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Travels Through France And Italy

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KOTZEBUE, A. F. F. VON. Travels through Italy in 1804 and 1805. 4
vols. London, 1807.

LALANDE, J. J. DE. Voyage en Italie. 6 vols. 12mo. 1768.

LEE, EDWIN. Nice et son climat. Paris, 1863.

LENOTRE, G. Paris revolutionnaire. Paris, 1895.

LENTHERIC, CHARLES. La Provence Maritime, ancienne et moderne.
Paris, 1880. Les voies antiques de la Region du Rhone. Avignon,
1882.

LUCHAIRE, A. Hist. des Instit. Monarchiques de la France. 2 vols.
1891.

MAUGHAM, H. N. The Book of Italian Travel. London, 1903.

MERCIER, M. New Pictures of Paris. London, I8OO.

METRIVIER, H. Monaco et ses Princes. 2 vols. I862.

MILLINGEN, J. G. Sketches of Ancient and Modern Boulogne. London,
1826.

MONTAIGNE, MICHEL DE. Journal du Voyage en Italie (Querlon).
Rome, 1774.

MONTESQUIEU, CHARLES DE SECONDAT, BARON DE. Voyages. Bordeaux,
1894.

MONTFAUCON. Travels of the Learned Dr. Montfaucon from Paris
through Italy. London, 1712.

MOORE, DR. JOHN. A View of Society and Manners in France (2
vols., 1779), and in Italy (2 vols., 1781)

NASH, JAMES. Guide to Nice, 1884.

NORTHALL, JOHN. Travels through Italy. London, 1766.

NUGENT, THOMAS. The Grand Tour. 3rd edition. 4 vols. 1778.

PALLIARI, LEA. Notices historiques sur le comte et la ville de
Nice. Nice, 1875.

PETHERICK, E, A. Catalogue of the York Gate Library. An Index to
the Literature of Geography. London, 1881.

PIOZZI, HESTER LYNCH. Observations and Reflections made in the
course of a Journey through France, Italy, and Germany. In 2
vols. London, 1789.

RAE, JOHN. Life of Adam Smith. London, 1885.

RICHARD, L'ABBE. Description historique et critique de l'Italie.
6 vols. Paris, 1768.

RICHARDERIE, BOUCHER DE LA. Bibliotheque des voyages. Paris,
1808.

RIGBY, DR. Letters from France in 1789, edited by Lady Eastlake.
London, 1880.

ROSE, WILLIAM STEWART. Letters from the North of Italy to Henry
Hallam. 2 vols. 1819.

ROUX, JOSEPH. Statistique des Alpes Maritimes. 2 vols. 1863.

RUFFINI, GIOVANNI, D. Doctor Antonio; a Tale. Paris, 1855.

SAYOUS, A. Le Dix-huitieme siecle a l'etranger. 2 vols. Paris,
1861.

SECCOMBE, THOMAS. Smollett's Travels, edited with bibliographical
note, etc. By Thomas Seccombe (Works, Constable's Edition, vol.
xi.). 1900.

SHARP, SAMUEL. Letters from Italy. London, 1769.

SHERLOCK, MARTIN. Letters from an English Traveller. (New English
version.) 2 vols. 1802.

SMOLLETT, T. Travels through France and Italy. 2 vols. London,
1766.

SPALDING, WILLIAM. Italy and the Italian Islands. 3 vols. London,
1841.

STAEL, MME. DE. Corinne, ou l'Italie. 1807.

STARKE, MARIANA. Letters from Italy, 1792-1798. 9 vols. 1800.
Travels on the Continent for the use of Travellers. 1800, 1820,
1824, etc.

STENDHAL. Rome, Naples, and Florence, in 1817. London, 1818.

STERNE, LAURENCE. A Sentimental Journey through France and Italy.
By Mr. Yorick. 2 vols. London, 1768.

STOLBERZ, COUNT F. L. ZU. Travels through Germany, Switzerland,
Italy, etc. Translated by Thomas Holcroft. 1796.

TAINE, HENRI. Voyage en Italie. 1866.

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France in a Series of Letters. London, 1768. A year's Journey
through France, etc. 2, vols. 1777.

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etc. 2 vols. Nice, 1862.

TWINING FAMILY PAPERS. London, 1887.

VIOLLET, PAUL. Hist. des Instit. polit. et administratifs de la
France. 2 vols. Paris, 1890-98.

WHATLEY, STEPHEN. The Travels and Adventures of J. Massey.
Translated from the French. 1743.

WILLIAMS, C. THEODORE. The Climate of the South of France. 1869.

WINCKELMANN, J. J. Lettres familieres. Amsterdam, 1781.
Reflections on the Painting and Sculpture of the Greeks.
Translated by H. Fuseli. London, 1765. Voyage en Italie de J. J.
Barthelemy . . . avec des morceaux inedits de Winckelmann. 1801.

YOUNG, ARTHUR. Travels in France during 1787, 1788, 1789, edited
by M. Betham-Edwards. 1889.

YOUNG, EDWARD. Sa vie et ses oeuvres, par W. Thomas. Paris,
1901.

APPENDIX B

Short Notes on one or two unfamiliar Words which Smollett helped
to domesticate in England.

Berline. Swift and Chesterfield both use this for a heavy coach.
The most famous berline was that used in the flight to Varennes.
The name came from Brandenburg in the time of Frederick William.

