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What to See in England by Gordon Home

Part 3 out of 5

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1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 15s. 3d. 10s. 2d. 8s. 1-1/2d.
Return 28s. 3d. 17s. 10d. 16s. 3d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Abbey Hotel," "King's Arms,"
"Castle Hotel," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--None.

Kenilworth is a small town, situated midway between Coventry and
Warwick, about 5 miles from either town. It is chiefly noted for the
ruins of the famous castle, so celebrated from its association with Sir
Walter Scott's romance. The castle was built in the reign of Henry I.,
the site having been granted to Geoffrey de Clinton, Lord Chief Justice
of England. The fortress at one time belonged to Simon de Montfort, who
imprisoned Henry III. and his son Edward during the War of the Barons.
Edward II. also was forced to sign his abdication there. Queen Elizabeth
gave the castle as a present to her favourite, Robert Dudley, Earl of
Leicester, who spent large sums in making great alterations and
additions, and entertained the Queen on four different occasions. The
memorable visit that has been described by Scott took place in 1575,
when Dudley not only lodged Queen Elizabeth, her court, and 400 servants
for seventeen days, but provided a series of pageants and festivities to
please his royal mistress. During the Civil War the castle was taken by
Cromwell and given by him to Colonel Hawkesworth and some other officers
belonging to his army. They destroyed the place very much, draining the
lake, besides pulling down walls and towers. The estate now belongs to
the Earl of Clarendon, to whose ancestor, Lawrence Hyde, Earl of
Rochester, it was given by Charles II. The only building which has still
preserved its roof is the gatehouse, built by Robert Dudley. It is now
used as a dwelling-house, and contains some beautiful panelling and also
a wonderful chimney-piece. The rest of the castle is very ruined, but
the remains are of great interest, being sufficient to convey an
impression of the castle as it originally stood. Close to the parish
church are the ruins of the priory, which was founded at the same time
as the castle, by Geoffrey de Clinton. At the Dissolution it was
completely destroyed, and only the gatehouse remains.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

KENILWORTH CASTLE.

Where Queen Elizabeth was entertained for seventeen days by Robert
Dudley, Earl of Leicester.]

BELVOIR CASTLE

THE SEAT OF THE DUKE OF RUTLAND

=How to get there.=--Train from King's Cross. Great Northern Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--Grantham (7 miles from Belvoir Castle).
=Distance from London.=--105-1/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 2 and 2-3/4 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 15s. 10d. ... 8s. 9d.
Return 31s. 8d. ... 17s. 6d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Angel Hotel," etc., at Grantham.
=Alternative Route.=--None.

Belvoir Castle, the Leicestershire seat of the Duke of Rutland, stands
on a lofty eminence, commanding a magnificent view over the rich vale of
Belvoir. It was originally founded by Robert de Todeni, a Norman noble,
and a standard-bearer to William the Conqueror. In the reign of Henry
III. the property passed to Robert de Roos, and in the time of Henry
VIII. to the family of Manners, who have held it ever since. The
building suffered much damage during the Wars of the Roses and the
Parliamentary Civil War. James I. was entertained there in 1603, on his
way from Scotland to London, by Roger, the fifth Earl. In 1814, George
IV., then Prince Regent, visited the castle, in commemoration of which
one of the towers was named Regent Tower. In 1816, alterations were
being carried out in the interior, under the direction of James Wyatt,
the architect, when a fire broke out and almost entirely destroyed the
castle. The picture gallery and the grand staircase perished utterly,
and the damage was reckoned at L120,000. The final restoration was
completed by Matthew Wyatt, who succeeded in building one of the finest
palaces in the length and breadth of England. One of the features of the
mansion is a magnificent picture gallery in which hang priceless works
by Nicolas Poussin, Claude, Murillo, Reynolds, Gainsborough, and other
old masters. The name "Belvoir" is derived from the magnificent
prospects lying around it in all directions, the view extending over the
level country for 30 miles; more than 170 towns and villages are visible
within its horizon. The castle is situated in the midst of a fine
sporting country, the Belvoir hounds being one of the finest packs in
the country.

Near the mansion, and below it, are some remains of a priory also
founded by the Norman owner, Robert de Todeni, about 1076. This priory
was dedicated to St. Mary, and was annexed to the Abbey of St. Albans.

[Illustration: _G.W. Wilson & Co._

BELVOIR CASTLE.

It was originally founded by Robert de Todeni, a standard-bearer to
William the Conqueror.]

BATH

=How to get there.=--Train from Paddington. Great Western Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--Bath.
=Distance from London.=--107 miles.
=Average Time.=--2-1/2 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 17s. 10d. 11s. 2d. 8s. 11d.
Return 31s. 3d. 19s. 6d. 17s. 10d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Empire Hotel," "Pulteney Hotel,"
"York House Family Hotel," "Royal Station Hotel," "Railway
Hotel," "Waldron's Private Hotel," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from Waterloo. South-Western Railway.

Bath, one of the largest towns in Somersetshire, is beautifully situated
on the Avon in a wooded valley in the north-east of the county. The city
is of great antiquity, and was one of the most powerful Roman stations,
being at the intersection of two very important roads,--the Fosse Way,
which extended from the coast of Devonshire to the north-east coast of
Lincolnshire, and the Via Julia, the great road between London and
Wales. The story of the British king Bladud and his connection with Bath
is immortalised in the _Pickwick Papers_, but is more or less legendary;
however, as to the greatness of the city during the Roman occupation
there is ample evidence. Even in those times the great natural feature
of the place was its mineral waters, and in the first century the Romans
built some luxurious baths there, and now the extensive remains have
made the place notable. The Saxons quaintly named the city _Akeman
Ceaster_, or town of invalids.

In the original Abbey Church took place the coronation of King Edgar as
King of England by the famous St. Dunstan, Archbishop of Canterbury.
This church stands on the site of the old conventual church, on the spot
where once stood the Roman temple of Minerva. It was rebuilt in the
fifteenth century by Bishop Oliver King, and completed by Bishop
Montague at the beginning of the seventeenth century. On the west front
are sculptures representing the angels upon Jacob's Ladder, and the
whole building teems with interest; but the original purity of its
architecture has been much marred by faulty and ignorant restoration.

Till the middle of the eighteenth century Bath covered no larger area
than that contained within the Roman walls, but Queen Anne and Prince
George of Denmark having conceived a great partiality for the place, and
the medicinal quality of the waters being much advocated, the city
rapidly grew in favour and size, until it reached its heyday in the time
of Beau Nash and the Prince Regent.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

THE RESTORED ROMAN BATH AT BATH.

The bases of the columns are chiefly untouched Roman work.]

BOSTON AND THE PILGRIM FATHERS

=How to get there.=--Train from King's Cross. Great Northern Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--Boston.
=Distance from London.=--107-1/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--3 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 15s. 4d. ... 8s. 11d.
Return 30s. 8d. ... 17s. 10d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Peacock and Royal," "Red Lion"
Hotels, etc.
=Alternative Route.=--None.

The English Boston, which gave its name to the great American seaport,
was at one time--although it is hard to believe--of as relatively great
importance as its mighty namesake of to-day. In the time of Edward III.
it was considered the third most important town in England, for during
that reign it contributed no fewer than seventeen ships to the great
fleet which was raised by Edward III. But Boston declined through its
river--the Witham--becoming scarcely navigable for more than small
ships, and after a time was placed on the list of decayed seaports. At
the present time it should be mentioned that its trade is steadily
reviving.

The town has a quiet, old-fashioned aspect, and many of its houses date
from the days when the Pilgrim Fathers made their first attempt to leave
England. The very first effort failed, through the treachery of the
captain of the vessel in which they were to take passage. They suffered
a month's imprisonment, but shortly afterwards made another attempt to
get away from the coast on a Dutch ship. This was only partially
successful, for William Brewster and a few others only, reached
Amsterdam, the women and the rest of the party having fallen into the
hands of a detachment of soldiers. Brewster, however, by untiring
efforts got all the rest over to Holland.

It was in 1620 that the Pilgrim Fathers finally set out on their voyage
to America. (See Index, Plymouth.) The greatest glory of Boston is "The
Stump," the highly unsuitable name given to its magnificent church
tower, 300 feet high, and a landmark all over the surrounding fen-lands
and even out at sea. It seems strangely slight when one is standing
within the tower and notices that no floor breaks the great sweep of
walls for a great height. The large perpendicular windows also help to
give an impression of frailty. The foundation stone, however, was laid
as long ago as 1309, and the structure is not so many years younger.

[Illustration: BOSTON, LINCOLNSHIRE.

From whence the Pilgrim Fathers sailed in the _Mayflower_.]

WARWICK

=How to get there.=--Train from Paddington. Great Western Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Warwick.
=Distance from London.=--108 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 2-1/2 to 3-1/2 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 15s. 3d. 10s. 2d. 8s. 1-1/2d.
Return 28s. 3d. 17s. 10d. 16s. 3d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Warwick Arms Hotel," "Woolpack
Hotel," "Globe Hotel," etc.

A charge of one shilling is made for admission to Warwick Castle, the
gardens and state apartments being shown to visitors.

