Part 11 out of 12
campaign was now to concentrate all the forces of Hood's State
Troops and Hardee's at some point in upper South Carolina or in North
Carolina, and make one more desperate stand, and by united action
crash and overthrow Sherman's Army, thereby relieving Lee.
On the morning of the 16th of February the enemy, without any warning
whatever, began shelling the city of Columbia, filled with women and
children. Now it must be remembered that this was not for the purpose
of crossing the river, for one of Sherman's corps had already crossed
below the city and two others above. One shell passed through the
hotel in which General Beauregard was at the time, others struck the
State House, while many fell throughout the city. General Hampton
withdrew his small force of cavalry early on the morning of the 17th,
and the Mayor of the city met an officer of the Federal Army under a
flag of truce and tendered him the surrender of the city, and claimed
protection for its inhabitants. This was promised.
All during the day thousands of the enemy poured into the city,
General Sherman entering about midday. Generals Davis' and Williams'
Corps crossed the Saluda and continued up on the western bank of Broad
River, one crossing ten, the other twenty-five miles above Columbia.
The people of Columbia had hopes of a peaceful occupation of the
city, but during the day and along towards nightfall, the threatening
attitude of the soldiers, their ominous words, threats of vengeance,
were too pretentious for the people to misunderstand or to expect
mercy. These signs, threats, and mutterings were but the prelude to
that which was to follow.
About 9 o'clock P.M. the alarm of fire was given and the dread sound
of the fire bells, mingled with the hum and roar of ten thousand
voices and the tread of as many troops hurrying to and fro on their
cursed mission, could be heard by the now thoroughly frightened
populace. The people, with blanched countenances, set features, looked
in mute silence into the faces of each other. All knew and felt, but
dared not even to themselves to whisper, the unmistakable truth. Now
another alarm, another fire bell mingles its sound with the general
chorus of discord, shouts of the soldiery, the frightened cries of
the people--jells of the drunken troops all a scathing, maddening
turbulance in the crowded streets. A lurid glare shoots up above the
housetops, then the cracking and roaring of the dread elements told
but too plainly that the beautiful city was soon to be wrapped in
flames. The sack and pillage had begun!
Few men being in the city, the women, with rare heroism, sought to
save some little necessities of life, only to see it struck to the
floor or snatched from their hands and scattered in the streets. Here
would be a lone woman hugging an infant to her breast, with a few
strips of clothing hanging on her arms; helpless orphans lugging
an old trunk or chest, now containing all they could call their
own--these would be snatched away, broken open, contents rifled by the
drunken soldiers, or if not valuable, trampled under foot.
Soldiers, with axes and hammers, rushed from house to house, breaking
in doors, smashing trunks, boxes, bureaus, and robbing them of all
that was valuable, then leaving the house in flames. Helpless women,
screaming children, babes in the arms, invalids on beds, jolted and
jostled against the surging mob--none to help, none to advise--these
defenseless sufferers rushed aimlessly about, their sole purpose being
to avoid the flames and seek a place of safety. The fires originated
principally in the southern section of the city, and as the fire eat
its way up, the howling throng followed, driving the innocent and
As the night wore on, the drunken soldiers, first made intoxicated
by the wine in private cellars or the liquors in the government
buildings, now became beastly drunk in their glee at the sight of the
destruction they had wrought. The women and children followed the dark
back-ground of that part of the city not yet in flames. The Federal
officers, instead of offering assistance or a helping hand to the
ruined and distressed people, added insult to injury by joining in
with the private soldiers in the plundering of the city, insulting the
women and adding fuel to the flame.
All night long did the flames rage, leap, and lick the clouds as
one block of buildings after another fell--food for the devouring
elements. This drunken orgies was kept up until their craven hearts
were fully satisfied. A few squares in the north-eastern part of the
city were left, also several churches, and into these the women and
children were huddled and packed, and had to remain for days and some
for weeks, almost on the verge of starvation. The Federal commander,
through the boundless dictates of his sympathetic heart, after
destroying all that fire and rapine could reach, left the starving
thousands a few rations each of the plunder he had robbed of the
planters in the country.
No vehicles nor horses were left in the city's limits--the bridges
burned that led across the river to the west. To the east, Blair's
Corps was laying waste everything in their pathway, while above and
below the city, for a distance of fifty miles, Sherman had swept the
country as bare as if a blight had fallen upon it. How the people
of Columbia subsisted during the time they were penned in the city
churches and the few buildings left, will ever remain a mystery, and
to none so much as the sufferers themselves.
Grains of corn were eagerly picked up in the streets as they dropped
from the wagons, and the women and children of the lower class and the
negroes flocked to the deserted camps to gather up the crumbs left by
the soldiers or the grains trampled under foot of the horses.
Every house in a stretch of fifty miles was entered and insults and
indignities offered the defenseless women which would have shamed
the savage Turk. Ladies were forced to disclose, at the point of the
pistol or the sabre, the hiding-place of their little valuables. Some
were forced to cook meals and wait upon the hell hounds, while they
regaled themselves upon the choice viands of medicinal wines of the
planters' wives. But be it known to their immortal honor, that it was
only on the most rare occasions that these proud dames of the South
could, either by threat or brutal treatment, be forced to yield to
their insolent demands. With the orders from the soldiers to "prepare
a meal" or "disclose the whereabouts of their money or valuables,"
came the threat, "We will burn your house if you do not." But almost
invariably came the quick response, "Burn it, burn it, you cowardly
wretches, and kill me, if you wish, and all of us, but I will never
soil my hands by waiting upon a cowardly Yankee, nor tell you the
place of concealment--find it if you can." The soldiers would question
the negroes to find out if there were any watches, silver plate, or
money belonging to the household; if so, they would, by a system of
inquisition, attempt to force the women to give it up, but in vain.
A woman, Mrs. Miller, the wife of a neighbor of mine, had her
husband's gold watch in her bosom, and refused to give it up when
demanded, even when a cocked pistol was at her head. The vandal struck
her a stunning blow with the butt end of the pistol--all in vain.
The brave heroine held to the heirloom, and stoutly resisted all
entreaties and threats.
Two old people living near me, brother and maiden sister, named Loner,
both pass three scores, were asked to give their money. They had none.
But one of the ruffians threw a fire brand under the bed, saying:
"I will put it out if you will tell me where you keep your money; you
have it, for I've been so informed."
"Let it burn," answered the old women. "Do you think to frighten or
intimidate me by burning my house that I will tell what I choose to
conceal? Do you think I care so much for my house and its belongings?
No, no; you mistake the women of the South. You will never conquer her
people by making war upon defenseless women. Let the house go up in
flames, and my ashes mingle with its ashes, but I will remain true to
myself, my country, and my God."
Soon all that was left of the once happy home was a heap of ashes.
Will God, in His wisdom, ever have cause to again create such women as
those of the Southland? Or were there ever conditions in the world's
history that required the presence of such noble martyrdom as was
displayed by the women of the South during the Civil War?
But a Nemesis in this case, as in many others, was lurking near. Bands
of Confederates and scouts had scattered themselves on the flanks and
rear of the enemy; old men and boys and disabled veterans were lying
in wait in many thickets and out of the way places, ready to pounce
upon the unsuspecting freebooters and give to them their just deserts.
Was it any wonder that so many hundreds, nay thousands, of these Goths
failed to answer to Sherman's last roll call? Before the sun was many
hours older, after the burning of the Loner homestead, the dreaded
"bushwhackers" were on the trail of the vandals.
