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What to See in England by Gordon Home

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Downs. The village lies at the foot of the chalk hill parallel with the
Hanger, and contains only one straggling street, nearly a mile in
length, a small rivulet rising at each end. The stream at the
north-western end often fails, but the other, known as the "Well-Head,"
is a fine spring, seldom influenced by drought. Wolmer Forest, near by,
is famed for its timber. In the centre of the village, on a piece of
ground commonly known as "The Plestor," there stood, until the fearful
storm of 1703, a colossal oak tree, with a short body and enormous
horizontally spreading arms. The stone steps, with seats above them,
surrounding the tree, formed a favourite resort for both old and young
during summer evenings. This oak, together with an equally large elm
tree, are mentioned by White.

Gilbert White was born in 1720. He began his education at Basingstoke,
from whence he proceeded in 1739 to Oriel College, Oxford, and finally
became one of the senior proctors of the university in 1752. On his
father's death, White became the occupier of his house in Selborne known
as "The Wakes," and afterwards became curate of the parish. He never
married, but lived a happy and uneventful life, wrapped up in the
wonderfully exact observations of nature which were the basis of his
numerous letters forming _The Natural History of Selborne_. His final
resting-place is unobtrusively marked by a simple grey stone bearing the
initials "G.W.," a monument entirely in keeping with Gilbert White's
quiet and retiring nature and refreshingly simple style of writing.

[Illustration: THE WAKES.

Gilbert White's house at Selborne.]

ELSTOW

THE HOME OF JOHN BUNYAN

=How to get there.=--Through train from St. Pancras. Midland Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Bedford (1 mile from Elstow).
=Distance from London.=--50 miles.
=Average Time.=--An hour.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 6s. 7d. ... 3s. 11-1/2d.
Return 13s. 2d. ... 7s. 11d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Embankment Hotel," "Lion Hotel,"
"Swan Hotel," etc., at Bedford.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from Euston. L. and N.W. Railway.

The little village of Elstow, near Bedford, will always be remembered as
the birthplace of John Bunyan, and the cottage is still shown where the
"immortal dreamer" was born. It was while in Bedford jail for
"conscience' sake" that Bunyan ministered to all posterity by writing
the _Pilgrim's Progress from this World to the World to Come_, under the
similitude of a dream. As an allegory of the soul's conflicts and
struggles with evil in its journey through life, it is unsurpassed. It
is believed that no other book except the Bible has gone through so many
editions or attained such a popularity in all languages. It has been
generally understood that Bunyan's early life was a very profligate one,
but some have thought that his terrible self-accusations in after years
may have arisen from the height of his religious fervour and Puritan
strictness, which made him look on dancing and bell-ringing as deadly
sins. This idea is satisfactorily given by Macaulay.

Bunyan was of poor parentage, his father being a tinker. At one time he
was in the Parliamentary Army, and in 1645, was present at the siege of
Leicester. Having left the army, he married. Then after a time of great
spiritual agony and doubt, with quieter intervals, he became a member
and then minister of the Baptist congregation at Bedford. His labours
were stopped by the Act of Conventicles, and Bunyan was a prisoner in
Bedford jail for twelve years. While in prison Bunyan assisted in
providing for the wants of his wife and family by making tagged laces.
The only books he had during his confinement were the Bible and Foxe's
_Book of Martyrs_. Through the kind interposition of Bishop Barlow of
Lincoln, Bunyan was released, and resumed his work of a preacher until
his death from fever in London in 1688. Bunyan also wrote the _Holy War_
and _Grace Abounding_, an autobiographical narrative.

[Illustration: _Valentine & Sons, Ltd._

BUNYAN'S COTTAGE AT ELSTOW.

The cottage is structurally the same as in Bunyan's time.]

LEWES, SUSSEX

=How to get there.=--Train from London Bridge or Victoria. London,
Brighton, and South-Coast Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Lewes.
=Distance from London.=--50 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 1-1/4 to 2-1/4 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 8s. 6d. 5s. 0d. 4s. 2d.
Return 15s. 0d. 9s. 0d. 8s. 4d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"The White Hart Hotel," "Crown,"
"Commercial," "Temperance Hotel," etc.

Lewes, a prosperous agricultural centre, situated on the Sussex Ouse, is
a place of great antiquity, in spite of its present modern appearance.
Its early history is vague, but it is known that it was of importance
even under the Saxon kings, and was fortified in Alfred's time. William
the Conqueror gave Lewes to Earl William de Warenne, who had married
Gundrada, said to be the daughter of Queen Matilda and the Conqueror. De
Warenne built the castle, or considerably enlarged the old Saxon
fortress, which is now in ruins. The castle possessed a curious feature,
of which no other examples now remain, in having two keeps, each built
upon a mound. Only one of these keeps (admission 6d.) still exists, its
towers covered with ivy. From its summit a splendid view of the
surrounding country can be obtained towards the chalk bluffs of the
South Downs and the valley of the Ouse. The great gateway of the castle
still stands, and in Southover, the suburb of Lewes, are the remains of
the once large and wealthy Priory of St. Pancras. This was the first
Cluniac establishment in England. It was founded by De Warenne and
Gundrada, and continued to be of great importance up to the dissolution.
Until about sixty years ago the old pigeon-house of the priory,
containing 3228 pigeon-holes, was still standing. When excavations were
going on during the construction of the railway, which passes through
the priory grounds, the workmen came upon two leaden coffins, which were
discovered to be those of William de Warenne and his wife. These were
removed to Southover Church, and Gundrada's grave has now its original
tombstone of black marble, which was found in Isfield Church. On the
site of the race-course was fought in 1264 the battle of Lewes, between
Henry III. and the insurgent barons, led by Simon de Montfort, Earl of
Leicester. There are a few old houses left, and the modern town hall
contains a beautiful oak staircase and panelling taken from the old Star
Inn.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

THE BARBICAN AT LEWES CASTLE.

The castle was built by William de Warenne, who had received Lewes from
William the Conqueror.]

BODIAM CASTLE, SUSSEX

=How to get there.=--Train from Charing Cross, Cannon Street, or
London Bridge. South-Eastern and Chatham Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Robertsbridge (4 miles from Bodiam). From
Robertsbridge take train to Bodiam Station (which is close to
the castle) on Rother Valley Light Railway.
=Distance from London.=--51 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 1-1/2 to 3 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 8s. 4d. 5s. 3d. 4s. 2-1/2d.
Return 14s. 8d. 10s. 6d. 8s. 5d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Castle Hotel."
=Alternative Route.=--None.

Bodiam Castle is open to the public every day of the week except Sundays
(tickets, obtainable at the keeper's cottage, 6d. each; Thursdays, 1s.
each).

There is practically no other moated castle in England which compares
with Bodiam in its completeness. It was built about the year 1386, but
its usefulness for defensive purposes, in view of the increasing
destructiveness of weapons at that time, has been doubted. However, the
knight who was responsible for its construction was Sir Edward
Dalyngrudge, who fought at both Crecy and Poictiers, and must therefore
have seen the primitive forerunner of the modern field-gun in use. The
walls of the castle now enclose a grassy quadrangle, to which access is
gained through a fine gateway, which still retains its outer iron
portcullis. The three others, through which an attacking force was
obliged to penetrate, have all disappeared. Although it has been stated
that the parliamentary forces under Waller captured Bodiam Castle during
the Civil War, it seems to be unlikely that such an attack was ever
made; for in March 1645 the property was conveyed by the Earl of Thanet
to one Nathaniel Powell of London, who was strongly in favour of the
Commonwealth.

Lord Ashcombe, the present owner, has restored the walls very carefully,
and the chapel and various private apartments with their fireplaces
remain intact.

The castle buildings as a whole are a rectangular block entirely
surrounded by the wide moat shown in the illustration. One crosses to
the main gateway by a narrow raised pathway. The surface of the water
during the summer is generally bright with water-lilies.

Bodiam Church is an Early English structure, now very much restored. It
is on the hill, a few minutes' walk from the castle.

[Illustration: BODIAM CASTLE.

One of the most perfect moated castles in England.]

COLCHESTER, ESSEX

=How to get there.=--Train from Liverpool Street. Great Eastern
Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Colchester.
=Distance from London.=--51-3/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies from 1 hr. 4 m. to 2 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 9s. 9d. ... 4s. 4-1/2d.
Return 14s. 8d. ... 8s. 9d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"The George," "Red Lion," "The
Cups," etc.

Modern Colchester is the direct descendant of the ancient British town
of Camulodunum, referred to by Tacitus and other Roman historians.
Various kings of the Trinobantes seem to have caused much trouble during
the early period of the Roman occupation. Cunobelinus, one of their
kings, reigned from about 5 B.C. to A.D. 42 or 43, and numerous coins
bearing the abbreviated form of his name, CVNO, have been discovered.
After his death the Emperor Claudius came over to England, subdued the
Trinobantes, and established a Roman colony at Camulodunum. The new
colony, under the name of Colonia Victriensis, was, however, attacked by
a huge horde of the British under Boadicea in A.D. 61. They slaughtered
all the inhabitants and destroyed the temple of Claudius.

The Romans, however, soon turned the tables again on the Britons, and at
once surrounded the town with a very strong wall. From this time onwards
for several centuries the place was one of the strongest Roman stations
in the country. It is not surprising, therefore, that the remains of the
Roman occupation at Colchester are the most perfect of the kind in the
country. The coins range from Asupa, 6 B.C., to Valentinian, who died
A.D. 455, while very great quantities of Roman glass, pottery, and
tiles, all sorts of domestic vessels and personal ornaments have been
discovered. Some idea of the richness of these finds can be obtained
from the collection in the museum in the old Norman castle.

The story of King Coel in connection with Colchester is not altogether
accepted by historians, yet there are so many references to it in
Anglo-Saxon writings that it cannot be quite ignored.

Colchester suffered terribly in the Civil War, and sustained a fearful
siege lasting seventy-six days, the townsfolk and Royalist forces being
eventually forced to surrender to Fairfax. The Saxon doorway of Trinity
Church, and St. Botolph's Priory, are exceedingly interesting.

