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What to See in England by Gordon Home

Part 4 out of 5

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The town is divided into two portions, the higher and lower, or old and
new, the latter 80 feet lower than the former, being the fashionable
modern resort. Here are the celebrated baths, reputed to be a sovereign
cure for all rheumatic complaints, and celebrated since the time of the
Roman occupation of Britain. The spring which supplies the baths may be
considered one of the wonders of the Peak district, for, by means of a
cleverly-arranged pump, hot and cold water are obtained within a few
inches of each other.

The neighbourhood of Buxton abounds in the most wild and romantic
scenery--steep rocks, dark chasms, and wooded hills, mixed in delightful
confusion. Among the favourite places of resort are Ashwood Dale, with
its famous Lover's Leap rock; Shirbrook Dale, with its fissure and
cascade; Diamond Hill, so called from the quartz crystals or "Buxton
diamonds" found there; Chee Tor, a huge limestone rock 350 feet high,
which rises sheer from the bed of the Wye, washing its base; and Axe
Edge, 2-1/2 miles from Buxton, rising to a height of 1800 feet above the
level of the sea. From this point, in clear weather, a marvellous view
is obtained, embracing the mountains of North Wales to the westward and
Lincoln Cathedral to the eastward. From the sides of this rock issue
four rivers in opposite directions--the Dove and the Wye, ultimately
falling into the Humber, and the Dane and the Goyle, tributaries of the
Mersey. The view north from Axe Edge extends over countless heights and
ridges to The Peak itself, the highest point of all.

Another famous resort on account of its remarkable view is the Cat and
Fiddle Inn, on the Macclesfield Road, 5 miles from Buxton.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

CASTLETON PEAK CAVERN.]

TEWKESBURY

=How to get there.=--Train from Euston. L. and N.W. Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Tewkesbury.
=Distance from London.=--171 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 4-1/2 to 6 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 19s. 3d. ... 9s. 6d.
Return 33s. 9d. ... 19s. 0d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Swan Hotel," etc.
=Alternative Routes.=--Train from Paddington _via_ Gloucester, Great
Western Railway. Train from St. Pancras, Midland Railway.

Tewkesbury is famous for its magnificent conventual church, for the
historic battle fought close to the town, and for the ancient timbered
and pargetted houses in the centre of the town and down by the
riverside, which rival even Chester. The population of the town is
decreasing; it is no longer famous for the mustard which made
Shakespeare say, "His wit is thick as Tewkesbury mustard" (_Henry IV._),
but it has a considerable local trade in agricultural produce. Situated
on the banks of the Avon, near its junction with the Severn, it is
almost insulated by these rivers and two tributaries. The old
many-arched bridge over the Avon is extremely picturesque. In a county
famed for its rich monasteries, Tewkesbury was among the most important.
The name is believed to come from Theoc, a Saxon missionary monk, who
founded a hermitage here. The abbey was originally a dependency of
Cranbourne Abbey in Dorsetshire, but being richly endowed, Tewkesbury
became the leading monastic establishment. Fitz-Hamon, Earl of
Gloucester, began the rebuilding of the church. The choir was
reconstructed in 1350 in Gothic style, but the nave and massive central
tower are Norman. The whole building is cruciform, and the choir, having
an hexagonal end, is surrounded by an ambulatory and numerous beautiful
chapels as in Westminster. The nave is extraordinarily long, and the
height of its columns has led to a squat appearance in the triforium,
but the choir has short columns and plenty of height in the triforium.
The colossal arch over the perpendicular window of the west front
forcibly reminds one of Peterborough. The Duke of Clarence and Isabel
his duchess, the king-maker's daughter; the Duke of Somerset, executed
after the battle of Tewkesbury; Abbot Alear, Becket's friend, are all
buried here. There is a fine gatehouse near the west end of the church.
At the battle of Tewkesbury in 1471, which proved so disastrous to the
Lancastrian cause, Prince Edward, Henry III.'s son, was slain while
fleeing from the field.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

TEWKESBURY ABBEY.

Its chief feature is the huge arch over the west window, just appearing
above the trees in the picture.]

EXETER AND ITS CATHEDRAL

=How to get there.=--South-Western Railway, Waterloo Station.
=Nearest Station.=--Queen Street, Exeter.
=Distance from London.=--171-1/2 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 3-1/2 to 5-1/2 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 28s. 6d. 18s. 0d. 14s. 3-1/2d.
Return 50s. 0d. 31s. 6d. 28s. 7d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Royal Clarence Hotel," "Rougemont
Hotel," "Half Moon Hotel," Pople's "New London Hotel," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--Great Western Railway, from Paddington
Station, London, to St. Davids, Exeter.

Exeter, the metropolis of the west, was known as a city even when the
Romans came to Britain. There are no important Roman buildings left now,
but coins and pottery testify to the Roman occupation. The first actual
historic records date from the reign of King Alfred, whose grandson,
Athelstane, made Exeter into a strong city, fortifying it with walls.
Exeter made a stubborn resistance to William the Conqueror, but when
besieged by him was forced to yield. The city suffered siege on two
other notable occasions. In the reign of Henry VII., Perkin Warbeck, the
pretender, made an attack on the castle, but was defeated. In 1646 the
city was blockaded by the Parliamentary forces under Fairfax and
compelled to surrender.

In the centre of the city is the cathedral, which was commenced in A.D.
1107 by Bishop Warelwast, who built the massive Norman towers. Bishop
Quivil, who died in 1292, completely remodelled the cathedral, changing
the somewhat heavy Norman structure into the present graceful Gothic
one. The successor of Bishop Quivil carried out the plans he left behind
him, and the cathedral was finished in 1350, although some minor work
remained to be done. Unlike so many of the early cathedrals, Exeter has
no central tower, therefore its interior is famous for having the most
uninterrupted vista of any cathedral in England, having no tower-piers
to hinder the view. One of the most beautiful features is the carved
west front.

Standing on the highest ground in Exeter, though not now conspicuous,
are the ruined walls of the Norman castle, called Rougemont (Red Mount),
which obtained its name from the red clay found there. The High Street
contains many old and picturesque buildings, the most important of which
is the Guildhall, built in the fifteenth century, but altered during the
late Renaissance period. Many of the parish churches of Exeter are
worthy of note.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

THE WEST FRONT OF EXETER CATHEDRAL.

Exeter has no central tower, but is unique in having one over each
transept.]

MARKET DRAYTON, SALOP

AND THE BIRTHPLACE OF ROBERT CLIVE

=How to get there.=--Train from Paddington. Great Western Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--Market Drayton.
=Distance from London.=--178 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 4-1/4 to 5-3/4 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 24s. 2d. 15s. 5d. 13s. 2d.
Return 46s. 0d. 29s. 0d. 26s. 4d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"The Corbet Arms," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--None.

In the parish of Moreton Say, 3 miles west of Market Drayton, is Styche
Hall, the birthplace of Robert Clive. The family of Clive took their
name from the little town of Clive in Cheshire, removing to Styche when
the heiress of the latter place married James Clive in the reign of
Henry VI. Robert Clive, the hero of Plassey, born in 1725, was educated
for a few years at Market Drayton before he went to the Merchant
Taylors' School. His father not being at all wealthy, Clive accepted a
writership in the East India Company and went out to Madras, but soon
changed his post for a commission in the army. After a brilliant career
in India, which he won for the English, raising them from the position
of mere traders to be the rulers of an Eastern Empire, he returned to
England in 1767. Worn out by the persecutions of his enemies, he died by
his own hand in 1774, when only in his forty-ninth year. "Great in
council, great in war, great in his exploits, which were many, and great
in his faults, which were few," Sir Charles Wilson says, "Clive will
ever be remembered as the man who laid deeply the foundations of our
Indian Empire, and who, in a time of national despondency, restored the
tarnished honour of the British arms."

The parish church of Moreton Say contains Clive's tomb besides other old
monuments dating from 1600, though the church itself is chiefly
eighteenth-century work. Market Drayton, sometimes thought to be the
Roman Mediolanum, still has a few timbered houses, but its church has
been much restored.

Close to the town, standing on a wooded hill, is Buntingsdale, a stately
red brick and stone house built in Georgian times, belonging to the
Tayleurs. Situated 2-1/2 miles from Market Drayton is Audley Cross,
marking the site of the battle of Blore Heath, fought between the
Yorkists and Lancastrians, when many Cheshire gentlemen were slain.

[Illustration: _Valentine & Sons, Ltd._

MARKET DRAYTON FROM THE RIVER.

Where Clive was educated before he went to the Merchant Taylors'
School.]

CHESTER

=How to get there.=--Train from Euston. L. and N.W. Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Chester.
=Distance from London.=--179 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 3-1/2 to 5-1/2 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 27s. 10d. 18s. 8d. 14s. 11d.
Return 51s. 9d. 32s. 8d. 29s. 10d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Queen's Hotel," "Grosvenor Hotel,"
"Talbot Hotel," "Blossoms Hotel," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from Paddington. Great Western Rly.

The city of Chester, one of the most picturesque in the kingdom, was
known in the Roman era as the "Camp of the Great Legion," and was called
by the Romans _Deunana_ or _Deva_, being half surrounded by the Dee.
After the Conquest, the city fell to the share of Hugh Lupus, a nephew
of William the Conqueror, who was created Earl of Chester, and was the
builder of the first castle. His descendants were Earls of Chester until
the reign of Henry III., when the earldom was conferred upon Prince
Edward, whose son, Edward of Carnarvon, was the first Prince of Wales.
The title is still used by the eldest son of the sovereign.

The streets of Chester are exceedingly picturesque, Old Bridge Street
and Watergate Street being perhaps two of the best examples, abounding
as they do in mediaeval timber work and oak carving. But the most
remarkable architectural features of the city are the "Rows," which are
certainly unique in this country. These Rows, which contain the chief
shops, are level with the first floors of the houses; the second floor
projects over them, forming a covered way. The streets were cut into the
red sandstone by the Romans to a depth of 10 feet, the Rows marking the
natural level.

