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Traditions of the Tinguian: A Study in Philippine Folk-Lore by Fay-Cooper Cole

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[64] See p. 13, note 5.

[65] The _Pala-an_ is third in importance among Tinguian ceremonies.

[66] Tale 58.

[67] This is offered only as a possible explanation, for little is
known of the beliefs of this group of Igorot.

[68] See p. 14, note 2.

[69] Tale 68.

[70] _Hose_ and _McDougall_, The Pagan Tribes of Borneo, Vol. II,
p. 148, (London, 1912).

[71] _Bezemer_, Volksdichtung aus Indonesien, p. 304, Haag, 1904. For
the Tagalog version of this tale see _Bayliss_, (_Jour. Am. Folk-lore_,
Vol. XXI, 1908, p. 46).

[72] _Evans_, Folk Stories of British North Borneo. (_Journal Royal
Anthropological Institute_, Vol. XLIII, 1913, p. 475).

[73] Folk Stories of British North Borneo (_Journal Royal
Anthropological Institute_, Vol. XLIII, p. 447, 1913).

[74] Tale No. 89.

[75] _Hose_ and _McDougall_, The Pagan Tribes of Borneo, Vol. II,
pp. 144-146.

[76] Tale 91. The cloak which causes invisibility is found in Grimm's
tale of the raven. See _Grimm's_ Fairy Tales, Columbus Series,
p. 30. In a Pampanga tale the possessor of a magic stone becomes
invisible when squeezes it. See _Bayliss_, (_Jour. Am. Folk-Lore_,
Vol. XXI, 1908, p. 48).

[77] _Ratzel_, History of Mankind, Vol. I, Book II. _Graebner_, Methode
der Ethnologie, Heidelberg, 1911; Die melanesische Bogenkultur und
ihre Verwandten (_Anthropos_, Vol. IV, pp. 726, 998, 1909).

[78] See _Waterman_, _Journal American Folklore_, Vol. XXVII, 1914,
pp. 45-46.

[79] Stories of magic growth are frequently found in North America. See
_Kroeber_, Gross Ventre Myths and Tales (_Anthropological Papers of the
Am. Mus. of Nat. Hist._, Vol. I, p. 82); also _Lowie_, The Assiniboin
(_ibid._, Vol. IV, Pt. 1, p. 136).

[80] Other examples of equally widespread tales are noted by _Boas_,
Indianische Sagen, p. 852, (Berlin, 1895); L. _Roth_, Custom and Myth,
pp. 87 ff., (New York, 1885); and others. A discussion of the spread of
similar material will be found in _Graebner_, Methode der Ethnologie,
p. 115; _Ehrenreich_, Mythen und Legenden der suedamerikanischen
Urvoelker, pp. 77 ff.; _Ehrenreich_, Die allgemeine Mythologie und
ihre ethnologischen Grundlagen, p. 270.

[81] _Cole_ and _Laufer_, Chinese Pottery in the Philippines
(_Publication Field Museum of Natural History, Anthropological Series_,
Vol. XII, No. 1, Chicago, 1913).

[82] _Nieuwenhuis_, Kunstperlen und ihre kulturelle Bedeutung
(_Int. Arch, fuer Ethnographie_, Vol. XVI, 1903, pp. 136-154).

[83] _Philippine Journal of Science_, Vol. III, No. 4, 1908,
pp. 197-211.

[84] A vine the new leaves of which are used for greens.

[85] _Antidesma ghesaembilla_ Gaertn.

[86] Rare beads.

[87] Larger beads than _oday_.

[88] Shallow wells are dug in the sands, near to the river.

[89] See p. 17, note 3.

[90] It was so long that it dragged.

[91] i.e., it was so small. The idea that roosters produce unusually
small eggs is still held. The same conception is found in Javanese
folk-lore. Here the "rooster's egg" or its substitute--the _Kemiri_
nut--is placed in the granary to cause an increase in the supply of
rice. _Bezemer_, Volksdichtung aus Indonesien, p. 29, (Haag, 1904).

[92] See p. 17, note 3, for similar incidents in other Philippine
tales, also from Borneo and India.

