The World Factbook 1991

Some tags useful for searching the factbook are as follows: _@_ the first three characters in each country heading; for example, _@_Afghanistan _@_Albania _@_Algeria _@_American Samoa _*_ the first three characters in each section heading; for example, _*_Geography _*_People _*_Government _*_Economy _#_ the first three characters in each individual entry; for example, _#_Total area _#_Comparative
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Some tags useful for searching the factbook are as follows:

_@_ the first three characters in each country heading; for example, _@_Afghanistan
_@_American Samoa

_*_ the first three characters in each section heading; for example, _*_Geography

_#_ the first three characters in each individual entry; for example, _#_Total area
_#_Comparative area _#_Land boundaries

_%_ the first three characters in the first line following the end of a country section or an appendix _%_


The World Factbook is produced annually by the Central Intelligence Agency for the use of United States Government officials, and the style, format, coverage, and content are designed to meet their specific requirements.

Information was provided by the Bureau of the Census, Central Intelligence Agency, Defense Intelligence Agency, Defense Nuclear Agency, Department of State, Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Maritime Administration, National Science Foundation (Polar Information Program), Navy Operational Intelligence Center, Office of Territorial and International Affairs, United States Board on Geographic Names, United States Coast Guard, and others.

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Table of Contents

Notes, Definitions, and Abbreviations

Text (247 nations, dependent areas, and other entities) Afghanistan
American Samoa
Antigua and Barbuda
Arctic Ocean
Ashmore and Cartier Islands
Atlantic Ocean

Bahamas, The
Baker Island
Bassas da India
Bouvet Island
British Indian Ocean Territory
British Virgin Islands

Cape Verde
Cayman Islands
Central African Republic
China (also see separate Taiwan entry) Christmas Island
Clipperton Island
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cook Islands
Coral Sea Islands
Costa Rica

Dominican Republic

El Salvador
Equatorial Guinea
Europa Island

Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
Faroe Islands
French Guiana
French Polynesia
French Southern and Antarctic Lands

Gambia, The
Gaza Strip
Glorioso Islands

Heard Island and McDonald Islands Honduras
Hong Kong
Howland Island

Indian Ocean
Iraq-Saudi Arabia Neutral Zone
Israel (also see separate Gaza Strip and West Bank entries) Italy
Ivory Coast

Jan Mayen
Jarvis Island
Johnston Atoll
Jordan (also see separate West Bank entry) Juan de Nova Island

Kingman Reef
Korea, North
Korea, South


Man, Isle of
Marshall Islands
Micronesia, Federated States of
Midway Islands

Navassa Island
Netherlands Antilles
New Caledonia
New Zealand
Norfolk Island
Northern Mariana Islands


Pacific Islands, Trust Territory of the (Palau)
Pacific Ocean
Palmyra Atoll
Papua New Guinea
Paracel Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Puerto Rico



Saint Helena
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Lucia
Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
San Marino
Sao Tome and Principe
Saudi Arabia
Sierra Leone
Solomon Islands
South Africa
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Soviet Union
Spratly Islands
Sri Lanka

Taiwan entry follows Zimbabwe
Trinidad and Tobago
Tromelin Island
Turks and Caicos Islands

United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United States

Vatican City
Virgin Islands

Wake Island
Wallis and Futuna
West Bank
Western Sahara
Western Samoa




Appendix A: The United Nations System Appendix B: International Organization and Group Abbreviations Appendix C: International Organizations and Groups Appendix D: Weights and Measures
Appendix E: Cross-Reference List of Geographic Names

Notes, Definitions, and Abbreviations

There have been some significant changes in this edition. The Literacy entry now includes rates for males, females, and both sexes. Appendix C: International Organizations and Groups is new and includes date established, aim, and list of members. Three maps of special interest have been added this year–republics of the Soviet Union, ethnic groups in the Soviet Union, and ethnic groups in Eastern Europe.

_#_Abbreviations: (see Appendix B for international organizations and groups)

avdp. avoirdupois
c.i.f. cost, insurance, and freight CY calendar year
DWT deadweight ton
est. estimate
Ex-Im Export-Import Bank of the United States f.o.b. free on board
FRG Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany); used for information dated before 3 October 1990 or CY91
FY fiscal year
GDP gross domestic product
GDR German Democratic Republic (East Germany); used for information dated before 3 October 1990 or CY91
GNP gross national product
GRT gross register ton
km kilometer
km2 square kilometer
kW kilowatt
kWh kilowatt-hour
m meter
NA not available
NEGL negligible
nm nautical mile
NZ New Zealand
ODA official development assistance OOF other official flows
PDRY People’s Democratic Republic of Yemen [Yemen (Aden) or South Yemen]; used for information dated before 22 May 1990 or CY91

UAE United Arab Emirates
UK United Kingdom
US United States
USSR Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Soviet Union) YAR Yemen Arab Republic [Yemen (Sanaa) or North Yemen]; used for information dated before 22 May 1990 or CY91

_#_Administrative divisions: The numbers, designatory terms, and first-order administrative divisions are generally those approved by the United States Board on Geographic Names (BGN). Changes that have been reported but not yet acted upon by BGN are noted.

_#_Area: Total area is the sum of all land and water areas delimited by international boundaries and/or coastlines. Land area is the aggregate of all surfaces delimited by international boundaries and/or coastlines, excluding inland water bodies (lakes, reservoirs, rivers). Comparative areas are based on total area equivalents. Most entities are compared with the entire US or one of the 50 states. The smaller entities are compared with Washington, DC (178 km2, 69 miles2) or The Mall in Washington, DC (0.59 km2, 0.23 miles2, 146 acres).

_#_Birth rate: The average annual number of births during a year per 1,000 population at midyear. Also known as crude birth rate.