Warwick is a small but historic town, charmingly situated on the River
Avon, and dominated by its castle, one of the very few baronial castles
still remaining entire. The town was destroyed by the Danes, but it was
rebuilt by King Alfred's Ethelfleda, who also built a fortress on an
artificial mound, overlooking the river. By the orders of William I. the
castle was enlarged, and afterwards given by the Conqueror to Henry de
Newburgh, whom he made the first Earl of Warwick of the Norman line. The
castle was of such strength that when, in the reign of Henry III., it
became the property of Margery, sister of Thomas de Newburgh, she was
informed that she would not be allowed to marry any one in whom the king
had not great confidence. The castle afterwards passed into the hands of
the Beauchamps, in whose family it remained until 1445, when the
heiress, Anne, married Richard Neville, the "King-maker," who took the
title of Earl of Warwick. The title without the estates was given by
James I. to Robert, Lord Rich. The castle was given to Sir Fulke
Greville, afterwards Lord Brooke. In 1759, when Edward Rich died without
issue, Francis Greville was made Earl of Warwick, with whose descendants
the estates have since remained. The entrance to the castle is along a
winding road cut for more than 100 yards out of the solid rock. The
castle as it now stands is a splendid specimen of the fourteenth-century
stronghold built in the transition period, when the mere fortress was
being superseded by a building of more grace and comfort. St. Mary's
Church in Warwick was rebuilt in the reign of Queen Anne, the former
church, built by Thomas Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, having been
destroyed by fire in 1694. Guy's Cliff, situated 1-1/4 miles from
Warwick, is a most picturesque spot, and is celebrated, according to
tradition, as the retreat of Guy of Warwick.

A charge of threepence each person (no fee less than sixpence) is made,
for admission to St. Mary's Church.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

WARWICK CASTLE ON THE AVON.

One of the very few baronial castles still remaining entire.]

GLOUCESTER AND ITS CATHEDRAL

=How to get there.=--Train from Paddington. Great Western Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--Gloucester.
=Distance from London.=--114 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 2-3/4 to 3-1/2 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 19s. 0d. 12s. 0d. 9s. 6d.
Return 33s. 3d. 21s. 0d. ...

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Bell Hotel," "New Inn Hotel,"
"The Wellington Hotel," and others.
=Alternative Route.=--None.

Gloucester is one of the most thriving cities in the south of England.
It has been a town of some description from quite early times, for the
British had a fortress on the site which the Romans are believed to have
occupied as a strong position on the road into Wales. The Danes
repeatedly made incursions into this part of the country, and Gloucester
suffered very much from their ravages; but probably through the fact
that the kings of Mercia instituted a palace and priory there, the city
seems to have had sufficient strength to recover after each disaster.
Gloucester was even of sufficient importance for Edward the Confessor to
have kept his courts there for a considerable time. Being in the west
country, it naturally suffered severely during the parliamentary
struggle, and a great portion of the city was destroyed. But although
the town lost many of its old buildings at this time, it has still a
good deal of antiquity to boast, and for this reason alone is attractive
to the stranger. Its main streets are modelled on the Roman plan of a
cross, the four arms bearing the names North, South, East and West-gate
Streets.

The cathedral is not many minutes' walk from the railway station, and is
remarkable for its influence upon the English architecture which
succeeded it, for it directed the course of the curvilinear movement in
the direction of the Perpendicular style of Gothic. After remaining
uncopied for a few years, the new style spread over the length and
breadth of England. The east window is remarkable as being one of the
largest in the world. Portions of the cathedral may possibly date from
pre-Norman days, but according to the records, the earliest date is
1088. The tower was completed in 1518, and is with the cloisters almost
without equal in this country for beauty and perfection. The cathedral
contains the tomb of Osric, King of Northumbria, which was recently
opened and found to contain the bones within a wooden coffin.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

GLOUCESTER CATHEDRAL.

Showing the east window, which is one of the largest in the world.]

NORFOLK BROADS

=How to get there.=--Train from Liverpool Street. Gt. Eastern Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--Norwich.
=Distance from London.=--114 miles.
=Average Time.--Varies between 2-1/2 to 4-1/4 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 20s. 6d. ... 9s. 5-1/2d.
Return 31s. 10d. ... 18s. 11d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--Norwich--"Royal Family Hotel,"
"Maid's Head." Yarmouth--"Royal," "Queen's," etc. Cantley--"Red
House Hotel." Brundall--"Yare Hotel."
=Alternative Route.=--To Norwich from King's Cross, Great Northern
Railway. Train to Great Yarmouth, Lowestoft, Beccles, Cantley,
Reedham, etc., from Liverpool Street, Great Eastern Railway.

The charm of the Norfolk Broads consists to a great extent in the fact
that they present different scenery to almost any other county in
England, although the salt marshes of Essex and Suffolk possess the
family likeness obtaining throughout East Anglia. The Norfolk Broads
occupy the stretch of country north of a line drawn between Norwich and
Yarmouth, and both towns offer great advantages for getting into the
Broad country. A "broad," it should be mentioned, is a local name for a
shallow lake connected with others, and finally with the sea by such
rivers as the Yare, the Bure, or Ant. These rivers and their various
tributaries form excellent sailing grounds, for after tacking for some
time in a rush-fringed river, one suddenly enjoys the contrast of a
broad lagoon where there is plenty of space to sail more freely.

The separate characteristics of the different broads give a choice of
surroundings capable of satisfying every one. Oulton Broad, for
instance, is generally to be found full of smart yachts, while Heigham
forms a contrast in its solemn loneliness. Wroxham Broad is always
bright with white sails going to or from Surlingham, Rockland, or
Salhouse Broads. The last mentioned a beautiful piece of water, the
quieter portions of its surface being generally thick with yellow iris
and purple loosestrife and many other species of water herb. It is
shaded by trees, and makes charming pictures from many points of view.
Crome, it is said, commenced a picture of this broad on the day of his
death, and anticipated that it would be his best work.

Irstead is another beautiful broad surrounded by feathery reeds and
thick with rushes where kingfishers and wild duck are to be found. The
ruins of St. Benet's Abbey are an interesting feature along the river
Bure. Within the monastic walls a windmill has been built, and this too
is now an old ruin, having lost its sails many years ago.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

AMONG THE NORFOLK BROADS.

A typical scene on one of the rivers connecting the broads.]

NORWICH CATHEDRAL

=How to get there.=--Train from Liverpool Station _via_ Colchester.
Great Eastern Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Norwich.
=Distance from London.=--114 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 2-1/2 to 4-1/4 hours. Quickest train 2
hours 32 minutes.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 20s. 6d. ... 9s. 5-1/2d.
Return 31s. 10d. ... 18s. 11d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Royal Family Hotel," "Maid's
Head Hotel," "Bell Hotel," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from King's Cross. Great Northern Rly.

The city of Norwich has a unique charm from its combination of the
mediaeval with the modern, and "improvements" so called have not spoilt
it. The chief object of interest is the cathedral, which was founded in
1094 by Bishop Herbert Losinga, who was at one time prior at Fecamp in
Normandy, and chaplain to William II. It is regarded as one of the
greatest existing examples of Norman work, and has the finest cloisters
in England. It is 411 feet long and 191 feet broad at the transepts, and
is crowned with a spire second only to that of Salisbury. Near the
cathedral are a number of ancient and interesting structures more or
less in ruins. Chief of these may be mentioned St. Ethelbert's and the
Erpingham Gate, by the west front of the cathedral, the former in
Decorated English, the latter in Late Perpendicular, and both are
valuable and rich specimens of these styles. It was Sir Thomas Erpingham
whom Henry V. in Shakespeare's play addresses as "Good old Knight," and
it was he who gave the signal to the English at the Battle of Agincourt,
saying, as he threw up his truncheon, "Now, strike!"

Norwich occupies a place in history from the time of the earlier Danish
invasions. First its castle was erected as a stronghold by the East
Anglican kings, and resorted to as a place of safety by the inhabitants,
who gave it the name of North-wic, or northern station or town. The
bishopric of the East Angles was removed hither in 1094, when the
magnificent cathedral was founded. Evelyn in his _Diary_ gives an
account of a visit he paid to that famous scholar and physician, Dr.
Thomas Browne, author of the _Religio Medici_ and _Vulgar Errors_, then
living in Norwich. It is a pleasant picture of the fine old cathedral
town which he gives. After seeing all the rare curiosities in Sir Thomas
Browne's house, he was shown all the remarkable places of the city, and
speaks of the "venerable cathedrall, the stately churches, and the
cleannesse of the streetes."

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

NORWICH CATHEDRAL.

It was founded in 1094, and is considered one of the finest examples of
Norman architecture.]

LICHFIELD

THE BIRTHPLACE OF DR. JOHNSON

=How to get there.=--Train from Euston. L. and N.W. Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Lichfield.
=Distance from London.=--118 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 2 to 3-3/4 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 16s. 9d. 10s. 9d. 9s. 8-1/2d.
Return 33s. 6d. 21s. 5d. 19s. 5d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Swan Hotel," "George Hotel," etc.

Lichfield, though an ancient town, has now a modern appearance, but is
interesting on account of its beautiful cathedral and its association
with Dr. Johnson. The house where the "great lexicographer" was born is
still to be seen in the market-place, very little altered from its
original condition. Next to this house is the Three Crowns Inn, where
Dr. Johnson and Boswell stayed when they visited Lichfield in 1776.
Among the few old houses that are remaining are St. John's Hospital,
rebuilt in 1495, and the Friary, part of an establishment of Grey
Friars, now forming a portion of a private house.

Lichfield has been a bishop's see since Anglo-Saxon times, and among its
earliest bishops was St. Chad, who advanced Christianity in England. For
a short period Lichfield boasted an archbishop, during the reign of
Offa, king of Mercia, who persuaded the Pope to grant his kingdom this
honour. No trace of any Anglo-Saxon building is left, and of the Norman
church that was next erected only the west part of the choir remains.
The present cathedral, built in the Early English style of Gothic, was
commenced about 1200, and was not finished until 1325, builders being
employed all the time. Though numbered among the smaller cathedrals,
Lichfield is very beautiful, possessing a great charm in the ruddiness
of the stone used in its construction. Its most striking features are
the three graceful spires, the sculptured west front, and the large Lady
Chapel. Owing, unfortunately, to its being fortified, the cathedral
suffered much damage when besieged by the Roundheads during the Civil
War. Windows and statues were broken, brass stripped from the tombs,
registers burned, but the worst calamity was the destruction of the
central tower. After the Restoration the cathedral was carefully
repaired, greatly due to the efforts of good Bishop Hacket, who spent
his time and money upon the work. The central spire was rebuilt by Sir
Christopher Wren.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

LICHFIELD CATHEDRAL.