For years afterwards people, from curiosity, came to look at a heap of
human bones in a thicket near, bleached by winter's rain and summer's
sun, while some of the older men, pointing to the ghostly relics,
would say, "Those are the remains of Sherman's houseburners." And such
were the scenes from the Saltkahatchie to the Cape Fear. Who were to
Sherman now directs his march towards Winnsboro and Chester, still
in the four great parols, burning and plundering as they go. It seems
that in their march through Georgia they were only whetting their
appetites for a full gorge of vandalism in South Carolina. After their
carnival of ruin in Columbia the Federals, like the tiger, which, with
the taste of blood, grows more ravenous, they became more destructive
the more destruction they saw. Great clouds of black smoke rose up
over the whole county and darkened the sky overhead, while at night
the heavens were lit up by the glare of the burning buildings. The
railroad tracks were torn up and bridges burned, the iron being laid
across heaps of burning ties, then when at red heat, were wrapped
around trees and telegraph posts--these last through pure wantonness,
as no army was in their rear that could ever use them again.
While that part of Sherman's Army was crossing Broad River at Alston
and Freshley's, and the other near Ridgeway, General Hampton wrote
General Beauregard to concentrate all his forces at or near the
latter place by shipping Hardee and all forces under him at once by
railroad--Stephenson's Division of Western men, now with Hampton and
all the cavalry to fall upon the Fifteenth Corps, under Blair, and
crush it before the other portions of the army could reach it. He
argued that the enemy was marching so wide apart, the country so
hilly, and the roads in Fairfield County almost impassable, that one
wing of the army could be crushed before the other could reach it. But
General Beauregard telegraphed him, "The time is past for that move.
While it could have been done at the Edisto or Branchville, it is too
On the night of the 17th and morning of the 18th Charleston was
evacuated. Before the commencement of the retirement, orders were
given by General Beauregard to General Hardee to withdraw the troops
in the following order, but General Hardee being sick at this time,
the execution of the order devolved upon General McLaws: One brigade
of Wright's Division, in St. Paul's Parish, to move by railroad
to Monk's Corner, then march by Sandy Run to the Santee; the other
portion of Wright's Division to move by Summerville to St. Stephen's.
The troops in Christ Church Parish to go by steamer to St. Stephen's.
The troops from James' Island to move out by Ashley's Ferry and follow
the Northeastern railroad, to be followed in turn by all the troops in
the city. McLaws was to withdraw from Sherman's front at Branchville
and follow on to St. Stephen's. After all the troops were here
congregated, the line of march was taken up in the direction of
Cheraw. Away to our left we could see the clouds of smoke rise as
houses went up in flames, while forest fires swept the country far and
wide. It was not fully understood to what point Sherman was making,
until he reached Winnsboro. Here he turned the course of direction by
turning to the right, crossing the Catawba at Pea's Ferry and Rocky
Mount, the right wing under General Howard, at Pea's; the left, under
General Slocum, at Rocky Mount, all marching to form a junction again
at Cheraw. Sherman did not dare to trust himself far in the interior
for any length of time, but was marching to meet the fleet that had
left him at Savannah and the troops under Schofield, at Newbern, N.C.
This is the reason he turns his course towards the sea coast.
Raiding parties, under Kilpatrick, were sent out in the direction of
Darlington and Lancaster, burning and plundering at will.
About this time Fort Fisher and all the works at the mouth of the Cape
Fear River fell into the hands of the enemy. Wilmington surrendered
and General Bragg, who was in command there, retreated to Goldsboro.
How, in the face of all these facts, could it be possible for Generals
to deceive themselves or to deceive others, or how President Davis
could have such delusive hopes, is now impossible to comprehend. On
February 22nd, after the fall of Wilmington, the Army of Sherman was
on the border of North Carolina, while Hood's was straggling through
the upper part of this State, with no prospects of forming a junction
with Beauregard. President Davis wrote on that day:
"General Beauregard: I have directed General J.E. Johnston to
assume command of the Southern Army and assign you to duty with him.
Together, I feel assured you will beat back Sherman."
To add one man, even if a great commander, would add but little
strength to any army, already exhausted beyond the hope of
recuperation, still "You will beat Sherman back!" the President
writes. I for one cannot see how a General could receive such an order
at such time in any other spirit than ridicule. President Davis, even
after the fall of Richmond and the battle of Bettonville fought, where
Johnston tried once more to "beat back Sherman" and failed--after all
the circumstances and conditions were given to him in detail--said,
"The struggle could be still carried on to a successful issue by
bringing out all our latent resources; that we could even cross the
Mississippi River, join forces with Kirby Smith, and prolong the war
indefinitely." Was there ever such blind faith or dogged tenacity of
purpose? Did Mr. Davis and our Generals really believe there was
still a chance for a successful issue at this late day, or was it the
knowledge of the disposition of the troops whom they knew would rather
suffer death than defeat.
It must, within all reason, have been the latter, for no great
commander cognizant of all the facts could have been so blind.
Even while the Confederate troops were overwhelmed by numbers,
communications cut on all sides, all out posts and the borders hemmed
in one small compass, some of our soldiers entered a publishing house
in Raleigh, destroyed all the type, broke the presses, and demolished
the building--all this because the editor of the paper advised the
giving up of the contest! Did the soldiers of the South believe as yet
that they were beaten? Circumstances and their surly moods say not.
Well might a commander or executive have apprehensions of his personal
safety should he counsel submission as long as there was a soldier
left to raise a rifle or draw a lanyard. I ask again was there ever
before such troops as those of the South? Will there ever be again?
Kershaw's Brigade, now attached to Hardee's Corps, reached Cheraw
about the first of March, but the enemy's advance was at Chesterfield,
causing Hardee to continue his march by Rockinham on to Fayetteville,
N.C., near which place the two armies, that is the one under Hampton
and the other under Hardee, came together. Hardee having recovered
from his indisposition, relieved General McLaws, the latter returning
to Augusta, Ga. Kershaw's Brigade was soon after put in Wathal's
On the 22nd of February General Jos. E. Johnston, who was then living
at Lincolnton, N.C., was called from his retirement and placed in
command of all the troops in North and South Carolina and Georgia.
Although the army was nothing more than detachments, and widely
separated and greatly disorganized when he reached them, still they
hailed with delight the appointment of their former faithful old
commander. His one great aim was the convergence of the various armies
to one point in front of the enemy and strike a blow at either one or
more of his columns, either at Fayetteville or at the crossing of the
Cape Fear River. Hardee had been racing with Sherman to reach
Cheraw and cross the PeeDee before Sherman could come up. He only
accomplished this after many forced marches by "the skin of his
teeth," to use a homely expression. He crossed the PeeDee one day
ahead of the enemy, burning the bridge behind him, after moving all
the stores that were possible. The right wing, under General Howard,
crossed the PeeDee at Cheraw, while the left, under Slocum, crossed
higher up, at Sneedsboro. Hampton was forced to make a long detour
up the PeeDee and cross at the fords along the many little islands in
On the 8th of March General Bragg, with Hoke's Division, reinforced
by a division under D.H. Hill, of Johnston's command, numbering in
all about two thousand, attacked three divisions under General Cox,
at Kiniston, defeating him with much loss, capturing one thousand five
hundred prisoners and three pieces of artillery.