_#_Dates of information: In general, information available as of 1 January 1991 was used in the preparation of this edition. Population figures are estimates for 1 July 1991, with population growth rates estimated for mid-1991 through mid-1992. Major political events have been updated through 30 June 1991. Military age figures are average annual estimates for 1991-95.

_#_Death rate: The average annual number of deaths during a year per l,000 population at midyear. Also known as crude death rate.

_#_Diplomatic representation: The US Government has diplomatic relations with 162 nations. There are only 144 US embassies, since some nations have US ambassadors accredited to them, but no physical US mission exists. The US has diplomatic relations with 151 of the 159 UN members–the exceptions are Angola, Belorussia (Byelorussia; constituent republic of the Soviet Union), Cambodia, Cuba, Iran, Vietnam, Ukraine (constituent republic of the Soviet Union) and, obviously, the US itself. In addition, the US has diplomatic relations with 12 nations that are not in the UN–Andorra, Federated States of Micronesia, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Monaco, Nauru, San Marino, South Korea, Switzerland, Tonga, Tuvalu, and the Vatican City. North Korea is not in the UN and the US does not have diplomatic relations with that nation. The US has not recognized the incorporation of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania into the Soviet Union and continues to accredit the diplomatic representatives of their last free governments.

_#_Disputes: This category includes a wide variety of situations that range from traditional bilateral boundary disputes to unilateral claims of one sort or another. Every international land boundary dispute in the “Guide to International Boundaries,” a map published by the Department of State, is included. References to other situations may also be included that are border- or frontier-relevant, such as maritime disputes, geopolitical questions, or irredentist issues. However, inclusion does not necessarily constitute official acceptance or recognition by the US Government.

_#_Economic aid: This entry refers to bilateral commitments of:

Official Development Assistance (ODA), which is defined as government grants that (a) are administered with the promotion of economic development and welfare of LDCs as their main objective and (b) are concessional in character and contain a grant element of at least 25%; and

Other Official Flows (OOF) or transactions by the official sector whose main objective is other than development-motivated or whose grant element is below the 25% threshold for ODA. OOF transactions include official export credits (such as Eximbank credits), official equity and portfolio investment, and debt reorganization by the official sector that does not meet concessional terms.

Aid is considered to have been committed when agreements are initialed by the parties involved and constitute a formal declaration of intent.

_#_Entities: Some of the nations, dependent areas, areas of special sovereignty, and governments included in this publication are not independent, and others are not officially recognized by the US Government. Nation refers to a people politically organized into a sovereign state with a definite territory. Dependent area refers to a broad category of political entities that are associated in some way with a nation. Names used for page headings are usually the short-form names as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names. The long-form name is included in the Government section and an entry of “none” indicates a long-form name does not exist. In some instances, no short-form name exists–then the long-form name must serve for all usages.

There are 247 entities in the Factbook that may be categorized as follows:

157 UN members (there are 159 members in the UN, but only 157 are included in The World Factbook because Belorussia (Byelorussia) and Ukraine are constituent republics of the Soviet Union)
13 nations that are not members of the UN–Andorra, Federated States of Micronesia, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Monaco, Nauru, North Korea, San Marino, South Korea, Switzerland, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vatican City

1 Taiwan

6 Australia–Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Norfolk Island
2 Denmark–Faroe Islands, Greenland 16 France–Bassas da India, Clipperton Island, Europa Island, French Guiana, French Polynesia, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Glorioso Islands, Guadeloupe, Juan de Nova Island, Martinique, Mayotte, New Caledonia, Reunion, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Tromelin Island, Wallis and Futuna 2 Netherlands–Aruba, Netherlands Antilles 3 New Zealand–Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau 3 Norway–Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, Svalbard 1 Portugal–Macau
16 United Kingdom–Anguilla, Bermuda, British Indian Ocean Territory, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands, Gibraltar, Guernsey, Hong Kong, Isle of Man, Jersey, Montserrat, Pitcairn Islands, Saint Helena, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands 15 United States–American Samoa, Baker Island, Guam, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Islands, Navassa Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Palmyra Atoll, Puerto Rico, Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (Palau), Virgin Islands, Wake Island

7 Antarctica, Gaza Strip, Iraq-Saudi Arabia Neutral Zone, Paracel Islands, Spratly Islands, West Bank, Western Sahara

4 oceans–Arctic Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean 1 World
247 total

Notes: The US Government has not recognized the incorporation of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania into the Soviet Union as constituent republics during World War II. Those Baltic states are not members of the UN and are not included in the list of nations. The US Government does not recognize the four so-called “independent” homelands of Bophuthatswana, Ciskei, Transkei, and Venda in South Africa.

_#_Gross domestic product (GDP): The value of all goods and services produced domestically.

_#_Gross national product (GNP): The value of all goods and services produced domestically, plus income earned abroad, minus income earned by foreigners from domestic production.

_#_GNP/GDP methodology: In the Economy section, GNP/GDP dollar estimates for the OECD countries, the USSR, and the East European countries are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) calculations rather than from conversions at official currency exchange rates. The PPP method normally involves the use of international dollar price weights, which are applied to the quantities of goods and services produced in a given economy. In addition to the lack of reliable data from the majority of countries, the statistician faces a major difficulty in specifying, identifying, and allowing for the quality of goods and services. The division of a PPP GNP/GDP estimate in dollars by the corresponding estimate in the local currency gives the PPP conversion rate. One thousand dollars will buy the same market basket of goods in the US as one thousand dollars, converted to the local currency at the PPP conversion rate, will buy in the other country. GNP/GDP estimates for the LDCs, on the other hand, are based on the conversion of GNP/GDP estimates in local currencies to dollars at the official currency exchange rates. One caution: the proportion of, say, defense expenditures as a percent of GNP/GDP in local currency accounts may differ substantially from the proportion when GNP/GDP accounts are expressed in PPP terms, as, for example, when an observer estimates the dollar level of Soviet or Japanese military expenditures; similar problems exist when components are expressed in dollars under currency exchange rate procedures. Finally, as academic research moves forward on the PPP method, we hope to convert all GNP/GDP estimates to this method in future editions of the Factbook.