Showing the richly-sculptured west front, and the central tower rebuilt
by Sir Christopher Wren.]

SHERBORNE AND ITS ABBEY CHURCH

=How to get there.=--Train from Waterloo, _via_ Salisbury. L. and
S.W. Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Sherborne.
=Distance from London.=--118 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 3-1/4 to 6 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 19s. 8d. 12s. 4d. 9s. 10d.
Return 34s. 6d. 21s. 6d. 19s. 8d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Digby Hotel," "Antelope," "Half
Moon," etc.

Sherborne is full of archaeological interest, for besides its wonderful
Abbey Church, it has the ruins of its castle on a rocky height at the
east end of the town and a good number of ancient houses. The town
itself is situated on the side of a hill sloping down to the Yeo, and
has a clean and quaint aspect. About 705, it was chosen as the seat of a
bishopric. The see was removed to Old Sarum in 1078, but the castle
continued to be used as an episcopal residence until it was besieged by
Stephen, when it became Crown property. The Abbey Church of St. Mary the
Virgin is Norman in origin, but it has been so rebuilt and remodelled
that it is now practically Perpendicular. The whole church, with the
exception of the Lady Chapel, was very carefully restored between 1848
and 1851.

Adjoining the Abbey Church, at the west end, are the remains of the
parochial church of Alhalows, a three-aisled church in Decorated or
Early Perpendicular style. The monks and the parishioners had many
quarrels, one resulting in a fire which destroyed much of the abbey. The
Abbey Church was granted by Henry VIII. to Sir John Horsley, who sold it
to the parish for L250. There being no further use for Alhalows Church,
it was taken down.

The exterior of Sherborne Church has been called unpicturesque, owing to
its low central tower and insignificant pinnacles. It is, however, a
huge building, and its interior is so richly decorated that it more
resembles a cathedral than a parish church. It possesses the finest
fan-vault in existence, covered with gilded bosses and heraldic arms.
Contrasting with this wonderful richness of decoration are three plain
Norman arches.

The nave is divided into five bays by panelled arches, the irregular
widths of which are due to the fact that the Norman arches are cased in
with Perpendicular work. The south transept has a wonderful roof of
black Irish oak.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

SHERBORNE ABBEY CHURCH.

It contains Norman work and some of the finest fan-vaulting in
existence.]

NEWARK

=How to get there.=--Train from King's Cross. Great Northern Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--Newark.
=Distance from London.=--120 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 2-1/2 to 3-1/4 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 17s. 6d. ... 10s.
Return 35s. 0d. ... 20s.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"The Ram Hotel," "Clinton Arms,"
"Saracen's Head," "White Hart," "Swan and Salmon," etc.
=Alternative Routes.=--Train from Euston, _via_ Market Harboro',
L. and N.W. Railway. Train from St. Pancras, Midland Rly.

Newark-upon-Trent is believed by some antiquaries to have been built in
Roman times; others state its origin to have been Saxon, but the first
absolutely certain record of it is in the time of Edward the Confessor.
The castle, which was built in the reign of Stephen, stands on the bank
of the river, and on that side is still tolerably perfect. Of the
interior nothing remains except the foundations of a great hall,
probably built in later times than the rest of the fortress. A flight of
steps leads from the hall to the crypt beneath, which has loop-holes
looking towards the river. The eastern wall has disappeared, but those
remaining are fairly intact. The architecture of the castle varies, part
being Norman, and other portions dating from before the Parliamentary
War. The space enclosed by the castle walls is now used for a
bowling-green, and also as a large cattle-market.

During King John's reign the castle was besieged by the Barons, and
John, coming to relieve them, was taken ill and died there in 1216.
During the reign of Henry III. the fortress, which had been taken from
the See of Lincoln by Stephen, was restored, and remained ecclesiastical
property until the reign of Edward VI.

In the time of Charles I. the castle sustained several sieges. It was at
Newark that Charles I. was deserted by his nephews Rupert and Maurice,
after his defeat at Naseby. The king withdrew to Oxford at the approach
of the Scots and Parliamentary armies, and Newark was besieged by the
Scots. After the king's surrender in 1646, Newark was delivered up by
his orders, and the fortifications, which were 2-1/4 miles long, were
destroyed by the Parliamentary troops.

Newark Parish Church is built chiefly in the Perpendicular style, but
contains some traces of Norman work. In the town there are also the
remains of a chapel of an ancient hospital of the Knights Templars, some
walls of an Augustine priory, and a Gothic cross.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

NEWARK CASTLE.

King John died here, and in the Parliamentary War the castle underwent
several sieges.]

WELLS AND ITS CATHEDRAL

=How to get there.=--Train from Paddington. Great Western Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Wells.
=Distance from London.=--120-3/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 3-3/4 to 5-3/4 hours.

=Fares.=--_Via_ Chippenham and Westbury.

1st 2nd 3rd
Single 20s. 0d. 12s. 6d. 10s. 0-1/2d.
Return 35s. 2d. 22s. 0d. 20s. 0d.

_Via_ Yatton--

Single 24s. 8d. 15s. 6d. 12s. 4d.
Return 41s. 0d. 27s. 0d. 24s. 8d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Swan Hotel," "Mitre Hotel,"
"Star Hotel," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from Waterloo. L. and S.W. Railway.

Wells is essentially an ecclesiastical town. It has no history of its
own, no great family has ever lived there, and it has no
manufactures,--it has simply grown up round the cathedral. For these
reasons the quiet little Somersetshire town has preserved much of its
antiquity and fascination. The presence of the natural wells, which
still are to be found in the gardens of the Bishop's Palace, probably
induced King Ina in 704 to found a college of secular canons. Here a
monastery grew, and subsequently became a bishop's see. John de Villula
transferred his seat to Bath in (_circa_) 1092, and in 1139 the title
was altered to Bishop of Bath and Wells. Wells is one of the smallest of
the English cathedrals, and is in many ways the most beautiful. The
clear space in front emphasises the glorious way in which the three
massive towers harmonise with the ruins of the Bishop's Palace, the
remains of the Vicar's Close, and the chapter-house. The present
building was commenced in 1121, but Bishop Joceline of Wells (1206-1242)
rebuilt it from the middle of the choir to the west end. The Early
English work shows considerable differences to that in Salisbury and Ely
Cathedrals, being carried out by a local school of masons, who show
considerable originality in design. The glory of Wells is centred in its
west front. The deep buttresses on the towers cast shadows which only
serve to show up the marvellous sculptured figures of saints and kings,
which may represent a Te Deum in stone. The inside of the cathedral is
remarkable for the inverted arches which were put in the chancel to
support the towers. Bishop Beckington built the three arches to the
close.

A charge of 6d. is made for admission to the choir of the cathedral.

[Illustration: _F. Frith & Co._

WELLS CATHEDRAL.

Commenced in 1121, but chiefly rebuilt between 1206 and 1242. It is one
of the smallest cathedrals in England.]

STRATFORD-ON-AVON

THE BIRTHPLACE OF SHAKESPEARE

=How to get there.=--Train from Paddington. Great Western Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Stratford-on-Avon.
=Distance from London.=--121-1/2 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 3 to 4-3/4 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 16s. 0d. 10s. 6d. 8s. 5d.
Return 29s. 3d. 18s. 6d. 16s. 10d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Red Horse Hotel," "Shakespeare
Hotel," "Golden Lion Hotel," "Red Lion," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from Euston. L. and N.W. Railway.

Stratford-on-Avon, a picturesque town situated on the river Avon, in
Warwickshire, is visited yearly by thousands of people desirous of
seeing the birthplace of William Shakespeare. John Shakespeare, the
father of William, bought the two half-timbered houses in Henley Street,
where he practised his trade of wool-stapler, and it was in one of these
houses that William Shakespeare was born in 1564. These houses are now
practically in their original condition, although at one time the
wool-shop was turned into an inn. The desk, said to have been used by
Shakespeare when at school, is to be seen in the former wool-shop, now
converted into a museum. The King Edward VI. Grammar School, to which
Shakespeare went, occupies the first floor of the old Guildhall, built
in the thirteenth century, but much altered in the fifteenth century. It
was in this Guildhall that Shakespeare saw for the first time a
theatrical performance given by travelling players. Close to the
Guildhall is the site of New Place, which was bought by Shakespeare.
Only the foundations of this house remain, as in 1753 the owner, the
Rev. Francis Gastrell, being angry at having to pay some rates, was not
content with cutting down the famous mulberry tree planted by the poet,
but caused the whole house to be razed and the materials sold.

The Church of Holy Trinity, most beautifully situated on the river Avon,
is cruciform in plan. In the chancel is Shakespeare's grave, with the
stone slab having the well-known lines:--

GOOD FREND, FOR IESVS SAKE FORBEARE,
TO DIGG THE DUST ENCLOASED HEARE;
BLESTE BE YE MAN YT SPARES THES STONES,
AND CVRST BE HE YT MOVES MY BONES.

At Shottery, one mile from Stratford, is the half-timbered cottage where
Anne Hathaway, the wife of Shakespeare, was born.

[Illustration: _Valentine & Sons, Ltd._

TRINITY CHURCH, STRATFORD-ON-AVON.

From the river. In the chancel is Shakespeare's grave.]

BURNHAM THORPE, NORFOLK

THE BIRTHPLACE OF NELSON

=How to get there.=--Train from Liverpool Street or St. Pancras. Great
Eastern Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Burnham Market (1 mile from Burnham Thorpe).
=Distance from London.=--122 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 3-3/4 and 4-1/2 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 19s. 10d. ... 10s. 3d.
Return 34s. 0d. ... 20s. 4d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Hoste Arms" at Burnham Market.