[Illustration: COLCHESTER CASTLE.

Which now contains a magnificent collection of the Roman remains found
in the town.]

LAYER MARNEY

=How to get there.=--Train from Liverpool Street. Great Eastern Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--Colchester (7 miles from Layer Marney).
=Distance from London.=--51-3/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 1 and 2-1/4 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 9s. 9d. ... 4s. 4-1/2d.
Return 14s. 8d. ... 8s. 9d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"The Red Lion Hotel," "George
Hotel," "The Cups Hotel," etc., all at Colchester.

The unfinished home of the Marneys rises in lonely grandeur in an
out-of-the-way part of Essex. To the north runs the road to Colchester;
southwards the ground slopes away in the direction of the Blackwater.
The great gateway has stood in these peaceful surroundings quite
untouched for 400 years. A small portion of the mansion is by the side
of the gateway, and the church with the Marney monuments is further to
the left.

Lord Marney fought for Henry VII. in France, and was one of the court
counsellors at the time of his son's accession. He became a great
favourite with Henry VIII., and was created a baron, besides being made
a Knight of the Garter and Captain of the Bodyguard. He came of an old
Norman stock, but had not overmuch land. At Layer Marney, his chief
estate, he determined to build a fitting abode for himself. It was one
of the earliest buildings since Roman times to be built of brick. The
terra-cotta mouldings are a peculiar feature. It is thought that Lord
Marney brought over Italian workmen to make the terra-cotta, for there
is a classic touch about the ornaments. The gateway has two towers, one
ivy-clad. The whole structure is strikingly original in style. It was
commenced in 1500, but Lord Marney died before the work was done. John,
his son, died the next year, and with him the line of Marneys became
extinct.

In the church are three monuments of the Marneys. The tomb of Henry,
Lord Marney, is in the arch leading to the Marney Chapel, which was
founded by him. The figure is of dark marble, clad in armour, and
wearing the robes of a Knight of the Garter. An ancestor of Lord Marney,
who died in 1414, lies near. The effigy is clothed in mail. The figure
of John, the last of the Marneys, is of black marble. There are some
curious frescoes in the church, and an oak screen. The interior of the
building is probably older than the exterior, which is of about the same
date as the towers.

The church keys may be procured at the rectory.

[Illustration: LAYER MARNEY TOWER, ESSEX.

Commenced by the first Lord Marney about the year 1500, but owing to the
death of Lord Marney and of his only son, the year following, the
buildings were never finished.]

BATTLE ABBEY

=How to get there.=--Train from Charing Cross or Cannon Street.
South-Eastern and Chatham Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Battle.
=Distance from London.=--55-1/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 2-1/2 hours and 1-1/2 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 9s. 4d. 5s. 10d. 4s. 8-1/2d.
Return 16s. 4d. 11s. 8d. 9s. 5d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"George" and "Star" Hotels.
=Alternative Route.=--None.

Battle Abbey is open to the public on Tuesdays only, between 12 and 4.
There is no charge for admission, tickets being obtained from the
stationer's shop bearing the name Ticehurst. It is situated close to the
main entrance to the abbey. The great gateway through which one enters
is illustrated here. It was probably built by Abbot Retlynge in the
first half of the fourteenth century. The original abbey was built in
fulfilment of a vow which William the Norman made just before the battle
of Senlac Hill, the building being arranged so that the high altar was
placed on the exact spot where the body of Harold II. was discovered on
the awful field of slaughter. The sixty monks who started the monastery
were brought over by William from the Benedictine monastery of
Marmontier in Normandy. They were granted many extraordinary privileges,
including the right of treasure-trove. A further privilege was given to
the abbots in the form of authority to pardon any sentenced criminal
whom they might chance to meet on the road. The abbey was not completed
until after the death of William the Conqueror.

On the left, as one goes through the great gateway, are the portions of
the abbey which have been converted into the house which was, until her
death, the home of the Duchess of Cleveland. At right angles to these
buildings runs a terrace, from which one looks towards the sea across
the battlefield on which was decided one of the most momentous issues
which have affected the English nation.

One must have read Lord Lytton's _Harold_ to fully realise the
tremendous pathos of the struggle to the death between the English and
the Normans. The green facing the great gateway has half hidden on its
surface an old bull ring. In wet weather this is scarcely discoverable,
the ring being easily hidden in the small puddles of water which
accumulate.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

THE GATEWAY OF BATTLE ABBEY.

The high altar of Battle Abbey was placed exactly over the spot where
the body of Harold II. was discovered after the battle of Senlac Hill.]

CAMBRIDGE

=How to get there.=--Train from St. Pancras or Liverpool Street.
Great Eastern Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Cambridge.
=Distance from London.=--55-3/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 1-1/4 and 2-1/2 hours. Quickest train,
1 h. 13 m.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 8s. 9d. ... 4s. 7-1/2d.
Return 15s. 10d. ... 9s. 3d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Bull Hotel," "Lion Hotel,"
"University Arms Hotel," "Hoop Hotel," "Bath Hotel," etc.
=Alternative Routes=.--From Euston by L. and N.W. Railway.
From King's Cross, Great Northern Railway. From St.
Pancras, Midland Railway.

Cambridge shares with its sister university, Oxford, the honour of being
one of the two most ancient seats of learning in Great Britain. The town
itself is of very remote origin, and stands on the site of the Roman
station _Camboricum_, on the _Via Devana_. By the Saxons, Cambridge
appears to have been known as Grantabrycge, which was probably later
abbreviated into Cantbrigge. The true history of the town as a
university began at the opening of the twelfth century, when Joffred,
Abbot of Crowland, sent over to Cottenham, near Cambridge, four monks,
who, in a hired barn, started their teachings, which soon became
excessively popular. The first regular society of students was founded
in 1257.

Cambridge abounds in features of interest and contains a large number of
old churches, perhaps the most interesting being that of St. Sepulchre,
one of the four circular churches remaining in England. This church,
which is in Bridge Street, was erected in the reign of Henry I., and
founded, like the one at Northampton, by the Knights Templars in
imitation of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem.

The colleges are, of course, the glory of Cambridge, and one is almost
bewildered by the beauty and variety of their architecture. King's
College Chapel is one of the most magnificent examples in the town, but
nearly all the more important collegiate buildings are beautiful types
of mediaeval work. The visitor should on no account omit to walk through
the "Backs," which is the 'varsity term for the backs of the colleges,
with the "Fellows' Gardens" reaching down to the quiet Cam. The Great
Court, Trinity College, is one of the most imposing of the numerous
quadrangles, and is the largest of any at either Oxford or Cambridge.
The Master's Lodge here is the residence of the sovereign on all royal
visits.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

ST. JOHN'S GATEWAY, CAMBRIDGE.]

ARUNDEL CASTLE

=How to get there.=--Trains from Victoria and London Bridge. By
London, Brighton, and South Coast Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Arundel.
=Distance from London.=--58-1/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--2 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 9s. 2d. 6s. 0d. 4s. 8d.
Return 14s. 10d. 10s. 7d. 9s. 4d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Norfolk Hotel," "Eagle Inn,"
"Bridge Hotel," "Granville Boarding House," etc.

The interior of the castle is not shown to visitors without special
permission from the Duke of Norfolk, the keep alone being thrown open to
all on Mondays and Fridays between 12 and 4 P.M.--tickets being obtained
at the Norfolk Hotel. The park, however, is open to the public.

The town of Arundel is one of the oldest and most beautifully situated
in Sussex, that county of ancient towns, and its castle, a wonderful
feudal fortress, was originally bequeathed by Alfred the Great to his
nephew Adhelm. After the Conquest, it came into the possession of Roger
de Montgomery, who rebuilt it, and in 1097 it was held for a short time
by William II. It was at Arundel Castle that Adeliza, the widow of Henry
I., entertained Queen Maud in 1139. The castle came afterwards to the
Fitzalans, and from them by marriage to the Howard family, who still
hold it. It was the object of several fierce attacks during the
Parliamentary War, for having been captured by Waller and garrisoned for
the Parliament, it was retaken by the Royalists under Lord Hopton, and
soon after taken once more by Waller. The castle was much damaged by all
these assaults, and was almost in ruins at the commencement of the last
century, when it was taken in hand and restored by the then Duke of
Norfolk. Of the ancient buildings, the keep, the entrance gateway, and
parts of the walls, are all that now remain. The keep or Bevis Tower is
an old Norman structure with walls 8 to 10 feet thick, having in the
centre the castle dungeon, reached by a narrow staircase in the wall.
The restoration was made as much as possible in conformity with the
style of the old fortress, and the interior is a good example of modern
Gothic art, the new chapel being an interesting example of this. The
Baron's Hall, with its open chestnut roof and stained-glass windows, is
perhaps one of the most striking features in the castle.

A fine stone bridge of three arches connects the two portions of the
town. It spans the river Arun, which is navigable up to Arundel for
vessels of 150 tons burden.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

ARUNDEL CASTLE.

Built soon after the Conquest by Roger de Montgomery. It was much
damaged during the Parliamentary War, but was repaired by a former Duke
of Norfolk early in the 19th century.]

OLNEY, BUCKS

THE HOME OF COWPER

=How to get there.=--Train from St. Pancras. Change trains at Bedford.
Midland Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Olney.
=Distance from London.=--60-1/2 miles.
=Average Time.=--1-1/2 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 8s. 1d. ... 4s. 9-1/2d.
Return 16s. 2d. ... 9s. 7d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Bull Hotel," etc.