Bize. Smollett's spelling of bise--the cutting N.N.E. wind which
makes Geneva so beautiful, but intolerable in the winter.

Brasiere=brasero. A tray for hot charcoal used for warming rooms
at Nice. Smollett practically introduced this word. Dried olives
were often used as fuel.

Calesse, calash, caleche. A low two-wheeled carriage of light
construction, with a movable folding hood; hence applied to a
hood bonnet as in Mrs. Gaskell's Cranford.

Cassine. Latin casa, cassa, cassina; the Italian cassina, A small
detached house in the fields, often whitewashed and of mean
appearance. Smollett uses the word as an equivalent for summer
cottage. Cf. bastide as used by Dumas. Cabane has practically
replaced cassine in modern French. See Letter XXIV.

Cambiatura. The system of changing chaises every post, common in
England, but unusual abroad except in Tuscany.

Cicisbeo. The word is used by Lady Mary Montagu in her Letters
(17I8) as cecisbeo. Smollett's best account is in Letter XVII.
See Introduction, p. xliii.

Conversazione. Gray uses the word for assembly in 1710, but
Smollett, I believe, is about the first Englishman to define it
properly.

Corinth. This was still used as a variant of currant, though
adherence to it was probably rather pedantic on Smollett's part
(cf. his use of "hough" for hoe). Boswell uses the modern form.

Corridore. This word was used by Evelyn, and the correct modern
spelling given by Johnson in 1753; but Smollett as often adheres
to the old form.

Douche. Italian doccia. Smollett is perhaps the first writer to
explain the word and assign to it the now familiar French form
(Letter XL).

Feluca. An Arab word to denote a coasting boat, oar or sail
propelled. Nelson and Marryat write felucca. It was large enough
to accommodate a post-chaise (Letter XXV).

Gabelle. Supposed to be derived from the Arabic kabala, the
irksome tax on salt, from which few provinces in France were
altogether free, swept away in 1790. Smollett describes the
exaction in San Remo.

Garum. Used by Smollett for the rich fish sauce of the ancients,
equivalent to a saumure, perhaps, in modern French cookery. In
the Middle Ages the word is used both for a condiment and a
beverage.

Improvisatore. A performer in the Commedia delle Arte, of which
Smollett gives a brief admiring account in his description of
Florence (Letter XXVII). For details of the various elements, the
doti, generici, lazzi, etc., see Carlo Gozzi.

Liqueur. First used by Pope. "An affected, contemptible
expression" (Johnson).

Macaroni. "The paste called macaroni" (Letter XXVI) was seen by
Smollett in the neighbourhood of its origin near Genoa, which
city formed the chief market.

Maestral. An old form of mistral, the very dry wind from the
N.N.W., described by Smollett as the coldest he ever experienced.

Patois. See Letter XXII. ad fin.

Pietre commesse. A sort of inlaying with stones, analogous to the
fineering of cabinets in wood (Letter XXVIII). Used by Evelyn in
1644.

Polenta. A meal ground from maize, which makes a good "pectoral"
(Letter XXII).

Pomi carli. The most agreeable apples Smollett tasted, stated to
come from the marquisate of Final, sold by the Emperor Charles
VI. to the Genoese.

Preniac. A small white wine, mentioned in Letter IV., from
Boulogne, as agreeable and very cheap.

Seafarot boots. Jack-boots or wading boots, worn by a Marquis of
Savoy, and removed by means of a tug-of-war team and a rope
coiled round the heel (see Letter XXVIII).

Sporcherie. With respect to delicacy and decorum you may peruse
Dean Swift's description of the Yahoos, and then you will have
some idea of the sporcherie that distinguishes the gallantry of
Nice (Letter XVII). Ital. sporcheria, sporcizia.

Strappado or corda. Performed by hoisting the criminal by his
hands tied behind his back and dropping him suddenly "with
incredible pain" (Letter XX). See Introduction, p. xliv, and
Christie, Etienne Dolet, 1899, P. 231.

Tartane. From Italian tartana, Arabic taridha; a similar word
being used in Valencia and Grand Canary for a two-wheeled open
cart. One of the commonest craft on the Mediterranean (cf. the
topo of the Adriatic). For different types see Larousse's Nouveau
Dictionnaire.

Tip. To "tip the wink" is found in Addison's Tatler (No. 86), but
"to tip" in the sense of to gratify is not common before
Smollett, who uses it more than once or twice in this sense (cf.
Roderick Random, chap. xiv. ad fin.)

Valanches. For avalanches (dangers from to travellers, see Letter
XXXVIII).

Villeggiatura. An early adaptation by Smollett of the Italian
word for country retirement (Letter XXIX).

APPENDIX C

Currency of Savoy in the time of Smollett.

Ten bajocci=one paolo (6d.).
Ten paoli=one scudo (six livres or about 5s.).
Two scudi=one zequin.
Two zequin=one louid'or.

Afterword. -I should be ungrateful were I not to create an
epilogue for the express purpose of thanking M. Morel, H. S
Spencer Scott, Dr. Norman Moore, W. P. Courtney, G. Whale, D. S.
MacColl, Walter Sichel (there may be others), who have supplied
hints for my annotations, and I should like further, if one might
inscribe such a trifle, to inscribe this to that difficult
critic, Mr. Arthur Vincent, who, when I told him I was about it,
gave expression to the cordial regret that so well hidden a
treasure of our literature (as he regarded the Travels) was to be
"vulgarised."

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