Burnham Thorpe, the native village of the great Admiral Nelson, is
within walking distance of either Holkham, Burnham Market, or
Wells-next-the-Sea. Horatio Nelson, the fourth son of Edmund and
Catherine Nelson, was born on September 29, 1758, at the Parsonage
House, which has unfortunately been pulled down. There are, however,
many interesting relics of Nelson in the village church, and it is
interesting to see the surroundings among which Nelson's childhood was
passed. In the parish register may be seen the signature of Nelson as a
witness to a marriage in the year 1769, when he was eleven years old.
There is a lectern constructed from the wood of the old _Victory_, which
was presented by the Lords of the Admiralty in 1881. The old Purbeck
marble font in which Horatio was baptized is still to be seen in the
church. How much Nelson loved his native village can be understood from
his remark as the _Victory_ was going into action, "This is the happiest
day of my life; what a happy day, too, for Burnham Thorpe, for it is the
day of their fair."

Nelson's father was not by any means well off, and the question of
providing for his sons was a very serious one. Horatio, however, solved
the question as to his own career. At the Grammar School at Norwich,
Nelson said to his brother, "Do, William, write to my father and tell
him that I should like to go to sea with Uncle Maurice." Captain Maurice
Suckling is said to have heard of Horatio's decision with some surprise,
for he said, "What has poor Horatio done, who is so weak, that he, above
all the rest, should be sent to rough it out at sea? But let him come,
and the first time we go into action a cannon-ball may knock off his
head and provide for him at once."

In January 1771, when at school at North Walsham, Nelson heard that he
was to join the _Raisonnable_, of 64 guns, at Chatham. He was then only
twelve years old.

[Illustration: _G.W. Wilson & Co._

BURNHAM THORPE CHURCH.

It still contains the old marble font in which Nelson was baptized.]

LULWORTH COVE, DORSETSHIRE

=How to get there.=--By rail from Waterloo Station. South-Western
Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Wool, 5 miles. (Corfe Castle, Wareham, and
Swanage are very convenient, though the drive is a little longer.)
=Distance from London.=--126 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 3-1/2 to 5-1/4 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 21s. 0d. 13s. 2d. 10s. 6d.
Return 36s. 9d. 23s. 0d. 21s. 0d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Cove Hotel," West Lulworth.
"Banke's Arms Hotel" at Corfe Castle.
=Alternative Route.=--_Via_ Bournemouth. Train direct from Waterloo.
Steamers run once a week or oftener during the summer months
(weather permitting) to Swanage and Lulworth Cove.

The remarkable cove at West Lulworth consists of a completely circular
basin, hollowed out of the bold cliffs of the southern coast-line of
Purbeck Island. It is of sufficient depth to allow small ships of from
sixty to eighty tons to enter. The narrow opening to the cove is between
two bluffs of Portland stone, forming a portion of what was the barrier
to the sea in former times. Once, however, did the waves eat through the
Portland stone in this place, it was easy work to gradually batter down
and wash out, through the narrow opening, a circular bay from the soft
strata of Hastings sands lying in the protection of the Portland stone.
On the west side of the cove one may notice rocks with such peculiarly
contorted strata as those shown in the foreground of the illustration
opposite.

A most interesting and rugged portion of the coast lies to the west of
Lulworth Cove. After leaving the coastguard signal station one reaches
Stair Hole, a cavity walled off from the sea by Portland limestone. At
high tide, however, the sea enters the chasm through a number of small
apertures, and is probably carving out at this spot a circular basin
after the manner of Lulworth Cove. Passing Dungy Head and Oswald or
Horsewall Bay, with its towering chalk cliffs, one reaches a low
promontory known as Tongue Beach. It is formed of layers of limestone
tilted into curved or perpendicular positions. Crossing this promontory
one enters Durdle Bay, with the Barndoor, an archway 30 feet high, in a
massive cliff.

At East Lulworth, a little way inland from the cove, stands Lulworth
Castle, an imposing-looking building with circular towers at each
corner. It was built about three hundred years ago on the site of an
earlier castle.

[Illustration: LULWORTH COVE FROM THE WEST.

The circular basin has been eaten out of the sandy soil after the sea
had cut an opening in the Portland stone which forms the actual
coast-line at this point.]

CORFE CASTLE

IN THE ISLE OF PURBECK, DORSETSHIRE

=How to get there=.--By rail from Waterloo Station. South-Western
Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Corfe Castle--quite close to the ruins.
=Distance from London.=--130 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 3 to 5 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 21s. 2d. 13s. 3d. 10s. 7d.
Return 37s. 0d. 23s. 3d. 21s. 2d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.= "The Banke's Arms Hotel."
=Alternative Route.=--_Via_ Bournemouth and steamer to Swanage.

Corfe Castle on its great hill, with the little hamlet which goes by the
same name which clusters at its foot, is one of the most spectacular of
the ruined fortresses to be found in Southern England. At the periods of
the year when there are no strangers in the village, the ruins and the
village leave an impression on the mind which is not so palpable when
there are the distractions caused by other visitors. But even then, the
grand view across the wild downs forming the backbone of the island of
Purbeck, over which one gazes from the shattered towers and curtain
walls, is sufficiently memorable. Its position, commanding the whole
Purbeck range of hills, made the spot famous in Saxon days, when it was
known as Corfe Gate. Shortly after the days of Alfred the Great the hill
was strongly fortified by King Edgar, who made it his residence and
probably built the central keep, whose ruins still crown the summit of
the hill. Edgar left the castle to his widow Elfrida, whose name has
been handed down as the murderer of her stepson Edward--afterwards named
Edward the Martyr. He visited Corfe Castle in order to see his brother,
but while drinking a goblet of wine in the gateway between the two
circular towers shown in the illustration, he was stabbed by command of
Elfrida. During the civil war between Stephen and Maud, the fortress
defied all attempts to take it by Stephen's adherents; and up to the
struggle between Charles I. and his Parliament, when for a space of six
weeks Lady Bankes held the castle with a handful of retainers, Corfe
Castle has figured prominently in English history.

The village is almost entirely composed of cottages whose stone walls
and thick slate roofs are beautifully mellowed by the hand of time.
Nowhere does there appear anything new to jar with the silver greys and
the grey greens of the old cottages, the church, and the castle ruins.

A charge of sixpence each person is made for admission to the castle.

[Illustration: CORFE CASTLE.

Showing on the left the massive round towers flanking the gateway,
where, in Saxon times, Edward is said to have been stabbed by command of
his stepmother, Elfrida.]

LINCOLN AND ITS CATHEDRAL

=How to get there.=--Train from King's Cross. Great Northern Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--Lincoln.
=Distance from London.=--130 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 2-3/4 to 3-1/2 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 18s. 10d. ... 10s. 9d.
Return 37s. 8d. ... 21s. 6d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Great Northern Hotel," and others.
=Alternative Routes.=--Train from Marylebone, Great Central Railway.
Train from Liverpool Street, Great Eastern Railway. Train
from St. Pancras, _via_ Nottingham, Midland Railway.

Lincoln stands on a hill surrounded by level country. First a British
settlement, it became a Roman colony. In 1074 the decree that all
bishoprics should be in fortified places caused the removal of the See
of Dorchester to Lincoln. Even at this time Lincoln was an important
commercial town. Many parliaments have been held in its chapter-house,
and Henry VII. offered his thanksgivings after Bosworth in the
cathedral.

The mighty fane, with its three massive towers, rises majestically over
the red roofs of the town. Its most striking feature is the great Norman
screen, running up without buttresses or projections to the parapet and
hiding the bases of the square, richly decorated towers of the west
front. The plain centre of the screen is the work of Remigius, the first
bishop. The rest of it is relieved with rich arcading of Late Norman and
Early English periods. The wooden spires which crowned the towers were
removed in 1807.

In 1192 Hugh of Avalon determined to rebuild the Norman building of
Remigius, which an earthquake had shaken. To him we owe the choir and
eastern transept. His successors completed the western transept and
began the west end of the nave. So much money had to be spent in
rebuilding the central tower, which fell in 1239, that the canons could
not rebuild the nave entirely, but had to incorporate the Norman end by
Remigius. Unfortunately the axis of the west front does not correspond
to that of the nave, which is too wide for its height. The low vaulting
is a serious defect in the choir built by St. Hugh, but of the superb
beauty of the Angel Choir, which encloses his shrine, there can be no
doubt. In its richness of sculpture it is one of the masterpieces of
Gothic architecture in England. The interior of the cathedral is
remarkable for the harmony of its style, which is Lancet-Gothic, and the
dim lighting of the nave only adds to its impressiveness.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

LINCOLN CATHEDRAL.

The original Norman building was built by Remigius, but the structure
having been weakened by an earthquake shock, Hugh of Avalon in 1192
built the Choir and Eastern Transept, and his successors finished the
work.]

SOMERSET, THE BIRTHPLACE OF TENNYSON

=How to get there.=--Train from King's Cross. Great Northern Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--Horncastle (6 miles from Somersby).
=Average Time.=--from 3 to 4-1/2 hours.
=Distance from London.=--130 miles.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 18s. 4d. ... 10s. 10d.
Return 36s. 8d. ... 21s. 8d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--No inn at Somersby. Paying guests
accommodated at Baumber's Manor House at Somersby. Hotels
at Spilsby.

On August 6, 1809, Alfred Tennyson was born at the rectory at Somersby.
His grandfather, Mr. George Tennyson, M.P., resided at Bayon's Manor,
where the family had for a long period been known in Lincolnshire.
Alfred was the fourth of the twelve children of the Rev. George Clayton
Tennyson. Although there seems little reason for not believing that the
scenery which surrounded him in his youth impressed itself on his mind,
yet it is now stated with authority that the localities associated with
his subject poems, "which had been ingeniously identified with real
brooks and granges, were wholly imaginary." Those who visit Somersby,
therefore, would be wise in avoiding what is pointed out as "Tennyson's
Brook," merely gaining instead a general idea of the appearance of the
country which impressed itself on the poet's mind.