The old walls of the city are among the most perfect in the kingdom, and
measure nearly 2 miles in circumference, with four gates, one marking
each point of the compass. The east gate, showing the termination of the
great Roman Watling Street, was rebuilt in 1769.

Chester Cathedral, though not of great exterior beauty, should be
visited for the sake of its antiquity and its associations. It is said
to have been founded by Ethelfleda, the daughter of Alfred the Great, on
the site of a nunnery built in 875. The west front, with the Bishop's
Palace on its left, is perhaps the best feature of the exterior; while
the Bishop's Throne, in the cathedral, is a wonderfully early piece of
carving, ornamented with figures of the kings of Mercia.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

ONE OF THE MOST PICTURESQUE OF THE ROWS AT CHESTER.

The upper floors project over these covered footways.]

EXMOOR

=How to get there.=--Great Western Railway, Paddington Station.
=Nearest Stations.=--Dulverton or Minehead. For both stations
change at Taunton.
=Distance from London.=--180 miles to Dulverton; 188 miles to
Minehead.
=Average Time.=--To Dulverton varies between 5 to 6-1/2 hours. To
Minehead varies between 5-1/2 to 7 hours.

=Fares.=-- Single Return
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
Dulverton 30s. 9d. 19s. 3d. 15s. 4-1/2d. 53s. 10d. 33s. 9d. 30s. 9d.
Minehead 31s. 4d. 19s. 6d. 15s. 8d. 54s. 10d. 34s. 4d. 31s. 4d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--Dulverton--"Carnarvon Arms,"
"Lamb," etc. Minehead--"Metropole," "Beach," "Wellington,"
"Plume of Feathers," etc. Porlock--"The Ship," etc.
Simonsbath--"Exmoor Forest Hotel."

Exmoor, like Dartmoor, can be approached from many different places, but
to reach some of the finest and most typical stretches of the moor one
cannot do better than choose Dulverton or Minehead. Porlock, six or
seven miles by road (there is no railway) from Minehead, is a third
place admirably suited for getting on to Exmoor; it is the nearest place
of any size to Dunkery Beacon, which is the highest shoulder of the moor
(1707 feet). The drawing given here shows the valley of the Horner, a
small stream rising on the heathery slopes of Dunkery Beacon, which
appears in the distance. This valley is one of the most romantic spots
on Exmoor. After a long ride or ramble on foot over the open heather,
with sweeping views which include Dartmoor, South Wales, the hills
around Bath, as well as Brown Willy in Cornwall, one finds the ground
falling steeply, and before long one is climbing down a water-worn path
among sturdy oaks. The air also becomes full of the music of the rushing
Horner below. The stream is eventually discovered boiling over mossy
stones in the green shade of the close-growing trees filling the deep
valley. The quieter pools are frequently taken advantage of by a
hard-pressed stag, for this particular piece of country is frequently
hunted over by the Devon and Somerset staghounds, some of the most
popular meets of the season being held at Cloutsham farm, on one of the
slopes of the Horner valley. The neighbourhood of Dulverton includes
some fine bits of river scenery--the Barle, the Haddeo, and the Exe
meeting one another in the midst of lovely wooded hills. Many of the
villages on the margin of Exmoor are exceedingly pretty. The churches,
too, are generally of great interest.

[Illustration: ON EXMOOR.

Looking up the Horner valley towards Dunkery Beacon, which is shown
under shadow.]

KNUTSFORD

THE HOME OF MRS. GASKELL

=How to get there.=--Train from Euston _via_ Crewe. L. and N.W. Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--Knutsford.
=Distance from London.=--180 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 4 to 5-1/2 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 24s. 6d. 16s. 6d. 14s. 3-1/2d.
Return 49s. 0d. 31s. 6d. 28s. 7d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Royal George Hotel," etc.

Knutsford still retains the air of old-world quaintness which Mrs.
Gaskell has made so familiar in her delightful _Cranford_. The whole of
Knutsford breathes the fresh and bright tidiness one always
involuntarily associates with such ladies as "Miss Jenkyns," and every
house rejoices in a beautifully neat garden. The Royal George Hotel, in
the High Street, is a perfect feast to the eye of panelled wainscotting,
oak settles, and Chippendale cabinets. The richness, all over the town,
of ancient carvings, staircases, and chimney-pieces, is due to the
prosperity which the coach traffic between Liverpool and Manchester
brought to the place for many years.

Mrs. Gaskell was born in Chelsea in 1810, but her mother dying soon
after, she went to live under the care of her mother's sister, who lived
at Knutsford in Cheshire. Mrs. Gaskell, as a child, was brought up in a
tall red house, standing alone in the midst of peaceful fields and
trees, on the Heath, with a wide view reaching to the distant hills. In
a green hollow near this house there stand an old forge and mill, the
former having existed for more than two hundred years. Mrs. Gaskell had
a lonely childhood, occasionally relieved by a visit to her cousins at
the old family house of Sandlebridge. This old house is now dismantled,
but contains many interesting features. A shuffle-board, or extremely
long table, with drawers and cupboards underneath, of which there now
exist scarcely any specimens, a cradle of great antiquity, and the fine
old wooden chimney-pieces in the front parlour, still remain.

A few places in Knutsford claim association with _Cranford_. One house
is pointed out as being Miss Matty's tea-shop. The Knutsford ladies
still gossip over toasted cheese and bezique. Mrs. Gaskell spent her
married life in Manchester, where most of her books were written, but
she used often to return and stay with her cousins, from whom she learnt
many of the quaint stories still told in Knutsford.

[Illustration: _F. Frith & Co._

KNUTSFORD.

The village described by Mrs. Gaskell in _Cranford_.]

TORR STEPS ON THE BARLE, SOMERSET

=How to get there.=--Train from Paddington Station. Great Western
Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Dulverton.
=Distance from London.=--180 miles to Dulverton.
=Average Time.=--To Dulverton varies between 5 and 6-1/2 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 30s. 9d. 19s. 3d. 15s. 4-1/2d.
Return 53s. 10d. 33s. 9d. 30s. 9d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--Dulverton--"Carnarvon Arms,"
"Lamb," etc.

One of the very earliest forms of bridge in England is to be seen on the
beautiful river Barle, about 7 miles above Dulverton. Torr Steps (the
name is locally pronounced Tarr) are a distinct advance upon
stepping-stones, for although the entire bridge is submerged in
flood-time, there are, in ordinary conditions, seventeen spans raised
clear above the level of the water. The great stones which form the
piers support slabs averaging from 6 to 8 feet in length. In the centre
these are about 3 feet 6 inches wide, and the piers are supported by
sloping stones to resist the force of the current. At the ends of the
bridge the slabs are narrower, and are placed in pairs side by side,
thus giving the advantage of the greatest weight where the force of the
stream is most strongly felt. No traces of cement can be found among the
stones, so that the structure has preserved itself purely by the weight
of its individual parts.

Although it is impossible to make any definite statement as to the date
of Torr Steps, it is probable that they were built by the Celtish
inhabitants of this part of the west country, the bridge having been on
the beaten track between one or two important centres. The size of the
stones does not raise any obstacle to this theory, for though of great
weight, they are not so unwieldy as the majority of those forming
Stonehenge, which is generally accepted as the work of an exceedingly
early race of sun-worshipping men. The name "Torr" is possibly derived
from the Celtic word "Tochar," a causeway, modified to "Toher" and then
to "Torr." The lanes leading from Dulverton to the village of Hawkridge,
about 1-1/2 miles from the steps, are exceedingly beautiful, and the
whole course of the river Barle is remarkable for the striking charm of
its woodland scenery, which is frequently contrasted with the wild
moorland commons on the hillsides above.

[Illustration: TORR STEPS ON THE RIVER BARLE.

An early form of bridge, probably of Celtic origin.]

CLEEVE ABBEY, SOMERSET

=How to get there.=--From Paddington. Great Western Station. To
Washford Station _via_ Taunton.
=Nearest Station.=--Washford (2 or 3 minutes' walk).
=Distance from London.=--182-1/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 5-1/2 to 7 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 30s. 4d. 19s. 0d. 15s. 3d.
Return 53s. 0d. 33s. 3d. 30s. 4d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Luttrell Arms Hotel," "Dunster,"
4-1/2 miles from Washford. "Metropole," "Beach," "Plume of
Feathers," etc., at Minehead, 6-1/2 miles from Washford.

At Cleeve the Cistercian abbey church has disappeared, save for the
bases of the pillars in the nave, but the conventual buildings are some
of the most perfect in England, those of Beaulieu in Hampshire and
Fountains in Yorkshire being the only ones able to compare with them.
One first passes through the magnificent old gatehouse pictured here.
Inside is a large grassy space, with the mass of buildings facing one.
They are arranged in a quadrangular form, enclosing a grassy cloister
garth. On the south side is the refectory, a magnificent hall above some
small rooms on the ground floor. It is believed to have been built by
Abbot Dovell in the sixteenth century. The roof, of carved walnut, is in
a perfect state of preservation. From the refectory one may pass into
the Abbots' Lodge, then descending to the cloister garth again, one may
penetrate all the different portions of the buildings--the day-room,
where the monks did all sorts of work; the dormitory, where they slept;
the chapter-house, where they conducted the business of the abbey; the
sacristy, the parlour, and other smaller rooms. The buildings are so
perfect that it is quite easy to obtain a comprehensive idea of the
inner workings of one of these great mediaeval institutions.

The monks' day-room is a large building 60 feet long by 22 feet wide.
The upper floor, forming one half of the dormitory, has disappeared, but
there still remain the bases of the two central pillars which supported
the groined roof. The restoration of Cleeve Abbey was carried out
several years ago by Mr. G.F. Luttrell of Dunster Castle. Before that
time the whole place was used as a farm, and floors of encaustic tiles
were buried deep in farm-yard rubbish. There is practically no recorded
history of Cleeve Abbey.

One shilling is charged for admission for one person, or sixpence each
for a party of two or more.