During the campaign our cavalry was not idle on the flanks or front
of Sherman, but on the contrary, was ever on the alert, striking the
enemy wherever possible. General Butler intercepted and defeated a
body of Federals on their way to destroy the railroad at Florence, at
or near Mount Elan. General Wheeler, also, at Homesboro, came up with
the enemy, and after a spirited brush, drove the enemy from the field,
capturing a number of prisoners. Again, near Rockinham, the same
officer put the enemy to rout. General Kilpatrick had taken up camp on
the road leading to Fayetteville, and commanding that road which was
necessary for the concentration of our troops. In the night General
Hampton, after thoroughly reconnoitering the position, surrounded
the camp of Kilpatrick, and at daybreak, on the 10th, fell like a
hurricane upon the sleeping enemy. The wildest confusion prevailed;
friend could not be distinguished from foe. Shooting and saber
slashing were heard in every direction, while such of the enemy who
could mounted their horses and rode at break-neck speed, leaving their
camp and camp equippage, their artillery and wagon trains. The enemy
was so laden with stolen booty, captured in the Carolinas and Georgia,
that this great treasure was too great a temptation to the already
demoralized cavalry. So, instead of following up their victory, they
went to gathering the spoils. Hundreds of horses were captured, but
these ran off by our troops forcing all the artillery captured to be
abandoned, after cutting the wheels to pieces. But the long train
of wagons, laden with supplies, was a good addition to our depleted
resources. A great number of the enemy were killed and wounded, with
five hundred prisoners, besides recapturing one hundred and fifty of
our own troops taken in former battles.
General Johnston now ordered the troops of General Bragg who had come
up from Kiniston and the Western troops, under Stuart, Cheatham, and
Lee, as well as a part of Hardee's, to concentrate at Smithfield.
The bulk of Hardee's Corps, of which Kershaw's Brigade was a part,
withdrew from Cheraw in the direction of Goldsboro, and at Averysboro
the enemy came up with Hardee, and by the overpowering weight of
numbers forced the Confederates from their position. The density of
the pine forest was such, that after a few fires, the smoke settled
among the undergrowth and under the treetops in such quantity that a
foe could not be seen even a short distance away. The level condition
of the country prevented our artillery from getting in any of its
work, and a flank movement by the Federals could be so easily made,
unnoticed, that Hardee was forced to retire in the direction of
Smithfield and to an elevation.
General Johnston having learned that the enemy was marching in the
direction of Goldsboro, instead of Raleigh, and that the right wing
was a day's advance of the left, ordered a concentration of his troops
near the little hamlet of Bentonville, situated near the junction
of the roads, one leading to Raleigh and the other to Goldsboro, and
there fall upon the one wing of the army and defeat it before the
other came up. This was not so difficult in contemplation as in
the performance, under the present condition of the troops and the
topography of the country. General Johnston was misled by the maps at
hand, finding afterwards that the Federal General, Howard, was much
nearer Bentonville than was General Hardee. But General Hampton put
General Butler's Division of Cavalry in front of this whole force,
behind some hastily constructed breastworks, and was to keep Slocum at
bay until the troops had all gotten in position.
General Hardee began moving early on the morning of the eighth, and on
reaching Bentonville we now, for the first time, came up with all the
other troops of the army. Hoke's Division lead off to take position
and stood on both sides of a dull road leading through the thickets.
Batteries were placed on his right. Next to the artillery was posted
the Army of Tennessee, its right thrown forward. Before Hardee could
get in position the enemy attacked with the utmost vigor, so much so
that General Bragg, who was commanding in person at this point,
asked for reinforcements. General Hardee, moving by at this juncture,
ordered McLaws' Old-Division to the aid of Hoke. But the almost
impenetrable thicket prevented hasty movement, and the smoke in front,
overhead and the rear, with bullets passing over the heads of Hoke's
men, made it impossible for these unacquainted with the disposition
of the troops to know whether it was friend or foe in our front. The
troops became greatly entangled and some of the officers demoralized.
Some troops on our right, by mistaking the head of direction, began
to face one way, while Kershaw's Brigade was facing another. But after
much maneuvering, McLaw's got the troops disentangled and moved
upon the line, and after several rounds at close range, the enemy
retreated. Hardee was then ordered to charge with his wing of the
army, composed of troops under Stuart and a division under Taliaferro,
while Bragg was to follow by brigades from right to left. The firing
was now confusing, our troops advancing in different direction, and
the sound of our guns and cannon echoing and reverberating through
the dense forest, made it appear as if we were surrounded by a
simultaneous fire. But finding our way the best we could by the
whizzing of the bullets, we rushed up to the enemy's first line of
entrenchments, which they had abandoned without an effort, and took
position behind the second line of works. After firing a round or two,
the Confederates raised the old Rebel yell and went for their second
line with a rush. Here General Hardee led his men in person, charging
at their head on horseback. The troops carried everything before them;
the enemy in double columns and favorably entrenched, was glad to take
cover in the thicket in the rear. On the extreme left our troops were
less successful, being held in check by strong breastworks and a
dense thicket between the enemy and the troops of General Bragg. After
sweeping the enemy from the field, General Hardee found it necessary
to halt and reform his line and during this interval the enemy made
an unsuccessful assault upon the troops of General Stuart. After
nightfall and after all the killed and wounded had been removed from
the field, General Johnston moved the troops back to the line occupied
in the morning and threw up fortifications. Here we remained until the
21st; McLaws was detached and placed on the left of Hoke; the cavalry
deployed as skirmishers to our left. There was a considerable gap
between our extreme left and the main body of cavalry, and this break
the writer commanded with a heavy Hue of skirmishers. Late in the
day the enemy made a spirited attack upon us, so much so that General
McLaws sent two companies of boys, formerly of Fizer's Brigade of
Georgia Militia. The boys were all between sixteen and eighteen, and a
finer body of young men I never saw. He also sent a regiment of North
Carolina Militia, consisting of old men from fifty to sixty, and
as these old men were coming up on line the enemy were giving us
a rattling fire from their sharpshooters. The old men could not be
induced to come up, however. The Colonel, a Venerable old gray-beard,
riding a white horse, as soon as the bullets began to pelt the pines
in his front, leaped from his horse and took refuge behind a large
tree. I went to him and tried every inducement to get him to move up
his men on a line with us, but all he would do was to grasp me by the
hand and try to jerk me down beside him. "Lie down, young man," said
he, "or by God you'll be shot to pieces. Lie down!" The old militiaman
I saw was too old for war, and was "not built that way." But when
I returned to the skirmish line, on which were my own brigade
skirmishers, reinforced by the two boy companies, the young men were
fighting with a glee and abandon I never saw equalled. I am sorry to
record that several of these promising young men, who had left their
homes so far behind, were killed and many wounded.
This ended the battle of Bentonville, and we might say the war. The
sun of the Confederacy, notwithstanding the hopes of our Generals, the
determination of the troops, and the prayers of the people, was fast
sinking in the west. The glorious rising on the plains of Manassas had
gone down among the pine barriers of North Carolina. The last stroke
had been given, and destiny seemed to be against us. For hundreds of
miles had the defeated troops of Hood marched barefooted and footsore
to the relief of their comrades of the East, and had now gained a
shallow victory. They had crossed three States to mingle their blood
with those of their friends who had fought with dogged resistence
every step that Sherman had made. But their spirits were not broken.
They were still ready to try conclusions with the enemy whenever our
leaders gave the signal for battle. The South could not be conquered
by defeat--to conquer it, it must be crashed. The tattered battle
flags waved as triumphantly over the heads of the shattered ranks of
the battle-scared veterans here in the pine barriers as it ever did on
the banks of the Rapidan.
It is sad to chronicle that on this last day, in a battle of the
cavalry, in which the infantry had to take a part, the gallant son of
the brave General Hardee fell at the head of his column as the Eighth
Texas Cavalry was making a desperate charge.
In the battle of Bentonville the Confederates had fourteen thousand
infantry and cavalry. The cavalry being mostly on the flanks, and
General Wheeler on the north side of Mill Creek, could not participate
in the battle in consequence of the swollen stream. The Federal Army
had thirty-five thousand engaged on the 19th and seventy thousand in
line on the 20th. The loss on the Confederate side was one hundred and
eighty killed, one thousand two hundred and twenty wounded, and five
hundred and fifteen missing. The enemy's losses in killed and wounded
far exceeded the Confederates, besides the Confederates captured nine
On the night of the 21st the army began its retreat, crossing Mill
Creek on the morning of the 22nd, just in time to see the enemy
approach the bridge as our last troops had crossed.