_#_Growth rate (population): The annual percent change in the population, resulting from a surplus (or deficit) of births over deaths and the balance of migrants entering and leaving a country. The rate may be positive or negative.

_#_Illicit drugs: There are five categories of illicit drugs–narcotics, stimulants, depressants (sedatives), hallucinogens, and cannabis. These categories include many drugs legally produced and prescribed by doctors as well as those illegally produced and sold outside medical channels.

Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) is the common hemp plant, provides hallucinogens with some sedative properties, and includes marijuana (pot, Acapulco gold, grass, reefer), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, Marinol), hashish (hash), and hashish oil (hash oil).

Coca (Erythroxylon coca) is a bush and the leaves contain the stimulant cocaine. Coca is not to be confused with cocoa which comes from cacao seeds and is used in making chocolate, cocoa, and cocoa butter.

Cocaine is a stimulant derived from the leaves of the coca bush.

Depressants (sedatives) are drugs that reduce tension and anxiety and include chloral hydrate, barbiturates (Amytal, Nembutal, Seconal, phenobarbital), benzodiazepines (Librium, Valium), methaqualone (Quaalude), glutethimide (Doriden), and others (Equanil, Placidyl, Valmid).

Drugs are any chemical substances that effect a physical, mental, emotional, or behavioral change in an individual.

Drug abuse is the use of any licit or illicit chemical substance that results in physical, mental, emotional, or behavioral impairment in an individual.

Hallucinogens are drugs that affect sensation, thinking, self-awareness, and emotion. Hallucinogens include LSD (acid, microdot), mescaline and peyote (mexc, buttons, cactus), amphetamine variants (PMA, STP, DOB), phencyclidine (PCP, angel dust, hog), phencyclidine analogues (PCE, PCPy, TCP), and others (psilocybin, psilocyn).

Hashish is the resinous exudate of the cannabis or hemp plant (Cannabis sativa).

Heroin is a semisynthetic derivative of morphine.

Marijuana is the dried leaves of the cannabis or hemp plant (Cannabis sativa).

Narcotics are drugs that relieve pain, often induce sleep, and refer to opium, opium derivatives, and synthetic substitutes. Natural narcotics include opium (paregoric, parepectolin), morphine (MS-Contin, Roxanol), codeine (Tylenol w/codeine, Empirin w/codeine, Robitussan A-C), and thebaine. Semisynthetic narcotics include heroin (horse, smack), and hydromorphone (Dilaudid). Synthetic narcotics include meperidine or Pethidine (Demerol, Mepergan), methadone (Dolophine, Methadose), and others (Darvon, Lomotil).

Opium is the milky exudate of the incised, unripe seedpod of the opium poppy.

Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) is the source for many natural and semisynthetic narcotics.

Poppy straw concentrate is the alkaloid derived from the mature dried opium poppy.

Qat (kat, khat) is a stimulant from the buds or leaves of Catha edulis that is chewed or drunk as tea.

Stimulants are drugs that relieve mild depression, increase energy and activity, and include cocaine (coke, snow, crack), amphetamines (Desoxyn, Dexedrine), phenmetrazine (Preludin), methylphenidate (Ritalin), and others (Cylert, Sanorex, Tenuate).

_#_Infant mortality rate: The number of deaths to infants under one year of age in a given year per l,000 live births occurring in the same year.

_#_Land use: Human use of the land surface is categorized as arable land–land cultivated for crops that are replanted after each harvest (wheat, maize, rice); permanent crops–land cultivated for crops that are not replanted after each harvest (citrus, coffee, rubber); meadows and pastures–land permanently used for herbaceous forage crops; forest and woodland–land under dense or open stands of trees; and other–any land type not specifically mentioned above (urban areas, roads, desert). The percentage figure for irrigated refers to the portion of the entire amount of land area that is artificially supplied with water.

_#_Leaders: The chief of state is the titular leader of the country who represents the state at official and ceremonial funcions but is not involved with the day-to-day activities of the government. The head of government is the administrative leader who manages the day-to-day activities of the government. In the UK, the monarch is the chief of state and the prime minister is the head of government. In the US, the President is both the chief of state and the head of government.

_#_Life expectancy at birth: The average number of years to be lived by a group of people all born in the same year, if mortality at each age remains constant in the future.

_#_Literacy: There are no universal definitions and standards of literacy. Unless otherwise noted, all rates are based on the most common definition–the ability to read and write at a specified age. Detailing the standards that individual countries use to assess the ability to read and write is beyond the scope of this publication.

_#_Maps: All maps will be available only in the printed version for the foreseeable future.

_#_Maritime claims: The proximity of neighboring states may prevent some national claims from being fully extended.

_#_Merchant marine: All ships engaged in the carriage of goods. All commercial vessels (as opposed to all nonmilitary ships), which excludes tugs, fishing vessels, offshore oil rigs, etc. Also, a grouping of merchant ships by nationality or register.

Captive register–A register of ships maintained by a territory, possession, or colony primarily or exclusively for the use of ships owned in the parent country. Also referred to as an offshore register, the offshore equivalent of an internal register. Ships on a captive register will fly the same flag as the parent country, or a local variant of it, but will be subject to the maritime laws and taxation rules of the offshore territory. Although the nature of a captive register makes it especially desirable for ships owned in the parent country, just as in the internal register, the ships may also be owned abroad. The captive register then acts as a flag of convenience register, except that it is not the register of an independent state.

