Gardening for the Million by Alfred Pink

Produced by Dave Morgan, Bradley Norton and PG Distributed Proofreaders GARDENING FOR THE MILLION _By_ ALFRED PINK AUTHOR OF “RECIPES FOR THE MILLION.” T. FISHER UNWIN PREFACE. It is with the object of stimulating the cultivation of gardens still more beautiful than those generally to be met with that the present volume has been written.
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  • 1904
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Produced by Dave Morgan, Bradley Norton and PG Distributed Proofreaders






It is with the object of stimulating the cultivation of gardens still more beautiful than those generally to be met with that the present volume has been written. It has not been thought necessary to repeat in each case the times when the seeds of the various flowers and plants are to be sown. A careful attention to the remarks made under the headings of “Annuals,” “Biennials,” “Perennials,” and “Seed-Sowing” will supply all the information needed. That the work may prove useful to those at least who supervise their own gardens is the sincere wish of the author.




Aaron’s Rod.–_See_ “Solidago.”

Abelia.–Very ornamental evergreen shrubs, bearing tubular, funnel-shaped flowers. They succeed in any ordinary soil if the situation is warm and sheltered, and are readily raised by cuttings. Height, 3 ft. to 4 ft.

Abies _(Spruce Firs)_.–Among these ornamental conifers mention may be made of the beautiful Japanese Spruce Ajanensis, which grows freely in most soils and has dual-coloured leaves–dark green on the upper surface and silvery white underneath; this makes a grand single specimen anywhere. The White Spruce (_Abies Alba Glauca_) is a rapid grower, but while it is small makes a lovely show in the border; it prefers a moist situation. Of the slow-growing and dwarf varieties Gregorii is a favourite. The Caerulea, or Blue Spruce, is also very beautiful. Clanbrasiliana is a good lawn shrub, never exceeding 4 ft. in height. The Pigmy Spruce (_A. Pygmea_) is the smallest of all firs, only attaining the height of 1 ft. Any of these may be increased by cuttings.

Abronia.–Handsome half-hardy annual trailers. Grow in sandy peat and multiply by root division. Flowers in April. Height, 4 in. to 6 in.

Abutilon.–Evergreen greenhouse shrubs of great beauty and easy cultivation. May be raised from seed, or by cuttings of young shoots placed in spring or summer in sand under glass, or with a bottom heat. Cut the old plants back in January, and when new shoots appear re-pot the plants. Height, 5 ft. to 8 ft.

Acacia.–Winter and spring flowering greenhouse shrubs with charming flowers and graceful foliage. May be grown from seed, which should be soaked in warm water for twenty-four hours, or they may be propagated by layers, cuttings placed in heat, or suckers. They like a rich sandy loam soil. Height, 2 ft. to 3 ft.

Acaena.–These shrubby plants are herbaceous and mostly hardy, of a creeping nature, fast growers, and suitable for dry banks or rough stony places. They flourish best in sandy loam and peat, and may be increased by cuttings placed under glass. The flowers, which are green, are produced in May. The height of the various kinds varies from 3 in. to 2 ft.

Acantholimon Glumaceum _(Prickly Thrift)_.–This is a frame evergreen perennial, thriving in any light, rich soil. It can be increased by dividing the roots. In May it puts forth its rose-coloured flowers. Height, 3 in.

Acanthus.–A coarse, yet stately hardy perennial, which has large ornamental foliage, and flowers in August. It is not particular as to soil or situation, but free space should be given it. Will grow from seed sown from March to midsummer, or in August or September in a sheltered situation. Will also bear dividing. Height, 3 ft.

Acer (_Maple_).–Very vigorous plants, suitable when young for pots, and afterwards for the shrubbery. The A. Negundo Variegata has silvery variegated leaves, which contrast effectively with dark foliage, Campestre Colchicum Rubrum, with its bright crimson palmate leaves, is very ornamental, as is also Negundo Californicum Aurem, with its golden-yellow foliage. The Maple grows best in a sandy loam. It may be increased by cuttings planted in a shaded situation, or by layers, but the choice varieties are best raised from seed sown as soon as it is ripe.

Achillea Ptarmica (_Sneezewort_).–A pure white hardy perennial which blooms in August. The dried leaves, powdered, produce sneezing. Any soil. Best increased by rooted off-sets. Flowers from July to September. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Achimenes.–Fine plants, suitable for the greenhouse, sitting-room, or hanging baskets. Plant six tubers in a 5-in. pot, with their growing ends inclining to the centre and the roots to the edge of the pot, and cover them an inch deep with a compost of peat, loam, and leaf-mould, or a light, sandy soil. Keep them well supplied with liquid manure while in a growing state. Height, 6 in. to 2-1/2 ft.

Aconite (_Monk’s-Hood or Wolf’s-Bane_).–Very pretty and very hardy, and succeeds under the shade of trees; but being very poisonous should not be grown where there are children. Increased by division or by seeds. Flowers June to July. Height, 4 ft. (_See also_ “Winter Aconites.”)

Acorus (_Sweet Flag)._–A hardy bog plant, having an abundance of light-coloured evergreen foliage. It will grow in any wet soil. Height, 2 ft.

Acroclinium.–Daisy-like everlastings. Half-hardy annuals suitable for cutting during summer, and for winter bouquets. Sow in pots in February or March, cover lightly with fine soil, plunge the pot in gentle heat, place a square of glass on the top, and gradually harden off. Seed may also be sown in the open during May or in autumn for early flowering. Height, 1 ft.

Acrophyllum Verticillatum.–A greenhouse evergreen shrub. It will grow in any soil, and may be increased by cuttings of half-ripened wood. March is its flowering season. Height, 3 ft.

Acrotis.–These are mostly hardy herbaceous plants from South Africa. The soil should consist of two parts loam and one part leaf-mould, and the situation should be dry and sunny. Seed may be sown early in March in gentle heat, and the plants grown on in a cold frame till May, when they may be planted out a foot apart. They will flower at midsummer. Winter in a warm greenhouse. Height, 2 ft. Some few are of a creeping nature.

Actaea Spicata (_Bane Berry_).–A hardy herbaceous perennial which delights in a shady position, and will even grow under trees. It is increased by division of the roots, or it may readily be raised from seed in ordinary soil. May is its flowering month. Height, 3 ft.

Actinella Grandiflora.–A showy herbaceous plant, bearing large orange-coloured flowers in July. It is not particular as to soil, and is increased by dividing the roots. Height, 1 ft.

Actinomeris Squarrosa.–This hardy and ornamental herbaceous plant bears heads of bright yellow flowers, resembling small sunflowers, from June to August. It thrives in any loamy soil, and is easily increased by dividing the root. Height, 4 ft.

Adam’s Needle.–_See_ “Yucca.”

Adenandra Fragrans.–An evergreen shrub suitable for the greenhouse. It thrives best in a mixture of sandy peat and turfy loam. Cuttings of the young branches stuck in sand will strike. It flowers in June. Height, 3 ft.

Adenophora Lilifolia.–Pretty hardy perennials suitable for the border. Produce drooping pale blue flowers on branching spikes in July. Any soil suits them. They may be grown from seed, but will not allow being divided at the root. Height, 1 ft.

Adlumia Cirrhosa.–Interesting hardy climbers. Will grow in any soil, and are readily increased by seeds sown in a damp situation. Require the support of stakes. Bloom in August. Height, 15 ft.

Adonis Flos.–Showy crimson summer flowers, requiring only the simplest treatment of hardy annuals. Sow in March or April in the open border. Height, 1 ft.

Adonis Pyrenaica.–A rare but charming Pyrenean perennial species, with thick ornamental foliage, and producing large golden-yellow flowers from May to July. It needs no special treatment. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Adonis Vernalis.–A favourite hardy perennial, which grows freely from seed in any garden soil. It may also be increased by dividing the roots. Height, 1 ft.

AEthionema Cordifolium.–This little Alpine plant is a hardy evergreen that is very suitable for rock-work, as it will grow in any soil. Its rose-hued flowers are produced in June. It may be propagated by seeds or cuttings. Height, 3 in.

Agapanthus (_African Lily_).–This is a noble plant, which succeeds well in the open if placed in a rich, deep, moist loam in a sunny situation or in partial shade. In pots it requires a strong loamy soil with plenty of manure. Throughout the summer the pots should stand in pans of water. Re-pot in March. Give it plenty of pot room, say a 9-in. pot for each plant. In winter protect from severe frost, and give but very little water. The flowers are both lovely and showy, being produced during August in great bunches on stems 3 ft. high. The plant is nearly hardy. Several growing together in a large tub produce a fine effect. It is increased by dividing the root while in a dormant state.

Ageratum.–Effective half-hardy annual bedding plants, thriving best in a light, rich soil. Seed should be sown in heat in February or March. Cuttings root freely under glass. Height, 1-1/2 ft. There is a dwarf variety suitable for ribbon borders and edgings. Height, 6 in.

Agricultural Seeds.–Required per statute acre.

Carrot 5 to 6 lb. Cabbage (to transplant) 1″ Cabbage (to drill) 2 to 3″ Kohl Rabi (to drill) 2 to 3″ Lucerne 16 to 20″ Mangold Wurtzel 5 to 7″ Mustard (Broadcast) 10 to 20″ Rape or Cole 4 to 6″ Rye Grass, Italian 3 bus. Rye Grass, Perennial 2″ Sainfoin 4″ Tares, or Vetches 3″ Turnip, Swedish 3 lb. Turnip, Common 2 to 3″ Trifolium 16 to 20″

Agrostemma.–A hardy annual that is very pretty when in flower; suitable for borders. Flourishes in any soil, and is easily raised from seed sown in spring. Blooms in June and July. There are also perennial varieties: these are increased by division of the root. Height, 1 ft. to 3 ft.

Agrostis.–A very elegant and graceful species of Bent-Grass. It is a hardy annual, and is largely used for bouquets. Sow the seed in March. Height, 1 ft. to 1-1/2 ft.

Ajuga Reptans.–A hardy herbaceous perennial, suitable for the front of borders. It will grow in any soil, and may be propagated by seeds or division. May is its flowering season. Height, 6 in.

Akebia Quinata.–This greenhouse evergreen twining plant delights in a soil of loam and peat; flowers in March, and is increased by dividing the roots. Height, 10 ft.

Alchemilla Alpina (_Lady’s Mantle_).–A useful hardy perennial for rock-work. It will grow in any soil, if not too wet, and may be increased by seed sown in the spring or early autumn, or by dividing the roots. It flowers in June. Height, 1 ft.

Allium Descendens.–A hardy, bulbous perennial. Plant in October or November in any garden soil, and the flowers will be borne in July. Height, 1 ft.

Allium Neapolitanum.–This is popularly known as the “Star.” It bears large heads of pure white flowers, and is suitable for borders, pots, or forcing in a cool house. Any common soil suits it. It is increased by off-sets. Being one of our earliest spring flowers, the bulbs should be planted early in autumn. Height, 1 ft.

Allspice.–_See_ “Calycanthus” and “Chimonanthus.”

Alonsoa.–A pretty and free-blooming half-hardy annual, which produces fine spikes of orange-scarlet flowers in June. It is multiplied by cuttings or seeds. Height, 1 ft. to 1-1/2 ft.

Aloysia Citriodora.–This favourite lemon-scented verbena should be grown in rich mould. If grown in the open, it should be trained to a wall facing south, and in winter the roots need protecting with a heap of ashes and the branches to be tied up with matting. It is increased by cuttings planted in sand. August is its flowering season. Height, 3 ft.