[93] The illuminating power of beauty receives frequent
mention. Similiar references are met with in Malay legends and Indian
tales. See _Tawney_, Katha Sarit Sagara, p. 121 ff. (Calcutta, 1880.)

[94] The meaning of this passage is not clear.

[95] See p. 17, note 3.

[96] See p. 10, note 1.

[97] See p. 9.

[98] See p. 18, note 2, for similar incidents.

[99] This would have been a sign that the child wished to go to
its father.

[100] See. p. 11 ff.

[101] Certain varieties of bamboo and reeds.

[102] See p. 13.

[103] See p. 13, note 1.

[104] The rice used in this ceremony is pounded in a certain manner,
by many women who sing as they work.

[105] See p. 18.

[106] See p. 13, note 2.

[107] See p. 12.

[108] Like presents, or others of equal value, are generally given
in return.

[109] A dance held at the gate of the town, on the great day of this
ceremony. During the dance rice and water are thrown on the visitors.

[110] This was a sign that they were related. In this case the quids
of the young people went to those of their fathers.

[111] They had not yet paid the customary marriage price for the girl.

[112] See p. 6.

[113] Copper gong.

[114] A white and a black strip of cloth which the dancers carry in
their hands. When the cloth is given to a person he is thus invited
to dance.

[115] Kanag was the baby born from Aponibolinayen's finger. Mentioned
earlier in story.

[116] Names of different kinds of jars.

[117] Poles on which the heads of enemies are displayed.

[118] The _alan_ are lesser spirits. See p. 14.

[119] See p. 18, note 1.

[120] See pp. 12-13.

[121] A powerful spirit.

[122] The head man of a Tinguian village.

[123] See p. 14.

[124] Algaba is renamed Aponitolau.

[125] See p. 11.

[126] A big bird.

[127] A bad sign. See p. 19, note 1 for omens.

[128] Sugar cane rum.

[129] The groom's gift.

[130] Lesser spirits.

[131] See p. 35, note 1.

[132] See p. 42, note 1.

[133] _Piper sp_.

[134] See p. 18, note 1.

[135] See p. 17, note 3.

[136] A powerful spirit.

[137] See p. 30, note 3.

[138] See p. 12.

[139] See p. 7, note 1.

[140] The story tellers explain the very frequent mention of "girls
who always stay in the house" or "who never go out of doors" by saying
that in former times the prettiest girls were always protected from
the sunlight in order that their skin might be of light color. These
girls were called _lala-am_--those within. It is not thought they
remained constantly within doors.

[141] See p. 11.

[142] See p. 12.

[143] See p. 13, note 1.

[144] See p. 14, note 2.

[145] See p. 13, note 2.

[146] Small covered benches built during the _Sayang_ ceremony for
the use of spirits and mortals.

[147] See p. 11.

[148] See p. 17.

[149] See p. 11.

[150] Each type of jar has its special name.

[151] See p. 12.

[152] This was the _tadek_. See p. 11, note 3.

[153] Similiar ideas appear in tales from Borneo. See p. 15, note 1.

[154] _Ilangilang_.

[155] It is still considered a bad sign if anything falls or breaks
at a wedding.

[156] Apparently Gawigawen had not been present at the _pakalon_. Such
a condition frequently exists nowadays.

[157] See pp. 12, 128.

[158] A minor spirit.

[159] King or ruler.

[160] This seems to be a late unconnected, intrusion into the tale. The
_ati_ and soldiers are entirely foreign to the Tinguian.

[161] See p. 12.

[162] This incident is frequently found in these tales. It also occurs
in Javanese literature. See _Bezemer_, Volksdichtung aus Indonesien,
p. 47. (Haag, 1904).

[163] See p. 15.

[164] Kadayadawan is re-named Aponitolau by his new-found parents.

[165] A powerful spirit.

[166] See p. 54, note 2.

[167] The story teller paused here to explain that his mother did
not know that she was pregnant, and that a miscarriage had occurred.

[168] See p. 63, note 1.

[169] Head man.

[170] The term used is _alopogan_, which means "she who covers her
face." For lack of a better designation we shall call her a medium. See
p. 23.