On the 23rd General Sherman marched his army to Goldsboro, there
uniting with General Schofield. It was the intention of General Lee
that as soon as General Sherman had approached near enough, to abandon
the trenches at Petersburg, and, with the combined armies, turn and
fall upon his front, flank, and rear.
* * * * *
From Smithfield to Greensboro--The Surrender.
The army took up quarters for a while around Smithfield. The troops
were as jolly and full of life as they ever were in their lives. Horse
racing now was the order of the day. Out in a large old field, every
day thousands of soldiers and civilians, with a sprinkling of the fair
ladies of the surrounding country, would congregate to witness the
excitement of the race course. Here horses from Kentucky, Tennessee,
Georgia, and North and South Carolina tried each others mettle.
They were not the thoroughbreds of the course, but cavalry horses,
artillery horses, horses of Generals, Colonels, and the staff--horses
of all breeds and kinds, all sizes and description--stood at the head
of the track and champed their bits with eagerness, impatient to get
away. Confederate money by the handfuls changed owners every day. It
was here that Governor Zeb Vance, of North Carolina, visited us, and
was a greater favorite with the soldiers than any man in civil life.
It was here, too, our old disabled commander, General James Connor,
came to bid us an affectionate farewell. General Kennedy formed the
brigade into a hollow square to receive our old General. He entered
the square on horseback, accompanied by General Kennedy and staff.
He had come to bid us farewell, and spoke to us in feeling terms. He
recounted our many deeds of valor upon the field, our sufferings
in camp and upon the march, and especially our supreme heroism and
devotion in standing so loyally to our colors in this the dark hour of
our country's cause. He spoke of his great reluctance to leave us;
how he had watched with sympathy and affection our wanderings, our
battles, and our victories, and then envoking Heaven's blessings upon
us, he said in pathetic tones, "Comrades, I bid you an affectionate
farewell," and rode away.
While in camp here there was a feeble attempt made to reorganize and
consolidate the brigade by putting the smaller companies together and
making one regiment out of two. As these changes took place so near
the end, the soldiers never really realizing a change had been made,
I will do no more than make a passing allusion to it, as part of this
history. The only effect these changes had was the throwing out of
some of our best and bravest officers (there not being places for
all), but as a matter of fact this was to their advantage, as they
escaped the humiliation of surrender, and returned home a few days
earlier than the rest of the army.
After passing through South Carolina and venting its spleen on the
Secession State, the Federal Army, like a great forest fire, sweeping
over vast areas, stops of its own accord by finding nothing to feed
upon. The vandalism of the Union Army in North Carolina was confined
mostly to the burning of the great turpentine forests. They had burned
and laid waste the ancestral homes of lower South Carolina, left
in ashes the beautiful capital of the State, wrecked and ruined the
magnificent residences and plantations of the central and upper part
of the country, leaving in their wake one vast sheet of ruin and
desolation, so that when they met the pine barrens of North Carolina,
their appetites for pillage, plunder, and destruction seems to have
It was the boast of the Federal commander and published with delight
in all the Northern newspapers, that "where his army went along a crow
could not pass over without taking its rations along." Then, too, this
very country was to feed and support, while in transit to their homes
almost the whole of Johnston's and the greater part of Lee's Army. All
these, in squads or singly, were fed along the way from house to house
wherever they could beg a little meal or corn, with a morsel of meat
or molasses. A great number of negro troops also passed through this
country on their way to the coast to be disbanded. But the noble women
of South Carolina never turned a hungry soldier from their doors as
long as there was a mouthful in the house to eat.
Another terror now alarmed the people--the news of a great raid, under
Stoneman, being on its way through North Carolina and upper South
Carolina, coming across the country from East Tennessee, laying waste
everything in its track. General Sherman had concentrated his whole
army at Goldsboro, and was lying idle in camp, preparatory to his
next great move to connect with Grant. He had at his command the right
wing, under General Howard, twenty-eight thousand eight hundred
and thirty-four; its left wing, under General Slocum, twenty-eight
thousand and sixty-three. General Schofield had come up from Newbern
with twenty-six thousand three hundred and ninety-two and constituted
the center, besides five thousand six hundred and fifty-nine cavalry,
under Kilpatrick, and ninety-one pieces of artillery. General Johnston
had encamped his army between two roads, one leading to Raleigh, the
other to Weldon. The Confederate Government, after the evacuation of
Richmond, had now established its quarters at Danville, Va., awaiting
the next turn of the wheel. Lee had fallen back from Petersburg; while
Johnston, before Sherman, was awaiting the move of that General to
fall back still nearer to his illustrious chieftain. The government
and all the armies were now hedged in the smallest compass. Still our
leaders were apparently hopeful and defiant, the troops willing to
stand by them to the last.
On the 10th of April President Davis and a part of his cabinet left
Danville on his way to Greensboro. Even at this late day President
Davis was urging the concentration of the troops under General Walker,
the scattered troops at Salisbury and Greensboro, and those under
Johnston at same place on the Yadkin, and crush Sherman, and then it
is supposed to turn on Grant. All this with less than twenty thousand
The last conference of the great men of the Confederacy met at
Greensboro, on the 13th of April, 1865. Those present were President
Davis, Messrs. Benjamin, Secretary of State; Mallory, of the Navy;
Reagin, Postmaster General; Breckinridge, Secretary of War, and
General Johnston. The army had been falling back daily through
Raleigh, and was now encamped near Greensboro. President Davis still
clung to the delusion that by pressing the conscript act and bringing
out all absentees, they could yet prolong the struggle, even if
they had to cross the Mississippi and join with Kirby Smith. General
Johnston urged in his and General Beauregard's name its utter
impracticability, and informed the President plainly and positively
that it was useless to continue the struggle--that they had as well
abandon all hope of any other issue than that which they could gain
through the Federal authorities, and besought Mr. Davis to open
negotiations looking to peace--that he was yet the executive and head
of the Confederate Government; that he was the proper one to commence
such negotiations. This Mr. Davis refused, saying the Federal
authorities would refuse to treat with him. Then General Johnston
proposed doing so in his own name. This was agreed to, and a letter
written by Mr. Mallory, he being the best penman in the group, and
signed and sent by General Johnston to General Sherman. The letter
recapitulated the results in the army in the last few days, changing
the status of the two armies and the needless amount of bloodshed and
devastation of property that the continuance of the struggle would
produce, and asked for a conference looking to an armistice in the
armies until the civil government could settle upon terms of peace.
The letter was sent to General Hampton, and by him to the Federal
commander the next day. General Sherman acknowledged the receipt of
the letter on the 14th, and it reached General Johnston on the 16th,
agreeing to a cessation of hostilities until further notice. General
Sherman expressed in his letter a great desire to spare the people of
North Carolina the devastation and destruction the passing of his army
through the State would necessitate. When it began to be noised about
in the camp that the army was about to be surrendered, the soldiers
became greatly excited. The thought of grounding their arms to an
enemy never before entered their minds, and when the news came of a
surrender the greatest apprehension and dread seized all. So different
the end to their expectation. None could even think of the future
without a shudder. Some anticipated a term in Federal prisons; others,
the higher officers, a military trial; others thought of their private
property and their arms. Even in a prison camp, where our soldiers
would be kept confined under a Federal guard, all was mystery and
uncertainty. The wives and helpless children, left in the rear to
the mercy of the negroes (now for the first time known to be free),
agitated the minds of not a few. Men began to leave the army by twos
and by squads. Guards were placed on all roads and around camps,
and the strictest orders were given against leaving the army without
leave. Cavalrymen in great numbers had mounted their horses and rode
away. General Sherman sent guards to all fords and bridges to examine
all the paroles of the troops of Lee now swarming through the country.