Alsine Rosani.–This pretty little herbaceous plant, with its cushions of green growth, makes a very fine display on rock-work or in any shady position. Ordinary soil suits; it is of easy culture, and flowers during June and July. Height, 3 in.

Alstromeria (_Peruvian Lilies_).–These beautiful summer-flowering hardy perennials produce large heads of lily-like blossoms in great profusion, which are invaluable for cutting for vase decorations as the bloom lasts a long time in water. Plant in autumn 6 in. deep in a well-drained sunny situation, preferably on a south border. Protect in winter with a covering of leaves or litter. They may be grown from seed sown as soon as it is ripe in sandy loam. They bloom in July. Height, 2 ft. to 3 ft.

Alternantheras.–Cuttings of this greenhouse herbaceous plant may be struck in autumn, though they are usually taken from the old plants in spring. Insert them singly in 4-1/2-in. pots filled with coarse sand, loam, and leaf-mould. When rooted, place them near the glass, and keep the temperature moist and at 60 degrees or 65 degrees, then they will flower in July. Height, 4 in. to 1 ft.

Althea–_See_ “Hibiscus.”

Alyssum.–Well adapted for rock-work or the front of flower-beds, and is best sown in autumn. The annual, or Sweet Alyssum, bears an abundance of scented white flowers in June, and on to the end of September. The hardy perennial, Saxatile (commonly called Gold Dust), bears yellow flowers in spring. Height, 6 in.

Amaranthus.–The foliage of these half-hardy annual plants are extremely beautiful, some being carmine, others green and crimson, some yellow, red, and green. They are very suitable either for bedding or pot plants. Sow the seed early in spring in gentle heat, and plant out in May or June in very rich soil. If put into pots, give plenty of room for the roots and keep well supplied with water. Flower in July and August. Height, 1-1/2 ft. to 6 ft.

Amaryllis.–These plants bear large drooping bell-shaped lily-like blossoms. They thrive best in a compost of turfy loam and peat, with a fair quantity of sand. The pots must in all cases be well drained. Most of the stove and greenhouse species should be turned out of their pots in autumn, and laid by in a dry place until spring, when they should be re-potted and kept liberally supplied with water. A. Reticulata and A. Striatifolia bloom best, however, when undisturbed. Discontinue watering when the foliage shows signs of failing, but avoid shrivelling the leaves. The hardy varieties should be planted 6 in. deep in light, well–drained soil, and allowed to remain undisturbed for two or three years, when they will probably require thinning out. They are increased by off-sets from the bulbs.

The Belladonna (_Belladonna Lily_) should be planted in June in a sheltered border in rich, well-drained soil.

Formosissima (_the Scarlet Jacobean Lily_) is a gem for the greenhouse, and very suitable for forcing, as it will bloom two or three times in a season. It should be potted in February.

Lutea (_Sternbergia)_ flowers in autumn. Plant 4 in. deep from October to December.

Purpurea (_Vallota Purpurea or Scarborough Lily_) is a very beautiful free bloomer. October and November or March and April are the most favourable times for potting, but established plants should be re-potted in June or July.

Ambrosia Mexicana.–A hardy annual of the simplest culture. Sow the seed in spring in any fine garden soil. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

American Plants.–These thrive most in a peat or bog soil, but where this cannot be obtained a good fertile loam, with a dressing of fresh cow manure once in two years, may be used; or leaf-mould and soil from the surface of pasture land, in the proportions of three parts of the former to one of the latter. The soil should be chopped up and used in a rough condition. Sickly plants with yellowish foliage may be restored by applying liquid manure once a week during the month of July. A light top-dressing of cow manure applied annually, and keeping the roots free from stagnant water, will preserve the plants in good health.

Ammobium.–Pretty hardy perennials which may be very easily raised from seed on a sandy soil. Flower in June. Height, 2 ft.

Ampelopsis.–Handsome and rapid climbers, with noble foliage, some changing to a deep crimson in autumn. The Veitchii clings to the wall without nailing, and produces a profusion of lovely leaves which change colour. Any of the varieties may be grown in common garden soil, and may be increased by layers.

Anagallis (_Pimpernel_.)–Very pretty. Sow the hardy annuals in the open early in March; the biennials or half-hardy perennials in pots in a greenhouse or a frame, and plant out when strong enough. May also be increased by cuttings planted in ordinary soil under glass. Flower in July. Height, 6 in.

Anchusa.–Anchusa Capensis is best raised in a frame and treated as a greenhouse plant, though in reality it is a hardy perennial. The annual and biennial kinds succeed well if sown in the open in rich soil. All are ornamental and open their flowers in June. Height, 1-1/2 ft. (_See also_ “Bugloss.”)

Andromeda.–An ornamental evergreen shrub, commonly known as the Marsh Cystus, and thriving in a peat soil with partial shade. May be grown from seed sown directly it is ripe and only lightly covered with soil, as the seed rots if too much mould is placed over it. Place the seedlings in a cold frame and let them have plenty of air. It is more generally increased by layers in September, which must not be disturbed for a year. Drought will kill it, so the roots must never be allowed to get dry. It flowers in April and May. Height, 2 ft.

Androsace.–Pretty little plants, mostly hardy, but some require the protection of a frame. They grow best in small pots in a mixture of turfy loam and peat. Water them very cautiously. They flower at different seasons, some blooming as early as April, while others do not put forth flower till August. They can be increased by division as well as by seed. Height, 6 in.

Anemones.–These are highly ornamental, producing a brilliant display of flowers. The scarlets make very effective beds. They are mostly hardy, and may be grown in any moist, light, rich garden soil, preferably mixed with a good proportion of silver sand. They should occupy a sunny and well-drained situation. For early spring flowering plant from October to December, placing the tubers 2-1/2 or 3 in. deep and 4 or 5 in. apart, with a trowelful of manure under each plant, but not touching them. A little sea sand or salt mixed with the soil is a preventive of mildew. If planted in February and March they will bloom from April to June. They are increased by seeds, divisions, or off-sets; the greenhouse varieties from cuttings in light loam under glass. The tubers will not keep long out of the ground. In growing from seed choose seeds from single-flowering plants; sow in March where they are intended to flower 1 in. deep and 9 in. apart; cover with leaf-mould. Two or three sowings may be made also during the summer. Height, 6 in. to 2 ft.

Anemonopsis Macrophylla.–A rather scarce but remarkably handsome perennial, producing lilac-purple flowers with yellow stamens in July and August. It will grow in ordinary soil, and may be increased by division. Height, 2 ft.

Angelonia Grandiflora Alba.–An elegant and graceful greenhouse plant, giving forth a delicious aromatic odour. It grows best in a compost of turfy loam and peat, but thrives in any light, rich soil. Take cuttings during summer, place them under glass, but give a little air occasionally. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Annuals.–Plants of this description arrive at maturity, bloom, produce seed, and die in one season.

_Hardy_.–The seed should be sown thinly in the open borders during March, April, or May in fine soil, covering slightly with well-prepared mould–very small seeds require merely a dusting over them. When the plants are large enough to handle, thin them out boldly, to allow them to develop their true character. By this means strong and sturdy plants are produced and their flowering properties are enhanced. Many of the hardy annuals may be sown in August and September for spring flowering, and require little or no protection from frost.

_Half-Hardy._–These are best sown in boxes 2 or 3 in. deep during February and March, and placed on a slight hotbed, or in a greenhouse at a temperature of about 60 degrees. The box should be nearly filled with equal parts of good garden soil and coarse silver sand, thoroughly mixed, and have holes at the bottom for drainage. Scatter the seeds thinly and evenly over the soil and cover very lightly. Very small seeds, such as lobelia and musk, should not be covered by earth, but a sheet of glass over the box is beneficial, as it keeps the moisture from evaporating too quickly. Should watering become necessary, care must be taken that the seeds are not washed out. As soon as the young plants appear, remove the glass and place them near the light, where gentle ventilation can be given them to prevent long and straggly growth. Harden off gradually, but do not plant out until the weather is favourable. Seed may also be sown in a cold frame in April, or in the open border during May; or the plants may be raised in the windows of the sitting-room.

_Tender_.–These must be sown on a hotbed, or in rather stronger heat than is necessary for half-hardy descriptions. As soon as they are large enough to be shifted, prick them off into small pots, gradually potting them on into larger sizes until the flowering size is reached.

Anomatheca Cruenta.–This produces an abundance of bright red flowers with a dark blotch and a low growth of grass-like foliage. It is suitable for either vases, edges, or groups. Plant the bulbs in autumn in a mixture of loam and peat, and the plants will flower in July. They require a slight protection from frost. If the seed is set as soon as it is ripe it produces bulbs which will flower the following year. Height, 6 in.

Antennaria.–Hardy perennial plants, requiring a rich, light soil. They flower in June and July, and may be increased by cuttings or division. The heights of the various kinds range from 3 in. to 2 ft.

Anthemis Tinctoria (_Yellow Marguerites_).–These perennials are almost hardy, needing protection merely in severe weather. They are readily raised from seed sown in gentle heat early in spring or by slips during the summer months. Transplant into light soil. As pot plants they are very effective. June is their flowering period. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Anthericum Liliago (_St. Bernard’s Lily_).–One of the finest of hardy plants, and easy to grow. Planted in deep, free, sandy soil, it will grow vigorously, and in early summer throw up spikes of snowy-white, lily-like blossoms from 2 to 3 feet in height. It may be divided every three or four years, but should not be disturbed oftener. Mulching in early springtime is advantageous.

Anthericum Liliastrum _(St. Bruno’s Lily_).–This hardy perennial is a profuse bloomer, throwing up spikes of starry white flowers from May to July. Treat in the same manner as the foregoing. Height, 2 ft.

Anthoxanthum Gracila.–Sweet vernal grass. It is graceful and ornamental, and is used for edgings. Sow in spring, keeping the seed moist until it germinates. Height, 6 in.

Anthyllis Montana.–A fine hardy perennial for rock-work. It is of a procumbent habit, and has a woody nature. A vegetable soil is best suited for its growth, and its roots should be in contact with large stones. It may be increased by cuttings taken in spring and planted in the shade in leaf-mould. It flowers at midsummer. Height, 6 in.

Antirrhinum (_Snapdragon_).–Handsome hardy perennials; most effective in beds or borders. They stand remarkably well both drought and excessive rainfall, and succeed in any common soil. Seeds sown early in spring produce flowers the same year. For spring bedding, sow in July; keep the young plants in a cold frame, and plant out in March or April. Choice sorts may be plentifully increased by cuttings taken in July or August. Flower from July to September. Height, 1-1/2 ft. to 2 ft.

Ants in Gardens.–Contrary to general belief, ants do more good than harm to a garden; but as they are unsightly on flowers, it is advisable to tie a little wool round the stems of standard roses and other things upon which they congregate. They will not crawl over the wool. A little sulphur sprinkled over a plant will keep them from it; while wall-fruit, etc., may be kept free from them by surrounding it with a broad band of chalk. Should they become troublesome on account of their numbers a strong decoction of elder leaves poured into the nest will destroy them; or a more expeditious method of getting rid of them is to put gunpowder in their nests and fire it with a piece of touch-paper tied on to a long stick.

Aotus Gracillima.–A charming and graceful evergreen shrub, whose slender branches are covered with small pea-like flowers in May. It is most suitable for the greenhouse, and delights in a soil of loamy peat and sand. Cuttings of half-ripened wood planted under glass will take root. Height, 3 ft.

Aphides, or plant-lice, make their presence known by the plant assuming an unhealthy appearance, the leaves curling up, etc. Frequently swarms of ants (which feed upon the aphides) are found beneath the plants attacked. Syringe the plant all over repeatedly with gas-tar water, or with tobacco or lime-water. The lady-bird is their natural enemy.