Olney was for a period the home of the delicate and sensitive poet
William Cowper, who was born at the parsonage of Great Berkhampstead.
His father was chaplain to George II. Cowper lost his mother at a very
early age, and the sad event made a deep impression on his mind. In
after years he wrote a poem addressed to his mother's portrait which it
is said has drawn more tears than any other poem in the English
language. Cowper was sent to school at six years of age, but was very
unhappy there, and it laid the foundation of that settled gloom which
oppressed him all through life. When Cowper had finished his studies at
the Westminster School he commenced the study of law, and was afterwards
called to the bar; but he never practised, for he hated law. Cowper was
offered several appointments, but failed in examinations for them from
extreme nervousness. By the kindness of friends an income was secured
for him and he went to reside at Huntingdon. Here he formed an
acquaintance with Mrs. Unwin, the "Mary" of his poems, which ripened
into deepest friendship. He enjoyed much tranquil happiness during the
time of his residence with the Unwin family.

When Cowper and his friends moved to Olney they lived in the
old-fashioned regular fronted house illustrated opposite. Here Cowper is
said to have amused himself with his hares and in the making of boxes
and tables. He was also interested in the bees in the old-fashioned
garden at the back of the house, where one may still see the little
rustic summer-house in which _John Gilpin_ and some of the _Task_ were
written. The house now contains a Cowper museum, and visitors thus have
an opportunity of seeing the parlour and other rooms, besides many other
interesting objects connected with the poet. His great friend at Olney
was the Rev. John Newton. They were constantly together in their walks,
in their homes, and at church, and both wrote a number of hymns.

[Illustration: _Thornborough._

COWPER'S HOME AT OLNEY.

The house now contains a Cowper museum.]

WANTAGE AND THE COUNTRY OF ALFRED THE GREAT

=How to get there.=--Train from Paddington. Great Western Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--Wantage Road.
=Distance from London.=--60-1/2 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 1-1/2 to 2-3/4 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 10s. 0d. 6s. 4d. 5s. 0-1/2d.
Return 17s. 8d. 11s. 0d. 10s. 1d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--Good posting and hotels. "Bear
Hotel" and "Blue Boar."

The chalk ridge in the north of Berkshire is rich in memories of Alfred.
First in importance is Wantage, a peaceful town at the foot of the
hills, and famous as the birthplace of the great king. There is a statue
by Count Gleichen in the wide market-place representing Alfred with a
battle-axe and a charter in his hands. The church is a fine example of
Early English architecture, and interesting besides as the burying-place
of many famous Fitz-warens, among them Ivo, whose daughter married
Richard Whittington, Lord Mayor of London. Dr. Butler of _The Analogy_
was born in the town, and the house is still to be seen.

Leaving Wantage, one may go along the breezy downs to Uffington Castle,
a large fort, presumably of British origin. It was one of many similar
forts along the Roman way called Ichenilde Street, that stretches
straight as an arrow along the whole ridge. Near the fort is the famous
White Horse cut in the chalk, which, since its recent cleansing, gleams
brilliantly from the hillside. It was cut out to commemorate the
magnificent victory of Ethelred the Unready and Alfred over the Danes at
Ashdown in 871. Readers of _Tom Brown's School Days_ will recall the
story of the Berkshire revels in 1857, when the scouring of the Horse
took place. Judge Hughes was born here, under the shadow of the downs,
and near by is the round hill where tradition says St. George slew the
dragon.

In _Kenilworth_ Sir Walter Scott has immortalised Wayland Smith's Cave,
a neolithic burial-place of some ancient chieftain which lies to the
west of Uffington Castle. It is a circle of stone slabs with flat stones
on the top. Wayland was the "Vulcan" of the men of the north, and
Alfred, in one of his translations, altered the "Fabricius" of the Roman
account into the northern "Wayland," the fairy smith who replaced lost
shoes on horses. It was in this cave that Scott made Flibbertigibbet
play tricks on Tressilian.

[Illustration: THE STATUE OF ALFRED THE GREAT AT WANTAGE.

It was designed by Count Gleichen.]

CANTERBURY AND ITS CATHEDRAL

=How to get there.=--Train from Victoria, Holborn Viaduct, Charing
Cross, or Cannon Street. South-Eastern and Chatham Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Canterbury (East).
=Distance from London.=--61-3/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 1-3/4 to 2-3/4 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 10s. 4d. 6s. 6d. 5s. 2d.
Return 18s. 0d. 13s. 0d. 10s. 4d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"County Hotel," "The Fleece
Family and Commercial Hotel," Baker's "Temperance Hotel,"
"The Royal Fountain Hotel," "Falstaff Hotel," etc.

The city of Canterbury, originally an important station in Watling
Street, the _Durovernum_ of the Romans, was one of the earliest places
occupied by the Saxons, by whom it was named _Cantwarabyrig_, or "town
of the Kentish men," and made the capital of the Saxon kingdom of Kent,
and a royal residence. About 597 the abbey was founded by St. Augustine
and his royal convert King Ethelbert. Canterbury was then constituted
the seat of the primacy in England, a dignity it retains to this day.

At the period of the Norman Conquest the city was of considerable size,
and the castle, of which very little now remains, is reputed to be the
work of William the Conqueror. The cathedral was burnt down at least
twice before the present building was erected, but under the influence
of the Norman archbishops, Lanfranc and Anselm, the erection of the new
"Church of Christ" proceeded apace. But it was not until the end of the
twelfth century that the murder of Becket set the whole of Europe
ringing with excitement, and Canterbury rose at once into the front rank
as an ecclesiastical city and pilgrims' shrine.

At the time when Chaucer wrote his _Canterbury Tales_ the city was
surrounded by a strong wall with twenty-one towers and six gates. Of the
wall there are some remains in Broad Street; of the gates "West Gate,"
through which the pilgrims entered from London, is the only survivor.

Canterbury teems with interesting relics of the past, and weeks may be
spent in its old-world streets, where one is continually coming across
unexpected little bits of half-timber work, weather-beaten gables, and
grotesque oak carving. The cathedral, whose "Bell Harry" or central
tower seems to dominate the whole city, should be approached through
Mercery Lane, at the corner of which are some slight remains of
Chaucer's hostelry, "The Chequers of Hope." At the bottom of the lane
the cathedral close is entered by the famous Christ Church Gateway,
erected by Prior Goldstone in 1517. Once inside the close gate the
visitor gets some idea of the amazing beauty of the structure, which is
certainly unsurpassed by any other cathedral in the kingdom. The
building exhibits almost every style of architecture, from the Norman
work of William of Lens to the late Perpendicular of Prior Goldstone,
and yet the work of composition and design has been so exquisitely
carried out that there is no hint of any want of harmony in the
magnificent whole. The interior is no less remarkable, the arches and
vaulting of the nave being some of the most beautiful in existence.
Becket's shrine was despoiled at the Reformation, but the number of
pilgrims who visited it may be imagined from the fact that the broad
stone steps are worn hollow, and this only by the knees of his
worshippers. The Angel doorway in the cloisters, by which the archbishop
entered the sacred building pursued by his murderers, gives access on to
the north-west or martyrdom transept. Here is shown the spot where the
primate made his last stand and fell under the blows of the Norman
knights. Another object of special interest is the tomb of Edward, the
Black Prince, who died in the city in 1376. There is so much to see in
and about the cathedral and its precincts, however, that a trustworthy
guide-book is a _sine qua non_. The building is open from 9.30 to the
end of evening service--the nave and two west transepts free; the choir
and crypt, 6d. each person. Sketching orders, 2s. 6d. per day, and
photographing orders, 5s. per day.

In the city itself the most interesting of the old churches is St.
Martin's, reputed to be the oldest in England (admission, 6d.). Here St.
Augustine first preached Christianity before the cathedral was built.
St. Martin's Hill, near the church, should be noticed. It was over this
ascent that Augustine with his Roman monks passed into Canterbury in
697.

In Monastery Street is the fine gateway of the once rich and powerful
St. Augustine's Abbey; and near it, not many years ago, was a fine
example of Saxon work, known as Ethelbert's Tower, which some of the
intelligent busybodies of the time had removed with a battering-ram.

In Broad Street is the Hospital of St. John, with its quaint entrance
and fine old timbered gateway.

The Grammar School, known as the King's School, was founded at the close
of the seventh century. The most remarkable portion of what remains of
the old buildings is an almost unique Norman staircase.

[Illustration: THE WEST GATE, CANTERBURY.

The only one left standing of the six in existence in the days of
Chaucer.]

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

THE TRANSEPT OF MARTYRDOM.

In Canterbury Cathedral.]

RECULVERS

=How to get there.=--Train from Victoria, Holborn Viaduct, or St.
Paul's. South-Eastern and Chatham Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Herne Bay. (Reculvers lies 3 miles along the coast.)
=Distance from London.=--62-3/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 1-3/4 to 3 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 10s. 6d. 6s. 6d. 5s. 2-1/2d.
Return 18s. 5d. 13s. 0d. 10s. 5d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--At Herne Bay--"The Dolphin Hotel,"
"The Connaught," "The Grand," "St. George's Cliff," "Pier
Hotel," "Herne Bay Hotel," etc.; also the "Bungalow Hotel,"
etc., at Birchington.

About 3 miles to the east of Herne Bay, the twin towers of an old Roman
church stand prominently out from the flat marsh-land which stretches
between the villages of Herne and Birchington, some 5 miles from the
well-known health resort of Margate. Regulbium, now known as Reculver,
and Rutupium, or Richborough, near Sandwich, were two Roman stations
guarding the entrances to the estuary which formerly separated the Isle
of Thanet from the mainland. Regulbium was also used as a lighthouse and
watch-tower, because of its commanding position near the mouths of both
the Thames and Medway.

After the Roman occupation, Regulbium became one of the chief seats of
the Saxon kings, and when, after his conversion to Christianity by St.
Augustine, King Ethelbert gave up his palace at Canterbury, he lived
there with his court, and his remains were interred in the first church
erected on the spot. In the ninth century a Benedictine abbey was
founded at Regulbium by a priest named Bapa. A few years after, King
Edred granted the abbey to the Monastery of Christchurch at Canterbury,
but the society was either removed or dissolved before the Norman
Conquest. This practically ends the history of Regulbium, for owing to
the steady encroachments of the sea, and to the fact that the estuary
continued to fill up, the once populous Roman city was gradually
deserted. The present remains consist of parts of the earth-works of the
Roman station, and the twin towers and ruined walls of the church.
Though the church formerly occupied the centre of the Roman city, the
sea has now reached the base of the bank on which the towers stand. In
his famous "Brothers of Birchington," Thomas Ingoldsby says of the twin
towers--

They were tall and upright
And just equal in height.

