ώμεϑα ησϑε ωνται

Ind. of 1 Aor. Mid. _s._ άμην ω ατο _p._ άμεϑα ασϑε αντο

Ind. of Imp. and _s._ όμην ου ετο 2 Aor. Middle. _p._ όμεϑα εσϑε οντο

Ind. of Perf. Pass.[4] _s._ μαι σαι ται _p._ μεϑα σϑε νται

Ind. of Plup. Pass.[4] _s._ μην σο το _p._ μεϑα σϑε ντο

Opt., exc. as bel’w _s._ οίμην οιο οιτο (and Perf. Pass.[4]) _p._ οίμεϑα οισϑε οιντο

Opt. of 1 Aor. Mid. _s._ αίμην αισο αιτο _p._ αίμεϑα αισϑε αιντο

Imper. of Pres. _s._ ου έσϑω and 2 Aor. (Mid.) _p._ εσϑε έσϑωσαν

Imper. of 1 Aor. Mid. _s._ αι άσϑω _p._ ασϑε άσϑωσαν

Imper. of 1 Perf. Pass.[4] _s._ σο ϑω _p._ σϑε σϑωσαν

[Footnote 1: But αν in 1st Aor.]

[Footnote 2: The Opt. has an extra mood-diphthong, ει, before ending.]

[Footnote 3: But ητι in 1st Aor., see § 14.]

[Footnote 4: The Perf. and Plup. Pass. are often inflected periphrastically (especially in the Opt. and Subj.) by means of an auxiliary (from εἰμί, _to be_. with the participle.]


_Active Voice._

Indic. Imper. Optat. Subj. Infin. Part. Pres. ἵστημι ἵστσϑι ἱστῶ ἱστάναι ἱστάς Imp. ἵστην ἱσταίην
2 A. ἕστην στῆϑι σταίην στῶ στῆναι στάς

Pres. τίϑημι τίϑετι τιϑῶ τιϑέναι τιϑείς Imp. ἐτίϑην τιϑείην
2 A. ἔϑην ϑές ϑείην ϑῶ ϑῆναι ϑείς

Pres. δίδωμι δίδοϑι δίδῶ δίδόναι δίδούς Imp. ἐδίδων διδοίην
2 A. ἔδων δός δοίην δῶ δοῦναι δούς

Pres. δείκνυμι δέικννϑι δεικνύναι δεικνύς Imp. ἐδείκνυν

SYNOPSIS OF VERBS IN μι.–(_Continued._)

_Middle Voice_, (including Pres. and Imper. Pass.)

Indic. Imper. Optat. Subj. Infin. Part. Pres. ἵσταμαι ἵστασο ἱστῶμαι ἵστασϑαι ἱστάμενος Imp. ἱστάμην ἱσταίμην 2 A. ἑσταμην στάσο σταίμην στῶμαι στάσϑαι στάμενος

Pres. τίϑεμαι τιϑεσο τιϑῶμαι τίϑεσϑαι τιϑέμενος Imp. ἐτιϑέμην τιϑείμην 2 A. ἐϑέμην ϑέτσο ϑείμην ϑῶμαι ϑέσϑαι ϑέμενος

Pres. δίδομαι δίδοσο διδῶμαι δίδοσϑαι διδόμενος Imp. ἐδιδόμην διδοίμην 2 A. ἐδόμην δόσο δοίμην δῶμαι δόσϑαι δόμενος

Pres. δείκνυμαι δείκνυσο δείκνυσϑαι δεικνύμενοζ Imp. ἐδείκυμην

All the other tenses are regular, as if from στάω, ϑέω, δόω, δεικνύω, meaning respectively to _stand, put, give,_ and _show_.


Singular. Plural. ἵστη- -| 1. -μι ἵστα- -| |- ἵστασι τίϑη- |= 2. -ς τιϑε- |= 1. -μεν 3.-| τιϑεισι δίδω- |= 3. -σι δίδο- |= 2. -τε | δίδουσι δέικνυ- -| δέικνυ- -| |- δέικνυσι

Λίδωμι has ω as a union-vowel throughout the subj. (pres. and 2d aor.) of both voices, and ἵστημι has α in the 2d and 3d sing., and 2d plur. of the subj. pres. All the other forms follow the inflection of the regular verb.