Flag of convenience register–A national register offering registration to a merchant ship not owned in the flag state. The major flags of convenience (FOC) attract ships to their register by virtue of low fees, low or nonexistent taxation of profits, and liberal manning requirements. True FOC registers are characterized by having relatively few of the ships registered actually owned in the flag state. Thus, while virtually any flag can be used for ships under a given set of circumstances, an FOC register is one where the majority of the merchant fleet is owned abroad. It is also referred to as an open register.

Flag state–The nation in which a ship is registered and which holds legal jurisdiction over operation of the ship, whether at home or abroad. Differences in flag state maritime legislation determine how a ship is manned and taxed and whether a foreign-owned ship may be placed on the register.

Internal register–A register of ships maintained as a subset of a national register. Ships on the internal register fly the national flag and have that nationality but are subject to a separate set of maritime rules from those on the main national register. These differences usually include lower taxation of profits, manning by foreign nationals, and, usually, ownership outside the flag state (when it functions as an FOC register). The Norwegian International Ship Register and Danish International Ship Register are the most notable examples of an internal register. Both have been instrumental in stemming flight from the national flag to flags of convenience and in attracting foreign-owned ships to the Norwegian and Danish flags.

Merchant ship–A vessel that carries goods against payment of freight. Commonly used to denote any nonmilitary ship but accurately restricted to commercial vessels only.

Register–The record of a ship’s ownership and nationality as listed with the maritime authorities of a country. Also, the compendium of such individual ships’ registrations. Registration of a ship provides it with a nationality and makes it subject to the laws of the country in which registered (the flag state) regardless of the nationality of the ship’s ultimate owner.

_#_Money figures: All are expressed in contemporaneous US dollars unless otherwise indicated.

_#_Net migration rate: The balance between the number of persons entering and leaving a country during the year per 1,000 persons (based on midyear population). An excess of persons entering the country is referred to as net immigration (3.56 migrants/1,000 population); an excess of persons leaving the country as net emigration (-9.26 migrants/1,000 population).

_#_Population: Figures are estimates from the Bureau of the Census based on statistics from population censuses, vital registration systems, or sample surveys pertaining to the recent past, and on assumptions about future trends.

_#_Total fertility rate: The average number of children that would be born per woman if all women lived to the end of their childbearing years and bore children according to a given fertility rate at each age.

_#_Years: All year references are for the calendar year (CY) unless indicated as fiscal year (FY).

_#_Note: Information for the US and US dependencies was compiled from material in the public domain and does not represent Intelligence Community estimates.

The Handbook of Economic Statistics, published annually in September by the Central Intelligence Agency, contains detailed economic information for the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries, Eastern Europe, the USSR, and selected other countries. The Handbook can be obtained wherever The World Factbook is available.


_#_Total area: 647,500 km2; land area: 647,500 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Texas

_#_Land boundaries: 5,826 km total; China 76 km, Iran 936 km, Pakistan 2,430 km, USSR 2,384 km

_#_Coastline: none–landlocked

_#_Maritime claims: none–landlocked

_#_Disputes: Pashtun question with Pakistan; Baloch question with Iran and Pakistan; periodic disputes with Iran over Helmand water rights; insurgency with Iranian and Pakistani involvement; traditional tribal rivalries

_#_Climate: arid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers

_#_Terrain: mostly rugged mountains; plains in north and southwest

_#_Natural resources: natural gas, crude oil, coal, copper, talc, barites, sulphur, lead, zinc, iron ore, salt, precious and semiprecious stones

_#_Land use: arable land 12%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 46%; forest and woodland 3%; other 39%; includes irrigated NEGL%

_#_Environment: damaging earthquakes occur in Hindu Kush mountains; soil degradation, desertification, overgrazing, deforestation, pollution

_#_Note: landlocked

_#_Population: US Bureau of the Census–16,450,304 (July 1991), growth rate 5.2% (1991) and excludes 3,750,796 refugees in Pakistan and 1,607,281 refugees in Iran; note–another report indicates a July 1990 population of 16,904,904, including 3,271,580 refugees in Pakistan and 1,277,700 refugees in Iran

_#_Birth rate: 44 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 20 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 28 migrants/1,000 population (1991); note–there are flows across the border in both directions, but data are fragmentary and unreliable

_#_Infant mortality rate: 164 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 44 years male, 43 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 6.3 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun–Afghan(s); adjective–Afghan

_#_Ethnic divisions: Pashtun 50%, Tajik 25%, Uzbek 9%, Hazara 12-15%; minor ethnic groups include Chahar Aimaks, Turkmen, Baloch, and other

_#_Religion: Sunni Muslim 84%, Shia Muslim 15%, other 1%

_#_Language: Pashtu 50%, Afghan Persian (Dari) 35%, Turkic languages (primarily Uzbek and Turkmen) 11%, 30 minor languages (primarily Balochi and Pashai) 4%; much bilingualism

_#_Literacy: 29% (male 44%, female 14%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 4,980,000; agriculture and animal husbandry 67.8%, industry 10.2%, construction 6.3%, commerce 5.0%, services and other 10.7%, (1980 est.)