General Johnston met General Sherman at Durham, on the 17th of April,
at the house of Mr. Bennett, but after a long and tedious controversy,
nothing was agreed upon. A second meeting took place at the same house
next day, at which General Breckinridge was unofficially present,
when terms of an armistice were agreed to until the department at
Washington could be beard from. President Davis had already gone South
with such of his cabinet as chose to follow him, the whole settlement
of difficulties now devolving upon General Johnston alone.
But just as all negotiations were progressing finely the news came of
President Lincoln's assassination, throwing the whole of the Federal
Army in a frenzy of excitement. While the troops of the South may not
have given their assent to such measures, yet they rejoiced secretly;
in their hearts that the great agitator, emancipator--the cause of all
our woes--was laid low. To him and him alone all looked upon as being
the originator, schemer, and consummater of all the ills the South had
suffered. However the hearts of the Southern people may have changed
in the thirty years that have passed, or how sadly they deplored his
death, even in a decade afterwards, I but voice the sentiment of the
South at the time when I say they hated Lincoln with all the venom of
their souls, and his untimely taking off by the hands of the assassin
partly consoled them for all they had suffered.
Orders came from General Sherman to General Johnston to the effect
that part of their agreement was rejected by the Washington Authority,
and notifying the latter that the truce would be called off in
forty-eight hours. This occasioned a third meeting between the two
commanders to make such changes that were required by the authorities.
On the 26th General Johnston sent a communication to General Sherman
requesting a meeting at same place for further conference. This was
agreed to and the meeting took place, where such terms were agreed
upon and signed as was thought to be in accordance with the wishes of
the Washington Government. Rolls were made out in duplicate of all the
officers and soldiers, and on the 2nd of May the troops marched out,
stacked their arms, were given paroles, and slowly turned away and
commenced their homeward journey.
A military chest, containing $39,000, had been received from the
Government in Richmond and divided out among the soldiers, being $1.29
apiece. All the Wagon and artillery horses and wagons, also, were
loaned to the soldiers and divided by lot. A few days' rations had
been issued, and with this and the clothes on their back, this remnant
at a once grand army bent their steps towards their desolate homes. It
was found advisable to move by different routs and in such numbers as
was most agreeable and convenient. Once away from the confines of the
army, they took by-ways and cross country, roads, avoiding as much as
possible the track of the late army. The troops of Kershaw's Brigade,
on reaching the borders of their State, each sought for himself the
easiest and nearest path home. The Western Army made their way,
the most of them at least, to Washington, Ga., where there was yet
railroad communication a part of the way through Georgia.
And now, gentle reader, my task is done--my pen laid aside, after days
and days of earnest toil to give a faithful and correct account of
your daring, your endurance, your patriotism, and your fidelity to
the cause you had espoused. Your aims have been of the highest, your
performances ideal, and while you were unsuccessful, still your deeds
of daring will live in history as long as civilization lasts. While
your cherished hopes ended in a dream, still your aspirations have
been of the loftiest, and your acts will be copied by generations yet
unborn, as a fitting pattern for all brave men. You have fought in all
the great battles of the East, from the trenches of Petersburg to
the rugged heights of Round Top. Your blood mingled with that of your
comrades of the West, from Chickamauga to the storming of Fort London.
You combatted the march of Sherman from the Saltkahatchie to the
close, and stacked your arms more as conquering heroes than beaten
foes. You have nothing to regret but the results--no hope but the
continued prosperity of a reunited people. This heritage of valor left
to posterity as a memorial of Southern manhood to the Southern cause
will be cherished by your descendants for all time, and when new
generations come on and read the histories of the great Civil War, and
recall to their minds the fortitude, the chivalry, and the glories of
the troops engaged, Kershaw's Brigade will have a bright page in the
book of their remembrance.
* * * * *
It would be supposed that the writer, who had fought by the side of
nearly all, and who had visited battlefields where troops from every
State had fallen, could form an idea of "Which were the best troops
from the South?" The South has furnished a type of the true soldier
that will last as a copy for all time. She had few regulars, and her
volunteer troops were brought into service without preparation or
without the knowledge of tactical drill, but in stoicism, heroism, and
martyrdom they excelled the world.
I give in these pages a brief synopsis of the characteristics of the
troops from different States, and while this is the view of the author
alone, still I feel assured that the great mass of the old soldiers
will admit its correctness. To the question, "Which were the best
troops from the South?" there would be as many answers and as much
differences of opinions as there were States in the Confederacy, or
organizations in the field, as each soldier was conscientious in his
belief that those from his own State were the best in the army,
his brigade the best in the division, his regiment the best in the
brigade, and his own company the best in the regiment. This is a
pardonable pride of the soldier, and is as it should be to make an
army great. Where all, individually and collectively, were as good
or better than any who ever before faced an enemy upon a battlefield,
there really are no "best."
But soldiers from different States, all of the same nationality and
of the same lineage, from habits, temperaments, and environments, had
different characteristics upon the field of battle. From an impartial
standpoint, I give my opinion thus:
The Virginians were the cavaliers of the South, high-toned, high-bred,
each individual soldier inspired by that lofty idea of loyalty of the
cavalier. They were the ideal soldiers in an open field and a fair
fight. They were the men to sweep a battle line that fronts them from
the field by their chivalrous and steady courage. Virginia, the mother
of Presidents, of great men, and noble women, the soldier of that
State felt in honor bound to sustain the name and glory of their
commonwealth. As a matter of fact, the Virginians, as a rule, with
exceptions enough to establish the rule, being one of the oldest of
the sister States, her wealth, her many old and great institutions
of learning, were better educated than the mass of soldiers from
the other States. They were soldiers from pride and patriotism, and
courageous from "general principles." In an open, fair field, and a
square and even fight, no enemy could stand before their determined
advance and steady fire. They were not the impulsive, reckless,
head-strong soldiers in a desperate charge as were those from some
other Southern States, but cool, collected, steady, and determined
under fire. They were of the same mettle and mould as their kinsmen
who stood with Wellington at Waterloo.
The North Carolinians were the "Old Guard" of the Confederacy. They
had little enthusiasm, but were the greatest "stickers" and "stayers"
on a battle line of any troops from the South. They fought equally as
well in thicket or tangled morass as behind entrenchments. To use an
army expression, "The North Carolinians were there to stay." It was
a jocular remark, common during the war, that the reason the North
Carolina troops were so hard to drive from a position was "they had so
much tar on their heels that they could not run." They were obstinate,
tenacious, and brave.
South Carolinians took on in a great measure the inspirations of some
of their French Huguenot ancestors and the indomitable courage of
their Scotch and German forefathers of the Revolution. They were
impulsive, impetuous, and recklessly brave in battle, and were the men
to storm breastworks and rush to the cannon's mouth at the head of a
"forlorn hope." They possibly might not stay as long in a stubbornly
contested battle as some from other States, but would often accomplish
as much in a few minutes by the mad fury of their assault as some
others would accomplish in as many hours. They were the Ironsides
of the South, and each individual felt that he had a holy mission to
fulfill. There were no obstacles they could not surmount, no position
they would not assail. Enthusiasm and self-confidence were the fort
of South Carolinians, and it was for them to raise the Rebel yell and
keep it up while the storm of battle raged fierce and furious. They
were the first to raise the banner of revolt, and right royally did
they sustain it as long as it floated over the Southland.