[Illustration: THE GATE-HOUSE OF CLEEVE ABBEY.

The monastic buildings are all beyond the grassy space inside the
gateway.]

HAWARDEN

=How to get there.=--Train from Euston _via_ Chester. L. and N.W. Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--Hawarden.
=Distance from London.=--186 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 4 to 5 hours.

=Fares.=--To Chester-- 1st 2nd 3rd
Single 27s. 10d. 18s. 8d. 14s. 11d.
Return 51s. 9d. 32s. 8d. 29s. 10d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Glynne Arms," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from Paddington _via_ Wrexham. Great
Western Railway.

Hawarden is a small town, about 6-1/2 miles from Chester. The great
interest of the place centres in Hawarden Castle, the home, until his
death, of the Rt. Hon. W.E. Gladstone. There are really two castles, but
little remains of the old one except the large circular keep and part of
the banqueting-hall. On the spot previously occupied by the old
battlements a modern wall has been built, from which a fine view across
the Dee estuary can be obtained. The castle was probably built before
the time of Edward I. Here Simon de Montfort surrendered the castle to
Llewelyn. After its reversion to the Crown it was again taken by
Llewelyn's brother, and it was about this time that the present keep was
built. After its dismantling during the Parliamentary War, it was
purchased by Serjeant Glynne, in whose family it still remains.

Within full view of the old castle, and enclosed by the same park,
stands the modern mansion, constructed in the style of a castellated
Gothic building of the thirteenth century. It was originally a square
brick building, but it has had so many additions, besides being turreted
and encased in stone, that it is almost impossible to trace the former
structure. The south-east front looks on a gravel walk surrounding some
formal flower-beds, which was one of Mr. Gladstone's favourite walks
when he was unable to take other exercise. Visitors are not admitted to
the modern castle.

Euloe Castle, some two or three miles from Hawarden, is said to be
connected with the few remains of the old chapel by means of an
underground passage. It is a picturesque, ivy-mantled ruin, but little
is known of its history.

Hawarden Church has a central tower, surmounted by a short spire; it was
restored by Sir Gilbert Scott in 1857. A window to the memory of Mr.
Gladstone, by the late Sir Edward Burne-Jones, has just been placed in
the west end.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

HAWARDEN CASTLE.

The home, until his death, of the Rt. Hon. W.E. Gladstone.]

YORK MINSTER

=How to get there.=--Train from King's Cross. Great Northern Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--York.
=Distance from London.=--188-1/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 3-3/4 to 5 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 27s. ... 15s. 8d.
Return 54s. ... 31s. 4d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Harker's York Hotel," "Black Swan
Hotel," "Station Hotel," etc.
=Alternative Routes.=--Train from St. Pancras _via_ Sheffield, Midland
Railway. Train from Liverpool Street, Great Eastern Railway.

The city of York is one of the most famous and interesting in the
kingdom. It was originally the _Eborac_ of the British and the
_Eboracum_ of the Romans, who made it an imperial colony, and the
capital of _Maxima Caesariensis_. Later the place changed hands many
times between Danes and Saxons until the time of William the Conqueror,
who built the castle. The whole city was burnt in 1137, with the
cathedral and forty churches, and in the Wars of the Roses it was
continually the scene of sanguinary conflicts between the rival parties.
It has been visited at various times by nearly all our kings, and
numerous insurrections have been quelled within its walls. The
cathedral--the chief glory of York--dates from Saxon times. The first
church was founded by Edwin, the fifth king of Northumbria, but before
it was finished he was slain, and the work thenceforward was carried out
by his successor Oswald. The present cathedral was mainly built in the
thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. Its chief features are a nave with
the most magnificent side-aisles in the kingdom, two transepts, a choir,
a lady chapel, a large central tower, two bell towers, and a wonderfully
fine chapter-house. During the last century it was twice nearly
destroyed by fire, first by the act of a lunatic, and then by the
carelessness of a workman.

The present structure takes rank with the finest specimens of Gothic
architecture in the world.

Apart from the minster, the whole city teems with archaeological
interest. There are many fine old churches, and much mediaeval
architecture, including the gates of the city, which are wonderfully
well preserved, one of the best being Micklegate Bar, where Richard Duke
of York's head was exhibited. The city walls built by Edward I. still
remain in a remarkably good state of preservation. Many of the towers,
of which Leland stated there were forty, still exist.

[Illustration: BOOTHAM BAR AND YORK MINSTER.]

COXWOLD, YORKSHIRE

THE HOME OF STERNE

=How to get there.=--Great Northern Railway, King's Cross Station.
=Nearest Station.=--Easingwold _via_ York and Alne; from thence runs
a branch line to Easingwold.
=Distance from London.=--199 miles.
=Average Time.=--About 5 hours.
=Fares.=--No through fares in operation.
=Accommodation Obtainable.=--The village inn--"The Fauconberg
Arms."

The pretty little village of Coxwold, where the Rev. Laurence Sterne
wrote _A Sentimental Journey_, lies about 18 miles north of York. The
hamlet stands on slightly rising ground. At the bottom of the hill is
the village smithy, the well, a farm, and facing a big elm tree is the
inn, bearing a great hatchment-like signboard showing the Fauconberg
arms and motto. The cottages of the villagers are on the slope of the
hill, and at the top is the church to which Sterne was appointed vicar
in 1760. Close at hand is the quaint seventeenth-century house he
occupied. It is a singularly picturesque little building, with its mossy
stone-covered roof, its wide gables, and massive chimney-stacks. Sterne,
in his humorous way, called it "Shandy Hall." The stone tablet over the
doorway states that Sterne wrote _Tristram Shandy_ and _A Sentimental
Journey_ at Shandy Hall; but this is not quite accurate, for he entered
upon the incumbency of Coxwold in 1760, whereas two volumes of _Tristram
Shandy_ had already been published in 1759. Of his life at Coxwold one
gathers that the vicar was more devoted to his books than to his parish.
In the intervals of writing and his clerical duties he amused himself
with painting, fiddling, dining out and telling stories, at the same
time suffering from ill-health and other discomforts. His gift of
humour, however, helped him to bear his troubles better than might
otherwise have been the case. He was firmly persuaded that "every time a
man smiles, but much more so when he laughs, he adds something to the
fragment of life." Sterne's study may still be seen. It is a tiny room
with a low ceiling, although it undoubtedly possesses the charm of
cosiness. On one occasion Sterne writes: "I have a hundred hens and
chickens about my yard, and not a parishioner catches a hare or a rabbit
or a trout but he brings it as an offering to me." Sterne died in London
in 1768 at the age of 55 years.

[Illustration: "SHANDY HALL" AT COXWOLD.

Where the Rev. Laurence Sterne lived while he was Vicar of Coxwold. Part
of _Tristram Shandy_ was written here.]

LLANGOLLEN AND VALLE CRUCIS ABBEY

=How to get there.=--Train from Paddington. Great Western Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Llangollen. Valle Crucis Abbey lies 2 miles
from Llangollen.
=Distance from London.=--203 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 4-1/2 to 7-1/2 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 28s. 10d. 19s. 3d. 15s. 4-1/2d.
Return 53s. 6d. 33s. 9d. ...

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--At Llangollen--"Hand Hotel," "Royal
Hotel," "The Eagle Hotel," etc.

The scenery of Llangollen can scarcely be called mountainous, but the
little town is situated in the most beautiful part of the hill district
of Wales. Its chief charm, in common with all other Welsh villages, is
in its contrasts,--deep lanes with fern and flower-clad banks lead you
past picturesque cottages and farms, surrounded with low stone walls,
half hidden by brilliantly coloured creepers; bold crags, high above the
valley, give place to bright green sheep pastures, they in turn changing
to thick woods of oak and ash.

Llangollen Bridge, across which runs the chief thoroughfare, is one of
the so-called "wonders of Wales." It was built in 1346 by John Trevor,
afterwards Bishop of St. Asaph, and was the first stone bridge in Wales.
It is borne by five stone arches, and beneath them rushes the fine river
Dee. The church is dedicated to St. Collen, but is of no particular
interest. In the churchyard is a monument to the two fashionable ladies
who at an early age tired of the vanities of this world, and lived in
complete seclusion at Plas Newydd, a house just beyond the village,
famed for its old oak.

Valle Crucis Abbey, which can be reached either by walking along the
canal from Llangollen, or by train to Berwyn, lies in a beautiful wooded
valley surrounded by some of the best scenery in the neighbourhood of
Llangollen. A little to the east, a very picturesque view of the ruins,
which are the finest of their kind in Wales, may be obtained over a
quiet pool of water. The abbey was founded in the thirteenth century by
Madoc-ap-Gryffydd Moelor, who was a supporter of Llewelyn in the cause
of Welsh independence. The buildings are in Early English style, and
some of the finest remains are a circular gable window and three
decorated Gothic ones, also part of the west end with dog-tooth
moulding, and a piscina and canopy in the south transept. Stretching at
right angles from the south side of the church are the old monastic
buildings.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

VALLE CRUCIS ABBEY.

The ruins of the Church. The monastic buildings are on the south side.]

KNARESBOROUGH, DRIPPING WELL

=How to get there.=--Train from King's Cross. Great Northern Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--Knaresborough.
=Distance from London.=--204 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 5 to 7 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 28s. 5d. ... 17s. 0-1/2d.
Return 56s. 10d. ... 34s. 1d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Commercial Hotel," "Crown Hotel,"
etc.

Knaresborough, in the West Riding of Yorkshire, is a town of great
interest and antiquity, and occupies part of the site of an ancient
forest which was 20 miles in length. It was a crown manor before the
Conquest, and was given by William the Conqueror to Serlo de Burgh, a
Norman baron, by whom the stately castle was first erected. The place
was afterwards held by Richard Plantagenet, who founded a priory in the
vicinity, Piers Gaveston, and John of Gaunt, and the castle was for some
time the place of confinement of Henry II. During the Civil War it was
held for the King; but after the battle of Marston Moor it was taken by
Fairfax, and dismantled by order of Parliament in 1648.