Apios Tuberosa (_Glycine Apios_).–An American climbing plant which produces in the autumn bunches of purple flowers of an agreeable odour. The foliage is light and elegant. The plant is quite hardy. It enjoys a light soil and a good amount of sunshine. It may be increased by separating the tubers after the tops have died down, and planting them while they are fresh. Height, 12 ft.

Aponogeton.–_See_ “Aquatics.”

Apples.–Apples delight in a moist, cool climate. All apples will not succeed on the same soil, some preferring clay, while others grow best in sandy loam or in well-drained peat. For a deep, good soil and a sheltered situation the standard form grafted on the Crab-apple is generally considered to be the most profitable. For shallow soils it is better to graft on to the Paradise stock, as its roots do not run down so low as the Crab. The ground, whether deep or shallow, should receive a good mulching in the autumn; that on the deep soil being dug in at the approach of spring, while that on the shallow soil should be removed in the spring to allow the ground to be lightly forked and sweetened, replacing the manure when the dry, hot weather sets in. The best time to perform the grafting is March, and it should be done on the whip-handle system, particulars of which will be found under “Grafting.” Young trees may be planted in the autumn, as soon as the leaves have fallen. Budding is done in August, just in the same manner as roses. In spring head back to the bud; a vigorous shoot will then be produced, which can be trained as desired. Apples need very little pruning, it being merely necessary to remove branches growing in the wrong direction; but this should be done annually, while the branches are young–either at the end of July or in winter. If moss makes its appearance, scrape it off and wash the branches with hot lime. The following sorts may be specially recommended:–For heavy soils, Duchess of Oldenburgh, equally suitable for cooking or dessert; Warner’s King, one of the best for mid-season; and King of the Pippins, a handsome and early dessert apple. For light, warm soils, Cox’s Orange Pippin or Bess Pool. The Devonshire Quarrenden is a delicious apple, and will grow on any good soil. In orchards standards should stand 40 ft. apart each way, and dwarfs from 10 ft. to 15 ft.

Apricots.–Early in November is the most favourable time for planting Apricots. The soil–good, sound loam for preference–should be dug 3 ft. deep, and mixed with one-fourth its quantity of rotten leaves and one-fourth old plaster refuse. Place a substratum of bricks below each tree and tread the earth very firmly round the roots. They will not need any manure until they are fruiting, when a little may be applied in a weak liquid form, but a plentiful supply of water should be given during spring and summer months. The fan shape is undoubtedly the best way of training the branches, as it allows a ready means of tucking small yew branches between them to protect the buds from the cold. They may be grown on their own roots by planting the stone, but a quicker way to obtain fruit is to bud them on to vigorous seedling plum trees. This should be done in August, inserting the bud on the north or north-west side of the stem and as near the ground as possible. To obtain prime fruit, thin the fruit-buds out to a distance of 6 in. one from the other. In the spring any leaf-buds not required for permanent shoots can be pinched back to three or four leaves to form spurs. The Apricot is subject to a sort of paralysis, the branches dying off suddenly. The only remedy for this seems to be to prevent premature vegetation. The following are good sorts: Moor Park, Grosse Peche, Royal St. Ambroise, Kaisha, Powell’s Late, and Oullin’s Early. In plantations they should stand 20 ft. apart.

Aquatics.–All aquatics grow best in wicker-baskets filled with earth. Cover the surface of the earth with hay-bands twisted backwards and forwards and round the plant, and lace it down with tarred string, so as to keep the earth and plant from being washed out. The following make good plants:–White Water Lily (_Nymphaea Alba_) in deep water with muddy bottom; Yellow Water Lily (_Nuphar Lutea_); and Nuphar Advena, having yellow and red flowers; Hottonia Palustris, bearing flesh-coloured flowers, and Alismas, or Water Plantain, with white, and purple and white flowers. Water Forget-me-nots (_Myosotis Palustris_) flourish on the edges of ponds or rivers. The Water Hawthorn (_Aponogetou Distachyon_) does well in a warm, sheltered position, and may be grown in loam, plunged in a pan of water. Calla Ethiopica bears pretty white flowers, so also does the before-mentioned Aponogeton Distachyon. The Flowering Rush (_Butomus Umbellatus_), produces fine heads of pink flowers. The Water Violet merely needs to be laid on the surface of the water; the roots float. For shallow water Menyanthus Trifoliata (Three-leaved Buckbean) and Typha Latifolia (Broad-leaved Cat’s Tail) are suitable. Weeping Willows grow readily from cuttings of ripened shoots, planted in moist soil in autumn. Spiraea does well in moist situations, near water. Aquatics are propagated by seed sown under water: many will allow of root-division. Tender Aquatics are removed in winter to warm-water tanks.

Aquilegia (_Columbine_).–Very ornamental and easily-grown hardy perennials. Sow seed in March in sandy soil, under glass, and transplant when strong enough. Common garden soil suits them. The roots may be divided in spring or autumn. The flowers are produced from May to July. Height, 2 ft.

Arabis Alpina (_Rock Cress, or Snow in Summer_).–Pure white hardy perennial, which is valuable for spring bedding. Not particular to soil, and easily raised from seed sown from March to June, placed under a frame, and transplanted in the autumn, or it may be propagated by slips, but more surely by rootlets taken after the plants have done flowering. Plant 3 in. apart. Height, 6 in.

Aralia (_Fatsia Japonica_).–Fine foliage plants, very suitable for a shady situation in a living-room. They may be raised from seed sown in autumn in a gentle heat, in well-drained pots of light sandy soil. Keep the mould moist, and when the plants are large enough to handle, pot them off singly in thumb pots, using rich, light, sandy soil. Do not pot too firmly. Keep them moist, but do not over water, especially in winter, and re-pot as the plants increase in size. Be careful not to let the sun shine on them at any time, as this would cause the leaves to lose their fresh colour.

Aralia Sieboldi (_Fig Palm_).–This shrub is an evergreen, and is generally given stove culture, though it proves quite hardy in the open, where its large deep-green leaves acquire a beauty surpassing those grown indoors. Slips of half-ripened wood taken at a joint in July may be struck in heat and for the first year grown on in the greenhouse. The young plants should be hardened off and planted out in May in a sunny situation. It should be grown in well-drained sandy loam. Is increased also by off-sets, and blooms (if at all) in July. Height, 3 ft.

Aralia Sinensis. _See_ “Dimorphantus.”

Araucaria Imbricata (_The Monkey Puzzle, or Chilian Pine_).–This strikingly handsome conifer is very suitable for a forecourt or for a single specimen on grass. Young plants are sometimes grown in the conservatory and in the borders of shrubberies, as well as in the centres of beds. It requires a good stiff sandy loam, which must be well drained, and plenty of room for root action should be allowed. Young plants are obtained from seed sown in good mellow soil. Water sparingly, especially during the winter.

Arbor Vitae. _See_ “Thuya.”

Arbutus (_Strawberry Tree_).–Elegant evergreen shrubs with dark foliage of great beauty during October and November, when they produce an abundance of pearly-white flowers, and the fruit of the previous year is ripe. A. Unedo is particularly charming. They flourish in the open in sandy loam. The dwarfs are increased by layers, the rest by seeds or by budding on each other.

Arctostaphylos.–These evergreen shrubs need the same treatment as Arbutos. A. Uva-ursi, or Creeping Arbutos, is a pretty prostrate evergreen, which flowers in May, and is only 3 in. high.

Arctotis.–A showy and interesting half-hardy annual. Raise the seed in a frame in March, and transplant in May. It succeeds best in a mixture of loam and peat. It flowers in June. Height, 1 ft.

Arctotis Grandis.–A very handsome, half-hardy annual producing large daisy-like flowers on long wiry stems, the upper part being white and the base yellow and lilac, while the reverse of the petals are of a light lilac. The seed should be sown early in spring on a slight hot-bed, and the plants potted off, when sufficiently strong, using a rich, light mould. They may be transferred to the border as soon as all fear of frost is over. Height, 2-1/2 ft.

Ardisia Japonica.–An evergreen shrub which delights in a mixture of loam and peat. Cuttings will strike if planted in sand under glass with a little bottom heat. It flowers in July. Height, 6 ft.

Arenaria Balearica (_Sand Wort_).–A hardy evergreen trailing plant of easy culture, provided it is favoured with a sandy soil. Its cushions of white flowers are produced in July, and it may be increased by seed or division. Height, 3 in. It is a beautiful plant for moist, shady rock-work.

Argemone.–Interesting hardy annuals, succeeding well in any common garden soil. Are increased by suckers or by seed sown in spring. Height, 6 in. to 3 ft.

Aristolochia Sipho (_Dutchman’s Pipe_).–This hardy, deciduous climber grows best in peat and sandy loam with the addition of a little dung. It may be raised from cuttings placed in sand under glass. Height, 30 ft.

Armeria (_Thrift_).–Handsome hardy perennials for rock-work or pots. They require an open, rich, sandy soil. Bloom June to September. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Arnebia.–Ornamental hardy annuals, closely allied to the Anchusa. The seeds are sown in the open in spring, and flowers are produced in July. Height, 2 ft. There is also a dwarf hardy perennial variety (_A. Echioides_) known as the Prophet’s Flower, growing about 1 ft. high, and flowering early in summer. It needs no special treatment.

Artemisia Annua.–Pretty hardy annuals, the silvery leaves of the plant being very effective on rock-work. Sow the seed in spring where it is to flower. Height, 6 ft.

Artemisia Arborea. _See_ “Southernwood.”

Artemisia Villarsii.–A hardy perennial whose graceful sprays of finely-cut silvery foliage are very useful for mixing with cut flowers. It may be grown from seed on any soil, and the roots bear dividing; flowers from June to August. Height, 2 ft.

Artichokes.–The Jerusalem variety will flourish in light sandy soil where few other things will grow. Plant the tubers in March, 6 in. deep and 12 in. apart in rows 3 ft. asunder, and raise and store them in November. The Globe variety is increased by off-sets taken in March. Set them in deeply manured ground in threes, at least 2 ft. apart and 4 ft. from row to row. Keep them well watered, and the ground between them loose. They bear best when two or three years old.

Arum Lilies.–In warm districts these beautiful plants may be grown in damp places out of doors, with a south aspect and a background of shrubs, though, not being thoroughly hardy, it is safer to grow them in pots. They may be raised from seed in boxes of leaf-mould and sand, covering them with glass, and keeping them well watered. As soon as they can be handled, transplant them into small pots, and pot on as they increase in size. They may also be increased by the small shoots that form round the base of the corms, using a compost of loam, leaf-mould, and sand, with a little crushed charcoal. In June transplant them in the open to ripen their corms, and in August put them carefully into 6-in. pots filled with the above-mentioned compost. They need at all times a good amount of moisture, especially at such times as they are removed from one soil to another. At the same time, it is necessary to procure good drainage. It is well to feed them every other day with weak liquid manure. A temperature of 55 degrees throughout the winter is quite sufficient. When grown in the open, the bulbs should be placed 3 in. below the soil, with a little silver sand beneath each, and not be disturbed oftener than once in four years. Three or four may stand a foot apart. Stake neatly the flower stems. They flower from September to June.

Arums.–Remarkably handsome plants with fine foliage and curious inflorescence more or less enclosed in a hooded spathe, which is generally richly coloured and marked. They are hardy, easily grown in any soil (a good sandy one is preferable), and flower in July. Height, 1-1/2 ft. (_See also_ “Calla.”)