When he was six years old Tennyson was sent to the grammar school at
Louth, a town his mother was connected with, her father having been
vicar there. After five years at school at Louth, Tennyson returned to
Somersby Rectory to be trained by his father. The rectory possessed a
good library, and here the poet obtained his extensive knowledge of the
English classics. When only twelve years old he wrote an epic of 6000
lines, and two years later a drama in blank verse. Tennyson's early
knowledge of the sea was obtained at Mablethorpe on the Lincolnshire
coast, where the family spent their summer holidays. His father would
not allow him to leave Somersby until he could recite from memory the
whole of the odes of Horace.

In the early part of 1831 he returned to Somersby from Cambridge, and
within a few days his father died. The new incumbent, however, allowed
the family to continue at the rectory for some years. In 1837 they were
finally obliged to leave, and for the next three years they lived at
High Beach, Epping Forest.

[Illustration: SOMERSBY RECTORY.

Where Alfred Tennyson was born in 1809.]

GLASTONBURY ABBEY

=How to get there.=--Train from Waterloo. South-Western Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Glastonbury and Street.
=Distance from London.=--132-1/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies from 3-1/2 to 5 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 21s. 0d. ... 10s. 6d.
Return 36s. 9d. ... 21s. 0d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"George Hotel," "Red Lion Hotel,"
"Crown Hotel," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from Paddington. Great Western Rly.

In the early days of Christianity in Britain this celebrated abbey,
according to tradition, was established in A.D. 63. Joseph of Arimathea
was supposed to be the founder, and the "miraculous thorn," which
flowered on Christmas Day, was believed to be holy by the common people
even up to the time of the Puritans. During the wars between Charles I.
and his Parliament the thorn was destroyed, but sturdy trees grown from
cuttings of the original still flourish in some of the neighbouring
gardens. This thorn was believed by the people to be the staff used by
Joseph in his journey to Britain from the Holy Land. At one time
Glastonbury Abbey covered 60 acres, and was the lengthiest
ecclesiastical building in England, but as many of the houses in
Glastonbury, and also a causeway across Sedgemoor (where the unhappy
Duke of Monmouth was defeated) were constructed of the materials, the
ruins are of necessity much diminished. The most interesting remains are
the Abbey Church, with St. Joseph's Chapel, St. Mary's Chapel, and the
Abbot's Kitchen. St. Joseph's Chapel is supposed to have been erected in
the time of Henry II. and Richard I. It is one of the finest specimens
in existence of transitional Norman work. It is now roofless, and even
the vaulting of the crypt is nearly destroyed. The windows and archways
of St. Mary's Chapel are beautiful, although roofless. The Abbot's
Kitchen, a square massive structure with strong buttresses, was built
about 1450. The roof is of stone and is surmounted by a louvre, through
which the smoke escaped during the great culinary preparations in the
days of the abbey's prosperity. The gargoyles around the building,
representing the heads of sheep and oxen, are suggestive of the purpose
of the building. Henry VIII., who coveted the treasures of the abbey, in
1539 summoned Abbot Whiting to surrender, and on his refusal ordered him
to be drawn and quartered. This was carried out on Glastonbury Tor.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

GLASTONBURY ABBEY.

The doorway of St. Joseph's Chapel.]

WALSINGHAM, NORFOLK

THE PRIORY OF OUR LADY OF WALSINGHAM

=How to get there.=--Train from Liverpool Street or St. Pancras.
Great Eastern Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Walsingham.
=Distance from London.=--133 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 4 and 5-1/2 hours. Quickest train 3
hours 50 minutes.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 19s. 7d. ... 10s. 3d.
Return 33s. 3d. ... 20s. 6d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Black Lion Hotel," "Abbeygate
Temperance Hotel," etc.

The ruins of the famous priory are now included in the extensive grounds
of Walsingham Abbey, the property of Mr. Henry Lee Warner. Visitors have
permission to see these ruins on Wednesdays and Fridays, by application
at the lodge of the abbey.

Walsingham is a pretty village 5 miles from Wells-on-Sea. It possesses a
noble church in the Perpendicular style, an ancient town pump, and two
wishing wells, which were formerly believed to possess miraculous
powers, for the legend is that they sprang from the ground at command of
the Virgin. Walsingham was an important place for many centuries, for it
contained the famous shrine of the Virgin, or, as it was called, "Our
Lady of Walsingham." This far-famed chapel of the Virgin was founded by
Ricoldie, the mother of Geoffrey de Faverches. When Geoffrey set out on
a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, he granted to God and St. Mary, and to Edwy,
his clerk, the chapel which his mother Ricoldie had built at Walsingham,
with other possessions, requesting him to found a priory there. It
became one of the richest in the world. From the very commencement there
was an unceasing flow of pilgrims from all nations to it. Several kings
and queens of England, and among them Henry VIII., paid their devotions
there. Erasmus, who visited the priory in 1511, derided its enormous
wealth. Parts of the road leading to this priory are known to this day
as the "Walsingham Way" and the "Palmer's Way." It is said more pilgrims
came to Walsingham than to the shrine of St. Thomas a Becket at
Canterbury. The monks taught the people that the "Milky Way" pointed to
the shrine. Hence the Norfolk people called it the "Walsingham Way."
This shrine was destroyed at the dissolution of monasteries in 1539.

[Illustration: _Rev. W. Martin, Walsingham._

EAST WINDOW OF THE PRIORY AT WALSINGHAM.]

CHEDDAR CAVES, CHEDDAR, SOMERSET

=How to get there.=--Train from Paddington. Great Western Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Cheddar.
=Distance from London.=--134 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 4-1/4 to 5-1/4 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 21s. 4d. 13s. 4d. 10s. 8d.
Return 37s. 4d. 23s. 4d. ...

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Cliff Hotel," etc.

The village of Cheddar, a name which reminds one of the cheese for which
the district is famous, is situated under the Mendip Hills, on the
Cheddar river, a tributary of the Axe. The place was once a market town
of considerable note, as the fine market-cross still testifies, but is
now chiefly celebrated as a starting-point for visiting the wonderful
natural beauties of the neighbourhood, the tremendous gorge through the
Cheddar cliffs and the stalactite caves being the most remarkable. The
road from the village rises gradually, passing the masses of rock known
as the "Lion," the "Castle Rock," the "Pulpit," and others, named from
their wonderful resemblance to the work of human hands. The way winds
between steep limestone walls and towering pinnacles, rising here and
there to a height of between four and five hundred feet, and absolutely
shutting one in from even the merest glimpse of the magnificent scenery
in the valley below. There are paths here and there leading up to points
of vantage, but the way is difficult and dangerous owing to the manner
in which the passes are honeycombed with caverns and fissures.

In the midst of the gorge on the right hand of the way lie the entrances
to the marvellous stalactite caves, the first of which was discovered in
1837, and the second in comparatively recent times. It is needless to
say that the proprietor of each cave affirms his to be the better--as a
matter of fact, both are well worth seeing. One looks with something
like awe on the fantastic shapes of the stalagmites and stalactites in
these huge caverns, where the moisture, percolating through the earth,
has been dripping in the darkness for countless centuries, each
lime-laden drop lengthening imperceptibly the stalactite overhead and
the stalagmite beneath, while the consequent splashings, and, in some
parts, more sluggish dripping, make hundreds of quaint and suggestive
forms above and below. The caverns are well lit up to display their
beauties, and the admission is 2s. for a single visitor, or 1s. each for
members of a party.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

CHEDDAR CLIFFS.

The road leading to the limestone caves.]

NEWSTEAD ABBEY

THE BIRTHPLACE OF BYRON

=How to get there.=--Train from St. Pancras. Change trains at
Nottingham. Midland Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Newstead.
=Distance from London.=--134-1/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 3-1/4 to 4-1/4 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 17s. 6d. ... 10s. 9-1/2d.
Return 35s. 0d. ... 21s. 7d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Station Hotel,"* Newstead. "Swan
Hotel,"* Mansfield. "Midland," "White Hart," and "Green
Dragon," and others.

Near Sherwood Forest, and not far from the town of Mansfield, is
Newstead Abbey, the ancestral seat of the Byrons. Founded in 1170 by
Henry II. as an expiation for the murder of Thomas a Becket, the abbey,
at the dissolution of the monasteries, was given by Henry VIII. to Sir
John Byron. The latter made it his home, altering it very little, but
allowing the church to fall into ruins. The monks, before leaving their
old home, hid the charters in the lectern, which they threw into the
lake. About 100 years ago the lectern, still containing the charters,
was discovered, and is now being used at Southwell. The "Wicked Lord
Byron," the grand-uncle of the poet, allowed the abbey to fall into
decay, and to spite his sons cut down a large number of splendid oaks.
Byron succeeded to the estate when a mere boy, and loved it so much
that, even when in great need of money, he refused to part with it. At
last he was obliged to sell the home, which he has so vividly portrayed
in verse, to his old school friend Colonel Wildman. After the loss of
the abbey, Byron left England, and died six years afterwards, in 1824,
at Missolonghi, fighting for the independence of the Greeks.

The Abbey Church, though in ruins, is a very good example of Early
English work. The abbey itself is full of interesting and historic
rooms, one being the bedroom where Charles II. slept, retaining still
the state bed, whose coverlet was embroidered by Mary Queen of Scots.
Edward I. is known to have stayed in the abbey, and the room which he
occupied contains some splendid oak carving. Lord Byron's bedroom is
just as he left it, with his college pictures on the walls and the
writing-table that he used. Newstead is open to the public on Tuesday
and Friday when the family are not in residence. Tickets may be obtained
at the two hotels mentioned above which are marked with an asterisk.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

NEWSTEAD ABBEY.

It contains Lord Byron's bedroom in exactly the condition he left it in
1818.]

THE WESSEX OF THOMAS HARDY'S ROMANCES

=How to get there.=--Train from Waterloo. L. and S.W. Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Dorchester.
=Distance from London.=--135-1/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 3 to 5-1/2 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 22s. 8d. 14s. 2d. 11s. 4d.
Return 39s. 8d. 24s. 10d. 22s. 8d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Antelope," "King's Arms," and
other hotels.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from Paddington. Great Western Rly.