The castle, one of the finest of its kind, is situated in a remarkable
position on a lofty rock, and was once practically inaccessible. It was
formerly flanked by eleven towers, of which only one remains. The other
ruins consist of a small portion of the keep and some very beautiful and
elaborate vaulted apartments, in which the murderers of Thomas a Becket
took refuge. On the cliffs opposite the castle is the famous
Knaresborough "Dripping Well," whose waters have the property of
"turning into stone" any articles left for a time under the dripping
waters of the well. The water being highly charged with limestone in a
state of impervious powder, rapidly encrusts the object until it appears
to be made of solid rock, and various specimens of this result may be
obtained.

About half a mile below the castle are the remains of the priory for
brothers of the Holy Trinity, founded by Richard Plantagenet; and
further south, hewn out of the solid rock, at a considerable height
above the river Nidd, is St. Robert's Chapel, with a fine groined roof.
It has an altar on the east side and contains carvings of the Trinity
and the Virgin Mary.

Knaresborough was at one time a place of fashionable resort on account
of the efficacy of its mineral waters, but they have long since been
abandoned for those of Harrogate.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

THE DRIPPING WELL AT KNARESBOROUGH.

The water contains limestone, and coats over whatever substance it falls
upon.]

FOUNTAINS ABBEY

=How to get there.=--Train from King's Cross _via_ Leeds. Great
Northern Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Ripon (2 miles from the Abbey).
=Distance from London.=--214 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 5 to 8 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 29s. 9d. ... 17s. 5d.
Return 59s. 6d. ... 34s. 10d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--At Ripon--"Black Bull Hotel,"
"Black Swan Hotel," "Bradford Hotel," etc.

Fountains Abbey, about 2 miles south-west from Ripon in Yorkshire,
stands in a beautiful wooded valley, through which runs a pretty stream
known as the Skell. The abbey is noted for the great extent of its
remains, which seem to have escaped any wanton destruction. A fine tower
at the north end of the transept still stands, but the central one has
fallen into great decay. Besides the church there are many remains of
this famous abbey, which at the time of the dissolution of the
monasteries was one of the richest in the country. The cloisters, 300
feet long, are unsurpassed in England. They extend across an archway
over the stream, and are lit by lancet windows. There are also remains
of the chapter-house, the refectory, and the kitchen with its two wide
fireplaces.

The history of the foundation of Fountains Abbey is of considerable
interest. In the twelfth century some monks of the Benedictine monastery
of St. Mary at York, being attracted by the sanctity of the inmates of
the Cistercian abbey of Rievaulx in Yorkshire, became dissatisfied with
their own form of government, and wished to adopt the rules of Rievaulx
Abbey and withdraw from their own monastery. This naturally did not
please their abbot; but eventually, after appealing to the Archbishop of
York, some land in a lonely valley, known as Skell Dale, was granted to
them. Here, in the depth of winter, without shelter or means of
subsistence, the pious monks suffered great hardship. After a few years
Hugh, Dean of York, left all his possessions to the Abbey of Fountains,
and after this endowments and benefactions flowed in.

In 1140 the abbey was burnt down, but in 1204 the restoration was
recommenced, and the foundations of a new church, of which the present
ruins are the remains, were laid. The great tower, however, was not
completed till the end of the fourteenth century.

At the Dissolution Sir Richard Gresham bought the estates, and they are
now owned by the descendants of Mr. William Aislabie of Studley Royal.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

FOUNTAINS ABBEY.

One of the finest ruined monasteries in England.]

RIPON CATHEDRAL

=How to get there.=--Train from King's Cross _via_ Leeds. Great
Northern Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Ripon.
=Distance from London.=--214 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 5 to 7 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 29s. 9d. ... 17s. 5d.
Return 59s. 6d. ... 34s. 10d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Black Bull Hotel," "Black Swan
Hotel," "Bradford Hotel," etc.

Ripon is situated on the little river Ure in a picturesque valley in the
west of Yorkshire. Its past history has been eventful enough, for it was
burnt by the Danes in the ninth century, destroyed by King Edred, and
laid waste by the Conqueror. It recovered quickly from all these
adversities, and is now a peaceful town given up to agricultural
pursuits. Besides possessing a small but interesting old cathedral and
some ancient houses in its town, many places of historic importance lie
in its immediate neighbourhood. Fountains Abbey is 3 miles distant (see
Index), and also Fountains Hall, a fifteenth-century building. An
interesting relic of old times is the blowing of the horn at nine in the
evening by a constable outside the mayor's house and at the
market-cross.

Ripon's minster became a cathedral in 1836. In the seventh century a
monastery was established here, and St. Wilfrid, the famous Archbishop
of York, built the minster. Of this building only the crypt remains,
consisting of a central chamber with niches in the walls, and a window
known as "St. Wilfrid's Needle" looking into the passage outside. It is
reached by steps and a long passage leading from the nave of the present
cathedral. Only the chapter-house and vestry remain of Archbishop
Thurstan's Norman church, erected in the place of the Anglo-Saxon one,
for Roger, Archbishop of York, pulled it down and began to erect the
present building in (_circa_) 1154. Being only a Collegiate Church in
those days, it was not built in a cathedral fashion, and it had no
aisles to its wide and low-roofed nave. The present aisles were added in
the sixteenth century, with the intention of giving a cathedral aspect
to the minster church. Much of Roger's work has been altered by
subsequent bishops, and the result is a strange succession of styles of
architecture. Ripon is the only cathedral that has glass in the
triforium of the choir.

The exterior, viewed from a distance, is a little squat, for it needs
the timber spires that formerly crowned the three towers.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

RIPON CATHEDRAL--THE MINSTER BRIDGE.]

DARTMOOR

=How to get there.=--Train from Paddington. Great Western Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Bovey Tracey.
=Distance from London.=--215-1/2 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 6 to 7 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 33s. 0d. 20s. 6d. 16s. 5-1/2d.
Return 57s. 9d. 36s. 0d. 32s. 11d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--At Bovey Tracey--"The Dolphin,"
"The Railway," "The Moorland" Hotels.
=Alternative Route.=--Train to Okehampton from Waterloo. L. and
S.W. Railway. Okehampton is 5 miles from Sourton and 10
from Lydford.

While only two places are mentioned above as starting-places from which
to get at Dartmoor, a dozen others, such as Tavistock and Ashburton,
might be mentioned. Bovey Tracey, however, has many advantages, for the
moment one alights from the train one sees only four miles distant two
of the most rugged tors of the moor--Hey Tor and Rippon Tor--the last
with its great logan stone balanced near the summit. A coach from the
"Dolphin," which runs three days a week in the season, takes one through
scenery which grows more and more desolate and grand as the summit of
Hey Tor is approached. From Hey Tor the coach goes on to Buckland
Beacon, whence a wide view is obtained, including the shining roofs of
Princetown right away in the distance. Princetown, with its convict
prison, is considered by the people of the moor to be its most important
town. Holne, which is included in some of the coach drives from Bovey
Tracey, contains the birthplace of Charles Kingsley. Dartmoor is so huge
that one must be born and spend a lifetime in or near it to really know
it, and the visitor can merely endeavour to see typical examples of its
granite tors, its peaty streams, its great stretches of boulder-strewn
heather, and its strangely isolated villages.

Eight miles from Bovey Tracey is Widdecombe, the lonely little village
possessing a church which is known as "the Cathedral of the Moor." The
great tower of the church was struck by lightning one Sunday in October
1638, and a contemporary account can be seen on some panels in the
tower.

Brent Tor, illustrated opposite, is quite close to the station on the L.
and S.W. Railway of that name. The little battlemented church on the
summit, which has nave, aisles, and chancel, has a legendary origin and
is dedicated to St. Michael. The rock composing the tor is volcanic
trap.

[Illustration: BRENT TOR, DARTMOOR.

The little church standing on Brent Tor is very prominently situated and
can be seen for many miles across the moor.]

HAWORTH

THE HOME OF CHARLOTTE BRONTE

=How to get there.=--Train from St. Pancras. Change at Keighley.
Midland Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Haworth.
=Distance from London.=--216 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 5-1/2 to 6-1/2 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 28s. 7d. ... 16s. 6-1/2d.
Return 57s. 2d. ... 33s. 1d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--At Keighley--"Devonshire Hotel."

Haworth is a long straggling village 4 miles from Keighley, a large
manufacturing town in the West Riding of Yorkshire. The road is very
steep to the village--"four tough, scrambling miles." It consists of one
street, so steep that the flagstones with which it is paved are placed
end-ways that the horses may not stumble. Past the church and the lonely
parsonage are the wide moors, high, wild, and desolate, up above the
world, solitary and silent. This gray, sad-looking parsonage, so close
to the still sadder churchyard, is a spot of more than ordinary
interest, for it was the home of the Brontes--that wonderfully gifted
and extraordinary family! Charlotte Bronte shared with her sisters their
intense love for the wild, black, purple moors, rising and sweeping away
yet higher than the church which is built at the summit of the one long
narrow street. All round the horizon are wave-like hills. _Jane Eyre_,
published in 1847, written with extraordinary power and wonderful
genius, astonished the entire reading world. Little did any one imagine
that the authoress lived far away from the busy haunts of men in a quiet
northern parsonage, leading a gentle, sad life; for her two sisters,
whom Charlotte loved as her own life, were very delicate, and their one
brother, in whom they had placed great hopes, had given way to drink.
Charlotte was known to the literary world as Currer Bell, her sisters as
Acton and Ellis Bell. After _Jane Eyre_ came _Shirley_, written in a
period of great sorrow, for her two loved sisters died within a short
space of each other, not long after the death of their unhappy brother,
and Charlotte was left alone in the quiet, sad parsonage with only her
aged father. _Villette_ was well received. It was her last work.
Charlotte Bronte married, in 1854, the Rev. Arthur Nichols, and after a
few brief months of happiness passed away on March 31, 1855, at the
early age of thirty-nine.