Asarum Europaeum.–This curious hardy perennial will grow in almost any soil, and may be increased by taking off portions of the root early in autumn, placing them in small pots till the beginning of spring, then planting them out. It produces its purple flowers in May. Height, 9 in.

Asclepias (_Swallow-Wort_).–Showy hardy perennials which require plenty of room to develop. They may be grown from seed sown in August or April, or can be increased by division of the root. A very light soil is needed, and plenty of sunshine. Flowers are produced in July. Height, 1 ft. to 2-1/2 ft.

Asparagus.–Sow in March or April, in rich light soil, allowing the plants to remain in the seed-beds until the following spring; then transplant into beds thoroughly prepared by trenching the ground 3 ft. deep, and mixing about a foot thick of well-rotted manure and a good proportion of broken bones and salt with the soil. The plants should stand 2 ft. apart. In dry weather water liberally with liquid manure, and fork in a good supply of manure every autumn. Give protection in winter. The plants should not be cut for use until they become strong and throw up fine grass, and cutting should not be continued late in the season. April is a good time for making new beds. The roots should be planted as soon as possible after they are lifted, as exposure to the air is very injurious to them.

Asparagus Plumosus Nanus is a greenhouse variety, bearing fern-like foliage. The seeds should be sown in slight heat early in spring.

Asparagus Sprengeri.–This delightful greenhouse climber is seen to best advantage when suspended in a hanging basket, but it also makes an attractive plant when grown on upright sticks, or on trellis-work. It is useful for cut purposes, lasting a long time in this state, and is fast taking the place of ferns, its light and elegant foliage making it a general favourite. It should be grown in rich, light mould, and may be propagated by seed or division. The roots should not be kept too wet, especially in cold weather.

Asperula (_Woodruff_).–A. Azurea Setosa is a pretty, light-blue hardy annual, which is usually sown in the open in autumn for early flowering; if sown in the spring it will bloom in June or July. A. Odorata is a hardy perennial, merely needing ordinary treatment. It is serviceable for perfuming clothes, etc. Asperulas thrive in a moist soil, and grow well under the shade of trees. Height, 1 ft.

Asphalte Paths.–Sift coarse gravel so as to remove the dusty portion, and mix it with boiling tar in the proportion of 25 gallons to each load. Spread it evenly, cover the surface with a layer of spar, shells, or coarse sand, and roll it in before the tar sets.

Asphodelus.–Bold hardy herbaceous plants; fine for borders; will grow in common soil, and flower between May and August. Increased by young plants taken from the roots. Height, 2-1/2 ft. to 4 ft.

Aspidistra.–This greenhouse herbaceous perennial is a drawing-room palm, and is interesting from the fact that it produces its flowers beneath the surface of the soil. It thrives in any fairly good mould, but to grow it to perfection it should be accommodated with three parts loam, one part leaf-mould, and one part sand. It will do in any position, but is best shaded from the midday sun. It may be increased by suckers, or by dividing the roots in April, May, or June. Supply the plant freely with water, especially when root-bound. When dusty, the leaves should be sponged with tepid milk and water–a teacup of the former to a gallon of the latter. This imparts a gloss to the leaves. A poor sandy soil is more suitable for the variegated kind, as this renders the variegation more constant. Height, 1 ft. to 2 ft.

Asters.–This splendid class of half-hardy annuals has been vastly improved by both French and German cultivators. Speaking generally, the flowers of the French section resemble the chrysanthemum, and those of the German the paeony. They all delight in a very rich, light soil, and need plenty of room from the commencement of their growth. The first sowing may be made in February or March, on a gentle hotbed, followed by others at about fourteen days’ interval. The seeds are best sown in shallow drills and lightly covered with soil, then pressed down by a board. Prick out the seedlings 2 in. apart, and plant them out about the middle of May in a deeply-manured bed. If plant food be given it must be forked in lightly, as the Aster is very shallow-rooting, and it should be discontinued when the buds appear. For exhibition purposes remove the middle bud, mulch the ground with some good rotten soil from an old turf heap, and occasionally give a little manure water.

Astilbe.–Ornamental, hardy herbaceous perennials, with large handsome foliage, and dense plumes of flowers, requiring a peaty soil for their successful cultivation. They may be grown from seed sown in July or August, or may be increased by division. They flower at the end of July. The varieties vary in height, some growing as tall as 6 ft.

Astragalus Alpinus.–A hardy perennial bearing bluish-purple flowers. It will grow in any decent soil, and can be propagated from seed sown in spring or autumn, or by division. Height, 6 ft.

Astragalus Hypoglottis.–A hardy deciduous trailing plant, producing purple flowers in July. Sow the seed early in spring on a moderate hotbed, and plant out into any garden soil. Height, 3 in.

Astragalus Lotoides.–This pretty little trailer is of the same height as A. Hypoglottis, and merely requires the same treatment. It flowers in August.

Astrantia.–This herbaceous plant is quite hardy, and will thrive in any good garden soil, producing its flowers in June and July. Seed may be sown either in autumn or spring. Height, 1-1/2 ft. to 2 ft.

Atragene Austriaca.–Handsome, hardy climbers, which may be grown in any garden soil. They flower in August, and are increased by layers or by cuttings under glass. Height, 8 ft.

Atriplex.–Straggling hardy annuals of very little beauty. Will grow in any soil if sown in spring, and only require ordinary attention. Flower in July. Height, 5 ft.

Aubergine.–_See_ “Egg-Plant.”

Aubrietia.–An early spring-blooming hardy perennial. Very ornamental either in the garden or on rock-work, the flowers lasting a long time. An open and dry situation suits it best. May be readily raised from seed, and increased by dividing the roots or by cuttings under a glass. Flowers in March and April. Height 6 in.

Aucuba.–Hardy evergreen shrubs, some having blotched leaves. They look well standing alone on grass plots, and are indifferent to soil or position. Cuttings may be struck in any garden soil under a hand-glass in August, or by layers in April or May. When the male and female varieties are planted together, the latter produce an abundance of large red berries, rendering the plant very showy and ornamental. They bloom in June. Height, 6 ft.

Auricula.–This is a species of primrose, and is sometimes called Bear’s Ear from the shape of its leaves. It succeeds best in a mixture of loam and peat, or in four parts rotten loam, two parts rotten cow dung, and one part silver sand; delights in shade, and will not bear too much water. It makes an effective border to beds, and is readily propagated by off-sets taken early in autumn, or in February or March, by division of roots immediately after flowering, or from seed sown in March on gentle heat in firmly pressed light, rich soil, covered with a piece of glass and shaded from the sun till the plants are well up, when sun and air is needed. When large enough to handle, prick them out in a cold frame 6 in. apart, and keep them there through the winter. Take care to press the soil well round the roots of off-sets. October is a good time for making new borders. The half-hardy kinds require the protection of a house in winter. Height, 6 in.

Avena Sterilis.–A very singular hardy-annual ornamental grass, generally known as Animated Oats. Very useful in a green state for mixing with cut flowers. Sow in March or early in April. Height, 3 ft.

Azaleas (_Greenhouse_).–A good soil for these deciduous shrubs is made by mixing a fair quantity of silver sand with good fibrous peat. The plants must never be allowed to become too wet nor too dry, and must be shaded from excessive sunshine. After they have flowered remove the remains of the blooms, place the plants out of doors in the sun to ripen the wood, or in a temperature of 60 degrees or 65 degrees, and syringe them freely twice a day. If they require shifting, it must be done directly the flowers have fallen. Cuttings taken off close to the plant will root in sand under a glass placed in heat. A. Indica is a plant of great beauty. Stand it in the open air in summer, in a partially shaded position. In winter remove it to a cool part of the greenhouse. The hardy varieties should receive the same treatment as rhododendrons. Flowers in June. Height, 4 ft.

Azara Microphylla–This hardy evergreen shrub, with its fan-like branches and small dark, glossy leaves, is very ornamental and sweet-scented. It is increased by placing cuttings of ripened wood in sand under glass with a little heat. Height, 3 ft.


Babianas.–Charming, sweet-scented flowers, suitable for either pot cultivation or the border. In August or September place five bulbs in a well-drained 5-in. pot, using rich, light, very sandy soil; cover them completely, and press the mould down gently. Water very sparingly until the roots are well formed; indeed, if the soil is moist when the bulbs are planted, no water will be needed till the new growth appears above ground. Stand the pots in ashes and cover them with 3 in. of cocoa-nut fibre. When the flower spikes are formed, give weak liquid manure twice a week till the flowers open. Keep them in a temperature of 55 degrees. When the foliage begins to die down gradually, lessen the amount of moisture given. The bulbs while dormant are best left in the pots. For cultivation in the open, choose a warm situation, make the soil light and sandy, adding a good proportion of well-rotted manure, and plant the bulbs 5 in. deep either in autumn or spring. Height, 6 in. to 9 in.

Bahia Lanata.–A hardy herbaceous plant of easy culture from seed sown in spring or autumn in any garden soil. It produces bright orange flowers from June to August. Height, 1 ft.

Bahia Trolliifolia.–This hardy herbaceous perennial will grow in any kind of soil. It flowers in August, and can be increased by division. Height, 1 ft.

Balsams.–The seeds of these tender annuals require to be sown in early spring in a hot-house or a warm frame having a temperature of 65 to 75 degrees. When 2 or 3 in. high, or large enough to handle, prick off singly into small pots, shade them till they are established, and re-pot as they advance in strength in a compost of loam, leaf-mould, sand, and old manure. Give them air when the weather is favourable. The last shift should be into 24-sized pots. Supply them with an abundance of liquid manure, admit as much air as possible, and syringe freely. They must never be allowed to get dry. Secure their stems firmly to sticks. They will flower in the open early in September. Height, 1-1/2 ft. to 2 ft.

Bambusa.–The dwarf-growing Bamboos Fortunei variegata and Viridi-striata make graceful edgings to borders or paths. The whole family like a rich, loamy, damp soil.

Baneberry.–_See_ “Actaea.”

Baptisia Australis.–This ornamental hardy perennial makes a good border plant, growing in any loamy soil, and producing its blue flowers in June and July. It can be multiplied by dividing the root. Height, 3 ft.

Barbarea.–_See_ “Rocket.”

Barberries.–Very ornamental hardy shrubs, bearing rich yellow flowers in spring and attractive fruit in the autumn. Most handsome when trained to a single stem and the head allowed to expand freely. They are not particular as to soil, but prefer a rather light one, and succeed best in a moist, shady situation. Cuttings or layers root freely in the open. They require very little attention, beyond occasionally cutting away some of the old branches to make room for new growth. Height, 1-1/2 ft. to 2 ft.

Bartonia aurea.–Beautiful hardy annuals, the flowers of which open at night and effuse a delightful odour. Sow the seed in autumn on a gentle hotbed; pot off, and protect in a greenhouse during the winter. Plant them out in the open in May, where they will flower in June. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Bay, Sweet _(Laurus Nobilis_).–This half-hardy evergreen shrub likes a sheltered position. Protection from severe frosts is requisite, especially while it is young. It is more suitable as an isolated specimen plant than for the border. Increased by layers or by cuttings of the roots.

Beans, Broad.–A deep, strong loam is most suitable, but good crops can be obtained from any garden soil. The first sowing should be made in February or March, and in succession to May. A sowing of Beck’s Green Gem or Dwarf Fan may even be made in November in rows 2 ft. apart. Other varieties should be planted in rows 3 ft. apart, sowing the seed 3 in. deep and at intervals of 6 in. When the plants have done flowering pinch off the tops, to ensure a better crop; and if the black fly has attacked them, take off the tops low enough down to remove the pests, and burn them at once. Seville Longpod and Aquadulce may be recommended for an early crop, and Johnson’s Wonderful and Harlington Windsor for a main one.