Reculvers and the neighbourhood were at one time a favourite resort for
smugglers.

[Illustration: RECULVERS FROM THE EAST.]

OXFORD

=How to get there=.--Train from Paddington. Great Western Railway.
=Nearest Station=.--Oxford.
=Distance from London=.--63-1/2 miles.
=Average Time=.--Varies between 1-1/4 to 2-3/4 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares=.--Single 10s. 6d. 6s. 8d. 5s. 3-1/2d.
Return 18s. 6d. 11s. 8d. 10s. 7d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Randolph Hotel," "Mitre Hotel,"
"The Roebuck Hotel," "Railway Hotel," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from Euston. L. and N.W. Railway.

Oxford was a centre of learning in the time of Alfred. Walter de Merton
_founded_ the first college there, and others started the collegiate
system of corporate colleges which makes English universities unique.
The most celebrated colleges are Christ Church, Magdalen, New College,
and Merton. Keble, Mansfield, and Hertford were established in Victorian
times. In one part of the High Street the scene is architecturally
magnificent. On the south side is University College, which claims the
oldest foundation, although the present building only dates from the
seventeenth century. Opposite is Queen's College, then comes All Souls'.
On the same side is St. Mary's Church, and a little further All Souls'
Church. A turning by St. Mary's Church leads to the Bodleian Library,
the Sheldonian Theatre, and the Ashmolean Museum. At one end of St.
Giles' Street is the Martyrs' Memorial and the Taylor Institution.
Returning to High Street, and going towards the stations, a turning on
the left leads to Oriel, Corpus Christi, and Merton Colleges, and still
further on, St. Aldate's Street, on the left, leads to Pembroke College
and the fourteenth-century church of St. Aldate's. Opposite the church
are the buildings known as Christ Church, which has the Cathedral Church
of St. Frideswide for its chapel. In the principal entrance is "Great
Tom," the famous bell that tolls at 9.5 P.M. Christ Church, though the
smallest cathedral in England, and possibly in Europe, is of great
interest on account of its very distinct transitional style. Magdalen
College, near the bridge over the River Cherwell, and the Botanic
Gardens, are at the other end of the High Street.

There was a monastery in Oxford in the eighth century. A castle was
built by William I. after he captured the town, and from that time it
was often visited by English kings. Several parliaments have been held
there, and the courts of law as well as the parliament removed to Oxford
during the plague of 1665. Charles I. made it his headquarters until
Fairfax took the town.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

MAGDALEN COLLEGE, OXFORD.]

MIDHURST

AND THE HOME OF RICHARD COBDEN

=How to get there.=--Train from Waterloo. L. and S.W. Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Midhurst.
=Distance from London.=--64-1/2 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 2 to 3-1/4 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 10s. 2d. 6s. 6d. 5s. 0-1/2d.
Return 17s. 10d. 11s. 3d. 10s. 0d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"The Angel," "Spread Eagle,"
"New Inn," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from Victoria and London Bridge.
London, Brighton, and South Coast Railway.

Though only a small town, Midhurst is a place of some antiquity, and was
of some size prior to the Conquest. It is situated in Mid-Sussex on the
Rother, and on a site close by it, now marked only by a mound, was the
castle of the Bohuns, a powerful Norman family, who were lords of the
manor here. In 1547, King Edward VI. was entertained with great
splendour here. It is curious to note that the custom of ringing the
curfew bell is still maintained at Midhurst.

The town is picturesque, and contains many old houses and buildings of
interest, notably those in West Street and Wool Lane, near the church,
and the Grammar School at the further end of the town, where Sir Charles
Lyell and Richard Cobden were educated. Cobden was born at Durnford,
close to Midhurst. Durnford House, built for him by the nation, is still
standing, and at Cocking Causeway is a monument to his memory.

In Cowdray Park, within easy walking distance, are the ruins of the
magnificent Tudor mansion, Cowdray House, destroyed by fire in 1793.
There was an old tradition, "The Curse of Cowdray," that the building
should perish by fire and water, and this was curiously fulfilled, for
the house was burnt and the last Lord Montague drowned almost on the
same day.

A custodian who shows visitors over Cowdray House has a cottage here.
Over what remains of the entrance gateway are the arms of Sir Anthony
Browne, the favourite of King Henry VIII.; and on the porch are the
initials of the Earl of Southampton.

West Lavington Church, beautifully situated on a height two miles south
of Midhurst, has in its churchyard the grave of Richard Cobden, the
political reformer, and originator of Free Trade. Cardinal Manning was
rector here at one period.

[Illustration: _F. Coze, Midhurst._

COBDEN'S PEW IN HEYSHOTT CHURCH.

The pew is immediately beneath the pulpit, in which a small brass plate
may be noticed. Here Cobden regularly worshipped.]

PEVENSEY CASTLE

LANDING-PLACE OF WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR

=How to get there.=--Train from London Bridge or Victoria. London,
Brighton, and South Coast Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Pevensey and West Ham.
=Distance from London.=--65 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 2 and 3 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 10s. 0d. 6s. 2d. 4s. 8d.
Return 17s. 6d. 11s. 8d. 9s. 4d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Royal Oak Inn" at Pevensey village.

Pevensey, the scene of so many notable events in English history, was
probably a fishing-port in prehistoric times. It is situated on flat and
low-lying marsh-land, about 15 miles westward along the coast from
Hastings. Here the Romans built a town and fortress. Entering Pevensey
Castle by the main gateway, you stand on the site of the Roman city of
Anderida, of which many evidences remain in the shape of Roman cement
and tiles in a wall which surrounds the enclosure. The Romans retired
from Anderida in the fifth century, when it was destroyed by the Saxons
under Ella, and the inhabitants slain for their obstinate resistance.

A fortnight before the great battle on Senlac Hill, William of Normandy
landed at the old Roman city. After the Conquest, Roger, Earl of
Mortmain and Cornwall, half-brother of the Conqueror, built the Norman
building whose shattered walls are to be seen to-day. William Rufus,
Simon de Montfort, and Stephen each attacked the castle, and it remained
a fortress until the reign of Queen Elizabeth. In the south-eastern
corner of the Brito-Roman city, there still stands an interesting old
culverin, bearing the crown, Tudor rose, and the initials of Queen
Elizabeth. It is one of two cannon placed there in 1587 in readiness for
the Spaniards. The present castle shows the different work of several
centuries. The remains of a much-weathered stone font, surrounded by an
iron cage, stand in the centre of the enclosure. Near by, within a
palisade, is the old castle well, with hart's-tongue ferns growing on
the damp brick lining.

At one time Pevensey formed, with Hastings, one of the Cinque Ports. It
began to decline as a seafaring place with the loss of its harbour,
owing to the receding of the sea along the Sussex shore--the walls,
which were formerly almost washed by the waves, being now quite a mile
inland. Visitors may enter the castle on week days without charge.

[Illustration: PEVENSEY CASTLE.

Before the sea receded the waves almost reached the Castle walls.]

WINCHESTER & ITS CATHEDRAL

=How to get there.=--Train from Waterloo. L. and S.W. Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Winchester.
=Distance from London.=--66-1/2 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 1-1/2 to 2-3/4 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 11s. 0d. 7s. 0d. 5s. 6d.
Return 19s. 3d. 12s. 2d. 10s. 6d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"George Hotel," "Royal Hotel,"
"Black Swan Hotel," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from Paddington. Great Western Rly.

Winchester, the ancient Saxon capital of England, is situated near the
foot of the chalk uplands surrounding the river Itchin. It is a city
full of historical interest, and its two most striking features are the
cathedral and college. Long before the Norman Conquest there was a
grammar school at Winchester under the care of the monks. Bishop William
of Wykeham was educated at this earlier school, and it was he who
re-established it on a larger scale. The new college was founded at the
end of the fourteenth century, under the direction of a corporation, and
was allied to one of the colleges at Oxford. For five centuries this
college, the most ancient of the public schools in England, has kept a
foremost place among the many educational centres that now exist. Many
of the college buildings remain almost the same as they were originally
founded.

The cathedral, which is the largest in England, shows every style of
architecture from pure Norman to Early Renaissance. It was founded by
Walkelin, the first Norman bishop, whose carved font is one of the
finest treasures of the building. Bishop Wykeham, at the end of the
fourteenth century, continued the building, which had been steadily
progressing for a considerable time, and commenced the partial casing of
the Norman columns with Perpendicular mouldings. The vaulting shafts of
the nave rise from the ground, and owing to the thickness of the Norman
masonry, there is no proper triforium. The reredos was built by Cardinal
Beaufort in the fifteenth century, and the Lady Chapel was added about
the same time. Though it suffered much damage during the Parliamentary
wars, the cathedral is wonderfully rich in monuments, all its various
architects being buried there, and among the many shrines is that of
William Rufus.

Winchester's associations with King Alfred, and its numerous examples of
architecture of all the centuries, make the city one of the most
interesting in England.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL.

Showing the Norman north transept and the west end.]

SAVERNAKE FOREST

=How to get there.=--Train from Paddington. Great Western Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Savernake.
=Distance from London.=--70 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 2 to 3 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 11s. 8d. 7s. 4d. 5s. 10d.
Return 20s. 6d. 12s. 10d. 11s. 8d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Forest Hotel" (near railway station),
"Ailesbury Arms Hotel," etc., in Marlborough.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from Waterloo. L. and S.W. Railway.

Savernake is said to be the only forest in England possessed by a
subject. It occupies a piece of country 16 miles in circumference, is
entirely open to all, and the Marquess of Ailesbury also allows
Savernake Forest House to be seen by strangers when the family are
absent. At Savernake Station one is brought within sight of the forest,
and entering it at this point one is able to enjoy a lovely walk of 6 or
7 miles, which brings one out close to Marlborough Station, with the
town on the further side of the railway. The forest is specially famous
for its glorious avenue of beech 4 miles in length, and there is little
doubt that there is no finer in the kingdom.