What is said of the South Carolinians can be truthfully said of
Georgians. People of the same blood, and kindred in all that makes
them one, they could be with propriety one and the same people. The
Georgians would charge a breastwork or storm a battery with the
same light-heartedness as they went to their husking bees or
corn-shucking, all in a frolick. To illustrate their manner of
fighting, I will quote from a Northern journal, published just after
the seven days' battles around Richmond, a conversation between Major
D., of the ---- New York, and a civilian of the North. The Major was
boasting in a noisy manner of the courage, daring, and superiority
of the Northern soldiers over those of the South. "Well, why was it,"
asked the civilian, "if you were so superior in every essential to
the Rebels, that you got such an everlasting licking around Richmond?"
"Licking, h----l," said the wounded Major, "who could fight such
people? Indians! Worse than an Apache. Just as we would get in line
of battle and ready for an advance, a little Georgia Colonel, in his
shirt sleeves and copperas breeches, would pop out into a corn field
at the head of his regiment, and shout at the top of his voice,
'Charge!' Man alive! here would come the devils like a whirlwind--over
ditches, gullies, fences, and fields, shouting, yelling, whooping,
that makes the cold chills run up your back--flash their glittering
bayonets in our very faces, and break our lines to pieces before you
could say 'boo.' Do you call that fighting? It was murder." No more
need be said of the Georgians.
Little Florida did not have many troops in the field, but little
as she was, she was as brave as the best. Her troops, like those of
Georgia and South Carolina, were impulsive, impetuous, and rapid in
battle. They were few in numbers, but legions in the fray.
The Alabamians and Mississippians came of pioneer stock, and like
their ancestry, were inured to hardships and dangers from childhood;
they made strong, hardy, brave soldiers. Indifferent to danger, they
were less careful of their lives than some from the older States. They
were fine marksmen; with a steady nerve and bold hearts, they won,
like Charles Martel, with their hammer-like blows. They were the
fanatical Saraceus of the South; while nothing could stand before the
broad scimeters of the former, so nothing could stand in the way of
the rifle and bayonet of the latter.
The Louisianians were the Frenchmen of the South. Of small stature,
they were the best marchers in the army. Like their ancestors in the
days of the "Grand Monarch," and their cousins in the days of the
"Great Napoleon," they loved glory and their country. Light-hearted
and gay in camp, they were equally light-hearted and gay in battle.
Their slogan was, "Our cause and our country." The Louisianians were
grand in battle, companionable in camp, and all round soldiers in
The Texan, unlike the name of Texan immediately after the war, when
that country was the city of refuge for every murderer and cut-throat
of the land, were gallant, chivalrous, and gentlemanly soldiers.
Descendants of bold and adventurous spirits from every State in the
South, they were equally bold and daring in battle, and scorned the
very word of fear or danger. Hood's old Texas Brigade shared honors
with the old Stonewall Brigade in endurance, courage, and obstinacy
in action. The soldiers of Texas were tenacious, aggressive, and bold
beyond any of their brethren of the South.
The Tennesseeans, true to the instincts of their "back woods"
progenitors, were kind-hearted, independent, and brimful of courage.
Driven from their homes and firesides by a hostile foe, they became
a "storm center" in battle. They were combative and pugnacious, and
defeat had no effect upon their order, and they were ever ready
to turn and strike a foe or charge a battery. Their courage at
Chickamauga is distinguished by showing the greatest per cent of
killed and wounded in battle that has even been recorded, the charge
of the Light Brigade not excepted, being over forty-nine per cent.
What is said of the Tennesseeans is equally true of the Arkansans.
Of a common stock and ancestry, they inherited all the virtues and
courage of their forefathers. The Confederacy had no better soldiers
than the Arkansans--fearless, brave, and oftentimes courageous beyond
The border States' soldiers, Missourians, Kentuckians, and
Marylanders, were the free lance of the South. They joined the
fortunes of the South with the purest motives and fought with the
highest ideals. Under Forrest and Morgan and the other great riders of
the West, they will ever be the soldiers of story, song, and romance.
Their troops added no little lustre to the constellation of the
South's great heroes, and when the true history of the great Civil
War shall be written, they will be remembered. Indomitable in spirits,
unconquerable and unyielding in battle, they will ever stand as
monuments to the courage of the Southern Army.
* * * * *
THE MAGNITUDE OF THE WAR--ITS LOSSES IN KILLED AND DIED.
What were the Confederate losses during the war? Where are the
Confederate dead? Which State lost the most soldiers in proportion to
the number furnished the war? These are questions which will perhaps
be often asked, but never answered. It can never be known, only
approximately. The cars containing the Confederate archives were left
unguarded and unprotected at Greensboro on its way from Richmond,
until General Beauregard noticed papers from the car floating up and
down the railroad track, and had a guard placed over them and sent to
Charlotte. There was a like occurrence at this place, no protection
and no guard, until General Johnston had them turned over to the
Federal authorities for safe keeping. Consequently, the Confederate
rolls on file in Washington are quite incomplete, and the loss
impossible to ever be made good.
The Federal authorities commenced immediately after the war to collect
their dead in suitable cemeteries, and the work of permanently marking
their graves continued systematically until the Federal loss in the
war can be very accurately estimated. There are seventy-five public
cemeteries for the burial of the Federal soldiers, in which are buried
three hundred and sixty thousand two hundred and seven; of these,
one hundred and thirty-nine thousand four hundred and ninety-six are
marked unknown. There were thirty-three thousand five hundred and
twenty negro soldiers buried in the cemeteries, and more than fifty
thousand Union dead never accounted for a great number of these fell
by the wayside during "Sherman's march to the sea;" lost by "Sherman's
rear guard," called by the Federal soldiers "Confederate bushwhackers"
The rolls of the Confederate dead in the archives at Washington, given
by States, are very unsatisfactory and necessarily incomplete Only two
States can even approximate their loss. But as this is the record in
Washington, I give it.
Killed. Died of Wounds. Died of Disease.
Virginia 5,328 2,519 6,947
North Carolina 14,522 5,151 20,602
South Carolina 9,187 3,725 4,700
Georgia 5,553 1,716 3,702
Florida 793 506 1,047
Alabama 552 190 724
Mississippi 5,807 2,651 6,807
Louisiana 2,612 858 3,059
Texas 1,348 1,241 1,260
Arkansas 2,165 915 3,872
Tennessee 2,115 874 3,425
Regulars 1,007 468 1,040
Border States 1,959 672 1,142
------------ ------------ ------------
Totals 52,954 21,570 59,297
In the above it will be seen that North Carolina, which may be
considered approximately correct, lost more than any other State.
Virginia furnished as many, if not more, troops than North Carolina,
still her losses are one-third less, according to the statistics in
Washington. This is far from being correct. Alabama's dead are almost
eliminated from the rolls, while it is reasonable to suppose that
she lost as many as South Carolina, Mississippi, or Georgia. South
Carolina furnished more troops in proportion to her male white
population than any State in the South, being forty-five thousand to
August, 1862, and eight thousand reserves. It is supposed by competent
statisticians that the South lost in killed and died of wounds,
ninety-four thousand; and lost by disease, one hundred and twenty-five
In some of the principal battles throughout the war, there were killed
out right, not including those died of wounds--
First Manassas ...... 387 Gettysburg ............ 3,530
Wilson's Creek ...... 279 Chickamauga ........... 2,380
Fort Donelson ....... 466 Missionary Ridge ...... 381
Pea Ridge ........... 360 Sabine Cross Roads .... 350
Shiloh .............. 1,723 Wilderness ............ 1,630
Seven Pines ......... 980 Atlanta Campaign ...... 3,147
Seven Days Battles .. 3,286 Spottsylvania ......... 1,310
Second Manassas ..... 1,553 Drury's Bluff ......... 355
Sharpsburg .......... 1,512 Cold Harbor ........... 960
Corinth ............. 1,200 Atlanta, July 22, 1864. 1,500
Perryville .......... 510 Winchester ............ 286
Fredericksburg ...... 596 Cedar Creek ........... 339
Murfreesboro ........ 1,794 Franklin .............. 1,750
Chancellorsville .... 1,665 Nashville ............. 360
Champion Hill ....... 380 Bentonville ........... 289
Vicksburg Siege ..... 875 Five Forks ............ 350
There were many other battles, some of greater magnitude than the
above, which are not here given. There are generally five wounded to
one killed, and nearly one-third of the wounded die of their wounds,
thus a pretty fair estimate of the various battles can be had. There
were more men killed and wounded at Gettysburg than on any field of
battle during the war, but it must be born in mind that its duration
was three days. General Longstreet, who should be considered a judge,
says that there were more men killed and wounded on the battlefield
at Sharpsburg (or Antietam), for the length of the engagement and men
engaged, than any during this century.