Beans, French.–The soil should be dug over to a depth of at least 12 in. and liberally enriched with manure. In the open ground the first sowing may be made about the third week in April, another sowing early in May, and subsequent sowings for succession every two or three weeks until the end of July. Plant in rows 2 ft apart, and the seeds 6 to 9 in. apart in the rows. A sharp look-out ought to be kept for slugs, which are very partial to French Beans when pushing through the soil. For forcing, sow in pots under glass from December to March.

Beans, Runner.–These are not particular as to position or soil, but the best results are obtained by placing them in a deep rich mould where they can get a fair amount of sunlight. Sow, from the second week in May until the first week in July for succession, in rows 6 ft. apart, thinning the plants out to 1 ft. apart in the rows. Protect from slugs when the plants are coming through the ground, and support them with sticks immediately the growth begins to run. Scarlet Runners may be kept dwarf by pinching off the tops when the plants are about 1 ft. high, and nipping off the subsequent shoots when 6 in. long.

Beet.–Land that has been well manured for the previous crop is the best on which to obtain well-shaped roots of high quality. Sow in April and May in drills 18 in. apart, and thin out the plants to about 9 in. apart. Take up for use as wanted until November, when the whole crop should be taken up and stored in dry sand, and in a place where neither moisture nor frost can reach them. When storing them cut off the tails and some portion of the crowns, but be careful not to wound any part of the fleshy root.

Begonias.–A somewhat succulent genus of conservatory plants. They all require a very rich loamy soil containing a little sand; and heat, moisture, and shade are essential to their health. Cuttings 2 or 3 in. long will root readily in spring or summer. Stand the cuttings in the shade and do not over-water them; or they may be raised from seed sown in March in a hot-house or frame having a temperature of 65 degrees. Height, 1 ft. to 3 ft.

Tuberous Begonias should be planted in small pots placed in heat, early in spring, and at intervals of a fortnight for succession, using a compost of equal parts of fibrous loam, leaf-mould, and sand. Press the soil rather firmly so as to promote sturdy growth, and only just cover the top of the tuber. Water moderately till the plants begin to grow freely. Gradually harden off, and plant out the last week in May or early in June, or shift into larger pots for conservatory decoration. Cuttings may be taken in April. The plants may also be raised from seed sown in February or March in a temperature of 65 degrees. Before sowing mix the seed with silver sand, then sprinkle it evenly over a box or pan of moist, fine, light loam and silver sand; cover with a sheet of glass, and keep shaded. Transplant into small pots, and pot on from time to time as the plants increase in size. Plants so treated will flower in June or July. When the leaves of the old plants turn yellow keep the roots quite dry, afterwards turn them out of the pots and bury them in cocoa-nut fibre till January, when they must be re-potted.

Belladonna Lily.–_See_ “Amaryllis.”

Bellis Perennis.–_See_ “Daisies.”

Benthamia.–An ornamental half-hardy shrub. A profuse bloomer, the flowers of which are followed by edible strawberry-like fruit. Will succeed in any good garden against a south wall. Easily raised from seed or by layers. Flowers in August. Height, 3 ft.

Berberidopsis Corallina.–Distinct and very pretty evergreen climbing shrubs, which prove hardy in the south and west, but need protection in other places. They are not particular as to soil, and may be increased by cuttings.

Bergamot _(Monardia Didyma_).–This hardy perennial will grow almost anywhere, and may be increased by seed or by division of the root. It flowers in _July_. Height, 4 ft.

Beta Cicla.–A hardy annual which succeeds in any common soil. Its dark crimson and yellow flowers are borne in August. Height, 6 ft. It is used as spinach. In Germany the midrib of the leaf is boiled and eaten with gravy or melted butter.

Betonica.–_See_ “Stachys.”

Biennials.–These plants take two years to flower, and then they die away altogether. The seed of the hardy varieties is sown thinly in the open border any time between April and June, and the plants transferred in the autumn to the place where they are intended to bloom. Seed is also sown in August and September for flowering the following year. The half-hardy kinds may be sown in May or June. These require protection during winter, such as is afforded by a cold pit, frame, or greenhouse, or the covering of a mat or litter.

Bignonia _(Trumpet Flower_).–This is admirably suitable for a south wall, but it requires plenty of room. It is propagated by cuttings placed in sand, or by cuttings of the root. These should be planted out in the spring, or autumn will do if they are covered with a hand-glass.

Biota.–_See_ “Thuya.”

Bird Cherry.–_See_ “Cerasus.”

Blackberries.–To obtain good crops plant in a poor, dry soil on raised banks facing south. The bushes should be planted 6 ft. apart.

Bladder Nut.–_See_ “Staphylea.”

Blanket Flower.–_See_ “Gaillardia.”

Bleeding Heart.–_See_ “Dielytra.”

Bocconia Cordata.–Ornamental hardy perennials. They do best on a loamy soil, and may be increased by suckers taken from established plants in the summer and placed in rich soil; or by cuttings planted in sand, in a gentle heat under glass; also by seed sown during the autumn months. They appear to the greatest advantage when grown as solitary plants, away from other tall-growing flowers. The variety B. Frutescens has an exceedingly pretty foliage. August is the month in which they flower. Height, 6 ft.

Bog or Marsh Land.–By planting a few of the more distinct species adapted for such positions, bogs or marshes may be made interesting. The following plants are suitable:–Arundo Donax, Bambusa Fortunei, Cypripedium Spectabile, Dondia Epipactis, Drosera Rotundifolia, Gunnera Scabra, Iris Kaempferi, Iris pseud-Acorus, Juncus Zebrinus, Myosotis Palustris, Osmunda Regalis, Parnassia Palustris, Pinguicula Vulgaris, Polygonum Sieboldi, and Sarracenia Purpurea.

Boltonia Asteroides.–This is a hardy perennial which flowers in September. The same treatment that is given to Asters is suitable for this plant. Height, 3 ft.

Bomarea.–A useful greenhouse climber, the flowers of which are valuable for cutting, as they last a long time in water. It thrives best in a mixture of sand, peat, and loam.

Borago Laxiflora.–This very choice Boragewort is a trailing hardy biennial. It produces lovely pale pendent flowers from June to August, will grow in almost any soil, and can be increased by seed or division. Height, 1 ft.

Borecole, Kale, or Curled Greens.–Sow towards the end of March or early in April. Plant out as soon as ready in moderately rich soil in rows 3 ft. apart, and the plants 2 ft. apart in the rows. If the seed is sown thickly, the young plants must be pricked off into another bed until ready for planting, as strong, sturdy plants always produce the best results. They may succeed peas without any fresh manure.

Boronias.–Greenhouse evergreen shrubs. A single plant of B. Megastigma is sufficient to perfume a good-sized house. B. Drummondi, Elatior, Heterophylla, and Serrulata are all good plants. The pots should be filled with sandy peat and be well drained. They are propagated by cuttings taken at a joint and placed under glass. May is their flowering month. Height, 2 ft.

Bougainvillea.–A greenhouse evergreen climber, thriving best in a loamy soil. It flowers in June, and may be increased by cuttings. Height, 15 ft.

Bousingaultia Basselloides.–A rapidly growing climber, beautiful both in flower and foliage, the former of which is pure white, produced in July in elegant racemes from 6 in. to 8 in. long. It is nearly hardy; very suitable for a cool greenhouse. Any garden soil suits it. Height, 6 ft.

Bouvardias.–Favourite stove plants. They are propagated by pieces of the thick fleshy roots, about 2 in. long, inserted in light, rich, sandy soil, and plunged in a bottom-heat. Plant out in May in rich, light soil, cutting back all the over-vigorous growth, so as to form a well-balanced plant. At the approach of cold weather they may be taken up and potted off, using small pots to prevent them damping off. In a warm greenhouse they will flower all the winter.

Box Edging.–A deep loam suits the box best. Cuttings should be taken early in autumn. Dig a trench, and make the bottom firm and even. Set the young plants thinly and at regular intervals, leaving the tops 1 in. above the surface. Tread the soil firmly against them. Cover with 1 in. of gravel to prevent them growing too luxuriantly. The end of June is a good time for clipping. May be transplanted early in spring or late in autumn. (_See also_ “Buxus.”)

Brachycome (_Swan River Daisy_).–Beautiful little half-hardy annuals bearing cineraria-like flowers that open well in the border in summer. If well watered in autumn and removed to the greenhouse they will continue to bloom during early winter. Sow the seed as for ordinary half-hardy annuals in rich, light mould, covering them sparingly. Bloom in May. Height, 6 in.

Bravoa Geminiflora (_Twin Flower_).–This hardy bulbous plant bears lovely racemes of coral-coloured flowers in July. A rich loam suits it best. Height, 1 ft.

Briza (_Quaking Grass_).–There are several varieties of this ornamental hardy annual grass. Briza Gracillis is slender, and very pretty both in a green and dried state. Briza Maxima bears large and handsome panicles. Each variety should be sown in pots, or on a sheltered bed out of doors, early in spring. Height, 1 ft.

Broccoli.–Requires a heavy, deep, rich soil, and liquid manure during growth. For earliest crop sow thinly in beds early in March, giving a little protection if necessary. Successional sowings should be made to the end of June, to produce a constant supply till Cauliflowers are ready. Transplant, when large enough to handle, about 2 ft. from each other. Keep the ground free from weeds, and earth the plants up as they advance in growth. Sow Purple Sprouting Broccoli in May for late spring supplies.

Brodiaea Coccinea.–Handsome plants for rock-work or the border. On a dry, light, sandy soil, with plenty of sunshine, their gorgeous spikes of brilliant scarlet flowers are very attractive in May. The bulbs may be planted in November, and left undisturbed.

Broom.–Hardy shrubs thriving in almost any soil. Cuttings will strike if planted in sand under glass. (_See also_ “Genista” _and_ “Spartium.”)

Broussonetia Papyrifera.–A very effective deciduous shrub, with large, curiously-cut leaves. It likes an open soil, and is propagated by cuttings. February is its blooming time. Height, 12 ft.

Browallia.–Very handsome half-hardy annuals; will grow readily from seed in any garden soil, but prefer a sandy one. They bloom in July. Height, 2 ft.

Brussels Sprouts.–For a first crop sow early in March, and in April for succession. Transplant as soon as ready into deeply-trenched, well-manured soil, about 2 ft. apart. Hoe well, and keep clear from weeds. For exhibition and early use sow in a greenhouse, or in a frame over a gentle hotbed, about the middle of February; prick off into a cold frame, gradually harden off, and plant out in May.

Bryanthus Erectus.–A hardy evergreen shrub, which will grow in any soil if the situation is shady and damp. It thrives without any sunshine, but will not endure the constant dropping of moisture upon its leaves from trees. Cuttings strike readily. April is its flowering time. Height, 1 ft.

Budding.–Budding consists in raising an eye or bud from one part of a bush or tree and transplanting it to another part, or to any other plant of the same species. The process is not only more simple and rapid than that of grafting, but many leading nurserymen contend that a better union is effected, without the risk of dead wood being left at the junction. It may be performed at any time from June to August, cloudy days being most suitable, as the buds unite better in wet weather. It is chiefly employed on young trees having a smooth and tender bark. Of the various systems of budding, that known as the Shield is probably the most successful. Make a small horizontal cut in the bark of the stock, and also a vertical one about an inch long, thus forming an elongated T shape. Next select a branch of the current year’s growth on which there is a well-formed leaf-bud. Pass a sharp knife 1/2 in. above the bud and the same distance below it, taking about a third of the wood with the bud. If in the process of detaching it the interior of the bud is torn away it is useless, and a fresh bud must be taken. Now hold the bud in the mouth, and with as little delay as possible raise the bark of the stock with a knife, insert the bud, and bind it on with raffia. When the bud begins to grow the binding must be loosened. To prevent the shoots being torn away by the wind a stake may be tied on to the stock, and the new shoot secured to it by means of raffia. Fruit trees are sometimes budded close to the soil on stocks 1-1/2 ft. in height. The buds are rubbed off the stock as soon as they appear, but the stock is not cut away until the following spring.