If one enters through the park gates, near Savernake Station, the house
(formerly known as Tottenham House) lies on the right, and in the
opposite direction one may notice, at the end of a perspective formed by
great masses of elms and beeches, the column erected in 1781 by the
first Earl of Ailesbury (the marquisate was not created until 1821),
commemorating the recovery of George III. and other circumstances.

If one crosses the avenue and bears off to the right across the turf the
church of St. Catherine will soon appear in sight. It is a very richly
ornamented structure, and was built by a former Marchioness of
Ailesbury, in memory of her mother the Countess of Pembroke. Returning
to the avenue, one may continue down it for about 3 miles to the "eight
walks," where an opening in the ranks of the stately trees reveals a
number of grassy glades running off to the chief points of the compass.
The walk going off to the south-west leads to the King's Oak, a gigantic
tree whose hollow trunk is 24 feet in circumference. This oak is
surrounded by a number of grand old trees, their bold outlines enriched
with velvety moss. On an autumn afternoon, when the forest is a blaze of
crimson and yellow, this spot is seen at its loveliest--the long shadows
and the golden sunlight giving the scene a painted, almost too brilliant
effect.

[Illustration: _E.H. Roberts._

THE AVENUE IN SAVERNAKE FOREST.]

ELY CATHEDRAL

=How to get there.=--From Liverpool Street or St. Pancras. Great
Eastern Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Ely.
=Distance from London.=--70-1/2 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies from 1-3/4 to 3-1/4 hours. Quickest train 1 hour
38 minutes.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 11s. 3d. ... 5s. 11-1/2d.
Return 20s. 0d. ... 11s. 11d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Bell Hotel" and others.

Ely is situated on an eminence in the midst of the flat district forming
the centre of the county of Cambridge, and was originally a settlement
termed by the Saxons _Eleg_ or _Elge_, _i.e._ "an eel," from the number
of eels found in the fenny district around. St. Etheldreda, daughter of
a king of the East Angles, founded an abbey here, where she died in 679,
being afterwards canonised as a saint. The monastery was destroyed by
the Danes in 870, and did not regain importance till one hundred years
later.

In _Hereward the Wake_ Kingsley tells us how gallantly the Isle of Ely
was defended against the attacks of William the Conqueror, but the
chieftain was at last forced to surrender, and the monastery was seized.
Ely was created a bishopric by Henry I. in 1107.

The cathedral is one of the most beautiful and remarkable in England.
The oldest portion was erected in the reign of William Rufus and Henry
I., and additions were continually made to the fabric until 1534, so
that it contains an almost unbroken series of the architectural styles
prevailing from the Conquest, yet so wonderfully has the design been
managed that no disagreeable effect is produced.

The nave of the cathedral, considered one of the finest specimens of
Norman work in England, was completed about 1174, and the west front,
built by Geoffrey Ridel, the third bishop, about ten years later.
Originally there stood a square tower in the centre of the building, but
this fell in 1322, crushing three arches of the choir. The repair of
this misfortune was undertaken by the sacrist, Alan de Walsingham, who
erected in 1342 the octagonal tower now existing.

The choir contains much rich decorated Gothic; and the east end of the
cathedral, with its two tiers of lancet windows, is very beautiful.
Another most interesting feature is the Lady Chapel, with a magnificent
fan-vaulted roof; the walls were originally decorated with countless
niches and statues of saints and martyrs, not one of which escaped the
destroying hand of the Puritan.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

ELY CATHEDRAL.

The remarkable octagonal tower was rebuilt in 1342 by Alan de
Walsingham.]

ST. IVES, HUNTINGDONSHIRE

=How to get there.=--Train from Liverpool Street or St. Pancras. G.E.R.
=Nearest Station.=--St. Ives.
=Distance from London.=--70-1/2 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 2 to 3 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 8s. 9d. ... 4s. 10-1/2d.
Return 17s. 6d. ... 9s. 9d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--At St. Ives, "The Golden Lion Hotel,"
"White Horse Hotel," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--From King's Cross to Huntingdon. G.N. Rly.

St. Ives is a town of considerable antiquity, and in Saxon times was
known as _Slepe_, which name is still retained by one of the two manors
included in the parish, and it is applied to the town in the Domesday
book. The more modern name is derived from Ivo, or St. Ives, a Persian
who is said to have visited England in the sixth century, and to have
been buried here.

A considerable part of the place was destroyed by fire in 1689, but
there are still a number of quaint and interesting buildings. Over the
Ouse is a stone bridge of six arches, supposed to have been built by the
abbots of Ramsey. The approach to the bridge on the south side is by a
causeway raised on arches to admit the passage of the waters in time of
floods, which have on different occasions caused much damage here; and
over one of the arches, near the centre of the bridge, is a mediaeval
building, originally intended for a chapel.

The first church, built by Abbot Ednoth in the reign of King Edgar, was
burnt in 1207, and rebuilt. The present structure, dedicated to All
Saints, occupies the same site, close to the river, where it forms with
the old houses adjoining a very charming picture. Until quite recent
years, by a quaint bequest, dicing for bibles on the altar of the church
took place every Whit Tuesday. The dicing is now done on a small table.

The interest in St. Ives and the neighbouring town of Huntingdon chiefly
centres in the fact of their associations with Oliver Cromwell, who was
born at the latter town in 1599. Cromwell went to school at Huntingdon,
and from thence to Cambridge, but his father dying shortly afterwards,
he returned home to manage family affairs. In 1628 he was elected for
the borough of Huntingdon, but after the dissolution of Parliament,
Cromwell returned to his native county and devoted himself to farming on
the Ouse at Huntingdon and St. Ives. During his residence at St. Ives,
Cromwell occupied the manor-house, Slepe Hall, which has been ruthlessly
pulled down to allow of the erection of modern houses.

[Illustration: THE BRIDGE AT ST. IVES, HUNTINGTON.]

WINCHELSEA AND RYE

=How to get there.=--Train from Charing Cross, Cannon Street, or
London Bridge. South-Eastern and Chatham Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Winchelsea.
=Distance from London.=--72 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 2-1/4 to 3 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 12s. 0d. 7s. 6d. 6s. 0d.
Return 21s. 0d. 15s. 0d. 12s. 0d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"The New Inn," etc., Winchelsea.
=Routes.=--_Via_ Ashford or _via_ Hastings.

Winchelsea, situated about 8 miles from Hastings, though now a small
village, was once an important seaport, being one of the Cinque Ports.
It has suffered severely from the sea, having been completely destroyed
in 1287 by an inundation. It was afterwards rebuilt by Edward I. on
higher ground. The French made several attempts on the town, and in 1380
succeeded in capturing and burning it. The gradual decay of the port was
due to the retiring of the sea in the fifteenth century, which rendered
the harbour useless. Winchelsea is a pretty place with massive gateways,
survivals of the old fortified town. In the centre of the village is a
square containing the remains of the old Parish Church built in 1288 in
the Decorated style. The nave and transepts have gone, having been
destroyed by the French, and only the chancel remains. It contains some
interesting canopied tombs, one being to Gervase Alard, Admiral of the
Cinque Ports in 1383. John Wesley preached his last open-air sermon in
the churchyard.

Rye lies 2 miles east of Winchelsea, and though more flourishing than
the latter place, has much dwindled in importance, since it too was a
Cinque Port. The town is built on a hill, and the steep, narrow streets
are filled with quaint houses. The harbour is still visited by small
fishing-boats. The French constantly attacked Rye, and in 1380 they
succeeded in burning it. Overlooking the sea and belonging to the old
wall is the Ypres Tower, built in the reign of Stephen by William de
Ypres.

Close to the tower is the large Parish Church, which contains much
Decorated Gothic work, although its oldest portions are Norman, the
church having been partly rebuilt after the destruction caused by the
French in 1380. It contains a wonderful clock, made in Queen Elizabeth's
reign, and said to be the oldest in England still in working order. It
has a long pendulum which comes through the ceiling and swings in the
church.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

WINCHELSEA CHURCH.

The French did much damage to the building in 1380, and portions of it
are still in ruins.]

BLENHEIM PALACE

=How to get there.=--Train from Paddington. Great Western Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Blenheim.
=Distance from London.=--72-3/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--2-1/4 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 12s. 0d. 7s. 6d. 6s. 0-1/2d.
Return 21s. 2d. 13s. 4d. ...

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Bear Inn," Woodstock, "King's Arms
Hotel," "Marlborough Hotel," "Star Hotel," etc.

Blenheim Palace, the magnificent seat of the Duke of Marlborough, was,
like Strathfieldsaye, erected at the public expense. On the 2nd of
August 1704, the great Duke of Marlborough gained a decisive victory
over the combined forces of the French and Bavarians near the village of
Blenheim, on the banks of the Danube. The French and Bavarians left
10,000 killed and wounded on the field, huge numbers were drowned in the
river, and about 13,000 taken prisoners. The victory was complete, and
immediately afterwards Queen Anne presented the victorious general with
a "grant of the honour of Woodstock," this being followed by a vote of
L500,000 for the erection of the palace and the laying out of the
grounds. The building was erected from the designs of Sir John Vanbrugh,
the great architect and dramatist. It is of enormous size, the frontage
being 350 feet from wing to wing, and the entire structure covers about
7 acres. The gateway to the park on the Woodstock side is a fine
Corinthian triumphal arch, giving access to a magnificent avenue more
than 2 miles in length.

Among the principal apartments of the palace are the lofty entrance
hall, with a fine painted ceiling by Thornhill; the bay-window room with
its famous tapestry; the dining-room, containing many family portraits
by Sir Joshua Reynolds; the marble saloon, the ceilings and walls of
which are painted by La Guerre; and the library, a magnificent room
nearly 200 feet long, containing about 20,000 volumes. In addition to
these, there are the chapel and theatre, as well as the state and other
drawing-rooms. The Titian room was totally destroyed by fire, with a
large portion of the north-east section of the palace, in February 1861.