[171] See p. 41, note 2.

[172] A bird.

[173] Copper gong.

[174] See p. 59, note 1.

[175] It is the custom to distribute a part of the marriage price
among the relatives of the bride.

[176] The groom's gift.

[177] See p. 11, note 5.

[178] The term which expresses the relationship established between
the parents of the bride and groom.

[179] _Piper sp_.

[180] A headband of beads or gold.

[181] See p. 17, note 1.

[182] See p. 12.

[183] Don Carlos was evidently an Ilocano, for his language is Ilocano
and his residence Vigan. Other points indicate that the story has
many recent additions.

[184] The use of love charms is not confined to the Tinguian and
their Ilocano neighbors, but is known also by the tribes of the Malay
Peninsula. See _Reyes_, Folklore, Filipino, p. 50, (Manila, 1889);
_Skeat_ and _Blagden_, Pagan Races of the Malay Peninsula, Vol. II,
pp. 232, 262. (London, 1906.)

[185] _Antidesma ghesaembilla_ Gaertn.

[186] Ordinary lightning.

[187] See p. 24, note 1.

[188] See p. 18.

[189] Another name for Aponitolau.

[190] See p. 41, note 2.

[191] Ligi (Dagdagalisit) is now known by his true name.

[192] See p. 54, note 2.

[193] See p. 54.

[194] See p. 18, note 3.

[195] See p. 18, note 2.

[196] See p. 30, note 3.

[197] See p. 14, note 2.

[198] Another name for Ingiwan, who is really Aponitolau.

[199] See p. 12.

[200] As a sign of mourning.

[201] See p. 18, note 1.

[202] See p. 19, note 1.

[203] See p. 42.

[204] See p. 10, note 4.

[205] See p. 17.

[206] An insect.

[207] Ginteban was a woman from Baygan (Vigan) who had been captured
by the bird.

[208] See p. 18.

[209] See p. 96, note 3.

[210] A fruit tree.

[211] See p. 18.

[212] See p. 30, note 3.

[213] The idea of a plant serving as a life or fidelity token was
found in ancient Egypt, in India, and Europe. See Cox, an Introduction
to Folk-Lore (London, 1904); _Tawney_, Katha Sarit Sagara (Calcutta,
1880, Vol. I, p. 86); _Parker_, Village Folk-Tales of Ceylon.

[214] See p. 18, note 1.

[215] See p. 17, note 1.

[216] A fruit.

[217] See p. 96, note 3.

[218] Lightning which is accompanied by a loud crash of thunder.

[219] See p. 19, note 1.

[220] See p. 16.

[221] See p. 30, note 3.

[222] See p. 18, note 1.

[223] See p. 16, note 6.

[224] Spirits.

[225] See p. 13, note 5.

[226] An evil spirit which lives in the air and makes a sound like
the medium when she is summoning the spirits.

[227] The spirit's word for world.

[228] A small bench made for the use of spirits and visiting mortals.

[229] See p. 105.

[230] See p. 63, note 1.

[231] The term used is _al-ligan_--the high watch house in the fields.

[232] One of the big stars.

[233] A different kind of star.

[234] Reduplicated form of _bitowen_--many stars.

[235] See p. 15, note 2.

[236] The spirits' name for mortals.

[237] The moon.

[238] A sort of enclosed seat in which babies are suspended from the
house rafters.

[239] See p. 13, note 2.

[240] See p. 13.

[241] Aponitolau.

[242] The name means "sparks of fire."

[243] See p. 13, note 2.

[244] See p. 56, note 6.

[245] Similiar incidents, in which women give birth to snakes or
animals, occur in Borneo. See _Evans_, _Journal Royal Anthro. Inst._,
Vol. XLIII, 1913, pp. 432 ff.

[246] See p.17, note 3.

[247] Aponitolau.

[248] Sugar cane rum.

[249] See p. 41, note 2.

[250] See p. 27.

[251] See p. 17, note 3.

[252] See p. 73, note 3.

[253] Lesser spirits.

[254] See p. 54, note 2.

[255] See p. 10, note 1.