_#_Organized labor: some small government-controlled unions

_#_Long-form name: Republic of Afghanistan

_#_Type: authoritarian

_#_Capital: Kabul

_#_Administrative divisions: 30 provinces (velayat, singular–velayat); Badakhshan, Badghis, Baghlan, Balkh, Bamian, Farah, Faryab, Ghazni, Ghowr, Helmand, Herat, Jowzjan, Kabol, Kandahar, Kapisa, Konar, Kondoz, Laghman, Lowgar, Nangarhar, Nimruz, Oruzgan, Paktia, Paktika, Parvan, Samangan, Sar-e Pol, Takhar, Vardak, Zabol; note–there may be a new province of Nurestan (Nuristan)

_#_Independence: 19 August 1919 (from UK)

_#_Constitution: adopted 30 November 1987, revised May 1990

_#_Legal system: has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Anniversary of the Saur Revolution, 27 April (1978)

_#_Executive branch: president, four vice presidents, prime minister, deputy prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly (Meli Shura) consists of an upper house or Council of Elders (Sena) and a lower house or Council of Representatives (Wolosi Jirga)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


Chief of State and Head of Government–President (Mohammad) NAJIBULLAH (Ahmadzai) (since 30 November 1987); First Vice President Abdul Wahed SORABI (since 7 January 1991); Prime Minister Fazil Haq KHALIQYAR (since 21 May 1990)

_#_Political parties and leaders: main party–Hizbi Watan Homeland Party (formerly known as the People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan or PDPA); there are other, much smaller political parties recognized by the government

_#_Suffrage: universal, male ages 15-50


Senate–last held NA April 1988 (next to be held April 1991); results–Hizbi Watan was the only party; seats–(192 total, 128 elected) Hizbi Watan 128;

House of Representatives–last held NA April 1988 (next to be held April 1993);
results–Hizbi Watan was the only party; seats–(234 total) Hizbi Watan 184, opposition 50; note–members may or may not be affiliated with a political party

_#_Communists: Hizbi Watan Homeland Party (formerly the People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan or PDPA) claims 200,000 members and no longer considers itself a Communist party

_#_Other political or pressure groups: the military and other branches of internal security have been rebuilt by the USSR; insurgency continues throughout the country; widespread antiregime sentiment and opposition on religious and political grounds

_#_Member of: AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO; note–Afghanistan was suspended from the OIC in January 1980, but in March 1989 the self-proclaimed Mujaheddin Government of Afghanistan was given membership

_#_Diplomatic representation: Minister-Counselor, Charge d’Affaires Abdul Ghafur JOUSHAN; Chancery at 2341 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 234-3770 or 3771;

US–Charge d’Affaires (vacant); Embassy at Ansari Wat, Wazir Akbar Khan Mina, Kabul; telephone 62230 through 62235 or 62436; note–US Embassy in Kabul was closed in January 1989

_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green with the national coat of arms superimposed on the hoist side of the black and red bands; similar to the flag of Malawi which is shorter and bears a radiant, rising red sun centered in the black band

_#_Overview: Fundamentally, Afghanistan is an extremely poor, landlocked country, highly dependent on farming (wheat especially) and livestock raising (sheep and goats). Economic considerations, however, have played second fiddle to political and military upheavals, including the nine-year Soviet military occupation (ended 15 February 1989) and the continuing bloody civil war. Over the past decade, one-third of the population has fled the country, with Pakistan sheltering about 3.3 million refugees and Iran about 1.3 million. Another 1 million have probably moved into and around urban areas within Afghanistan. Large numbers of bridges, buildings, and factories have been destroyed or damaged by military action or sabotage. Government claims to the contrary, gross domestic product almost certainly is lower than 10 years ago because of the loss of labor and capital and the disruption of trade and transport.

_#_GDP: $3 billion, per capita $200; real growth rate 0% (1989 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): over 92% (1990 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $1.2 billion; expenditures $4.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $306 million (FY91 est.)

_#_Exports: $236 million (f.o.b., FY90);

commodities–natural gas 55%, fruits and nuts 24%, handwoven carpets, wool, cotton, hides, and pelts;

partners–mostly USSR and Eastern Europe

_#_Imports: $874 million (c.i.f., FY90 est.);

commodities–food and petroleum products;

partners–mostly USSR and Eastern Europe

_#_External debt: $2.3 billion (March 1991 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 8.1% (FY91 plan); accounts for about 25% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 480,000 kW capacity; 1,470 million kWh produced, 100 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: small-scale production of textiles, soap, furniture, shoes, fertilizer, and cement; handwoven carpets; natural gas, oil, coal, copper

_#_Agriculture: largely subsistence farming and nomadic animal husbandry; cash products–wheat, fruits, nuts, karakul pelts, wool, mutton

_#_Illicit drugs: an illicit producer of opium poppy and cannabis for the international drug trade; world’s second-largest opium producer (after Burma) and a major source of hashish

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $322 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-88), $465 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $57 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $4.1 billion

_#_Currency: afghani (plural–afghanis); 1 afghani (Af) = 100 puls

_#_Exchange rates: afghanis (Af) per US$1–586 (March 1991)

_#_Fiscal year: 21 March-20 March

_#_Railroads: 9.6 km (single track) 1.524-meter gauge from Kushka (USSR) to Towraghondi and 15.0 km from Termez (USSR) to Kheyrabad transshipment point on south bank of Amu Darya

_#_Highways: 21,000 km total (1984); 2,800 km hard surface, 1,650 km bituminous-treated gravel and improved earth, 16,550 km unimproved earth and tracks

_#_Inland waterways: total navigability 1,200 km; chiefly Amu Darya, which handles steamers up to about 500 metric tons

_#_Pipelines: petroleum, oil, and lubricants pipelines–USSR to Bagram and USSR to Shindand; natural gas, 180 km

_#_Ports: Shir Khan and Kheyrabad (river ports)

_#_Civil air: 2 TU-154, 2 Boeing 727, 4 Yak-40, assorted smaller transports

_#_Airports: 40 total, 36 usable; 9 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 10 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 17 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: limited telephone, telegraph, and radiobroadcast services; television introduced in 1980; 31,200 telephones; stations–5 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 1 satellite earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, Special Guard/National Guard, Border Guard Forces, National Police Force (Sarandoi), Ministry of State Security (WAD), Tribal Militia