The ancient road, called Akeman Street, runs across the park, and Roman
remains have been discovered near it.

The palace is open every day (except Saturdays and Sundays) from 11 to
1, and the gardens from 11 to 2. Either can be seen separately by
tickets, 1s. each, obtainable at the porter's lodge.

[Illustration: _Taunt, Oxford._

BLENHEIM PALACE.

Built for the Duke of Marlborough at the public expense, after his
famous victory over the French and Bavarians.]

PETERBOROUGH CATHEDRAL AND CROWLAND

=How to get there.=--Train from King's Cross. Great Northern Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--Peterborough.
=Distance from London.=--76-1/2 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 1-1/4 to 2-1/4 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 11s. 3d. ... 6s. 4d.
Return 22s. 6d. ... 12s. 8d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Great Northern Railway Company's
Hotel," "Golden Lion Hotel," "Angel Hotel," "Grand Hotel,"
etc., at Peterborough.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from Liverpool Street, _via_ Ely. Great
Eastern Railway.

Nine miles north of Peterborough the ruins of Crowland Abbey arise out
of the flat fen country like a lighthouse out of the sea. With only the
nave and north aisle standing, it breathes the very spirit of romance
even in its decay. It is easy to picture the time when four streams
surrounded the monastery and church and formed an island in the fens,
and to recall how Hereward the Wake demanded entrance to the abbey to
see Torfrida, and was refused admittance by the Abbot Ulfketyl. In those
days two rivers met in the High Street of the little town that grew
round St. Guthlac's Monastery. Now the country is drained, Crowland is a
decayed little town with many thatched roofs, situated in an
agricultural district; the island exists no longer, and the old
triangular bridge rises over the dry Square at a place where three roads
meet. This bridge is older and more peculiar than any bridge in Europe
that is not of Roman origin. It is believed to have been built in 870,
and consists of three pointed arches rising steeply in the centre to
permit the rush of water in flood times. It is too steep to admit of its
use by any sort of vehicle, and one ascends by steps to the top. At the
end of one portion of the bridge there is a stone image of a Saxon
king--possibly Ethelbert--with a loaf in one hand.

In the time of Ethelbald, King of Mercians, a young noble named Guthlac,
weary of life's rough way, sought peace in the ascetic life. He drifted
in a boat to Crowland Isle, and there lived a hermit's life till his
death in 817. On the spot where he died Ethelbald founded and endowed a
monastery on the island, and it flourished exceedingly. The larger part
of the conventual church is now destroyed, but the north aisle is used
as the Parish Church of Crowland.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

CROWLAND ABBEY.

The building rises above the little thatched village, which stands on
slightly raised ground in the midst of the fens.]

PETERBOROUGH

As was the case with Wells, Peterborough would have had no existence but
for its cathedral, which was reared in the midst of the fertile fen
country near the slow-flowing river Ness. But the coming of the railways
has roused the country town, and in the last fifty years its population
has increased fivefold. It is situated in a rich agricultural district,
and has a good trade in farm products. Its annual wool and cattle
markets are well known in the eastern counties.

On the site of the present cathedral a minster was built in 870 by a
king of Mercia. On its being destroyed by Danes, a new building was
erected, which was burned down in 1116. The foundations of the Saxon
church can be seen in the crypt. The new Norman building was consecrated
in 1237, and has remained with few alterations to the present day. While
the interior of St. Albans Cathedral shows every phase of Norman and
Gothic architecture, that of Peterborough is remarkable as showing
practically one style throughout the entire building. The west front has
been described as the "grandest portico in Europe." It is Early English
in style, and the finest feature of the cathedral. Its three colossal
arches are flanked and strengthened by two turreted towers with spires.
It needs a close observer to perceive that the central gable of the west
front is smaller than the side ones, for the difficulty has been
cleverly overcome. The northern gable and part of the arch below have
been repaired very carefully amid an outcry from all parts of England
against the restoration. However, the work was proved to be necessary,
as the mortar had crumbled to dust, and many stones were merely resting
one on the other. The Perpendicular Galilee Porch over the small doorway
adds strength to the facade. The room over it is used as a library.

Perhaps the most interesting feature of the interior is the
twelfth-century wooden vaulting of the nave. There is no Lady Chapel at
the east end as is usually the case. When the ritual demanded a
retro-choir for processions, the Norman apse fortunately was not pulled
down, but the new building, Tudor in style, and with a beautiful
stone-vaulted roof, was built round it. After Ely's Tower fell, the
Norman central tower of Peterborough was pulled down as if a similar
fate was feared for it, and a shorter tower was erected in its place.
Two queens have been buried in the church, namely, Catherine of Arragon
and Mary Queen of Scots. The remains of both queens have been removed to
Westminster Abbey.

Other places worth visiting in Peterborough are the Parish Church and a
well-preserved thirteenth-century manor-house at Longthorpe.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

PETERBOROUGH CATHEDRAL

The magnificent west front, which has recently been restored.]

SOUTHAMPTON

=How to get there.=--Train from Waterloo. L. and S.W. Railway.
=Nearest Stations.=--Southampton Docks or Southampton West.
=Distance from London.=--78-3/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 2-1/4 to 3-1/2 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 13s. 0d. 8s. 2d. 6s. 6d.
Return 23s. 0d. 14s. 6d. 11s. 6d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"The Royal Hotel," "Radley's Hotel,"
"London and South-Western Hotel," "Dolphin Hotel," "Royal
Pier Hotel," "Flower's Temperance," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--From Paddington. Fares as above.

The earliest accounts of Southampton are vague and uncertain. On the
opposite bank of the Itchen, at Bitterne, was the Roman station of
Clausentum, but Southampton itself seems to have been originally a
settlement of the West Saxons. In the reign of William the Conqueror,
Southampton, owing to its situation, became the principal port of
embarkation for Normandy. In 1295 it first returned representatives to
Parliament, and in 1345 was strongly fortified, and able to contribute
twenty-one ships to the Royal Navy, Portsmouth only supplying five. Many
expeditions for Normandy embarked here during the reigns of the
Plantagenets, and the men who fought and won at Crecy and Agincourt must
have passed, on the way to their ships, under the old West Gate, which
still remains much as it was in those stirring times.

The town is full of interesting relics of every description, one of the
most remarkable being the old wall, of which a considerable portion
remains; that known as The Arcades, built in a series of arches, being
specially noticeable. Close by, in Blue Anchor Lane, is a Norman house,
reputed to be King John's palace, and claiming, with several others, to
be the oldest house in England.

The town was formerly entered by several gates, two of which, Westgate
and Bargate, are still in a good state of preservation.

The Bargate stands in the centre of the High Street, and is an excellent
example of mediaeval fortification.

At the head of Blue Anchor Lane is the remarkably picturesque and
substantial Tudor house, once the residence of Henry VIII. and Anne
Boleyn, and nearly opposite rises the tall tower of St. Michael's, the
oldest church in Southampton. The building is open all day (the keys
being obtainable on inquiry), and contains a remarkable carved black
marble font, reputed to be of Byzantine origin, and a fine eagle lectern
of the fifteenth century.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

THE BARGATE IN THE HIGH STREET OF SOUTHAMPTON.]

HELMINGHAM HALL

=How to get there.=--Great Eastern Railway. Liverpool Street.
=Nearest Station.=--Woodbridge (10 miles).
=Distance from London.=--79 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 2 to 2-1/2 hours. Quickest train
1 hour 56 minutes.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 14s. 9d. ... 6s. 8d.
Return 22s. 2d. ... 13s. 4d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"The Bull Hotel," etc., at Woodbridge.

Helmingham Hall, the seat of Lord Tollemache, lies in a beautiful park,
ten miles from Woodbridge, in Suffolk, and has been one of the homes of
the family for generations. The Tollemache family own two of the finest
Tudor houses in this country, Ham House near Richmond, the property of
the Earls of Dysart, and Helmingham, which now belongs to the other
branch of the Tollemache peerage. Helmingham came to them in the reign
of Henry VIII., by the marriage of Lionel Tollemache with the daughter
and heiress of Sir William Joyce, who owned a home called Creke Hall.
The present mansion he rebuilt on the same site, in all probability
retaining the ancient moat.

The hall is approached through an entrance gateway, giving access to a
fine avenue leading directly up a gentle slope to the moat and main
drawbridge of the hall. The house, of red brick, wonderfully tinted by
the hand of time, is remarkably picturesque, with its twisted chimneys,
finely proportioned gables, and beautiful bay windows; and its charm is
considerably enhanced by the brickwork, with sturdy buttresses here and
there, rising sheer out of the clear and tranquil waters of the moat.
The hall is entered by two bridges, each ending in a drawbridge, which
is kept in full working order, and both drawbridges are, and have been
for some hundreds of years, hauled up at ten o'clock every night, when
the house can only be approached from the park by means of a boat.

On crossing the main bridge, one enters the inner court, a fine red
brick quadrangle, much after the style of those at Hampton Court. From
this access is gained to the various wings and apartments of the
mansion, the finest room being the hall, with its deep oak dado,
fireplace, and open timber roof. The best suite of rooms looks out
across the moat to the beautiful gardens. These are some of the most
magnificent in the county, and they are most carefully and elaborately
arranged, and always kept in fine condition. The garden is divided into
two portions by a strip of water covered with lilies.

[Illustration: HELMINGHAM HALL.

An Elizabethan moated mansion. Its drawbridge has been lowered and
raised every day for about 400 years.]

STONEHENGE, WILTSHIRE

=How to get there.=--Train from Waterloo. South-Western Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Amesbury (1-1/2 miles from Stonehenge).
=Distance from London.=--80 miles.
=Average Time.=--3 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 13s. 2d. 8s. 3d. 6s. 7-1/2d.
Return 23s. 2d. 14s. 8d. 13s. 3d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"The George Hotel" at Amesbury.
"Railway Hotel" (small) at Porton.
=Alternative Route.=--Porton Station, 5-1/2 miles, and Salisbury Station,
8 miles from Stonehenge.