Haworth has been much influenced by the growth of Keighley.

[Illustration: _W.T. Stead, Heckmondwike._

THE PARSONAGE AT HAWORTH, FROM THE CHURCHYARD.

Where Charlotte Bronte and her family lived.]

RIEVAULX ABBEY

=How to get there.=--Train from King's Cross. Great Northern Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--Helmsley.
=Distance from London.=--219-1/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 3-3/4 to 5 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 31s. 3d. ... 18s. 3-1/2d.
Return 62s. 6d. ... 36s. 7d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Black Swan" and "Crown" Hotels
at Helmsley. There is no inn at Rievaulx.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from St. Pancras _via_ Sheffield. Midland.

The little village of Rievaulx--the name is Norman-French, but is
pronounced Rivers--is situated close to the river Rye, and 2-1/2 miles
from Helmsley, on the Thirsk road. The great point of interest in
connection with the village is the fact that close by are the ruins of
the once magnificent abbey for monks of the Cistercian order, founded by
Sir Walter D'Espec in 1131. The founder eventually became a monk at
Rievaulx, and at his death was buried there. After the Dissolution the
site was granted to the Villiers family, from whom it came to the
Duncombes in 1695.

The most striking view of the abbey is obtained by leaving the main road
and taking the footpath across Duncombe Park, where a sudden turn brings
one in sight of a bend in the Rye, with the great roofless church rising
on the left bank of the river. The principal remains of the fine old
abbey, one of the most beautiful ruins in the kingdom, consist of the
choir and transept of the church, and the refectory. The hospitium or
guest house was formerly on the right of the lane leading to Helmsley.
The great nave of the church is now a shapeless ruin, but from certain
indications it may be seen that it was Norman, and probably the work of
D'Espec. The lower parts of the transept are Norman, and the remainder
Early English.

The magnificent tower arch, 75 feet high, is still standing, and one of
the most striking views of the ancient fabric is the crumbling nave as
it appears framed in this lofty and wonderfully-proportioned opening,
with a background of rich English foliage and landscape.

West of the nave were the cloisters, of which only a few arches now
remain, and opening from their west wall is the fine Early English
refectory, with the reading-desk still existing. Underneath the
refectory there are the remains of the Norman dormitory.

Near the bridge, at the lower end of the village of Rievaulx, a place
still called the "Forge," was possibly an ironworks under the
superintendence of the monks.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

RIEVAULX ABBEY.]

BRIXHAM, DEVON

LANDING-PLACE OF WILLIAM III.

=How to get there.=--Train from Paddington. Great Western Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Brixham.
=Distance from London.=--222-1/2 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 5-1/4 to 6-3/4 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 34s. 0d. 21s. 4d. 17s. 0-1/2d.
Return 59s. 8d. 37s. 4d. ...

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"The Queen's Hotel," "The Bolton,"
"The George Hotel," "The Globe," etc.

On the southern side of Tor Bay is Brixham, the fishing village selected
by William of Orange as a landing-place when in 1688, at the request of
the English Parliament, he brought over an army raised in Holland. It
was from here, too, that he commenced his victorious march to London
with thirteen thousand men--Exeter, Bristol, and other towns throwing
open their gates to welcome the Prince of Orange. The French, on the
momentous occasion of the visit of Admiral Tourville to the English
coast during the reign of James II., found Tor Bay a safe place for
their fleet to anchor, and William of Orange, probably having heard of
this, chose the same portion of the Devonshire seaboard. The exact spot
on which the Dutch prince first placed his foot on shore is marked by a
brass footprint, and close by stands the statue of England's third
William, overlooking the quaint quay, the brown-sailed fishing-boats,
and the old-world village.

Brixham is just such another town as Newlyn or Port Isaac, for its
streets are narrow and winding, and there are flights of stone steps
here and there which add considerably to the picturesqueness of the
place.

Brixham can easily be visited at the same time as Dartmouth, which is
dealt with on another page. Totnes can also be reached by taking the
train to Paignton, whence run two omnibuses at various intervals
throughout the day. It is a delightful drive, occupying less than an
hour. Totnes has a very quaint little main street which rises steeply
from the bridge over the Dart. Near the highest portion the roadway is
crossed by one of the old gateways of the town. This feature and the
many quaint gabled houses give a charm to the place, making it
attractive to all who love old architecture. Fragments of the old walls,
a second gateway, and the shell of the castle, which is possibly
pre-Norman, are also in existence.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

BRIXHAM HARBOUR.

Showing the statue of William of Orange on the spot where he landed in
1688.]

CONWAY CASTLE

=How to get there.=--From Euston Station. L. and N.W. Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Conway.
=Distance from London.=--225 miles.
=Average Time.=--6-1/2 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 35s. 9d. 20s. 7d. 18s. 8d.
Return 65s. 0d. 36s. 6d. 33s. 0d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Castle Hotel," "Erskine Arms,"
"Bridge Hotel," "Harp Hotel," "Aberconway Temperance
Hotel" (old house containing coffee-room dated 1400), and others.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from Paddington, _via_ Chester. Great
Western Railway.

The castle at Conway is one of the noblest fortresses in the kingdom,
the only one to approach it in size being the famous building at
Carnarvon. The present town of Conway has gradually sprung up round the
castle, built by Edward I. in 1284 to intimidate the Welsh. It was
unsuccessfully besieged by them in 1290. At the commencement of the
Parliamentarian War, the castle was garrisoned for the King by Williams,
Archbishop of York, but was taken by Mytton in 1646. The building was
comparatively unhurt during the war, but the lead and timber were
removed at the Restoration by Lord Conway, who dismantled the beautiful
fortress in a most barbarous manner, and the edifice was allowed to fall
more or less into decay.

The castle stands on the verge of a precipitous rock on the south-east of
the town, one side bounded by the river, a second by a tidal creek; the
other frontages overlook the town. It constitutes part of the walls of
Conway, which, with the castle, form the finest examples extant of
thirteenth-century military fortification. The castle itself was a
perfect specimen of a fortress, with walls of enormous thickness,
flanked by eight huge embattled towers. There are some traces still
remaining of the royal features of "Queen Eleanor's Oratory."

Near the Castle Hotel, in a side street, stands _Plas Mawe_, the "Great
House," a rich example of domestic Elizabethan architecture, built in
1585 by Robert Wynn of Gwydir. The rooms contain much oak panelling and
carving. A charge of 6d. is made for admission to the house.

Conway has a station of its own within the walls of the town, but the
visitor will do well to get out at Llandudno Junction, where a walk of a
few hundred yards leads to the famous Suspension Bridge, designed by
Telford in 1826.

The charge for admission to the castle is 3d.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

CONWAY CASTLE.

It is one of the finest of the ruined castles England possesses. The
suspension bridge was designed by Telford in 1826.]

THE DOONE VALLEY, EXMOOR

ASSOCIATED WITH "LORNA DOONE"

=How to get there.=--Train from Waterloo _via_ Barnstaple. L. and
S.W. Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Lynton (about 6 miles distant).
=Distance from London.=--225 miles.
=Average Time.=--7 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 37s. 10d. 24s. 0d. 18s. 10-1/2d.
Return 65s. 6d. 42s. 0d. 37s. 9d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--Lynton--"The Tors Hotel," "Valley
of Rocks," "Royal Castle," "Kensington," "Crown," "Globe,"
etc. Minehead--"Metropole," "Beach," "Plume of Feathers,"
etc. Porlock--"The Ship," "The Castle," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from Paddington to Minehead, Great
Western Rly. By coach from Minehead _via_ Porlock, 12 miles.

Every one who has read the late Mr. R.D. Blackmore's _Lorna Doone_ has a
keen interest in what is frequently called the Doone Country. This
comprises the north-west corner of Exmoor, bordering on the boundaries
of Devonshire. But those who visit the little village of Oare and
Badgworthy Water must not expect to see all that the novelist's
imagination conjured up. Nevertheless, though some have been
disappointed, there is much to be seen which is of interest. The church
at Oare, for instance, is closely associated with John Ridd and Lorna,
and the Snowe family, mentioned by the novelist, are commemorated in the
church. Then, too, the feats of a "Great John Ridd" are obscurely
traditional in the district.

The Doone valley, with Badgworthy (pronounced _Badgery_) Water running
through it, is about half-an-hour's walk from Malmsmead Bridge, which is
close to the village of Oare. Keeping up the course of the stream one
reaches a wood of oaks, and near it one finds a tributary of the brook
falling down a series of miniature cascades. This is the "water slide"
up which Blackmore took his hero on the occasion of his first meeting
with Lorna Doone. If one crosses a bridge near this the path will be
found to continue for about a mile. At this distance one turns to the
right by another stream, and enters a combe containing the ruins of the
Doone Houses as they are called. A lonely cottage looks down upon all
that is to be seen of the famous stronghold of the Doones. The narrow
approach to the place never existed outside the pages of the romance.
The scenery of this portion of Exmoor is exceedingly wild.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

THE DOONE VALLEY, EXMOOR.

Associated with Blackmore's _Lorna Doone_.]

LLANDOVERY, SOUTH WALES

A CENTRE FOR THE FINE SCENERY OF THE DISTRICT

=How to get there.=--Train from Euston. L. and N.W. Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Llandovery.
=Distance from London.=--228 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 6-3/4 to 8-1/2 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 33s. 11d. 21s. 1d. 16s. 10d.
Return 58s. 9d. 37s. 0d. 33s. 8d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Castle Hotel," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from Paddington. Great Western Rly.

The town of Llandovery, chiefly interesting by reason of the interesting
and picturesque excursions in its vicinity, is situate in the county of
Carmarthenshire, 24 miles north-east of Carmarthen. The town stands on
the river Bran, near its junction with the Towy, in a beautiful valley,
surrounded by wooded hills. Besides these two rivers, some smaller
streams join in the neighbourhood, and from this fact comes the name of
the place, a corruption of the Welsh _Llan ym Ddy fri_, or Church among
the Waters.