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 4,049,092; 2,171,757 fit for military service; 166,135 reach military age (22) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $450 million, 15% of GDP (1990) _%_
_#_Total area: 28,750 km2; land area: 27,400 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Maryland

_#_Land boundaries: 768 km total; Greece 282 km, Yugoslavia 486 km

_#_Coastline: 362 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: not specified;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: Kosovo question with Yugoslavia; Northern Epirus question with Greece

_#_Climate: mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry summers; interior is cooler and wetter

_#_Terrain: mostly mountains and hills; small plains along coast

_#_Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, timber, nickel

_#_Land use: arable land 21%; permanent crops 4%; meadows and pastures 15%; forest and woodland 38%; other 22%; includes irrigated 1%

_#_Environment: subject to destructive earthquakes; tsunami occur along southwestern coast; deforestation seems to be slowing

_#_Note: strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links Adriatic Sea to Ionian Sea and Mediterranean Sea)

_#_Population: 3,335,044 (July 1991), growth rate 1.8% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 24 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 50 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 79 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 2.9 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun–Albanian(s); adjective–Albanian

_#_Ethnic divisions: Albanian 90%, Greeks 8%, other 2% (Vlachs, Gypsies, Serbs, and Bulgarians) (1989 est.)

_#_Religion: all mosques and churches were closed in 1967 and religious observances prohibited; in November 1990 Albania began allowing private religious practice and was considering the repeal of the constitutional amendment banning religious activities; estimates of religious affiliation–Muslim 70%, Greek Orthodox 20%, Roman Catholic 10%

_#_Language: Albanian (Tosk is official dialect), Greek

_#_Literacy: 72% (male 80%, female 63%) age 9 and over can read and write (1955)

_#_Labor force: 1,500,000 (1987); agriculture about 60%, industry and commerce 40% (1986)

_#_Organized labor: Central Council of Albanian Trade Unions, 610,000 members

_#_Long-form name: Republic of Albania

_#_Type: nascent democracy with strong Communist party influence; basic law has dropped all references to socialism

_#_Capital: Tirane

_#_Administrative divisions: 26 districts (rrethe, singular–rreth); Berat, Dibre, Durres, Elbasan, Fier, Gjirokaster, Gramsh, Kolonje, Korce, Kruje, Kukes, Lezhe, Librazhd, Lushnje, Mat, Mirdite, Permet, Pogradec, Puke, Sarande, Shkoder, Skrapar, Tepelene, Tirane, Tropoje, Vlore

_#_Independence: 28 November 1912 (from Ottoman Empire); People’s Socialist Republic of Albania declared 11 January 1946

_#_Constitution: an interim basic law was approved by the People’s Assembly on 29 April 1991; a new constitution is to be drafted for adoption in four to six months

_#_Legal system: has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Liberation Day, 29 November (1944)

_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister of the Council of Ministers, one deputy prime minister of the Council of Ministers

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral People’s Assembly (Kuvendi Popullor)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


Chief of State–President of the Republic Ramiz ALIA (since 22 November 1982);

Head of Government–Prime Minister of the interim Council of Ministers Ylli BUFI (since 5 June 1991);

_#_Political parties and leaders: Albanian Workers Party (AWP), Ramiz ALIA, first secretary;
Democratic Party (DP), Sali BERISHA, chairman and cofounder with Gramoz PASHKO;
Albanian Republican Party, Sabri GODO; Ecology Party, Namik HOTI;
Omonia (Greek minority party), leader NA; Agrarian Party, leader NA;

note–in December 1990 President ALIA allowed new political parties to be formed in addition to the AWP for the first time since 1944

_#_Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18


President–last held 30 April 1991 (next to be held spring 1992); results–President Ramiz ALIA was reelected with token opposition;

People’s Assembly–last held 31 March 1991 (next to be held spring 1992);
results–AWP 68%, DP 25%;
seats–(250 total) preliminary results AWP 168, DP 75, Omonia 5, Veterans Association 1, other 1;

note–the AWP’s votes came mostly from the countryside while the DP won majorities in the six-largest cities;

_#_Communists: 147,000 party members (November 1986); note–in March 1991 the Albanian Workers’ Party announced that it considered itself no longer Communist but socialist


_#_Diplomatic representation: the Governments of the United States and Albania agreed to reestablish diplomatic relations to be effective from 15 March 1991 and to exchange diplomatic missions at the level of ambassador

_#_Flag: red with a black two-headed eagle in the center below a red five-pointed star outlined in yellow

_#_Overview: As the poorest country in Europe, Albania’s development lags behind even the least favored areas of the Yugoslav economy. For over 40 years, the Stalinist-type economy has operated on the principles of central planning and state ownership of the means of production. In recent years Albania has implemented limited economic reforms to stimulate its lagging economy, provide incentives, and decentralize decisionmaking. In an effort to expand international ties, Tirane has reestablished diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union and the US. The Albanians have also passed legislation allowing foreign investment. Albania possesses considerable mineral resources and, until 1990, was largely self-sufficient in food; several years of drought have hindered agricultural development. Numerical estimates of Albanian economic activity are subject to an especially wide margin of error because the government until recently did not release economic information.