Buddlea.–Half-hardy, tall, deciduous greenhouse shrubs, delighting in a loamy soil mixed with peat. They may be grown out of doors during the summer, but need the protection of a house in winter.

Bugloss (_Anchusa_).–This showy plant, bearing large blue flowers in June, may be increased by division of the roots into as many plants as there are heads, from slips, or from seed sown in the open border in spring. It is popularly known as Ox-Tongue.

Bulbocodium Trigynum (_Colchicum Caucasium_).–A miniature hardy bulbous plant, which produces in February and March erect flowers about the size of snowdrops. Set the bulbs in sandy loam or leaf-mould, choosing a sunny situation. The bulbs may be divided every other year. Height, 2 in.

Bulbocodium Vernum (_Spring Saffron_).–This bulb produces early in spring, and preceding the foliage, a mass of rose-purple flowers close to the ground. It is perfectly hardy, and valuable for edgings or rock-work. Plant in autumn in light vegetable mould, and in a sheltered, well-drained position. It will not grow in stiff, clay soil. The bulbs may be divided every two years, after the tops have died down. This dwarf plant flowers from January to March. Height, 6 in.

Buphthalmum Salicifolium (_Deep Golden-yellow Marguerite_).–Showy and ornamental hardy perennials. They will grow in any good soil, and flower from May to September; may be increased by suckers. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Burning Bush.–_See_ “Dictamnus” _and_ “Fraxinella.”

Buxus (_Tree Box_).–A useful evergreen shrub which may be grown in any soil or situation. The B. Japonica Aurea is one of the best golden plants known for edgings to a walk. The closer it is clipped the brighter it becomes. Increased by suckers or layers.


Cabbage.–Sow from February to April for an autumn supply, and in July and August for spring cutting. As soon as the plants have made four or five leaves, transplant into soil that has been liberally manured and trenched, or dug deeply, placing them 18 in. or 2 ft. apart, according to the kind grown. Keep the soil well broken up, and give a liberal supply of liquid manure while they are in a growing state. An open and sunny situation is necessary. Among the best varieties for spring sowing are Heartwell, Early Marrow, Little Pixie, Nonpareil, Sugarloaf, and Early Dwarf York. For autumn sowing, Ellam’s Dwarf Early Spring, Defiance, and Enfield Market may be recommended.

Coleworts may be sown in June, July, and August for succession, placing them about a foot apart, and cutting before they heart.

Chou de Burghley is of great value for spring sowing, and will be found very useful during autumn and early in winter. This vegetable is sometimes called Cabbage Broccoli, on account of the miniature Broccoli which are formed among its inner leaves towards autumn.

Couve Tronchuda, known also as Braganza Marrow and Portugal Cabbage, should be sown in March, April, and May for succession.

Savoy Cabbage is sown in March or April, and given the same treatment as other Cabbage. Its flavour is much improved if the plants are mellowed by frost before being cut for use.

Red Dutch is used almost solely for pickling. Its cultivation is precisely the same as the white varieties.

Cacalia.–Hardy annuals, remarkable for their awkward-looking stems and discoloured leaves. They grow best in a mixture of sandy loam, brick rubbish, and decomposed dung, well reduced. They require very little water while growing, and the pots must be well drained. Cuttings, laid by for a few days to dry, strike readily. Flower in June. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Cactus.–A sandy loam with brick rubbish and a little peat or rotten manure suits them. Echinopsis is a good plant for cool houses or windows. During the summer it should be syringed over-head with tepid water, and weak soot water should be given three times a week. It is propagated by off-sets planted in sand, also by slicing off a portion from the top of the plant and placing it in light, rich, porous loam.

Caladiums.–Favourite hothouse foliage plants, generally grown in peat soil at a temperature of 70 degrees. They require plenty of light while growing, and to be kept moderately moist at the roots. As the leaves lose colour less water should be given, and during winter they must be kept almost dry. When fresh growth begins, shake them out of their pots and put them into fresh mould. In syringing the plants use nothing but the purest rainwater, but the less the leaves are wetted the better for the appearance of the plants. They may be increased by dividing the root stock into as many pieces as there are crowns. These should be planted in very rich, sandy soil, an inch or so below the surface.

Calamintha Grandiflora.–This hardy herbaceous plant has sweetly-fragrant foliage, and bears rose-coloured flowers from May to September. Any loamy soil suits it, and it is easily increased by suckers. Height, 1 ft.

Calampelis.–A species of half-hardy climbing plants of great merit. They are elegant when in flower, and will endure the open air. They should be trained to a south wall, or over a vase, or up a pillar. Any light loamy soil suits them, and they are easily increased by cuttings. Flower in July. Height, 10 ft. (_See also_ “Eccremocarpus.”)

Calandrinia.–Very pretty hardy annuals. They grow well in sunny places in a mixture of loam and peat, and may be raised from seed sown in the spring or by cuttings placed under hand-glasses. Bloom in July. Height, 6 in. to 1 ft.

Calceolaria.–Many of the varieties are suitable for the greenhouse only. They may be grown from seed, but as this is so small it should not be covered; and in watering them it is best to stand the seed-pans in water so that the moisture ascends, as watering from the top might wash the seed too deeply into the soil. July and August are the two best months for sowing. The half-shrubby kinds make fine bedding plants. They are easily reared from cuttings. These are best taken in October. Put them in light, sandy mould on a well-drained north border; press the earth round them, and cover with a hand-glass. In very frosty weather a mat should be laid over the glass. Pot them off in spring; give plenty of air, and plant them out at the beginning of June, or before, if weather permits.

Calendula (_Marigolds_).–Very showy hardy annuals. They merely require sowing in the open in autumn for an early display of bloom, or in spring for a later show, but the autumn sowing gives the more satisfaction. Flower during June and July. Height, 1 ft.

Californian Plants.–Great care should be taken not to allow the sun to strike on the collar of any of the plants from California, as they readily succumb if it does so.

Calla.–These showy plants, sometimes called Arum, are worth cultivating. They make handsome pot-plants, bearing fine white flowers in the spring. May be grown from seeds, or roots may be divided. They are quickly increased by off-sets from the root in August or September. Plant the off-sets from the fleshy roots singly in small, well-drained pots of sandy loam with one-fourth leaf-mould or well-rotted manure, and keep them in a very warm situation. Water them well while in growth, scantily after the leaves begin to wither, and afterwards give only enough moisture to keep them alive. Leave the plants in the light while the leaves die off, and then place them in a shed, in complete repose, for a month or so. Re-pot them in October or November, and give plenty of water. They may stand in saucers of water, but this must be changed daily. They flower from May to July. Height, 2 ft.

Callichroa.–A hardy annual which well deserves a place in the garden border, both on account of its dwarf and slender habit and also the colour of its flowers. It is satisfied with any ordinary soil. The seed is raised on a hotbed in March, or in the open in April, and it blooms in the autumn. Height, 1 ft.

Calliopsis.–_See_ “Coreopsis.”

Callirhoe (_Digitata_).–Hardy annuals demanding but little attention. The seed is sown in the open in March. Height, 1 ft.

Calochortus Luteus.–This very handsome hardy perennial thrives best in sandy peat with a little loam. It produces yellow flowers in July, and is propagated by offsets from the bulbs. Height, 1 ft.

Caltha.–Early-flowering, showy perennials, all thriving in a moist or boggy situation. C. Leptosepala is especially choice, its pure white flowers resembling a water-lily. They may be increased from seed, or by division. Height, 1 ft.

Calthus Palustris Flore-Pleno (_Double Marsh Marigold_).–This hardy herbaceous perennial is very useful for mixing with cut flowers. It will grow anywhere, but prefers a clayey soil and a boggy situation, and may be increased by dividing the roots in spring. A succession of flowers are borne from April to June. Height, 9 in.

Calycanthus Floridus (_Allspice_).–This shrub likes an open loamy soil; flowers in July, and is propagated by layers. Height, 6 ft.

Calystegia.–A perfectly hardy climbing convolvulus, and a beautiful plant for covering arbours, etc., growing 20 ft. to 30 ft. in one season. It thrives in any loamy soil or situation; flowers from May to September, and may be increased by division of the roots.

Camassia Esculenta.–A handsome, hardy, bulbous plant, bearing clusters of beautiful blue flowers in July. It needs a sandy peat border under a north wall, and is increased by bulbs or seeds. Plant the bulbs early in October, 4 in. deep and 5 in. apart. Height, 1-1/3 ft.

Camellias.–The best soil for these beautiful greenhouse evergreens is a mixture of rough peat, plenty of sand, and a little turfy loam. The greenhouse should be kept rather close, at a temperature of 55 degrees to 60 degrees, while the plants are growing; but abundant syringing is necessary at all times. Induce a vigorous growth of wood, and let this be well matured by exposure to the sun and free ventilation. Old and straggling plants may be renovated by cutting them hard back as soon as they go out of flower, and placing them in a warm house where a moist atmosphere is maintained. This will induce them to break. Comparatively little water should be given for some time after they are cut back. When the state of the roots require the plants to be re-potted, remove as much of the old soil as possible without injuring them, and put them into the smallest sized pots into which they can be got, with fresh soil. This may be done after the last flower has fallen, or after the buds have fairly commenced to push. The plants may be placed out of doors at the beginning of June, and returned to the greenhouse in October. There are several varieties suitable for growing in the open. These should be provided with a soil, 2 ft. deep, composed of peat, leaf-mould, and cows’ dung. The roots should always be kept moist and cool, and the plants disturbed as little as possible. A top dressing of fresh soil may be given each winter, and the plants protected from frost by binding straw round the stems.

Campanula.–A showy genus of plants, mostly hardy perennials, which need no special treatment. They are readily raised from seed, or division of roots. The less hardy kinds may be sown on a hotbed or in the greenhouse, and when large enough potted off. Campanula Mayii is a grand plant for hanging baskets, and also grows well trained up sticks in a pyramidal form. A rich, gritty soil suits them all. The tall-growing varieties make fine pot-plants. Flower in July. Height, 1 ft. to 5 ft.

Canary Creeper (_Tropaeolum Canariense_).–This is eminently suitable for trellis-work or for walls. Its elegant foliage and bright yellow flowers make it a general favourite. It may be raised from seed on a hotbed in spring, gradually hardened off, and planted out in May. Height, 10 ft.

Candytuft (_Iberis_).–Very pretty hardy annuals. Sow the seed in autumn in a light, rich soil, or in spring if a less prolonged flowering season will give satisfaction. Bloom in May or June. Height, 1 ft.

Canna (_Indian Shot or Hemp_).–For pot-plants on terraces, gravel walks, and such like places, few things can equal and none surpass Cannas. They are half-hardy perennials, and may be increased from seed or by dividing the roots late in autumn, allowing them first to partially dry. File the tough skin off one end of the seed, and steep it in hot water for a few hours before it is sown, then stand it in a hot place till it has germinated. Harden off and plant out, or shift into larger pots in June, using a rich, light soil. Lift and store the roots in autumn in the same way as Dahlias. Different kinds flower at various seasons, so that a succession of bloom may be had throughout the year. Height, 2 ft. to 10 ft.