There are two churches of some interest, the more important being the
one in the main street, where the famous Rhys Pritchard was vicar in
1602. The other church stands on higher ground to the north of the town,
on the site of the old Roman station.

On a grassy knoll, adjoining the Castle Hotel and overlooking the river
Bran, are the remains of Llandovery Castle, built about the twelfth
century, and dismantled by Cromwell's orders.

Llandovery is a good starting-place for the ascent of the
Carmarthenshire Van (_i.e._ Beacon), about 13 miles distant, one of the
highest peaks in South Wales. The view from the summit of the Van in
clear weather is magnificent. Near at hand are the Black Mountains, a
rather gloomy sandstone range, and in the distance are the mountains of
North Wales, Swansea Bay, and the Devonshire coast. An easy descent may
be effected on the south-eastern side of the mountain to Penwyllt
station, on the Brecon-Swansea line. Just below this is Craig-y-Nos
Castle, the home of Madame Patti-Nicolini.

Among other interesting excursions from Llandovery are those to
Irecastle, a village in the valley of the Usk; Ystradffyn, near which a
splendid panorama of the valley of the Towy is obtained; and Pumpsaint,
a romantic village with a gold-mine near at hand.

[Illustration: _H.F. Dann._

LLANDOVERY CASTLE.

It was built in the twelfth century, and dismantled by Cromwell's
orders.]

DARTMOUTH, DEVON

=How to get there.=--From Paddington. Great Western Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Dartmouth (by steam ferry from Kingswear).
=Distance from London.=--229 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 5-1/2 to 7 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 34s. 6d. 21s. 6d. 17d. 3d.
Return 60s. 3d. 37s. 10d. ...

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Royal Castle Hotel," "Raleigh
Hotel," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--None.

There is scarcely a more romantic spot in the whole of England than
Dartmouth. Spread out on one of the steep slopes of the Dart, it
overlooks the deep-set river towards the sea and inland towards Totnes.
Steep wooded banks rising out of the water's edge give the windings of
the estuary the feeling of solemn mystery which is not obtainable from
meadows or ploughlands. In the midst of scenery of this character--and
it must have been richer still a few centuries back--the inhabitants of
Dartmouth made history.

Perhaps the earliest mention of Dartmouth is by Chaucer. Among his
Canterbury Pilgrims he says:--

A schipman was ther, wonyng fer by weste;
For ought I wost, he was of Dertemouthe.

Whether this particular "schipman" was given over to piracy it is not
possible to say, but the nature of their splendid harbour, which they
protected with a great chain drawn across the narrow outlet to the sea,
led the Dartmouth men into a trade which to-day goes by that name. Thus
in the days of Queen Elizabeth, and even in more recent times, these
lusty sailors gained a livelihood by periodical harryings of the
opposite coast of Brittany, suffering in the chances of such warfare the
disadvantages of sudden incursions of the Bretons, which, despite the
chain and the two little castles at the mouth of the inlet, were
sometimes so successful that when the Frenchmen retired there were a
good many heaps of smoking ashes where comfortable homes had stood.
Despite the varied turns of fortune's wheel, there are still many fine
old gabled houses in Dartmouth, with overhanging upper stories rich in
carved oak.

The church of St. Saviour contains a finely carved pulpit, and is full
of indications of the wealth and importance of Dartmouth in the past.

Though a chain is no longer used to close the entrance to the Dart, the
remains of the two little towers are still to be seen.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

THE BUTTER MARKET AT DARTMOUTH.

Although the town possesses many fine old seventeenth-century houses,
these in the Butter Market are the finest examples.]

RICHMOND, YORKSHIRE

=How to get there.=--Train from King's Cross. Great Northern
Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Richmond.
=Distance from London.=--237 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 6-1/2 to 9-1/2 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 33s. 6d. ... 19s. 9d.
Return 67s. 0d. ... 39s. 6d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Fleece Hotel," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from St. Pancras _via_ Sheffield. Midland
Railway.

Richmond was a place of considerable importance at the time of the
Norman Conquest, when William I. gave the title of Richmond to his
kinsman, Alan Rufus, on his obtaining the estates of the Saxon Earl
Edwin, which then extended over nearly a third of the North Riding of
Yorkshire. When Henry VII., who was Earl of Richmond, came to the
throne, these possessions reverted to the Crown, and many years later
Charles II. gave the title to the Lennoxes, with whose descendants it
still remains.

The castle, which is the most striking feature of Richmond, stands on an
almost perpendicular rock, 100 feet above the level of the Swale, and in
its best days must have been practically impregnable. The structure is
now in ruins, though the Norman keep with pinnacled corner towers is
still intact, the walls being over 100 feet high and 11 feet thick. At
the south-east corner is the ruin of a smaller tower, beneath which is a
dungeon 15 feet deep, and at the south-western corner is another lofty
tower. The castle originally covered five acres, and from its
magnificent position commanded the whole of the surrounding country.

The church, standing on the hillside near the castle, is full of
interest, and has been admirably restored by Sir Gilbert Scott, who used
the old materials as far as possible. The greater part of the choir and
the tower are Perpendicular, the rest Decorated, and two of the old
Norman piers remain at the west end. The screen and stall work brought
from Easby Abbey are of great beauty, and the carvings on the subsellia
are quaint and humorous.

Besides the castle, there are the remains of a Grey Friars' monastery,
founded in 1258 by Ralph Fitz-Randal, and situated at the back of
French-gate; and about a mile from the town the ruins of the monastery
of St. Martin and the abbey of St. Agatha, on the north bank of the
Swale, in the adjoining parish of Easby.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

RICHMOND CASTLE.

It stands upon a perpendicular rock one hundred feet above the river
Swale.]

TINTAGEL

=How to get there.=--Train from Waterloo, L. and S.W. Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Camelford. Thence by omnibus to Tintagel (4-1/2
miles distant) twice daily.
=Distance from London.=--241 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 6-1/2 to 8 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 41s. 0d. 26s. 3d. 21s. 3d.
Return 72s. 2d. 46s. 4d. 42s. 6d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"King Arthur's," "Castle Hotel,"
"Tintagel," etc.

Tintagel Castle is situated near Bossiney, a place of some importance in
bygone times, to judge from the number of ruins of houses to be seen
there. Situated as the castle is, high up on a mass of dark, slaty rock
in one of the wildest parts of the coast of Northern Cornwall, it is a
suitable spot to be the legendary birthplace of King Arthur. The
formation of the rocky ground is very interesting. Tintagel itself is
almost an island, but a low isthmus connects it with the mainland. On
both sides of the chasm are the ruins of the castle, and wide as the gap
is, the buildings on the mainland and on the rock are in an exact line,
and present the same characteristic features, thus showing that there
has probably been a considerable subsidence of the land at that point.
The castle must have been almost inaccessible. In the time of Leland a
chapel occupied part of the keep. Some doubt is entertained as to the
date of the building of the castle, opinion being divided between a
Norman, a Saxon, or a Roman origin.

The remains of a British or Saxon church are to be found on the summit
of the island. The church is supposed to have belonged to the abbey and
convent of Fontevrault, in Normandy. It was afterwards given by Edward
IV. to the Collegiate Church of Windsor, the dean and the chapter being
the patrons. Parts of the church of Tintagel have recently been restored
by the vicar of the parish.

About 3 miles from Tintagel is the Slaughter Bridge, which derives its
names from the two great battles which were fought there, one between
King Arthur and his nephew, who died in 542, when Arthur was said to
have been mortally wounded, and the other between the Britons and Saxons
in 823. Other ancient relics in the form of barrows and stone crosses
are to be found in this neighbourhood.

For Stonehenge and other prehistoric remains, see Index.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

KING ARTHUR'S CASTLE, TINTAGEL.

One of the wildest spots on the north coast of Cornwall.]

WHITBY

=How to get there.=--Train from King's Cross. Great Northern Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--Whitby.
=Distance from London.=--244-3/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 6-1/2 to 7-1/2 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 34s. 6d. ... 20s. 4d.
Return 69s. 0d. ... 40s. 8d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Royal Hotel," "Crown Hotel,"
"Metropole Hotel," etc.

Whitby is renowned for its ancient abbey and its beautiful situation on
the high and rocky coast of Yorkshire, just where the river Esk finds a
way to the sea. The Esk cuts the town into two portions. East Cliff is
on the one side, with its hoary abbey and quaint parish church on its
summit, towering over the old fishing hamlet which clusters so
picturesquely at its base. West Cliff is on the other side, a modern,
fashionable seaside resort. Close by are the heather-clad moors with
their keen, invigorating air.

From the bottom of East Cliff one ascends by 199 steps to the abbey,
which was founded in (_circa_) 658. Its first abbess was the saintly
Lady Hilda. During her rule, the poor cowherd, Caedmon, sleeping among
the cattle, being ashamed that he could not take harp and sing among the
rest, had his wonderful dream. An angel appeared to him and told him to
sing the Beginning of the Creation. Immediately the cowherd went to the
Abbess Hilda and sang his song. He became our first English poet.

In 870 the abbey and town were destroyed by the Danes. The
ecclesiastical buildings were deserted for two hundred years, but the
town was rebuilt and prospered. The foundations of the present buildings
were laid in 1220, and the abbey flourished till the Dissolution, when
it was despoiled. Even in its ruinous condition it is a marvellous
specimen of Gothic architecture. The choir, with its north aisle and
transept, parts of the north aisle, and the west front are standing.

The Parish Church of St. Mary is worth a visit because of its extreme
age (it dates from Norman times) and its quaint ugliness. Whitby built
the ship in which Captain Cook sailed round the world. The house where
he served his apprenticeship to a shipbuilder is in Grape Lane. The jet
works are only carried on to a limited extent. In the Scaur, below East
Cliff, ammonites are to be found.

A charge of threepence is made for admission to the abbey.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

WHITBY.

The old town from across the harbour.]