_#_GNP: $4.1 billion, per capita $1,250; real growth rate NA% (1990 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $2.3 billion; expenditures $2.3 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (1989)

_#_Exports: $378 million (f.o.b., 1987 est.);

commodities–asphalt, bitumen, petroleum products, metals and metallic ores, electricity, oil, vegetables, fruits, tobacco;

partners–Italy, Yugoslavia, FRG, Greece, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary

_#_Imports: $255 million (f.o.b., 1987 est.);

commodities–machinery, machine tools, iron and steel products, textiles, chemicals, pharmaceuticals;

partners–Italy, Yugoslavia, FRG, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria, GDR

_#_External debt: $NA

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA

_#_Electricity: 1,690,000 kW capacity; 5,000 million kWh produced, 1,530 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: food processing, textiles and clothing, lumber, oil, cement, chemicals, basic metals, hydropower

_#_Agriculture: arable land per capita among lowest in Europe; one-half of work force engaged in farming; produces wide range of temperate-zone crops and livestock; claims self-sufficiency in grain output

_#_Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA (1988) $5.8 million

_#_Currency: lek (plural–leke); 1 lek (L) = 100 qintars

_#_Exchange rates: leke (L) per US$1–8.00 (noncommercial fixed rate since 1986), 4.14 (commercial fixed rate since 1987)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Railroads: 543 km total; 509 1.435-meter standard gauge, single track and 34 km narrow gauge, single track (1990); line connecting Titograd (Yugoslavia) and Shkoder (Albania) completed August 1986

_#_Highways: 16,700 km total; 6,700 km highway and roads, 10,000 km forest and agricultural (1990)

_#_Inland waterways: 43 km plus Albanian sections of Lake Scutari, Lake Ohrid, and Lake Prespa (1990)

_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 145 km; refined products, 55 km; natural gas, 64 km (1988)

_#_Ports: Durres, Sarande, Vlore

_#_Merchant marine: 11 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 52,886 GRT/75,993 DWT

_#_Airports: 12 total, 10 usable; more than 5 with permanent-surface runways; more than 5 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 5 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: stations–17 AM, 1 FM, 9 TV; 246,000 TVs (1990); 210,000 radios

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Albanian People’s Army, Albanian Coastal Defense Command, Air and Air Defense Force, Frontier Troops, Interior Troops

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 900,723; 743,594 fit for military service; 33,497 reach military age (19) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: 1.0 billion leks, NA% of GDP (FY90); note–conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the official administratively set exchange rate would produce misleading results
_#_Total area: 2,381,740 km2; land area: 2,381,740 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Texas

_#_Land boundaries: 6,343 km total; Libya 982 km, Mali 1,376 km, Mauritania 463 km, Morocco 1,559 km, Niger 956 km, Tunisia 965 km, Western Sahara 42 km

_#_Coastline: 998 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: Libya claims about 19,400 km2 in southeastern Algeria

_#_Climate: arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers along coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau; sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer

_#_Terrain: mostly high plateau and desert; some mountains; narrow, discontinuous coastal plain

_#_Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, uranium, lead, zinc

_#_Land use: arable land 3%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 13%; forest and woodland 2%; other 82%; includes irrigated NEGL%

_#_Environment: mountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes; desertification

_#_Note: second-largest country in Africa (after Sudan)

_#_Population: 26,022,188 (July 1991), growth rate 2.5% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 32 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 57 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 66 years male, 68 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 4.2 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun–Algerian(s); adjective–Algerian

_#_Ethnic divisions: Arab-Berber 99%, European less than 1%

_#_Religion: Sunni Muslim (state religion) 99%, Christian and Jewish 1%

_#_Language: Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects

_#_Literacy: 50% (male 63%, female 36%) age 15 and over can read and write (1987)

_#_Labor force: 3,700,000; industry and commerce 40%, agriculture 24%, government 17%, services 10% (1984)

_#_Organized labor: 16-19% of labor force claimed; General Union of Algerian Workers (UGTA) is the only labor organization and is subordinate to the National Liberation Front

_#_Long-form name: Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: Algiers

_#_Administrative divisions: 48 provinces (wilayat, singular–wilaya); Adrar, Ain Defla, Ain Temouchent, Alger, Annaba, Batna, Bechar, Bejaia, Biskra, Blida, Bordj Bou Arreridj, Bouira, Boumerdes, Chlef, Constantine, Djelfa, El Bayadh, El Oued, El Tarf, Ghardaia, Guelma, Illizi, Jijel, Khenchela, Laghouat, Mascara, Medea, Mila, Mostaganem, M’sila, Naama, Oran, Ouargla, Oum el Bouaghi, Relizane, Saida, Setif, Sidi Bel Abbes, Skikda, Souk Ahras, Tamanghasset, Tebessa, Tiaret, Tindouf, Tipaza, Tissemsilt, Tizi Ouzou, Tlemcen

_#_Independence: 5 July 1962 (from France)

_#_Constitution: 19 November 1976, effective 22 November 1976

_#_Legal system: socialist, based on French and Islamic law; judicial review of legislative acts in ad hoc Constitutional Council composed of various public officials, including several Supreme Court justices; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 1 November (1954)

_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National People’s Assembly (Al-Majlis Ech-Chaabi Al-Watani)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)


Chief of State–President Chadli BENDJEDID (since 7 February 1979);

Head of Government–Prime Minister Sid Ahmed GHOZALI (since 6 June 1991)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
National Liberation Front (FLN), Chadli BENDJEDID, president; Islamic Salvation Front (FIS), Abassi MADANI; the government established a multiparty system in September 1989 and as of 31 December 1990 over 30 legal parties existed

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


President–last held on 22 December 1988 (next to be held December 1993); results–President BENDJEDID was reelected without opposition;

National People’s Assembly–last held on 26 February 1987 (next were to be held 27 June 1991 but postponed indefinitely because of civil unrest);
results–FLN was the only party;
seats–(281 total) FLN 281; note–the government held multiparty elections (municipal and wilaya) in June 1990, the first in Algerian history; results–FIS 55%, FLN 27.5%, other 17.5%, with 65% of the voters participating