The centre of the district in the south-west of England which has been
labelled with its ancient Saxon name of Wessex, may be found at the
old-fashioned town of Dorchester. This is the Mecca of the whole
countryside so vividly portrayed in Mr. Hardy's numerous romances
dealing with the rustic life of the west country. On market-days,
Dorchester is crowded with carriers' vans and innumerable vehicles which
have brought in the farmers and their families from remote corners of
the surrounding country, and it is then that one is able to select
examples of many of the characters created by the novelist. To get at
these folk in their homes, one may journey in almost any direction from
Dorchester. The streets of Dorchester are suggestive of Mr. Hardy's
works at every turn, so much so that the wayfarer may almost feel that
he is taking an expurgated part in _The Mayor of Casterbridge_. A large
old-fashioned house near St. Peter's Church seems to correspond to
Lucetta's residence--High Place Hall. Then, the comfortable bay-windows
of the "King's Arms," an old hostelry belonging to coaching days,
suggests recollections of Henchard, who dined there on the occasion of
the memorable banquet, when he threw down the challenge so quickly taken
up by Farfrae.

Going up South Street one passes on the right the Grammar School,
founded in 1579 by a certain Thomas Hardy, an ancestor of all the Dorset
Hardys--Nelson's friend and the Wessex novelist being the most
distinguished among them. Mr. Thomas Hardy lives in a new red house
known as "Max Gate," which is situated a short distance from Dorchester.
Eight miles away from the town is the village of Puddletown, known as
"Weatherbury" in _Far from the Madding Crowd_. The church Mr. Hardy
describes in his novel can be seen, but Warren's malt-house was
destroyed more than twenty years ago. St. Peter's Church, Dorchester, of
the Perpendicular period, has a Norman porch and contains two
cross-legged recumbent effigies.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

DORCHESTER.

The centre of Mr. Thomas Hardy's "Wessex."]

TINTERN ABBEY

=How to get there.=--Train from Paddington. Great Western Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--Tintern.
=Distance from London.=--145-1/2 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 4-3/4 to 6 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 24s. 6d. 15s. 4d. 12s. 2-1/2d.
Return 42s. 9d. 26s. 10d. 24s. 5d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Beaufort Arms Hotel," "Royal
George Hotel," "Rose and Crown Hotel," at Chepstow, 5-1/2 miles
distant by road.

Tintern Abbey is situated in a level valley, surrounded on all sides by
high green pastures and wooded hills, at the bottom of which the
glorious river Wye glides in its circuitous course to the sea. The abbey
is said to share with Melrose the distinction of being the most
picturesque and beautiful ecclesiastical ruin in Great Britain. When the
sun is setting, or better still, under the mystic light of the harvest
moon, the picture formed by the roofless abbey in its perfect setting,
needs a Wordsworth to do it justice.

An abbey for Cistercian monks was established on this spot in 1131 by
Walter Fitz-Richard de Clare and dedicated to St. Mary. None of this
building remains, as the whole edifice was rebuilt about 1260. The chief
part of the ruins, now standing, is the church, though in 1847, when
excavations were being carried on in an adjoining orchard, the remains
of the Hospitium were discovered. This was an oblong building, supported
on pillars, in which it was the custom for the monks to entertain
strangers or travellers of their order. In the middle of the nave are
the four arches which supported the tower, now mere skeletons, yet
sufficiently preserved to show their form. The walls are nearly
complete, and many of the columns still stand, as well as the bases of
those whioh have fallen. All the pavement has disappeared, and the whole
of the former floor is reduced to one level, now carpeted with turf.

The church is cruciform in plan and measures 228 feet from east to west.
The remains of the dormitory, chapter-house, cloisters, and the
refectory, which still has its lectern for the use of the reader during
meals, are to be found on the north side of the church. Walking on the
walls is forbidden. The vast extent of the ruins of the Hospitium
recalls the fact that Tintern Abbey was for a long period distinguished
for its luxurious style of living and its great hospitality.

When in the neighbourhood of Tintern one should visit Monmouth for its
remarkable old bridge with its interesting gatehouse.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

TINTERN ABBEY.

The beautiful river Wye is seen flowing just beyond the ruins.]

CHESTERFIELD, DERBYSHIRE

=How to get there.=--Train from St. Pancras. Midland Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Chesterfield.
=Distance from London.=--146 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 3 to 3-3/4 hrs.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 19s. 2d. ... 12s. 1d.
Return 38s. 4d. ... 24s. 2d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"The Angel Hotel," "Station Hotel,"
"Midland Hotel," "Hotel Portland," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from Marylebone. Great Central Rly.

Chesterfield, now the second largest town in its own county, was at the
time of the Doomsday survey merely a bailiwick to Newbold, which at the
present time has dwindled down to a small hamlet to the west of the
parish. In the middle of the thirteenth century a battle was fought here
between the Earl of Derby and Prince Henry, nephew of Henry III., in
which the Earl was defeated and taken prisoner. It was also the scene of
a fierce engagement during the civil wars of Charles I., in which the
Earl of Newcastle routed the Parliamentary forces in 1643.

The great feature of interest in Chesterfield is the parish church of
All Saints, with its extraordinary twisted spire 230 feet in height.
This "crooked" spire, which leans over to the south-west, has been the
object of much discussion amongst antiquaries, as to whether it was
designed in such a fashion, or whether the present state of affairs has
been brought about by a warping of the timber frame under the outside
covering of lead. The latter seems the more feasible theory.

There was a church at Chesterfield in the eleventh century, but the
present structure is mainly of the fourteenth century, with later
additions. In the interior there are several features of interest, among
them being the screen separating the transept from the chancel. This is
carved with a set of mysterious figures, supposed to be emblematical of
the crucifixion.

There are many extremely fine and interesting monuments in the church,
especially two belonging to the Foljambe family. At the east end is a
very good modern stained-glass window, erected as a memorial to a former
vicar, the late Archdeacon Hill.

In the neighbourhood of Chesterfield there are a number of interesting
places, notably the fine old churches at Old Brampton and Wingerworth,
and a small disused chapel with a Norman doorway at Newbold.

[Illustration: _G.W. Wilson & Co._

CHESTERFIELD CHURCH.

With its strangely-distorted spire, probably due to the unequal
shrinking of its timbers.]

DUKERIES

=How to get there.=--From King's Cross. Great Northern Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Worksop Station.
=Distance from London.=--146-1/2 miles.
=Average Time.=--3-1/2 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 20s. 1d. ... 12s. 2-1/2d.
Return 40s. 2d. ... 24s. 5d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Royal Hotel," etc., at Worksop.
=Alternative Route.=--From Marylebone or to Dukeries Junction from
King's Cross.

The district known as the "Dukeries" is undoubtedly the finest portion
of what remains of the famous Sherwood Forest associated with Robin Hood
and his "merrie men." The name "Dukeries" arises from the fact that
within the boundaries of the forest were once the homes of the Dukes of
Portland, Newcastle, Norfolk, Leeds, and Kingston. The Dukes of Norfolk
and Leeds no longer hold their property, and Earl Manvers, as a
representative of the Kingston family, preserves at Thoresby the
traditions of his race. At Welbeck the Duke of Portland, and at Clumber
the Duke of Newcastle, still keep up their magnificent homes. To the
latter noblemen the majority of the "Dukeries" belongs. The drive round
this lovely part of the forest is nearly 30 miles, through beautiful
scenery.

Worksop, with its fine old priory church, is one of the best
starting-points for a tour round the Dukeries. Clumber House, the seat
of the Duke of Newcastle, is 4 miles from Worksop, and orders to see the
interior can be obtained from the Newcastle agent, in Park Street, by
writing a day or two beforehand. The mansion, built in 1772, is very
magnificent and contains some priceless pictures.

Thoresby House, the seat of Earl Manvers, is not far distant from
Clumber. The present house, which was designed by Salvin in 1868, is the
third home of the Manvers which has occupied this site.

Welbeck Abbey, the home of the Duke of Portland, is another of the
important seats in the district, standing in the centre of one of the
finest parks in the kingdom. The mansion itself is not a showplace, but
when the family is not in residence various parts of it are exhibited
upon payment of 1s., any weekday except Saturday. An extra shilling will
enable the visitor to view the underground apartments.

The whole of the "Dukeries" district teems with interesting places,
ancient and modern. From Mansfield one may visit Hardwick Hall, Bolsover
Castle, and Newstead Abbey, beloved of Byron (see Index), while Belvoir
Castle (see Index) and Woolaton Hall are within easy distance.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

CLUMBER HOUSE

The seat of the Duke of Newcastle. It was built in 1772.]

HADDON HALL, DERBYSHIRE

=How to get there.=--Through train from St. Pancras or change at
Derby. Midland Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Rowsley (1-1/2 miles distant).
=Distance from London.=--149-1/2 miles.
=Average Time.=--4 to 4-1/3 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 19s. 11d. ... 12s. 4-1/2d.
Return 39s. 10d. ... 24s. 9d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--At Bakewell--"Rutland Arms Hotel,"
"Red Lion," "Castle," etc.

Haddon Hall, the most perfect of baronial mansions existing in England,
is situated in a wonderfully picturesque position on a limestone rock
overlooking the river Wye in Derbyshire. The manor was originally given
by William the Conqueror to William Peveril, the famous "Peveril of the
Peak" of Scott's novel. In the reign of Henry II. the lands reverted to
the Crown, and the property was granted to the Avenalls, from whom it
passed by marriage to the Vernons, of whom the last, Sir George, known
as the "King of the Peak," died in 1567. His daughter, the celebrated
Dorothy Vernon, married John Manners, son of the Earl of Rutland, and
thus the property passed to the Rutland family, who are still the
owners.