CARNARVON CASTLE

=How to get there.=--Train from Euston. L. and N.W. Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Carnarvon.
=Distance from London.=--246 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 7 and 9-1/2 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 39s. 11d. 22s. 9d. 20s. 7-1/2d.
Return 72s. 0d. 38s. 6d. 35s. 0d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Royal Hotel," "Royal Sportsman
Hotel," "Castle Hotel," "Queen's Hotel," "Prince of Wales
Hotel," "Arvonia Hotel," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--From Paddington _via_ Chester, 282 miles. Fares
as from Euston.

The town of Carnarvon is situated on the east side of the Menai Straits,
close by the side of the Roman station of _Segontium_, which was
connected with Chester by Watling Street. There is said to have been a
fortress here shortly after the Conquest, but the real beginning of the
importance of Carnarvon was the erection of the magnificent castle there
by Edward I., immediately after his conquest of the principality. The
work was commenced in 1283, and occupied more than ten years. In 1284,
the birth of Edward II., the first Prince of Wales, took place at
Carnarvon. During the Civil War the castle changed hands several times;
at length, in 1646, it was taken and held by the Parliamentary forces
under General Mytton.

Portions of the old Roman wall of the city still exist, and numerous
interesting relics have been found. Traces of the old Roman forts or
outposts are also to be seen.

The remains of the castle are very extensive, covering nearly three
acres. The outer walls, from 8 to 10 feet thick, are nearly perfect, and
have thirteen towers, with turrets of five, six, or eight sides. The
five-sided Eagle Tower is one of the loftiest, and takes its name from
the finely sculptured figure of an eagle which surmounts it. This tower
is entered by the Water Gate. The other entrances to the castle are by a
gateway on the north side, under a tower bearing a statue of Edward I.,
and by Queen Eleanor's Gate, which looks northward and is defended by
four portcullises.

The enclosure originally formed two courts, and though the interior
buildings are in a very decayed state, the outer walls have been
preserved to a great extent by judicious restoration. Thus Carnarvon
Castle is a prominent feature in the general aspect of the town, and
shares with the magnificent remains at Conway the honour of being one of
the two finest castles in the kingdom.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

CARNARVON CASTLE.

The birth of Edward II., the first Prince of Wales, took place here.]

PLYMOUTH

=How to get there.=--Train from Paddington. Great Western Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Plymouth (North Road Station).
=Distance from London.=--246 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 5-1/4 to 6-1/4 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 37s. 4d. 23s. 4d. 18s. 8d.
Return 65s. 4d. 40s. 10d. 37s. 4d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Royal Hotel," "Central Hotel,"
"Chubb's Hotel," "Grand Hotel," "The Lockyer Hotel," "Duke
of Cornwall Hotel," "Mount Pleasant Hotel," "Great Western
Hotel," "Westminster Hotel," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from Waterloo. L. and S.W. Railway.

Down by Sutton Pool is the portion of the quay known as the Barbican,
famous as the spot from which the _Mayflower_ cast off her moorings and
commenced her momentous voyage across the Atlantic. The place is marked
by a stone inserted among the granite sets, bearing the inscription
"_Mayflower_ 1620."

The Pilgrim Fathers had started from Delfshaven, in Holland, in July,
and after coming to Southampton, started their voyage in the _Mayflower_
and _Speedwell_. The _Speedwell_, however, proved unseaworthy, and both
ships were obliged to put into Dartmouth, where the _Speedwell_
underwent repairs. When they started again, however, it became evident
that the _Speedwell_ would not be able to stand the long Atlantic
voyage, so once more the Puritans put back to the shelter of a
port--this time Plymouth--and there abandoned the _Speedwell_. On 6th
September 1620 (old style) they finally started, having reduced their
numbers to 101 persons--48 men, the rest women and children.

After sailing for sixty days they reached the coast of America, but it
was a portion of the coast not covered by the charter of the Company,
whose assistance they had sought; they thereupon declared their
intention to "plant this colony for the glory of God and the advancement
of the Christian Faith." The spot where they landed they named Plymouth
Rock.

Plymouth Hoe, with a magnificent view down Plymouth Sound and its
associations with Drake's game of bowls during the approach of the
Spanish Armada, is one of the chief glories of Plymouth. The view
includes Mount Edgcumbe Castle, the breakwater built across the mouth of
the harbour and Drake's Island. The Hamoaze--the estuary of the
Tamar--is always full of the activity of England's great naval port.

[Illustration: THE BARBICAN AT PLYMOUTH.

From this quay the _Mayflower_ finally left England for her long voyage
across the Atlantic.]

DURHAM AND ITS CATHEDRAL

=How to get there.=--Train from King's Cross. Great Northern Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--Durham.
=Distance from London.=--256 miles.
=Average Time.=--6-1/2 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 35s. 10d. ... 21s. 2d.
Return 71s. 8d. ... 42s. 4d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Royal County Hotel," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from St. Pancras. Midland Railway.

For the magnificent position it occupies, Durham Cathedral is without a
rival in this country; and even if one includes the Continent, the
cathedral of Albi in France will alone bear comparison in respect to its
position. Overlooking the Wear from a considerable height appear the two
massive western towers and the magnificent central tower of the
cathedral, and when these and the masses of foliage beneath them are
reflected on the calm surface of the river, the scene is one of rare and
astonishing beauty.

The origin of the cathedral and city of Durham may be directly traced to
the desire on the part of Bishop Eardulph and his monks to erect some
building in which to place the coffin containing the body of St.
Cuthbert. They had travelled with their sacred charge for seven years,
and at the end of that time, in 997, having reached the rocky plateau
overlooking the river Wear, they decided to build a chapel there. Bishop
Aldhun went further, and by 999 he had finished a large building known
as the "White Church." Of this, however, there are no authentic remains;
for in 1081, William of St. Carileph had been appointed bishop, and
after he had remained in exile in Normandy for some years he returned to
Durham fired with the desire to build a cathedral on the lines of some
of the great structures then appearing in France. In 1093, therefore,
the foundations of the new church were laid, and the present building
from that day forward began to appear. Only the walls of the choir, part
of the transepts, and the tower arches had been constructed at the time
of Carileph's death in 1096, but the work went on under Ralph Flambard,
and when he too was gathered to his fathers, the aisles were finished
and the nave also, excepting its roof. Flambard also saw the two western
towers finished as high as the roof of the nave. The beautiful
transitional Norman Galilee Chapel at the west end was built prior to
1195 by Hugh Pudsey. This narrowly escaped destruction at the hands of
Wyatt, who in 1796 pulled down the splendid Norman chapter-house.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

DURHAM CATHEDRAL.

It has the finest situation of any English cathedral.]

RABY CASTLE, DURHAM

=How to get there.=--Train from King's Cross. Great Northern Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--Durham. (Raby Castle is close to the town of
Staindrop.)
=Distance from London.=--256 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 5-3/4 to 7-1/2 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 35s. 10d. ... 21s. 2d.
Return 71s. 8d. ... 42s. 4d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--At Durham--"Rose and Crown
Hotel," "Royal County Hotel," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from St. Pancras. Midland Railway.

Raby Castle, the ancestral home of the Nevilles and an almost perfect
specimen of a fourteenth-century castle, is situated close to the little
town of Staindrop in the county of Durham. Canute, the Danish king, is
said to have had a house in Staindrop; and it was he who presented Raby
Castle to the shrine of St. Cuthbert. The castle passed from the
possession of the monks in 1131, when they granted it to Dolphin, who
belonged to the royal family of Northumberland, for the yearly rental of
L4. Dominus de Raby, a descendant of Dolphin, married Isabel Neville,
the heiress of the Saxon house of Balmer, and their son, Geoffrey, took
the surname of Neville. The present castle was built by John, Lord
Neville, about the year 1379, when he had permission to fortify.

There is very little history attaching to the fortress, for, with the
exception of two insignificant attacks during the Civil War, it
sustained no sieges. It belonged to the Nevilles until 1570, when
Charles Neville, Earl of Westmorland, lost the castle, together with all
his estates, for the share which he took in the rising in the North for
the restoration of the Roman Catholic religion in England. Not being
situated on high ground, the chief defence of Raby Castle, apart from
the strength of its walls, must have been the abundance of water which
completely surrounded it.

The chapel is the oldest portion; but the castle was almost entirely
built in one man's lifetime, and bears scarcely any traces of earlier or
later work. The interior, however, has been much altered by modern
architects, who have obliterated a great portion of John Neville's work.
The Baron's Hall used to be a fine room, with beautiful windows, an oak
roof, and a stone music-gallery. The kitchen, which occupies the whole
interior of a large tower, is one of the most interesting and perfect
features of the castle, though it has no longer the original fireplaces.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

RABY CASTLE.

Built by John, Lord Neville, about the year 1379.]

SNOWDON

=How to get there.=--Train from Euston. L. and N.W. Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Llanberis (5 miles distant). This is the easiest
of the ascents by a well-marked path.
=Distance from London.=--257 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 6-1/2 to 8 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 41s. 6d. 23s. 7d. 21s. 4-1/2d.
Return 74s. 9d. 40s. 9d. 37s. 0d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Royal Victoria Hotel," Llanberis.
"Castle Hotel," "Snowdon Valley," "Dolbadarn," "Padarn
Villa." Snowdon Summit Hotel is 3560 feet above the sea.

Snowdon is the name not only of the highest mountain in Wales, but it is
itself a mountain range, broken up by valleys and river courses into
four mountain groups of which Moel-y-Wyddfa is the central and highest
one. The best spot from which a good view of the whole group can be seen
is Capel Curig. The Llanberis ascent to Snowdon is the easiest, but not
so interesting as the other routes. From Capel Curig the ascent is the
steepest and finest, and is unsurpassed for grandeur of scenery. In
respect of foreground Snowdon is not so fine as Cader Idris, and the
mountains of Scotland and the English lake district. There is an absence
of rich valley scenery in the mid-distance, which the Scottish mountains
possess and which so adds to the beauty of the Cumberland and
Westmorland mountains. But the glory of Snowdon is that it commands such
an extended view of other mountain peaks and ridges. It well repays the
holiday-maker to spend a night on the summit of Snowdon to see the grand
panorama which gradually unfolds itself as the sunrise dispels the
mist--sea, lakes, and mountain ridges standing out by degrees in the
clear morning light. Naturally the view is dependent on atmospheric
conditions for its extent. On a clear day one sees the coast-line from
Rhyl to the furthest extremity of Cardigan Bay, also the southern part
of the Menai Straits, nearly all the Isle of Anglesey, and part of the
Tubular Bridge.