_#_Communists: 400 (est.); Communist party banned 1962


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Abderrahmane BENSID; Chancery at 2118 Kalorama Road NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 328-5300;

US–Ambassador Christopher W. S. ROSS; Embassy at 4 Chemin Cheich Bachir El-Ibrahimi, Algiers (mailing address is B. P. Box 549, Alger-Gare, 16000 Algiers); telephone [213] (2) 601-425 or 255, 186; there is a US Consulate in Oran

_#_Flag: two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and white with a red five-pointed star within a red crescent; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam (the state religion)

_#_Overview: The exploitation of oil and natural gas products forms the backbone of the economy. Algeria depends on hydrocarbons for nearly all of its export receipts, about 30% of government revenues, and nearly 25% of GDP. In 1973-74 the sharp increase in oil prices led to a booming economy and helped to finance an ambitious program of industrialization. Plunging oil and gas prices, combined with the mismanagement of Algeria’s highly centralized economy, have brought the nation to its most serious social and economic crisis since independence. The government has promised far-reaching reforms, including giving public-sector companies more autonomy, encouraging private-sector activity, boosting gas and nonhydrocarbon exports, and proposing a major overhaul of the banking and financial systems, but to date has made little progress.

_#_GDP: $54 billion, per capita $2,130; real growth rate 2.5% (1990 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 16.6% (1990)

_#_Unemployment rate: 26% (1990 est.)

_#_Budget: revenues $16.7 billion; expenditures $17.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $6.6 billion (1990 est.)

_#_Exports: $10.2 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities–petroleum and natural gas 98%;

partners–Netherlands, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Italy, France, US

_#_Imports: $9.2 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities–capital goods 29%, consumer goods 30%;

partners–France 25%, Italy 8%, FRG 8%, US 6-7%

_#_External debt: $26.6 billion (December 1990)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate -3% (1989 est.); accounts for 30% of GDP, including petroleum

_#_Electricity: 5,156,000 kW capacity; 14,900 million kWh produced, 580 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: petroleum, light industries, natural gas, mining, electrical, petrochemical, food processing

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 11% of GDP and employs 24% of labor force; net importer of food–grain, vegetable oil, and sugar; farm production includes wheat, barley, oats, grapes, olives, citrus, fruits, sheep,and cattle

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-85), $1.4 billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-88), $8.5 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $1.8 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $2.7 billion

_#_Currency: Algerian dinar (plural–dinars); 1 Algerian dinar (DA) = 100 centimes

_#_Exchange rates: Algerian dinars (DA) per US$1–13.581 (January 1991), 8.958 (1990), 7.6086 (1989), 5.9148 (1988), 4.8497 (1987), 4.7023 (1986), 5.0278 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Railroads: 4,146 km total; 2,632 km standard gauge (1.435 m), 1,258 km 1.055-meter gauge, 256 km 1.000-meter gauge; 300 km electrified; 215 km double track

_#_Highways: 80,000 km total; 60,000 km concrete or bituminous, 20,000 km gravel, crushed stone, unimproved earth

_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 6,612 km; refined products, 298 km; natural gas, 2,948 km

_#_Ports: Algiers, Annaba, Arzew, Bejaia, Jijel, Mers el Kebir, Mostaganem, Oran, Skikda

_#_Merchant marine: 75 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 903,179 GRT/1,063,994 DWT; includes 5 short-sea passenger, 27 cargo, 2 vehicle carrier, 10 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 5 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 9 liquefied gas, 7 chemical tanker, 9 bulk, 1 specialized tanker

_#_Civil air: 42 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 145 total, 134 usable; 53 with permanent-surface runways; 3 with runways over 3,659 m; 30 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 66 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: excellent domestic and international service in the north, sparse in the south; 693,000 telephones; stations–26 AM, no FM, 113 TV; 1,550,000 TV sets; 3,500,000 receiver sets; 6 submarine cables; coaxial cable or radio relay to Italy, France, Spain, Morocco, and Tunisia; satellite earth stations–1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Intersputnik, 1 ARABSAT, and 15 domestic

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Territorial Air Defense, National Gendarmerie

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 6,142,818; 3,780,873 fit for military service; 293,175 reach military age (19) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $857 million, 1.8% of GDP (1991) _%_
_@_American Samoa
(territory of the US)
_#_Total area: 199 km2; land area: 199 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 116 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth);

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical marine, moderated by southeast trade winds; annual rainfall averages 124 inches; rainy season from November to April, dry season from May to October; little seasonal temperature variation

_#_Terrain: five volcanic islands with rugged peaks and limited coastal plains, two coral atolls

_#_Natural resources: pumice and pumicite

_#_Land use: arable land 10%; permanent crops 5%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and woodland 75%; other 10%

_#_Environment: typhoons common from December to March

_#_Note: Pago Pago has one of the best natural deepwater harbors in the South Pacific Ocean, sheltered by shape from rough seas and protected by peripheral mountains from high winds; strategic location about 3,700 km south-southwest of Honolulu in the South Pacific Ocean about halfway between Hawaii and New Zealand

_#_Population: 43,052 (July 1991), growth rate 2.9% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 41 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 4 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: – 8 immigrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 11 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 69 years male, 74 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 5.4 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun–American Samoan(s); adjective–American Samoan

_#_Ethnic divisions: Samoan (Polynesian) 90%, Caucasian 2%, Tongan 2%, other 6%

_#_Religion: Christian Congregationalist 50%, Roman Catholic 20%, Protestant denominations and other 30%

_#_Language: Samoan (closely related to Hawaiian and other Polynesian languages) and English; most people are bilingual

_#_Literacy: 97% (male 97%, female 97%) age 15 and over can read and write (1980)