The mansion is approached by a small bridge crossing the river Wye,
whence one enters, under a lofty archway, the first courtyard. In this
beautiful quadrangle one of the most interesting features is the chapel
at the south-west corner. This chapel, which is one of the oldest
portions of the structure, is Norman, with some later work. Almost
opposite, on the left, is the magnificent porch and bay-window leading
into the great hall. It is exactly as it was in the days of the Vernons,
with its dais and table at which the "lord of the feast" sat, its huge
fireplace, timber roof, and minstrels' gallery. Adjoining it is the
dining-room, a magnificent apartment erected by the "King of the Peak."
Here there is a remarkably fine oriel window, richly ornamented with
carving.

Among other interesting features in the second courtyard are the
drawing-room, hung with the original arras, the long gallery, and the
ancient state-room, adjoining which is the Peveril Tower, the highest
point and oldest portion of the hall. The long gallery, with its stately
bay-windows, looks on to the well-known terrace and the magnificent
garden, made so familiar by photographs.

Haddon Hall may be seen by visitors from nine till dusk, a gratuity
being generally given to the attendant.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

THE BALL-ROOM AT HADDON HALL]

THE ISLE OF ATHELNEY, AND SEDGEMOOR

THE SCENE OF MONMOUTH'S DEFEAT

=How to get there.=--Train from Paddington. Great Western Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--Athelney.
=Distance from London.=--150-1/2 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 4-1/2 to 5-3/4 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 26s. 8d. 16s. 8d. 13s. 4d.
Return 53s. 4d. 33s. 4d. 26s. 8d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Railway Hotel."

The Isle of Athelney, the hiding-place of Alfred the Great, at the time
when the fortunes of England lay trembling in the balance, is a slightly
elevated plot of land where the river Parret joins the Tone. In Alfred's
days it was a small island surrounded by an impenetrable morass, and
thickly grown with alders. Here tradition places the hut in which the
king, deep in thought, allowed the good wife's cakes to burn. Soon a
little band of faithful followers joined Alfred, and together they built
a causeway over the marshes, eventually constructing a fort from which
successful sallies were made against the Danes in the vicinity. The
rally of the Saxons round their intrepid king resulted in the victory of
Ethandune, and out of gratitude for his success, Alfred built on the
island an abbey, of which a few relics, including the famous Alfred
Jewel, remain to-day. A monument erected by Mr. John Slade marks the
spot.

A mile to the north is Boroughbridge with its solitary hill, on which
many believe that Alfred built his chief fort. The hill is now crowned
by the ruins of St. Michael's Church, St. Michael being the saint whose
name is associated with most of our hill-top shrines. Ling, the next
village, is thought to be a corruption of Atheling.

Athelney is on the edge of the flat valley of Sedgemoor, the scene of
Monmouth's defeat in 1685. The royal troops were quartered in the
villages of Weston Zoyland, Middlezoy, and Chedzoy, their headquarters
being Weston Zoyland, round which the battle raged most fiercely.
Knowing the carelessness that prevailed in the royal camp, Monmouth
attempted a night attack. On Sunday night, July 5, therefore, his troops
stole out. But they were foiled and trapped by the broad ditches called
"rhines," in which they lost their way in a helpless fashion, and a
pistol that went off in the confusion roused the Royalists, with the
result that Monmouth's followers were hopelessly routed, a thousand
being slain.

[Illustration: THE "ISLAND" OF ATHELNEY.

The Alfred memorial is in the foreground, and in the distance is the
"Mump," the lonely hill surmounted by the ruined church of
Boroughbridge.]

RAGLAN CASTLE

=How to get there.=--Train from Paddington. Great Western Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--Raglan.
=Distance from London.=--151-1/2 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 4-1/2 to 5-1/2 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 26s. 9d. 16s. 9d. 18s. 4-1/2d.
Return 46s. 10d. 29s. 4d. 26s. 9d.
Fares _via_ Monmouth are slightly cheaper.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Beaufort Arms."

Raglan Castle stands on a hill near a tributary of the Usk. It is the
most celebrated ruin on the borders of Wales, and is well preserved.
There is a six-sided keep with walls 10 feet thick, and a gateway with
two ivy-clad towers. It dates probably from Edward IV.'s reign, although
some writers give an earlier time. Before its destruction by the
Parliamentarians the castle was a magnificent structure. A massive
gateway leads to the arched bridge over the moat by which entrance was
gained to the castle. The moat, 30 feet broad, surrounded the keep. The
great hall had a fine roof of Irish bog oak, and the gallery was of
great length.

This fortress was garrisoned for Charles I. by the sturdy old Earl of
Worcester, who was created a marquess in 1642. He collected an army of
1500 foot-soldiers and 500 horse, which was commanded by his son, the
second marquess. After his defeat at Naseby, in July 1645, Charles fled
to Raglan and stayed till September. Sir Thomas Fairfax besieged the
castle in June 1646, and after a three months' siege the marquess
honourably surrendered to the Parliamentary forces.

This was the last stronghold in the west to hold out for Charles. The
walls of the keep were destroyed, and, in defiance of the terms of
surrender, the aged marquess was imprisoned. He died the following year,
and was buried in Windsor Castle.

The second marquess was a mechanical genius, who invented what was known
as a "Water-commanding Engine." He erected an apparatus in the moat
which spouted water as high as the top of the castle. This was the first
practical attempt to use steam as a mechanical agent. The marquess also
used his various mechanical contrivances to terrify a body of villagers
who came to search the castle for arms in the cause of the Parliament.
When the machines were set agoing the rustics fled, believing lions or
some other forms of wild animals were after them. This marquess died in
London in 1667, and was buried in Raglan Church.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

RAGLAN CASTLE.

It probably dates from the reign of Edward IV.]

DOVEDALE

=How to get there.=--Train from Euston. L. and N.W. Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Thorpe Cloud, at the south end of Dovedale.
=Distance from London.=--152 miles.
=Average Time.=--About 4 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 20s. 6d. ... 12s. 1-1/2d.
Return 39s. 10d. ... ...

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Izaak Walton Hotel," at Ham;
"The Peveril Hotel," near Thorpe; "Green Man," "White Hart,"
etc., at Ashbourne.
=Alternative Routes.=--Train from St. Pancras. Midland Railway
to Ashbourne, thence by coach; or train from King's Cross,
Great Northern Railway.

Dovedale is the apt name given to the valley of the Dove, a river rising
on the borders of Derby and Stafford, near Buxton and Axe Edge Hill,
and, after a course of 45 miles, joining the Trent at Newton Solney. The
portion of its course chiefly associated with the name begins half a
mile from the village of Thorpe, which may be reached from Ashbourne,
the nearest station, by coach. From Thorpe the river is approached by a
stony declivity on the east of Thorpe Cloud.

The footpath is throughout on the Derbyshire side of the stream, and may
be reached from the Staffordshire side either by crossing the narrow
bridge or some stepping-stones at Thorpe Cloud. For some distance after
entering the valley the footpath follows the margin of the river, whose
banks are a mass of magnificent foliage, intermixed with a tangle of
brambles, honeysuckle, and wild roses. On the Staffordshire bank, a
little further up, the foliage suddenly changes to a mass of sheer
cliff, changing again to a mass of rifted rocks, divided into curious
turret-like terminations. This striking formation is known as Dovedale
Church, and is accompanied on the Derbyshire side by a number of rocks
which appear from below to terminate in sharp pinnacles, and have been
named "Tissington Spires," from the village close by. About 200 yards
beyond the "Church," on the Derbyshire bank, is the entrance to
Reynard's Cave, a huge cavern with an entrance 40 feet high by 20 wide,
from which the view over the dale is superb.

Throughout its whole length of nearly 3 miles the Dovedale scenery is
the extraordinary mixture of ruggedness and soft beauty, which makes it
unequalled, in its particular style, in the kingdom.

Dovedale is associated with the name of Izaak Walton and his friend
Charles Cotton, the poet.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

TISSINGTON SPIRES, DOVEDALE.]

WELLINGTON AND THE WREKIN, SHROPSHIRE

=How to get there.=--Train from Euston. L. and N.W. Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Wellington.
=Distance from London.=--152-1/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 3-3/4 to 4-3/4 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 22s. 8d. 15s. 0d. 12s. 0-1/2d.
Return 42s. 2d. 26s. 6d. 24s. 1d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Wrekin Hotel," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from Paddington. Great Western Rly.

To reach the top of the Wrekin from Wellington--a distance of 3
miles--one must follow the main road to Shrewsbury for a mile; then
turning to the left, having skirted a ridge of the hills, and following
a lane one reaches the foot of the ascent. The Wrekin, although it rises
in such a compact and lonely fashion from the level country, is not one
single height, but a range consisting of four hills. Those on the
north-east are called the Ercall and Lawrence hills, while those on the
west are the Wrekin and Primrose hills.

The Wrekin is composed of igneous rocks, and is one of the most
remarkable examples of eruptive trap in England. Its shoulders are of
silurian and carboniferous strata. The sedimentary deposits within the
influence of the volcanic action have passed through considerable
changes, the sandstone having become granitic quartz rock, chiefly
composed of pure white quartz with particles of decomposed felspar.

Close to the valleys of Little Wenlock, to the south-east of the Wrekin,
are irregularly shaped bosses of basaltic greenstone.

The folk-lore concerning the Wrekin is, of course, rich and full of
detail. One legend says that two giants set to work to make themselves a
citadel, and dug out the earth required for the purpose from the bed of
the Severn. The top of the Wrekin is 1335 feet high, and owing to its
remarkably isolated position the horizon on a clear day has a
circumference of 350 miles. It is not surprising, therefore, that the
hill was used as a beacon station in early days. The great sweeping
prospect from the summit includes the Malvern Hills, Caradoc and the
Brown Clee group, Plinlimmon, Cader Idris, the Brecknock Beacons, Arran
Fowdy, and the Berwin chain of mountains, overtopped by the Snowdon
range.