The Union losses on the fields mentioned above exceeded those of the
Confederates by thirteen thousand five hundred in killed and died of
There were twenty-five regular prison pens at the North, at which
twenty-six thousand seven hundred and seventy-six Confederate
prisoners died, tabulated as follows:
PRISONS. No. Deaths.
Alton, Ill 1,613
Camp Butler, Ill 816
Camp Chase, Ohio 2,108
Camp Douglass, Ill 3,750
Camp Horton, Ind 1,765
Camp Randall, Wis 137
Chester, Penn 213
David's Is., N.Y. Harbor 178
Elmira, N.Y. 2,960
Fort Delaware, Del 2,502
Fort Warren, Bos'n H'b'r 13
Frederick, Md 226
Gettysburg, Penn 210
Hart's Is., N.Y. Harbor 230
Johnson's Island, Ohio 270
Knoxville, Tenn 138
Little Rock, Ark 220
Nashville, Tenn 561
New Orleans, La 329
Point Lookout, Md 3,446
Richmond, Va 175
Rock Island, Ill 1,922
St. Louis, Mo 589
Ship Island, Miss 162
Washington, DC 457
War is an expensive pastime for nations, not alone in the loss
of lives and destruction of public and private property, but the
expenditures in actual cash--gold and silver--is simply appalling. It
is claimed by close students of historical data, those who have given
the subject careful study, that forty million of human beings lose
their lives during every century by war alone. Extravagant as this
estimate may seem, anyone who will carefully examine the records of
the great conflicts of our own century will readily be convinced that
there are not as much extravagance in the claim as a cursory glance at
the figures would indicate. Europe alone loses between eighteen, and
twenty million, as estimated by the most skillful statisticians. Since
the time of the legendary Trojan War (three thousand years), it is
supposed by good authority that one billion two hundred thousand of
human, beings have lost their lives by the hazard of war, not all
in actual battle alone, but by wounds and diseases incident to a
soldier's life, in addition to those fallen upon the field.
In the wars of Europe during the first half of this century two
million and a half of soldiers lost their lives in battle, and the
country was impoverished to the extent of six billions eight hundred
and fifty millions of dollars, while three millions of soldiers have
perished in war since 1850. England's national debt was increased
by the war of 1792 to nearly one billion and a half, and during the
Napoleonic wars to the amount of one billion six hundred thousand
During the last seventy years Russia has expended for war measures the
sum of one billion six hundred and seventy million dollars, and lost
seven hundred thousand soldiers. It cost England, France, and Russia,
in the Crimean war of little more than a year's duration, one billion
five hundred million dollars, and five hundred thousand lives lost by
the four combined nations engaged.
But all this loss, in some cases lasting for years, is but a bagatelle
in comparison to the loss in men and treasure during the four years of
our Civil War.
According to the records in Washington, the North spent, for the
equipment and support of its armies during the four years of actual
hostilities, four billion eight hundred million in money, outside of
the millions expended in the maintenance of its armies during the days
of Reconstruction, and lost four hundred and ten thousand two hundred
and fifty-seven men. The war cost the South, in actual money on a gold
basis, two billion three hundred million, to say nothing of the tax in
kind paid by the farmers of the South for the support of the army. The
destruction and loss in public and private property, outside of the
slaves, is simply appalling. The approximate loss in soldiers is
computed at two hundred and nineteen thousand.
The actual cost of the war on both sides, in dollars and cents, and
the many millions paid to soldiers as pensions since the war, would be
a sum sufficient to have paid for all the negroes in the South several
times over, and paid the national debt and perhaps the debts of most
of the Southern States at the commencement of the war.
This enormous loss in blood and treasure on the part of the South was
not spent in the attempts at conquest, the subversion of the Union, or
the protection of the slave property, but simply the maintenance of
a single principle--the principle of States Rights, guaranteed by the
* * * * *
THE CONFEDERATE DEAD--THE BATTLEFIELDS OF THE CIVIL WAR--THE TWO
The North has gathered up the bones of the greater part of her vast
armies of the dead, commencing the task immediately after the war, and
interred them in her vast national cemeteries. At the head of each is
an imperishable head-stone, on which is inscribed the name of the dead
soldier, where a record has been kept, otherwise it is simply marked
"unknown." The North was the victor; she was great, powerful, and
rolling in wealth; she could do this, as was right and just.
But where are the South's dead? Echo answers from every hill and dale,
from every home where orphan and widow weep and mourn, "Where?"
The South was the vanquished, stricken in spirits, and ruined in
possessions; her dead lie scattered along every battle ground from
Cemetery Ridge and the Round Top at Gettysburg, to the Gulf and far
beyond the Father of Waters. One inscription on the head-stones
would answer for nearly all, and marked "unknown." One monument would
suffice for all the army of the dead, and an appropriate inscription
would be a slight paraphrase of old Simonides on the shaft erected
to the memory of the heroes of Thermopylae--"Go, stranger, and to
Southland tell That here, obeying her behest, we fell."
The names of the great majority have already been forgotten, only
within a circumscribed circle are they remembered, and even from this
they will soon have passed into oblivion. But their deeds are recorded
in the hearts of their countrymen in letters everlasting, and their
fame as brave and untarnished soldiers will be remembered as long as
civilization admires and glories in the great deeds of a great
people. Even some of the great battle grounds upon which the South
immortalized itself and made the American people great will soon be
lost to memory, and will live only in song and story. Yet there are
others which, through the magnificent tribute the North has paid to
her dead, will be remembered for all time.
Looking backwards through the lapse of years since 1861, over some of
the great battlefields of the Civil War, we see striking contrasts.
On some, where once went carnage and death hand in hand, we now see
blooming fields of growing grain, broad acres of briar and brush,
while others, a magnificent "city of the dead." Under the shadow of
the Round Top at Gettysburg, where the earth trembled beneath the
shock of six hundred belching cannon, where trampling legions spread
themselves along the base, over crest and through the gorges of the
mountain, are now costly parks, with towering monuments--records of
the wonderful deeds of the dead giants, friend and foe.
Around the Capital of the "Lost Cause," where once stood forts and
battlements, with frowning cannon at each salient, great rows of
bristling bayonets capping the walls of the long winding ramparts,
with men on either side standing grim and silent, equally ready and
willing to consecrate the ground with the blood of his enemy or his
own, are now level fields of grain, with here and there patches of
undergrowth and briars. Nothing now remains to conjure the passer-by
that here was once encamped two of the mightiest armies of earth, and
battles fought that astounded civilization.
On the plains of Manassas, where on two different occasions the
opposing armies met, where the tide of battle surged and rolled back,
where the banners of the now vanquished waved in triumph from every
section of the field, the now victors fleeing in wild confusion,
beaten, routed, their colors trailing in the dust of shame and defeat,
now all to mark this historic battle ground is a broken slab or
column, erected to individuals, defaced by time and relic seekers, and
hidden among the briars and brush.