One of the mountain lakes is Llyn Llydaw, a fine sheet of water 1500
feet above the sea, and surrounded except on one side by the precipitous
arms of Snowdon, and there are also the Capel Curig lakes. Snowdon is
3571 feet in height. All the ascents are free from danger. From
Llanberis there is a pony-track all the way to the top, but it is not
the most interesting of the various routes. The new mountain railway
follows fairly closely the pathway leading from Llanberis.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

SNOWDON.

It is 3571 feet to the summit.]

HARLECH CASTLE

=How to get there.=--L. and N.W. Railway from Euston.
=Nearest Station.=--Harlech.
=Distance from London.=--259 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 8-1/4 and 12-1/4 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 37s. 10d. 24s. 0d. 20s. 4d.
Return 70s. 3d. 43s. 10d. ...

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Castle Hotel," "Lion," "Belle
Vue," "Cambrian" (Temperance), etc.

Harlech Castle is about 10 miles from the pleasant town of Barmouth in
North Wales. The name implies "on the rock," and every year it is a
great attraction to the many visitors to Wales, because of the fine
mountain and sea view obtained from this commanding height. Like many
other Welsh castles it owes its origin to Edward I. after his conquest
of Wales. Owen Glyndwr or Glendower, a Welsh prince and a descendant of
Llewelyn, had rebelled against Henry IV. in consequence of repeated
injustice done to him by Lord Grey de Ruthin, who had appropriated his
estates. As Owen could obtain no redress from the king he took his cause
into his own hands, and in 1404 seized the important stronghold of
Harlech Castle. Four years later it was retaken by the royal forces. At
first Owen Glendower was successful, but eventually he had to flee to
the mountains. During the Wars of the Roses, when the Duke of York
defeated Henry VI., Queen Margaret fled to Harlech Castle, but after a
lengthened siege in 1468, the defenders had to yield to the victorious
forces of the "White Rose." It is said that this siege gave rise to the
favourite Welsh air known as the "March of the Men of Harlech." The
castle stands high, is square, with a round tower at each corner, and
gives one the impression of massive proportions and enormous strength.
The main entrance to the inner ward is between two huge round towers,
and the passage was defended at one end by two, and at the inner
extremity by a third, portcullis. The ascent to the top of the walls is
made by a stair from the courtyard. There is a well-protected walk on
the battlements. The view from the castle is magnificent and extensive,
and should the day be fine it is one vast panorama of mountain, sea, and
coast-line--a sight not easily forgotten. Across the bay, 7 miles off,
can be seen the equally ancient castle of Criccieth, although its ruins
cannot compare to Harlech. On the other side is a glorious range of
heights culminating in Snowdon, while to the left are the graceful
Rivals, mountain heights which should not be missed.

[Illustration: HARLECH CASTLE.]

GRASMERE AND RYDAL MOUNT

THE HOMES OF WILLIAM WORDSWORTH

=How to get there.=--Train from Euston. L. and N.W. Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Ambleside (4 miles from Grasmere).
=Distance from London.=--260 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 6 to 8 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 39s. 0d. 25s. 2d. 23s.
Return 76s. 4d. 49s. 4d. 45s.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Prince of Wales Hotel," on lake,
1/2 mile from village. "Rothay Hotel," near church. "Red Lion
Hotel," "Mossgrove" (Temperance), "Grasmere Hotel" (Temperance),
all in village. No inn at Rydal village.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from St. Pancras. Midland Railway.

Grasmere is the name of a village and lake in Westmorland, about 3 miles
north-west of Ambleside. The lovely village, beautifully situated at the
head of the lake, has an old church containing the grave of Wordsworth.
Wordsworth's cottage (a charge of 6d. is made for admission) is only
half a mile from the church. It is restored, as far as possible, to its
condition in Wordsworth's day, and contains a number of relics of the
poet's family. The lake, a mile in length, and surrounded by mountains,
forms one of the most beautiful scenes in England. Wordsworth afterwards
removed to Rydal Mount (two or three miles off), which place remains
especially associated with his memory. It is a somewhat remarkable fact
that this quiet and thoughtful interpreter of nature was in the early
years of his life, while going on a pedestrian tour through France,
thrust into the early fervours of its great Revolution. Wordsworth's
sympathy with the aims of the Gironde party might have cost him his
life, for many of his friends in Paris suffered death, but happily
circumstances caused him to return to England. It was his noble sister
Dorothy, his constant and devoted companion, who met him on his return
from Paris, broken-hearted, and induced him to return to nature.

Wordsworth's poetry was not appreciated for a considerable time, but he
calmly wrote on, undismayed by the ridicule poured forth on the "Lake
School of Poets," which included Coleridge and Southey, and gradually
his calm and dignified descriptions of nature asserted their rightful
influence. After publishing his greatest poem, _The Excursion_, the tide
of generous appreciation set in. In 1843, Wordsworth was made Poet
Laureate. His pure and fervent poetry was a protest against the diseased
sentimentality of the age.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

RYDAL WATER.]

THE LAKE DISTRICT

=How to get there.=--Train to Ambleside from Euston. London and
N.W. Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Ambleside (for visiting Coniston, Grasmere, Hawkshead,
Patterdale, and Windermere).
=Distance from London.=--260 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 6 to 8 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 39s. 0d. 25s. 2d. 23s. 0d.
Return 76s. 4d. 49s. 4d. 45s. 0d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--At Ambleside--"Queen's Hotel,"
"White Lion Hotel," "Royal Oak Inn," "Robinson's Temperance
Hotel."
=Alternative Route.=--Train from St. Pancras. Midland Railway.

Ambleside, situated in the very centre of the Lake District, is by many
regarded as the most tempting spot in the whole region.

It is a long and straggling town of about 2000 inhabitants. The old
church stands up the hill, in the more picturesque part of the town. The
old ceremony of "rush-bearing," dating from the time of Gregory IV., is
still, in a modified form, an annual function in Ambleside, which, with
one or two Westmorland villages, can claim the custom as unique.

About a mile south from Ambleside is the northern extremity of Lake
Windermere, 10-1/2 miles long, and varying in breadth from a mile in the
widest part to a few hundred yards in the narrowest. The surrounding
scenery is magnificent, of a soft and graceful beauty, which forms a
wonderful contrast to the wild and sublime grandeur of other parts of
the Lake District. There are a number of beautiful islands in the lake,
which is very plentifully stocked with fish.

The little lake at Grasmere, a village to the north of Ambleside, is one
of the gems of the Lakeland scenery; indeed, Grasmere is an excellent
centre from which to visit some of the points of interest in the
district. Wordsworth's cottage stands half a mile outside the village.

Within easy reach of Ambleside are Coniston village and lake, upon which
a little steamer plies. Near the head of the lake is Coniston Hall, now
a farmhouse, but for long the seat of the Le Flemings, a well-known
Westmorland family.

Among the numerous other places of interest near Ambleside are
Hawkshead, the scene of Wordsworth's school life, and a most charmingly
picturesque village; Patterdale and the surrounding district; Langdale
Pikes, Shap Fells, and Stockgill Force, a fine waterfall 150 feet high.

[Illustration: _Valentine & Sons, Ltd._

WINDERMERE.

It is ten and a half miles in length, and is surrounded by the most
beautiful wooded scenery.]

ST. DAVIDS CATHEDRAL

=How to get there.=--Train from Paddington. Great Western Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--Haverfordwest (16 miles from St. Davids), thence
by coach to St. Davids, past Roch Castle.
=Distance from London.=--To Haverfordwest, 261 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 6-1/2 to 9 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 42s. 0d. 26s. 3d. 21s. 0d.
Return 72s. 3d. 46s. 0d. 42s. 0d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Grove Hotel," "City Hotel," etc.

St. Davids, the most western town in Wales, is situated on the little
river Alan, a mile from its mouth, near St. Davids Head, on the north
side of St. Brides Bay. The place is now little more than a village,
though in the Middle Ages it was a large city, the great resort of
pilgrims to St. David's shrine. The city, which was the =Menevia= of
the Romans, is almost as isolated now as it was in their days, the only
available communication being by the daily mail-cart from Haverfordwest,
and an omnibus twice a week during the season.

The modern "city" of St. Davids is a mere village, consisting of one
principal street and two at right angles, with a fine old cross at their
junction, but the chief attractions are its grand old cathedral and the
ruins of its once famous Episcopal palace. The cathedral, originally
built in 1176, is curiously situated in a deep dell, so that only the
upper part of the lofty tower is visible from the village, and the close
is entered by descending thirty-nine steps, locally known as the
thirty-nine articles. The entrance to the close is through a fine old
tower-gateway, 60 feet high, where the records were formerly kept and a
consistory court held.

The west front of the cathedral, which has been well restored, is one of
the finest features of the building. Among the more interesting objects
in the cathedral are Bishop Morgan's throne, of remarkable workmanship;
the fine rood screen, the work of Bishop Gower; Bishop Vaughan's
beautiful Tudor chapel and monument; and the shrine of St. David.

The Bishop's Palace, on the opposite bank of the river, was one of the
finest in the kingdom. It was founded by Bishop Gower in the fourteenth
century, and, together with the cathedral, St. Mary's College, and other
ecclesiastical buildings, was enclosed by a lofty wall having four
gateways, of which only one remains.

In mediaeval days the shrine of St. David was regarded with great
veneration, and was visited by William the Conqueror, Henry II., and by
Edward I. and his queen.

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