Wellington is chiefly modern, and its old church was rebuilt in 1789.
The chief industry is nail-making.

[Illustration: _Valentine & Sons, Ltd._

THE WREKIN FROM WELLINGTON.]

WROXETER AND THE ROMAN CITY OF URICONIUM, SALOP

=How to get there.=--Train from Euston. L. and N.W. Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Upton Magna _via_ Shrewsbury (Wroxeter lies 2-1/2
miles south of Upton Magna).
=Distance from London.=--159 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 3-1/4 to 5 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 23s. 10d. 15s. 9d. 12s. 7d.
Return 44s. 0d. 27s. 6d. 25s. 2d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--At Shrewsbury, "Raven Hotel," "Lion
Hotel," "George Hotel," etc.

The village of Wroxeter would not be of exceptional interest but for the
proximity of the site of the Roman city of Uriconium. It is owing to
this fact that the churchyard gate is composed of Roman pillars and
capitals. A summer-house in an adjoining garden is also made of Roman
materials, and the church contains a font in the form of an adapted
Roman capital, obtained with the rest from Uriconium. The church is
chiefly Norman, but probably a portion of the south wall of the chancel
is Saxon.

The little village occupies the southern extremity of the Roman city
whose circumference measures about 3 miles. One can trace the limits of
the place by the indications of the vallum and fosse.

There is no doubt that Uriconium was the Romanised capital of the
Cornavii, a British tribe, and it is equally well known that the town
became the centre of a network of great roads leading in different
directions. The walls enclosed an area more than twice the size of Roman
London, and one may easily gauge its importance and its princely style
of buildings from the traces of its forum and its amphitheatre, as well
as from its wide streets.

The huge destruction brought about when the city was overwhelmed by the
West Saxons left the place a mass of ruins, for there are evident signs
that the place was plundered and burned. During the Middle Ages there
must have been, however, more than mere rubbish heaps, and the many
walls then standing were probably destroyed by monks in order to furnish
cheap material for ecclesiastical buildings. There is, notwithstanding
this, a great piece of wall 72 feet long by 20 feet high. The other
remains consist of a blacksmith's shop and the site of a market-place. A
warming apparatus under one of the floors is even more perfect than is
usually discovered in Rome. The key of the enclosure containing the
chief portion of the remains is obtainable at the neighbouring cottage.

[Illustration: _Valentine & Sons, Ltd._

WROXETER.

Remains of the Roman city of Uriconium at Wroxeter. The wall is 20 feet
high in places. A warming apparatus in the foundation of one of the
houses is more perfect than those usually found in Rome.]

BUILDWAS ABBEY, SHROPSHIRE

=How to get there.=--Train from Paddington. Great Western Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--Buildwas Junction (1/2 mile from Abbey).
=Distance from London.=--160 miles.
=Average Time.=--4-1/2 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 24s. 2d. 16s. 3d. 13s.
Return 45s. 6d. 28s. 6d. 26s.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Abbey Inn."

The village of Buildwas is situated at the foot of the Wrekin, on the
banks of the Severn, half a mile distant from the ruined abbey lying on
the south bank of the river. It was one of the oldest Cistercian
monasteries in England, and was founded by Roger de Clinton the Crusader
Bishop of Chester in 1135, for monks of the Cistercian order. The
building, erected on the site of a hermitage, to which an early bishop
of Lincoln had retired in the time of King Offa, was destined to become
one of the richest establishments in the kingdom. It was partly
destroyed in 1536 and the site granted to Edward Grey, Lord Powis, who
married Anne, daughter of Charles Brandon, Duke of Sussex.

But though the monastery itself was destroyed, the outer walls of the
noble church remain, together with a great portion of the massive
central tower, the choir chapels, and the east end, with its delicate
lancet-windows. The clerestory, with its Norman windows, is also intact
on both sides of the nave, and between the columns are remains of the
screen which once shut off the eastern aisle. The door on the south side
leading to the dormitories of the monks may still be traced.

The ruins of the chapter-house are remarkably fine, and in good
preservation, with a beautiful early Gothic groined roof. Beyond the
chapter-house are the refectory and kitchen, and on the side next to the
river were the cloisters. In the outer court of the abbey stood the
lodge, and there was formerly a fine gatehouse, which collapsed in
1828, and is now almost entirely gone.

The brook, that once flowed across the abbey court, still works the mill
close by; but the fine old bridge over the Severn, built by the monks,
was taken down in 1690.

A good way of seeing Buildwas is to go there from Shrewsbury by an early
train, walking to Leighton and Eaton Constantine, both charming
villages, and rejoining the train at Cressage for Shrewsbury. An
alternative route is from Shrewsbury to Much Wenlock, where there are
the ruins of a fine Abbey.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

BUILDWAS ABBEY.

The ruins of the Church. This was one of the oldest Cistercian
monasteries in England.]

LUDLOW AND ITS CASTLE

=How to get there.=--Train from Paddington. Great Western Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--Ludlow.
=Distance from London.=--162 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 4-1/2 to 7 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 24s. 4d. 15s. 6d. 12s. 4-1/2d.
Return 43s. 4d. 27s. 2d. 24s. 9d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"The Feathers Hotel," "Angel
Hotel," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from Euston. L. and N.W. Railway.

Beautifully situated in a lovely valley surrounded by wooded hills,
Ludlow presents a picture of an ancient but prosperous city. The town is
placed at the meeting of two small rivers, the Teme and Corve, which
flow into the Severn. On the top of a hill in the western part of the
town is the old castle, which was a royal residence from early times. It
was built at the time of the Conquest, and was the most important of all
the castles that guarded the Welsh border. The eldest son of Edward IV.
lived in the castle under the guardianship of his uncle, Lord Rivers,
and he was proclaimed king there when only twelve years old. Prince
Arthur, the first husband of Katharine of Aragon, and the eldest son of
Henry VII., was also brought up and educated in the castle. In the Civil
War the Parliamentary troops partially destroyed the castle, but it was
not until the reign of George I. that the buildings were unroofed for
the sake of their lead.

Sir Henry Sidney, the father of the famous Sir Philip Sidney, resided at
Ludlow, being President of the Council of Wales. In the Great Hall, now
roofless, Milton's masque _Comus_ was performed for the first time, and
Samuel Butler is said to have written part of _Hudibras_ in a little
room over the entrance gateway.

The Parish Church, also situated at the top of the hill, is mainly a
fifteenth-century building, although it contains some earlier work. The
fine east window, occupying the whole breadth of the chancel, is filled
with very old stained glass, depicting the life of St. Lawrence. There
is a round church in the castle, said to be one of the earliest circular
churches in England. The streets are full of picturesque old houses, the
most celebrated being the "Feathers Inn," a beautiful Jacobean house
containing a coffee-room which has a most elaborately decorated plaster
ceiling and fine oak-panelled walls. The appearance of the room is
exceedingly rich. The Grammar School, founded by the Guild of Palmers,
claims to be the oldest in England.

[Illustration: _Valentine & Sons, Ltd._

LUDLOW, SHOWING THE PARISH CHURCH.]

SHREWSBURY

=How to get there.=--Train from Euston. L. and N.W. Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Shrewsbury.
=Distance from London.=--162-3/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 3-1/4 to 5 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 24s. 4d. 16s. 3d. 13s.
Return 45s. 6d. 28s. 6d. 26s.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Raven Hotel," "George Inn,"
"Lion Inn," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from Paddington. Great Western Rly.

The ancient city of Shrewsbury, surrounded on three sides by the river
Severn, is most beautifully situated on a lofty peninsula. It was a
British stronghold before the Conquest, when it was given by William the
Conqueror to Roger de Montgomery, who built the castle which stands on
the narrow isthmus leading to the town. Henry IV. stayed in the castle
in 1403, before the battle with Harry Hotspur, which was fought at
Battlefield, about 3 miles from the town. Only the keep of the old
Norman castle remains, and that is now used as a modern residence. The
quaint streets of Shrewsbury not only retain their old names, such as
Wyle Cop and Dogpole, but are filled with half-timbered houses of the
fifteenth century.

At the old Grammar School, built in 1630, and now converted into a free
library and museum, many distinguished scholars have been educated,
among them Sir Philip Sidney and Judge Jeffreys. Outside this school is
erected a statue to Charles Darwin, a former scholar, who was born in
the old suburb of Frankwell. (For Darwin's home at Downe, see Index).
The Elizabethan Market House and the Council House, which was visited by
both Charles I. and James II. on different occasions, are two of the
numerous fascinating old buildings to be seen in Shrewsbury.

The Church of St. Mary, founded in Saxon times, is the most important of
the many churches of Salop, by which name Shrewsbury is still known. The
present building contains examples of almost every period of English
architecture. Dr. Burney, the father of Fanny Burney, was baptized in
this church. Of Shrewsbury Abbey, which once occupied 10 acres, very
little remains, with the exception of the Abbey Church, of which only
the nave is left. The west end has a great tower with a beautiful Gothic
window. Along the banks of the river is a public park known as the
Quarry, which has a wonderful avenue of lime trees, planted in 1719 by
one Wright of Bicton, who, with the help of two men, planted them all in
one night.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

SHREWSBURY.

A group of fine old half-timbered houses.]

BUXTON AND THE PEAK DISTRICT

=How to get there.=--Train from St. Pancras. Midland Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Buxton; then by train to Castleton, by Dore
and Chinley Railway.
=Distance from London.=--164-3/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 3-3/4 to 4-3/4 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 21s. 8d. ... 13s. 7d. } To
Return 43s. 4d. ... 27s. 2d. } Buxton.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Empire Hotel," "Crescent Hotel,"
Buxton. "Castle Hotel," "Bull's Head," Castleton.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from Euston. L. and N.W. Railway.

The town of Buxton, which is one of the best points from which to visit
the beautiful Peak Country, ranks among the best of English inland
watering-places, and is the highest town of any importance in the
kingdom.

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