One of the earliest and most enduring works of man in the British
Islands is to be seen in the circles of giant stones on Salisbury Plain.
They stand in two concentric circles. The outer ring of monoliths
encloses an inner one of blue stones about half their height. These in
turn surround a horseshoe formation consisting of the remains of five
great trilithons. Some of these stones have fallen across the flat one
known as the altar stone, occupying a central position at the head of
the horseshoe. On the 21st of June the sun rises exactly in a line with
the centre of the horseshoe and the long earthen avenue leading towards
the stones, and thus throws a ray between two of the outer monoliths and
touches the altar stone. This orientation on the plan of so many eastern
shrines proves that Stonehenge was the temple of some early
sun-worshipping race of men in Britain.

Sir Norman Lockyer's recent observations at the summer solstice have
placed the date of erection at about 1680 B.C., and the discovery of
flint implements beneath some Roman remains also points to neolithic
times. The upright stones and those resting upon them were originally
all mortised and tenoned together, and from the fact that no similar
stone is found nearer than Marlborough Downs the primitive men must have
hauled the stones considerable distances by means of long leather ropes.
The small blue stones were possibly brought from Normandy.

Other stone circles and similar remains are to be seen at Avebury,
Rollright, and Kit's Coty House, a few miles from Rochester. Also in
Shropshire there is a district rich in stone circles and prehistoric
remains. This is in a line north of Bishops Castle and Shelve, and to
those who appreciate wild scenery this part of the county may be
specially recommended.

[Illustration: STONEHENGE.

Looking towards the east from the altar stone. The point on the horizon
where the sun rises on June 21 is indicated by the small stone seen
through the arches.]

NETLEY ABBEY

=How to get there.=--Train from Waterloo _via_ Southampton. L. and
S.W. Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Netley (about a mile from the abbey).
=Distance from London.=--82-1/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 2-3/4 to 4-1/2 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 13s. 6d. 8s. 6d. 6s. 9-1/2d.
Return 23s. 10d. 15s. 0d. 12s. 3d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Royal Hotel," "Radley's Hotel,"
"Dolphin," "South-Western," etc., Southampton (3 miles from
Netley).

Netley is a small village on Southampton Water, about 3 miles south-east
of the town of Southampton. It is famous for the ruins of Netley Abbey,
which are not far from the shore, in a wooded and picturesque nook. The
abbey is supposed to have been founded by Peter des Roches, Bishop of
Winchester in Henry III.'s reign, and the monks belonged to the
Cistercian order. It was neither a rich nor famous establishment, and
the monks possessed but one book, Cicero's _Treaty on Rhetoric_. Since
the Dissolution the abbey has belonged to many different families. Only
the walls are now standing, but enough remains to show how beautiful it
once was. The buildings formed a square of which the south wall of the
church formed the side opposite the entrance. Various buildings in
connection with the monastery formed the rest of the quadrangle, which
was known as Fountain Court. The kitchen is still roofed in, although it
has lost its stone groining. Other buildings are, conjecturally, the
buttery and the refectory. Near the kitchen is a curious underground
passage leading to the castle (erected by Henry VIII.), which stands
nearer the shore than the abbey. It is thought to be a drain.

The church is of cruciform shape, in Early English style. Though the
west end is now in a very ruinous condition, the great east window is
fairly well preserved. It has two lights, and is very beautifully
proportioned. Outside the court is the garden, with lawns and trees, too
often desecrated by picnic parties, and the ponds that supplied the
monks with fish are now choked up. It is said that a carpenter who
bought the materials of the church from Sir Bartlet Lucy was warned in a
dream by a monk not to destroy the building. He paid no heed, and was
killed by the west window falling on him.

The Royal Victoria Hospital for Sick Soldiers, erected after the Crimean
War, can be seen at Netley.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

NETLEY ABBEY, LOOKING EAST.]

SALISBURY AND ITS CATHEDRAL

=How to get there.=--Train from Waterloo. L. and S.W. Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--Salisbury.
=Distance from London.=--83-1/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 1-3/4 and 3-1/4 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 14s. 0d. 8s. 9d. 6s. 11-1/2d.
Return 24s. 6d. 15s. 4d. 12s. 0d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Angel Hotel," "Crown Hotel,"
"White Hart Hotel," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from Paddington. Great Western Rly.

Salisbury Cathedral is, in the opinion of many, the finest of all the
English cathedrals, and it certainly has many claims to be considered
so. The vast building was completed within fifty years, and is therefore
practically in one style throughout, an advantage not shared by any
other cathedral in the kingdom. Its situation, too, is unique, standing
as it does in the fine old close, entirely separated from any other
buildings, and with its grey walls and buttresses rising sheer up from
such velvety turf as is seen in England alone. The tower and spire are
perhaps the most beautiful in this country.

Passing into the close by the gate at the end of the High Street, one
reaches the west front, which is very rich in effect, with its tiers of
canopied statues and wonderfully proportioned windows. Through the
beautiful north porch one passes into the nave, which, though
exceedingly beautiful, has a certain air of coldness owing to the
absence of stained glass. It seems hardly credible that this beautiful
glass, the making of which is now a lost art, was deliberately destroyed
at the end of the eighteenth century by the so-called "architect" James
Wyatt. In addition to this, "Wyatt swept away screens, chapels, and
porches, desecrated and destroyed the tombs of warriors and prelates;
obliterated ancient paintings, flung stained glass by cartloads into the
city ditch, and razed to the ground the beautiful old campanile which
stood opposite the north porch."

The Lady Chapel of the cathedral is one of the most beautiful in the
kingdom.

Although the cathedral is the great glory of Salisbury, there are plenty
of interesting mediaeval buildings in the city. In the close itself are
the King's House and the King's Wardrobe, both old gabled houses of
great beauty. St. Thomas's and St. Edmund's are the two most interesting
churches in the city.

About 2 miles north of Salisbury is a group of pretty cottages on the
Avon, forming the village of Milston. Here, on May 1, 1672, Joseph
Addison was born in the old rectory, now unfortunately pulled down. His
father, Lancelot Addison, was rector of the parish.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

SALISBURY CATHEDRAL.

The spire is one of the most graceful in the world, and the whole
building, commenced in 1220, was completed within fifty years.]

SANDWICH, KENT

=How to get there.=--Train from Charing Cross, Cannon Street, and
London Bridge. South-Eastern and Chatham Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Sandwich.
=Distance from London.=--84-1/2 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 2-1/2 to 3 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 13s. 0d. 8s. 4d. 6s. 6d.
Return 22s. 8d. 16s. 8d. 13s. 0d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Bell," "Bell and Anchor," "Fleur
de Lys," etc.

It is difficult to realise that Sandwich, now 1-1/2 miles from the
coast, was yet once situated on the sea, and was the second in
importance of the Cinque Ports. In Roman and early Saxon times a wide
arm of the Thames, called the Wantsume, flowed from Reculver (then known
as Regulbium), where it was a mile wide, southwards to what is now the
mouth of the Stour. Between Ebbsfleet and Worth it was over 4 miles
wide. The Roman fortress of Ritupiae (Richborough) guarded it on the
south, and the river Stour flowed into it at Stourmouth. This stream
caused so much alluvial deposit that the sea receded from Richborough in
early Saxon times, and part of the population removed to Sandwich. The
repeated attacks by the Danes and the French did not check the growth of
the town, which attained its maximum prosperity in Edward IV.'s reign,
when it was walled. But the sea left its shores, and the town declined
to again rise in importance, when the 400 Flemish emigrants settled
there in Elizabeth's reign and introduced silk-weaving, flannel
manufactures, and market-gardening.

Sandwich contains some of the richest bits of mediaeval architecture in
England. There are some traces of the walls to be seen, and one ancient
gateway is perfect, Fisher's Gate, near the quay. On the north is the
Tudor barbican gate. St. Clement's Church possesses a central Norman
tower. The nave is in the Perpendicular style, and the chancel is
Decorated. Both have fine roofs. St. Peter's Church (thirteenth century)
has a tower, but its south aisle was destroyed in 1661. The session-room
at the town hall has some curious seats for the mayor and aldermen, and
the hospital of St. Bartholomew's has an Early English chapel. The best
of the ancient houses in the town are in Strand Street and Lucksboat
Street. Manswood Grammar School dates from 1564, and has a Flemish
front.

At Richborough can be seen some Roman rectangular walls about 10 feet
high, with a subterranean concrete building in the centre.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

FISHER'S GATE, SANDWICH.

A picturesque survival of the days of the town's importance as a Cinque
Port.]

NEW FOREST, HAMPSHIRE

=How to get there.=--Train from Waterloo. L. and S.W. Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Lyndhurst Road Station (3 miles).
=Distance from London.=--85-1/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 2-1/4 to 3-3/4 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 14s. 2d. 9s. 0d. 7s. 1d.
Return 24s. 10d. 15s. 8d. 14s. 2d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Grand Hotel," Lyndhurst; "Crown
Hotel," Lyndhurst; "Rose and Crown," Brockenhurst, etc.

The popular story as to the creation of what was then the "New" Forest
by William the Conqueror has been probably much exaggerated, although we
all believed in our school days the old chroniclers, who averred that
the king destroyed fifty or so churches and numerous villages, and
exterminated their inhabitants. The fact is that the harsh feudal forest
laws were rigidly enforced by the Conqueror, who no doubt in some places
swept away the villages and churches of rebellious foresters, but the
very qualities of the forest soil disprove the fact that the land was
once all "smiling pastures and golden cornfields," as some of the old
historians would have us believe.

The New Forest of the present day forms a triangle about 20 miles long
and 12 broad, of which the base is a line drawn westward from the mouth
of the Beaulieu river to within a mile or two of the Avon, the apex
reaching to the confines of Wiltshire. The forest scenery is extremely
diversified, but always very beautiful; glades and reaches of gentle
park and meadow, and open heath-like stretches, contrast wonderfully
with the actual masses of huge beeches, under some of which daylight
never penetrates.