[256] See p. 10, note 2.

[257] The cloth used in dancing. See p. 11.

[258] See p. 63, note 1.

[259] See p. 12.

[260] Another name for Kanag.

[261] A raft. See p. 24, note 1.

[262] The Tinguian believe that the rivers and waters finally empty
over the edge of the world at a place known as Nagbotobotan.

[263] See p. 18, note 1.

[264] See p. 13, note 2.

[265] See p. 41, note 2.

[266] A jar.

[267] Mountain rice.

[268] The omen bird.

[269] See p. 19, note 1.

[270] See p. 10, note 1.

[271] The storyteller here paused to explain that Kadalayapan was
somewhere in the air, and that Kanag was going down to the earth for
fruit. See p. 7.

[272] A band of leaves worn about the head.

[273] See p. 18, note 2.

[274] See p. 30, note 3.

[275] A place of great trees, many herbs, and continued dampness.

[276] See p. 13.

[277] Negrito. It was Gamayawan disguised.

[278] See p. 23.

[279] See p. 17.

[280] A powerful spirit.

[281] See p. 30, note 3.

[282] A sort of tuning fork made of bamboo.

[283] See p. 96, note 3.

[284] The word is probably used in the Igorot sense as
"celebration." In the Tinguian dialects _kanyau_ means "taboo."

[285] See p. 17, note 1.

[286] See p. 18, note 1.

[287] See p. 63.

[288] See p. 24, note 1.

[289] This story does not belong to the cycle proper.

[290] See p. 34, note 2.

[291] See p. 14.

[292] The Tinguian always refer to the Igorot as _alzado_.

[293] Head man.

[294] This story does not belong to the cycle.

[295] See p. 54, note 2.

[296] See p. 14.

[297] A low box-like table used by the Ilocano.

[298] Certain charms are still used by lovers to aid them in their
suits.

[299] Pangasinan is a province midway between Abra and Manila.

[300] See p. 19, note 1.

[301] A spirit.

[302] Jars.

[303] This _diam_ is recited by the medium when the spirit house
known as _balaua_ is built. See also page 12.

[304] Spirit name for Tinguian.

[305] The greatest of Tinguian ceremonies.

[306] A large house built for the spirits during the _Sayang_ ceremony.

[307] Spirits.

[308] Kadaklan is the most powerful of the spirits. Agemem is his wife.

[309] The names of small buildings or shrines elected for various
spirits.

[310] Chanted by the medium while making offerings in the _Dawak_
ceremony which is made for the cure of minor illnesses, such as
fever, etc.

[311] A powerful spirit.

[312] The _diam_ recited during the _Pala-an_ ceremony.

[313] The east.

[314] Feathers attached to a stick, which serve as hair ornaments in
the _Sayang_ ceremony.

[315] Spirit name for Tinguian.

[316] See p. 171, note 2.

[317] Chanted by the medium, over the offerings given to aid in the
cure of a sick child, or to stop a child from incessant crying.

[318] The ceremony.

[319] _Diam_ recited during the _Sangasang_ ceremony in the town
of Lumaba.

[320] Chanted when the _Sangasang_ ceremony is made for sickness,
or to take away a bad omen.

[321] Spirit name for the earth.

[322] See p. 172, note 4.

[323] See p. 22, note 3.

[324] Chanted when the ceremony is made to remove a bad sign.

[325] An omen bird.

[326] The true omen bird.

[327] _Diam_ recited during the _Sangasang_ ceremony held to remove
continued misfortunes.

[328] Several native names which have no exact English equivalents
are used here.

[329] Woven bamboo used on ceilings.

[330] This _diam_ was chanted during the _Ubaya_ ceremony in
Villaviciosa, an Igorot town much influenced by Tinguian. The _Ubaya_
is also held in Lumaba, a Tinguian settlement.

[331] No one is allowed to enter the town after the ceremony begins.

[332] The most powerful of all spirits.

[333] See p. 13.

[334] See p. 13, note 1.

[335] See p. 12.

[336] A somewhat similar tale, current among the Dayak, will be found
in _Roth_, The Natives of Sarawak and British North Borneo, Vol. I,
p. 309 ff.