Cannabis Gigantea (_Giant Hemp_).–This half-hardy Hemp is grown for its ornamental foliage, and is treated as above described. Height, 6 ft.

Canterbury Bells.–Showy hardy biennials, which may be raised from seed sown in the spring. Transplant in the autumn to the border where they are intended to flower. The seed may also be sown in a sheltered position in August or September. Flower in July. Height, 2 ft.

Cape Primroses.–_See_ “Streptocarpus.”

Caprifolium.–_See_ “Honeysuckle.”

Capsicum.–Sow early in March in well-drained pots of rich, light, free mould; cover the seed with 1/2 in. of soil, and keep it constantly moist at a temperature of 65 degrees. When strong enough to handle put two or three plants in a 5-in. pot, and replace them in warmth. Keep them rather close till established, then shift them into 7-in. pots. When established remove them to a cold frame and harden off. Plant out at the end of May in a warm situation. Keep them well supplied with water in dry weather and syringe the leaves. By stopping the shoots they become nice, bushy shrubs. Flower in July. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Cardamine Pratensis (_Cuckoo Flower, or Milkmaid_).–This hardy perennial thrives in a moist, shady situation. It produces its purple flowers from May to August, and is easily propagated by seeds or division. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Cardamine Trifolia.–A hardy herbaceous plant; will grow in any soil, flowers in May, and is easily raised from seed. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Cardoons.–Sow two or three seeds together in clumps 1 ft. apart, in trenches prepared as for Celery, in April or May. When 6 in. high pull up the superfluous plants, leaving the strongest one in each case. When they have attained the height of 1-1/2 ft, tie the leaves lightly to a stake and earth-up the stem. Keep them well supplied with water, adding a little guano. They will be ready for use in September. Another sowing may be made in June for a spring crop.

Carduus (_Milk Thistle_).–Coarse hardy annuals; somewhat ornamental, but are hardly more than weeds. They grow freely from seed, and flower from June to August. Height, 2 ft. to 4 ft.

Carex Japonica.–This is a graceful and very beautiful variegated grass, striped green, silver, and gold, and makes a fine decoration for the table. It will grow in any moderately moist soil, and bears dividing. Sow in spring.

Carlina.–Ornamental, thistle-like, hardy perennials, which will grow in any ordinary soil. Flowers are borne from June to September. Seed may be sown as soon as it is ripe. Height, 9 in. to 2 ft.

Carnations.–These are divided into three classes, but they are all said originally to come from the clove: (1) Flakes, which are striped with one colour and white; (2) Bizarres, those streaked with two colours and white; (3) Picotees, which have each petal margined with colour on a white or yellow ground, or dotted with small spots. For pot culture, about the end of March put two roots in an 11-in. pot, filled with light, turfy loam, well drained (too much moisture being injurious), pressing the earth firmly round the roots. Stand them on a bed of ashes in a sheltered position, and when the flower-stems appear, stake and tie up carefully. As the buds swell thin out the weakly ones. To prevent them bursting unevenly put an india-rubber ring round the bud, or tie it with raffia. They will flourish in the open borders even in towns if planted in light loam, and may be propagated by _layers_ at the end of July or beginning of August. Choose for this purpose fine outside shoots, not those which have borne flowers. Cut off all the lower leaves, leaving half a dozen near the top untouched. Make incisions on the under sides of the layers, just below the third joint. Peg down, and cover the stems with equal quantities of leaf-mould and light loam. Do not water them till the following day. The young plants may be separated and potted off as soon as they have taken root–say, the end of August. They may also be increased by _pipings_. Fill the pots nearly to the top with light, rich mould and fill up with silver sand. Break off the pipings at the third joint, then in each piping cut a little upward slit, plant them pretty thickly in the sand, and place the pot on a gentle hotbed, or on a bed of sifted coal ashes. Put on the sashes, and keep the plants shaded from the sun till they have taken root, then harden off gradually, and place each of the young plants separately in a small pot. Carnations may also be grown from seed sown in spring. When the seedlings have made six or eight leaves, prick them out into pots or beds. They will flower the following year. The beds must be well drained, as stagnant wet is very injurious to them.

Carnation Margaritae.–May be sown in heat during February or March, pricked out when strong enough, and planted in the open in May or June.

Carpenteria Californica.–The white flowers of this evergreen shrub, which make their appearance in July, are delicately fragrant. The plant is most suitable for a cool greenhouse, but does well in the open, in warm, well-drained situations. When grown in pots the mould should consist of two parts turfy loam, one part peat, and a little sharp sand. It may be increased by seeds or by cuttings planted in sandy soil, with a medium bottom heat.

Carrots.–To grow them to perfection carrots require a deep, rich, sandy soil, which has been thoroughly trenched and manured the previous autumn. For the main crop the seed should be sown in March, either broadcast or in rows 18 in. apart. A calm day must be chosen for sowing, as the seed is very light and liable to be blown about. It has also a tendency to hang together, to obviate which it is generally rubbed into some light soil or sand previously to being scattered. Thin out to a distance of from 4 to 7 in., according to the kind grown. For early use the French Horn may be sown on a hotbed in January and February. Keep the surface of the ground well open with the hoe.

Cassia Corymbosa.–This stove shrub is an evergreen. It should be grown in a mixture of loam and peat, and may be increased by cuttings planted in sand under glass in a little heat. It flowers in July. Height, 3 ft.

Castor Oil Plants.–_See_ “Ricinus.”

Catananche.–Pretty hardy biennials that will grow in almost any soil, and may be increased by seed or division. They bloom in August. Height, 21/2 ft. to 3 ft.

Catchfly.–_See_ “Silene.”

Cathcartia Villosa.–A beautiful Himalayan poppy, possessing a rich, soft, hairy foliage and yellow flowers, borne in succession from June to September. Any light, rich soil suits it, but it requires a sheltered position. It is propagated by seeds sown in spring. Height, 11/2 ft.

Cauliflowers.–Sow thinly in pans or shallow boxes early in February and March on a gentle bottom-heat. Make a larger and the main sowing in the open ground in March, April, and May for autumn cutting. A sowing should also be made in August for spring and summer use. These latter should be pricked into a frame or under a hand-glass during the winter, and in spring planted out so as to stand 30 in. apart. When the heads appear break some of the large leaves down over them to afford protection, and during the whole of their growth pour plenty of water round the stems in dry weather. They require a thoroughly rich and well-tilled soil to grow them to perfection.

Ceanothus.–A genus of handsome and ornamental evergreen shrubs. They are free-flowering and suitable for the conservatory or outdoor decoration if placed in warm situations. They flourish best in peat and loam, and are increased by cuttings planted in sand and subjected to gentle heat. Height, 3 ft. to 6 ft.

Cedronella.–Ornamental hardy perennials; will grow in any soil, but require a little protection in the winter. They produce their deep purple flowers in June. Height, 3 ft.

Cedrus Deodora.–A beautiful and graceful conifer, its arched branches being thickly set with long grey-coloured or whitish-green leaves. In its young stage it makes an exquisite specimen for the lawn. It is the best of all the Cedars for such a purpose. The usual method of propagating it is by grafting it on to the common Larch.

Celery.–Sow in February or early in March on a mild hotbed for the earliest crop. Prick the seedlings off into shallow boxes as soon as they are large enough to handle, and keep them rather close and warm until they are established. Towards the end of March prick them out in rows in a frame, setting them 6 in. apart each way, and early in May transfer to rather shallow trenches, protecting them from night frosts. For main and late crops sow in a cold frame in April and plant out in June or July, 9 in. apart, in trenches 3 ft. distant from each other, 9 in. wide, and 18 in. deep, pressing the soil firmly round the roots. Earthing up should be delayed until the plants are nearly full grown, and should be done gradually; but let the whole be completed before the autumn is far advanced. When preparing the trench plenty of manure should be dug into the soil. Water liberally until earthed up to ensure crisp, solid hearts, and an occasional application of liquid manure will benefit the plants. During winter protect from frost with straw, or other suitable material.

Celosia (_Feathered Cockscomb_).–Sow the seed in early spring in a warm frame; prick off singly into small pots, and re-pot as they advance in strength in a compost of loam, leaf-mould, old manure, and sand. Their final shift should be into 24-sized pots. Give them abundance of liquid manure, never allowing them to become dry, and syringe freely. These half-hardy annuals, rising to the height of 3 ft. and bearing fine spikes of flowers in July and August, make fine pot-plants for table decoration. They may be planted in the open, in June, choosing a warm, sheltered situation and rich, loamy soil.

Centaurea.–The hardy annual and biennial kinds merely require to be sown in the open in the autumn. The half-hardy ones must be sown on a slight hotbed, where they should remain till strong enough to be planted in the border. Cuttings of the perennials should be inserted singly in 3-in. pots filled with sandy loam, placed in a shady, cool frame till established, and then watered very carefully. The different varieties vary from 6 in. to 2 ft. in height, and flower from June to August.

Centauridium Drummondi.–A blue hardy annual which may be sown in the open in spring.

Centranthus.–Ornamental hardy annuals. Sow in the open border in March in any good, well-drained soil. They flower in June. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Cephalaria (_Yellow Scabious_).–Strong-growing hardy perennials, suitable for backs of borders. They succeed in any garden soil, and are propagated by seed or division of root. Height, 3 ft. to 5-1/2 ft.

Cephalotaxus (_Podocarpus Koraiana_).–Handsome conifers of the Yew type. These shrubs are quite hardy, and in favoured localities will produce berries. They succeed best in a damp, shady spot, and may be increased by cuttings planted in heavy loam.

Cerastium Biebersteini.–A hardy trailing perennial which will grow in any light soil, and may be increased by suckers. It flowers in June. Height, 6 in.

Cerasus Padus (_Bird Cherry_).–An ornamental tree; useful in the shrubbery in its earlier stages, as it will grow in any soil. It may be increased by seed, budding, or grafting; flowers in April. Height, 35 ft.

Cerinthe.–Hardy annuals, suitable for any ordinary soil, and needing merely ordinary treatment. A grand plant for bees. Height, 1 ft.

Cestrums.–Charming conservatory plants, flowering early in spring. Cuttings may be taken in autumn, placed in small pots in a light compost of peat and sand, and given a little bottom-heat. The young plants may be topped to form bushy ones. Re-pot before the roots have filled the small pots, using two parts loam, one part peat, and one part sharp sand. C. Parqui is suitable for the open if planted in a sheltered position.

Chamaepeuce.–Half-hardy perennial Thistle plants of little merit. Any soil suits them, and they may be increased by seed or division. Flower in June. Height, 2 ft. to 3 ft.

Chamaerops (_Chusan Palm_).–Fine greenhouse plants, delighting in a rich, loamy soil. Height, 10 ft.

Cheiranthus.–_See_ “Wallflower.”

Chelidonium.–This hardy perennial will flourish in any garden soil; flowers in May, and may be increased by division. Height, 2 ft.

Chelone.–Charming hardy herbaceous plants. Succeed well in a mixture of peat and loam or any rich soil. Increased by division of root, or by seed treated like other hardy perennials. They are very effective for the centre of beds, or in groups. Bloom in July. Height, 3 ft.