Lyndhurst, the little capital of the New Forest, is situated in its
centre, and is one of the best points from which to explore the beauties
of the district. The church at Lyndhurst is modern, rebuilt in 1863; but
it should be visited in order to see the large altar-fresco of the Ten
Virgins executed by the late Lord Leighton. A little way beyond the
church is the Queen's House, built in Charles II.'s reign. Here resides
the Deputy-Surveyor, who administers under the Crown, while six elected
Verderers, in their courts of Swain-mote, represent the Commoners. In
the hall is kept what is known as William Rufus's stirrup-iron.

Close to the village of Minsted is Malwood Lodge, Sir William Harcourt's
New Forest seat. From a ridge near this there are grand views of the
forest, till one comes to the Compton Arms Hotel, a completely isolated
inn, near the Rufus Stone, which marks the spot where William II. fell
by the arrow of Walter Tyrell.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

THE RUFUS STONE IN THE NEW FOREST.

Marking the spot where William II. fell by Walter Tyrell's arrow.]

OSBORNE HOUSE

=How to get there.=--Train from London Bridge or Victoria. London,
Brighton, and South Coast Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Cowes.
=Distance from London.=--87 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 4 to 5-1/4 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 16s. 0d. 10s. 5d. 8s. 10d.
Return 27s. 10d. 18s. 2d. 16s. 4d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--Cowes--"Fountain Hotel," "The
Gloster," "Royal Marine Hotel."
=Alternative Route.=--Train from Waterloo _via_ Southampton. L. and
S.W. Railway.

Osborne House having been presented to the nation by King Edward,
portions of the buildings and grounds are, or will be, available to the
public on week days.

This stately marine residence of the late Queen Victoria is situated in
the Isle of Wight, an island remarkable for the variety and beauty of
its scenery. The Queen purchased the estate in 1845 from Lady Elizabeth
Blachford, and the palace was finished in 1851. Since that time many
additions have been made. The main gates are about three-quarters of a
mile up the hill from the ferry, and the Prince of Wales's Gate further
south, opposite the hotel. Osborne House has a melancholy interest
attached to it, for here, on January 22, 1901, Queen Victoria breathed
her last. A portion of every year was spent by the Queen at her seaside
home, which had many associations of her happy life there with her
husband, the late Prince Consort, "Albert the Good." Surrounded with
their children, they forgot the splendours and fatigues of Court, and
devoted themselves to training their family in all that was useful and
good. The Queen nearly always spoke of Osborne as "her island home." She
and Prince Albert delighted in the fact that it was their own, that they
could make their own plans, exercise their own taste in the laying out
of the gardens, and in the building--in fact, in everything in this
seaside home. The building is in the Palladian style, and was designed
by Thomas Cubitt and the late Prince Consort. The grounds, covering 5000
acres, are 8 miles in extent, with a sea front of 1-1/3 miles. The
terrace gardens are ornamented with statuary, and the grounds lead down
to the water's edge, where there are sea baths and a private pier. The
last journey of Victoria the Good from Osborne to the mausoleum at
Frogmore, in the grounds of Windsor Castle, was a spectacle never to be
forgotten.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

OSBORNE HOUSE.

Built by Queen Victoria and Prince Albert in 1851.]

CARISBROOKE CASTLE

=How to get there.=--Train from Victoria or London Bridge _via_
Portsmouth and Ryde. London, Brighton, and South Coast
Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Carisbrooke.
=Distance from London.=--88 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 3-1/2 to 5-1/2 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 16s. 4d. 10s. 8d. 9s. 1d.
Return 28s. 4d. 18s. 6d. 16s. 8d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Red Lion Hotel," "Waverley Hotel,"
"Eight Bells Hotel," "Castle Hotel," "Temperance Hotel," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from Waterloo _via_ Cowes and Ryde.
L. and S.W. Railway.

Carisbrooke village is a charming place delightfully situated in the
centre of the island. The castle (the charge for entering is 4d.) stands
on a wooded hill at an elevation of 150 feet. The summit of the hill
forms a level plateau about 20 acres in extent, all enclosed by the
castle walls. Sir Walter Scott is said to have had this castle in his
mind when writing _Marmion_. Beyond the great interest attached to the
fact that it was here that Charles I. was confined, the castle does not
figure very prominently in history. The fact, however, that this
unfortunate monarch was imprisoned here in 1647 by the Parliament will
be always sufficient to give its ancient walls and battlements a
never-dying interest. When Charles was brought to the castle he was
treated more as a guest than a prisoner, but after his attempted escape
the king was much more closely watched and his pleasures curtailed. The
story of the king attempting in vain to get through his bedroom window
is known to all. Everything was in readiness, the details of rescue were
all carefully prepared. Captain Titus and others of the guard had been
won over to assist the king, and had King Charles negotiated the narrow
window, in all probability the escape would have been a success. In
1650, the year after Charles I. was beheaded, Henry Duke of Gloucester
and the Princess Elizabeth were brought to the castle. Shortly after her
arrival the princess, who was of a sickly constitution, took a severe
chill and was found one morning by her attendants lying dead on a couch.
Queen Victoria had a beautiful monument erected to her memory in Newport
Church. The Well House, where the water is drawn from the depth of 150
feet by a clever donkey and draw-wheel, is an interesting feature of the
castle. Princess Beatrice is the present Governor of the Island.

[Illustration: CARISBROOKE CASTLE.

Where Charles I. was imprisoned in 1647.]

LUTTERWORTH

THE HOME OF JOHN WYCLIFF

=How to get there.=--Train from Marylebone. Great Central Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Lutterworth.
=Distance from London.=--90 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 2-1/4 to 3 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 12s. 4d. ... 7s. 0d.
Return 24s. 0d. ... 14s. 0d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Hind Hotel," "Denbigh Arms,"
"Fox," etc.

Situated in typical English midland scenery, the quiet little country
town of Lutterworth rises from the surrounding undulating pasture-land.
Here, in the beginning of the fourteenth century, when it was probably
merely a fair-sized village, John Wycliff, the "Morning Star of the
Reformation," and founder of the Lollards, was born. The main street
slopes down the hill, beyond the houses, till it reaches the river side,
where it is carried over the little river Swift on a small bridge.

A good proportion of the church, which is so closely associated with
Wycliff, dates from the fourteenth century. It is a large building, with
a tower and belfry stage, and four crocketed pinnacles. The tower was
formerly surmounted by a wooden belfry, but this was destroyed by the
great gale of 1703. The nave is lighted by a clerestory, and the aisles
are divided by high arches. The church is built in Early Perpendicular
style, but there is a good decorated window at the eastern end of the
south aisle, where there used to be a Lady Chapel. The lower portions of
the walls date from before the time of Wycliff. At the eastern end of
the chancel are an aumbry and piscina. About thirty years ago the church
was restored by Sir Gilbert Scott, when much new stone was inserted.

There are three interesting frescoes in the interior: one is believed to
represent Queen Philippa asking Edward III. to give the living of
Lutterworth to Wycliff. The roof of the nave is formed of fine woodwork
of the Perpendicular period, but the pulpit, a splendid piece of
fourteenth-century oak carving, claims the chief interest, being the
same from which the great reformer preached. The base has been renewed,
and the rest has been much repaired, but the same pulpit has been in use
for more than 500 years. A fragment of Wycliff's cope or chasuble is
preserved in a glass case in the vestry, but some doubt attaches to the
origin of "Wycliff's chair," which seems of considerably later date.

[Illustration: WYCLIFF'S PULPIT IN LUTTERWORTH CHURCH.

It is a fine piece of fourteenth-century oak carving.]

COMPTON WYNYATES

=How to get there.=--Train from Euston. London and North-Western
Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Kineton (5 miles from Compton Wynyates).
=Distance from London.=--91-3/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 2 to 3-3/4 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 14s. 4d. 9s. 0d. 7s. 8d.
Return 26s. 6d. 16s. 11d. ...

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--At Kineton--"Red Lion Hotel,"
"Swan Hotel."
=Alternative Route.=--None.

Compton Wynyates, the seat of the Marquess of Northampton, is one of the
most beautiful Tudor houses in England, and although Warwickshire is
exceedingly rich in castles and fine old houses, it can show nothing to
surpass this time-worn pile of red brick and stone. Though the moat,
which was the outer guard of the place, has been partly filled in and
converted into smooth lawns, one of the most romantic aspects of the
house is to be seen across an angle of the watery enclosure. The
buildings surround a quadrangle, the entrance being made through a
beautiful Tudor gateway. In the spandrils of its archway are carved the
arms of Henry VIII., with the griffin and greyhound for supporters and
the royal crown above.

The house was built by Sir William Compton during the reign of Henry
VIII., with the exception of some additions, including the great parlour
panelled with oak, which dates from the days of Queen Elizabeth.

To touch on half the glories of this perfect Tudor house would occupy
many pages of this book--its beautiful chapel with its curious carvings
with the seven deadly sins represented as knights in armour, the great
hall in which Henry VIII. was welcomed by Sir William Compton, the
drawing-room with its fine plaster ceiling--all are so full of beauty
and interest that they can merely be referred to here.

The situation of the house in a richly timbered hollow adds infinitely
to its charm. The gardens, too, are of the beautiful type that one
learns to expect in conjunction with so lovely a dwelling, while
flowering creepers on the towers and on the gabled walls complete an
ideal picture of all that is loveliest in an old English mansion.

Permission to see Compton Wynyates can only be obtained by a written
application.

[Illustration: _Valentine & Sons, Ltd._

COMPTON WYNYATES.

The seat of the Marquess of Northampton, is one of the most beautiful
mediaeval homes in England.]

KENILWORTH CASTLE

=How to get there.=--Train from Euston. L. and N.W. Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Kenilworth.
=Distance from London.=--99 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 2-1/2 to 4 hours.

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