[337] A small spirit house built during the _bawi_ ceremony.

[338] A kind of grass.

[339] Account concerning the guardian stones at Patok.

[340] Peculiarly shaped stones in which Apdel, the guardian spirit
of the village is supposed to reside.

[341] A Tinguian town several miles south of Patok.

[342] Told by the people of Lumaba, to account for a peculiar knifelike
cut in one of the guardian stones outside the village.

[343] Large knife.

[344] Account of the securing of the guardian stones at Lagayan, Abra.

[345] Compare with account of _La Gironiere_, Twenty Years in the
Philippines, pp. 120 ff; also with _Cole_, _Philippine Journal of
Science_, Vol. III, No. 4, 1908, pp. 210-11.

[346] A ceremony held while the body is still in the house.

[347] A grass which is eaten.

[348] Taboo. A fire is kept burning at the grave and at the foot of
the house ladder for ten nights following the burial. During this time
the members of the family and near relatives must remain close to home.

[349] A barrio of Patok.

[350] A rope lasso.

[351] An evil spirit.

[352] People in the house with the dead and the relatives must observe
the _kanyau_ (taboo) for ten days or they will meet the spirit of
the dead person and it will harm them.

[353] _Smilax vicaria_ Kunth.

[354] The name by which the Tinguian designate themselves.

[355] _Blumea balsamifera_ D.C.

[356] A blanket with red or yellow stripes which resemble the markings
on a young wild pig.

[357] See p. 54, note 2.

[358] A mountain town in eastern Abra.

[359] A ceremony held about a year after a funeral.

[360] See p. 10, note 1.

[361] Spirit name for Tinguian.

[362] The three persons mentioned were still living when this story
was recorded.

[363] The name of the spirit of a dead man which still remains near
its old haunts.

[364] See p. 28, note 2.

[365] See p. 14.

[366] Head man.

[367] Near Namarabar in Ilocos Sur.

[368] The Ilocano consider the _komau_ a fabulous, invisible bird
which steals people and their possessions. See _Reyes_, El Folklore
Filipino, p. 40. Manila, 1899.

[369] A powerful spirit.

[370] See p. 14.

[371] In the Bagobo version of this tale, a ladle becomes the monkey's
tail. See _Benedict_, _Journal American Folklore_, Vol. XXVI, 1913,
p. 21.

[372] A story accounting for the origin of the _kalau_, a bird.

[373] See page 10, note 1.

[374] The cave is situated in the mountains, midway between Patok
and Santa Rosa.

[375] The old custom was that when a party returned from a head hunt
the women went to the gate and held ladders in a [Lambda] so the men
did not pass through the gate; or they laid them on the ground and
the men jumped over them.

[376] The river emerges from Abra through a narrow pass in the
mountains.

[377] Songs.

[378] A similiar incident is found in the Northern Celebes and among
the Kenyah of Borneo. See _Bezemer_, Volksdichtung aus Indonesien,
p. 304. (Haag, 1904.) _Hose_ and _McDougall_, Pagan Tribes of
Borneo. Vol. II, p, 148, London, 1912.

[379] A variant of this tale is told by the Bagobo of southern
Mindanao. See _Benedict_, _Journal of American Folklore_, Vol. XXVI,
1913, p. 59.

[380] The gold or silver wire worn by women or men about their necks.

[381] A little bird.

[382] A kind of bamboo.

[383] For other versions of this tale see p. 29, note 3.

[384] A shell.

[385] A shell.

[386] See p. 29, note 4, for Borneo parallel.

[387] See p. 11.

[388] Bamboo sprouts.

[389] The fruit of a wild vine.

[390] The chief incidents in this tale resemble those in the Sea Dayak
story of Simpang Impang. See _Hose_ and _McDougall_, Pagan Tribes of
Borneo, Vol. II, p. 144 ff. (London, 1912.)

[391] A town in Ilocos Sur.

[392] A mound of earth raised by the ants.

[393] Same idea is held by the Ilocano. See _Reyes_, El Folklore
Filipino, p. 34, Manila, 1889. See also p. 29, note 7.

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