Cherries.–A light, rich soil is the one that Cherries succeed in best, though they will grow in any fairly good dry ground. The position should be open, but at the same time sheltered, as the blossoms are liable to be cut off by spring frosts. The planting may be done at any time during November and the beginning of March, when the ground is in a workable condition. Cherries are often worked upon the Mahaleb stock. As they have a tendency to gumming and canker, the knife should be used as little as possible, but where pruning is necessary, let it be done in the summer. If gumming occurs, cut away the diseased parts and apply Stockholm tar to the wounds. Aphides or black-fly may be destroyed by tobacco dust and syringing well with an infusion of soft soap. Morello succeeds on a north wall. Bigarreau, Waterloo, Black Eagle, Black Tartarian, May Duke, White Heart, and Kentish are all good sorts. Bush trees should stand 10 ft. apart, standards 30 ft.

Cherry (_Cornelian_).–_See_ “Cornus Mas.”

Cherry Pie.–_See_ “Heliotrope.”

Chervil.–For summer use sow in March, and for winter requirements in July and August, in shallow drills 6 or 8 in. apart. Cut for use when 3 or 4 in. high. The tender tops and leaves are used in soups and stews, to which they impart a warm, aromatic flavour. They likewise give piquancy to mixed salads.

Chestnuts.–To raise trees from seed sow the nuts in November, about 2 in. deep. When two years old they may be transplanted to their permanent site. The only pruning they require is to cut away any branches which would prevent the tree forming a well-balanced head.

Chicory.–Sow in May or June in drills of rich soil, and thin out to 6 in. apart. In autumn lift the roots and store them in dry sand. To force leaves for salads, plant the roots closely together in boxes or large pots, with the tops only exposed, using ordinary soil; place in a temperature of 55 degrees, and keep in the dark. Long blanched leaves will soon appear, ready for use.

Chilli.–Same treatment as Capsicum.

Chimonanthus Fragrans (_Japan Allspice_).–This delightfully fragrant hardy shrub, known as the Winter Flower, produces its blooms in January before the leaves appear. Should sharp frost set in, protection ought to be given to the flowers. The plant requires a fairly good soil, and is most at home when trained against a wall. It is generally propagated by means of layers. Height, 6 ft.

Chinese Sacred Narcissus (_Oriental Lily, Joss Flower, or Flower of the Gods, the Chinese emblem of good luck_).–This is a very beautiful variety of the Polyanthus Narcissus, and is grown to bloom at the advent of the Chinese New Year. It is very fragrant and free blooming, and is generally flowered in an ornamental bowl of water, the bulb being surrounded with pretty pebbles to keep it well balanced. It may also be grown in a pot of mould, kept in a dark place for about ten days, then placed in a sunny position and supplied with water. It flowers from six to eight weeks after planting.

Chionanthus Virginica (_Fringe Tree_).–A curious shrub which is best raised from seed. It succeeds in any soil, and bears white flowers in July. It will grow to the height of 20 ft. or more.

Chionodoxa Luciliae (_Glory of the Snow_).–A pretty hardy spring-flowering bulbous plant. The blossoms, from five to six in number, are produced on gracefully arched stems, 4 to 8 in. high, and are nearly 1 in. across, star-like in form, and of a lovely blue tint on the margin, gradually merging into pure white in the centre. Fine for growing in clumps. Plant the bulbs in autumn in equal parts of loam, peat, and sand. It succeeds fairly well in the open, but reaches perfection in a cold frame, where the flowers will be produced in March. Height, 6 in.

Choisya Ternata (_Mexican Orange_).–A pretty evergreen wall plant, bearing sweet-scented white flowers in July. The bush is round, and extremely ornamental when grown in the shrubbery. It delights in a mixture of peat and loam, and is propagated by cuttings placed in sand under a handglass, or, better still, by layers of the lower branches in March, detaching them in the autumn. While young it makes a fine pot-plant. Height, 6 ft.

Chorozemas.–These Australian plants delight in rich turfy peat mixed with fibrous loam, leaf-mould, and coarse sand. When freshly potted they should be given a warm part of the greenhouse and watered cautiously till they are in full growth, when a little clear liquid manure may be given twice a week. May be shifted at any time except from October to Christmas. Propagated by cuttings about 1 or 2 in. long of half-ripened young wood taken in July or August, and inserted in sand under a glass. When the pots are full of roots shift the plants into larger sizes. They bloom nearly all the year round, especially in the winter and spring. The plants have rather a rambling habit, and are usually trained over balloon or pyramidal trellises; but this trouble can be spared by cutting them back freely and employing a few light sticks to keep them within bounds.

Christmas Rose.–_See_ “Helleborus.”

Chrysanthemum.–The Chrysanthemum will grow in any good mould, a naturally good soil being often preferable to an artificial one. Where the ground is not in good condition a compost may be made of one-half rich loam and one-fourth each of well-rotted manure and leaf-mould, with sufficient sand to keep it porous. Cuttings taken in November or December make the finest exhibition plants. Pot them singly in 2-in. or 3-in. pots; stand them on coal ashes in a cold frame, and re-pot them in March or April in 6-in. pots, making the soil moderately firm. When they attain the height of 6 in. pinch off the extreme point of the shoot, which will induce the growth of side-shoots. Shift the plants from time to time into larger pots, until at the end of May they receive their final shift into 10-in. pots, after which they must not on any account be stopped. In June they may be placed in a sheltered and partially shaded part of the open border, standing the pots on pieces of slate to prevent the ingress of worms. Syringe the leaves each day and give the roots a liberal supply of liquid manure. When the flower-buds begin to show colour, discontinue the manure water. Thin out the flower-buds, leaving two or three only of the strongest on each stem. At the end of September they must be removed to a cool greenhouse to flower. Where there is no greenhouse a canvas structure may be erected to protect them from the cold. Good plants for the border may be raised from cuttings in March or April. These should be kept close in a frame until rooted, then gradually hardened off, and planted in rich soil. Syringing with soot-water twice a week until the flower-buds appear will darken the leaves and deepen the colour of the flowers.

Chrysogonum Virginianum.–A free-flowering, hardy, herbaceous plant, best grown in loam and peat. Its deep-golden, star-shaped flowers are produced from June to September. Cuttings of ripened wood planted in sand and subjected to moist heat will strike. It may also be increased by dividing the root. Height, 1 ft.

Cichorium Intybus.–This is a hardy herbaceous plant producing blue flowers in July. It will grow in any soil and needs no special treatment. Seeds may be sown either in autumn or spring. Height, 2 ft.

Cimcifuga.–These hardy herbaceous plants will flourish in any good garden soil and are easily raised from seed, or they may be increased by dividing the roots. Various species produce their flowers from May to September. Height, 1 ft. to 3 ft.

Cinerarias.–These grow well in a soil composed of equal parts of rich loam, leaf-mould, and thoroughly rotted horse-dung, liberally mixed with sharp sand. They are increased by seed, cuttings, or off-sets. The seed should be sown as soon as it is ripe and covered with the lightest layer of the finest soil; or it may be sown during March on a slight hotbed. Keep the young plants shaded from the sun, and as soon as they can be handled put them into 3-in. pots. Return them to the hotbed and keep them shaded till established, then gradually harden them off, and towards the end of May they may be planted in the open, choosing a sheltered situation. The first flower-stem should be cut out close to the bottom, but the side-shoots may either be reduced or not. At the end of September place them in a cool frame to bloom during the following month. They require to be well supplied with manure water. As soon as the plants have done flowering, cut them down, and keep them well supplied with water, and in March shake them out of their pots and plant each sucker separately. Other sowings may be made in April and May. To obtain cuttings, when the plants have flowered cut them down, and when they have again grown large enough take the cuttings and plant them in pots filled with the above compost, putting a layer of silver sand on the top. When the cuttings have made shoots 3 in. long, pinch off the tops to make the plants grow bushy. Re-pot when the roots are well grown, but before they get matted, and give occasionally a little liquid manure. Keep a good look-out for green fly, and as soon as this nuisance appears fumigate the plants with tobacco paper. An excess of fumigation is injurious. Those that have bloomed in pots may be planted in the north border of the garden in July, where they may shed their seed, from which early plants will be produced. They may also be increased by off-sets. If the old plants are cut down and kept well watered they will throw up suckers, which may be separated and potted off into thumb pots, transplanting into larger ones when required. They must _always_ be kept shaded from the sun. A cool frame suits them in summer, and being nearly hardy, should never be subjected to a forcing temperature, sufficient heat to keep away frost and damp being all that is necessary.

Cinnamon Plant.–This is a stove or greenhouse plant, and requires a loam and peat soil. Cuttings of the ripe wood strike freely.

Cissus Orientalis.–Useful climbing plants which delight in a light, rich soil. They are increased by cuttings planted under glass and kept in a gentle, moist heat.

Cistus (_Rock Rose_).–A compost of loam and peat suits these beautiful evergreen shrubs. They may be increased by layers, ripe cuttings covered with a hand-glass, or seed. Though the plants are pretty hardy it is advisable to afford them protection during severe frosts. June is their flowering month. Height, 3 ft. to 6 ft.

Citrus Japonica.–A greenhouse evergreen tree, requiring a rich loamy soil. Very little water should be given it while in a growing state. It is generally budded on an orange or lemon tree and plunged in a bottom-heat. June is its flowering season. Height, 5 ft.

Cladanthus.–The annuals may be sown in the open in April to flower in July. The greenhouse evergreens may be propagated by cuttings under glass. These produce flowers in June.

Clarkia.–These hardy annuals make a pretty display in the borders during summer. Seed ripens plentifully, and merely requires sowing in the open in March, or in September if protected in winter. The bloom lasts from June to September. Height, 18 in.

Claytonia Sibirica.–A hardy herbaceous plant which yields light yellow flowers in June. It is not particular as to soil, and may be raised from seed sown either in autumn or spring. It stands division of the root. Height, 4 ft.

Clematis (_Virgin’s Bower_).–These plants like a dry situation. They will grow in smoky districts, and may be increased by cuttings of firm side-shoots under a glass in summer or by layers in September. With the protection of a greenhouse they come into flower early in spring. They are the most beautiful of all flowering hardy climbers. The stove and greenhouse varieties are best planted in loam and peat, though they will thrive in any light soil. Any good garden soil suits the hardy kinds. The herbaceous varieties are increased by dividing the roots early in spring. They bloom at various periods. After they have ceased to flower, the Jackmanni and Viticella sections should be cut down to within 9 or 12 in. of the ground. The Patens and Florida do not require pruning; those of the Lanuginosa should be cut back moderately, but not too close. A good dressing of leaf-mould and manure should be dug in about November. Heights vary from 2 ft. to 20 ft. (_See also_ “Traveller’s Joy.”)

Cleome.–The species of this genus are very pretty and free flowering, some being half-hardy climbers notable for their foliage. They like a rich, light soil. Cuttings of the stove kinds root freely under a glass. Some of the annual species require to be sown in a hotbed frame or in a hot-house, then potted off and placed with tender annuals. The hardier ones may be sown on a hotbed, and afterwards planted out in a sheltered position. They flower in May, June, and July. Heights vary from 6 in. to 8 ft.

Clethra Alnifolia.–This hardy deciduous shrub bears in September deliciously scented pure white flowers on the side-shoots of the previous year’s growth. It needs a light soil and a dry, sunny situation. It may be propagated by cuttings placed under glass in sandy loam, or by suckers taken when the leaves have fallen, but is more generally increased by layers. Height, 3 ft.

Clianthus.–A genus of very elegant, free-flowering, evergreen greenhouse shrubs. They flourish in the border of the conservatory (or against a south wall if protected from cold) in an equal mixture of loam, peat, and sand. Cuttings root freely in the same soil under glass. Seed sown early in spring produce flowers the first year, in May. Height, 3 ft. to 4 ft.

Clintonia.–Very pretty half-hardy annuals; useful for beds, edging,