From the crest and along the sides of Missionary Ridge, and from the
cloud-kissed top of Lookout Mountain, to Chickamauga, where the flash
of cannon lit up the valley and plain below, where swept the armies
of the blue and the gray in alternate victory and defeat, where the
battle-cry of the victorious mingled with the defiant shouts of the
vanquished, where the cold steel of bayonets met, and where brother's
gun flashed in the face of brother, where the tread of contending
armies shook the sides and gorges of the mountain passes, are now
costly granite roadways leading to God's Acre, where are buried the
dead of the then two nations, and around whose border runs the "River
of Death" of legend, Chickamauga. Over this hallowed ground floats the
flag of a reunited country, where the brother wearing the uniform of
the victor sleeps by the side of the one wearing the uniform of
the vanquished. Along the broad avenues stand lofty monuments or
delicately chiseled marble, erected by the members of the sisterhood
of States, each representing the loyalty and courage of her respective
sons, and where annually meet the representatives of the Frozen North
with those of the Sunny South, and in one grand chorus rehearse the
death chants of her fallen braves, whose heroism made the name of the
nation great. To-day there stands a monument crowned with laurels and
immortelles, erected by the State to the fallen sons of the "Dark and
Bloody Ground," who died facing each other, one wearing the blue, the
other the gray, and on its sides are inscribed: "As we are united in
life, and they in death, let one monument perpetuate their deeds, and
one people, forgetful of all aspirations, forever hold in grateful
remembrance all the glories of that terrible conflict, which made all
men free and retaining every star in the Nation's flag."
The great conflict was unavoidable; under the conditions, it was
irresistable. It was but the accomplishment, by human agencies, the
will of the Divine. Its causes were like paths running on
converging lines, that eventually must meet and cross at the angle,
notwithstanding their distances apart or length. From the foundation
of the government these two converging lines commenced. Two
conflicting civilizations came into existence with the establishment
of the American Union--the one founded on the sovereignty of the
States and the continuance of slavery was espoused by the hot-blooded
citizens of the South; the other, upon the literal construction of
the Declaration of Independence, that "all men are created free
and equal," and the supremacy of the general government over States
Rights, and this was the slogan of the cool, calculating, but
equally brave people of the North. The converging lines commenced in
antagonism and increased in bitterness as they neared the vertex. The
vertex was 1861. At this point it was too late to make concessions.
There was no room for conciliation or compromise, then the only
recourse left is what all brave people accepts--the arbitrament of the
The South sought her just rights by a withdrawal from the "Unholy
Alliance." The North sought to sustain the supremacy and integrity
of the Union by coercing the "Erring Sisters" with force of arms. The
South met force with force, and as a natural sequence, she staked her
all. The North grew more embittered as the combat of battles rolled
along the border and the tread of a million soldiers shook the two
nations to their centers. First, it was determined that the Union
should be preserved, even at the expense of the South's cherished
institution; then, as the contest grew fiercer and more unequaled,
that the institution itself should die with the re-establishment of
the Union. Both played for big stakes--one for her billions of slave
property, the other for the forty or more stars in her constellation.
Both put forward her mightiest men of war. Legions were mustered,
marshalled, and thrown in the field, with an earnestness and rapidity
never before witnessed in the annals of warfare. Each chose her
best Captains to lead her armies to battle, upon the issue of which
depended the fate of two nations. The Southern legions were led by
the Lees, Johnstons, Beauregards, Jacksons, Stuarts, Longstreets,
and other great Lieutenants; the North were equally fortunate in her
Grants, Shermans, Thomases, Sheridans, and Meads. In courage, ability,
and military sagacity, neither had just grounds to claim superiority
over the other. In the endurance of troops, heroism, and unselfish
devotion to their country's cause, the North and South each found
foemen worthy of their steel. Both claimed justice and the Almighty
on their side. Battles were fought, that in the magnitude of the
slaughter, in proportion to the troops engaged, has never been
equalled since the days of recorded history; Generalship displayed
that compared favorably with that of the "Madman of the North,"
the Great Frederick, or even to that of the military prodigy of all
time--Napoleon himself. The result of the struggle is but another
truth of the maxim of the latter, that "The Almighty is on the side of
the greatest cannon."
I close my labors with an extract from a speech of one of the Southern
Governors at Chickamauga at the dedication of a monument to the dead
heroes from the State.
"A famous poem represents an imaginary midnight review of Napoleon's
Army. The skeleton of a drummer boy arises from the grave, and with
his bony fingers beats a long, loud reveille. At the sound the legions
of the dead Emperor come from their graves from every quarter where
they fell. From Paris, from Toulon, from Rivoli, from Lodi, from
Hohenlinden, from Wagram, from Austerlitz, from the cloud clapped
summit of the Alps, from the shadows of the Pyramids, from the snows
of Moscow, from Waterloo, they gather in one vast array with Ney,
McDonald, Masenna, Duroc, Kleber, Murat, Soult, and other marshals in
command. Forming, they silently pass in melancholy procession before
the Emperor, and are dispersed with 'France' as the pass word and 'St.
Helena' as the challenge.
"Imagine the resurrection of the two great armies of the Civil War.
We see them arising from Gettysburg, from the Wilderness, from Shiloh,
from Missionary Ridge, from Stone River, from Chickamauga--yea, from
a hundred fields--and passing with their great commanders in
review before the martyred President. In their faces there is no
disappointment, no sorrow, no anguish, but they beam with light and
hope and joy. With them there is no 'St. Helena,' no 'Exile,' and they
are dispersed with 'Union' as a challenge and 'Reconciliation' as a
* * * * *
I have in this appendix endeavored to give a complete roll of all the
members who belonged to Kershaw's Brigade. I have taken it just as it
stands in the office of the State Historian in Columbia. The work of
completing the rolls of the Confederate soldiers from this State
was first commenced by the late General, H.L. Farley and finished by
Colonel John P. Thomas, to whose courtesy I am indebted for the use
of his office and archives while completing these rolls. There may be
some inaccuracies in the spelling of names or in the names themselves,
but this could not be avoided after the lapse of so many years. Then,
again, the copy sent to the State Historian was often illegible,
causing the same names to appear different and different names to look
the same. But I have followed the records in the office in Columbia,
and am not responsible for any mistakes, omissions, or inaccuracies.
In the list of officers there will appear some seeming irregularities
and inaccuracies, but this is accounted for by the fact that the
duplicate rolls were those taken from the companies' muster rolls when
first enlisted in the Confederate service, and little or no record
kept of promotions. Thus we will see Captains and Lieutenants in these
rolls marked as non-commissioned officers. This was occasioned by
those officers being promoted during the continuance of the war, and
no record kept of such promotions.
* * * * *
ROLL OF SECOND SOUTH CAROLINA VOLUNTEER REGIMENT.
Field and Staff. COLONELS: Kershaw, J.B., Jones, E.P., Kennedy, Jno. D.,
LIEUTENANT COLONELS: Goodwin, A.D., Gaillard, Frank, Graham, J.D.
MAJORS: Casson, W.H., Clyburn, B., Leaphart, G.
ADJUTANTS: Sill, E.C., Goodwin, A.D., McNeil, A.
ASSISTANT QUARTERMASTERS: Wood, W.S., Peck, W.D.
ASSISTANT COMMISSARY SERGEANT: Villipigue, J.J.
SURGEON: Salmond, F.
ASSISTANT SURGEONS: Nott, J.H., Maxwell, A.
CHAPLAINS: McGruder, A.I., Smith, ----.
CAPTAINS: Casson, W.H., Shelton, M.A., Gaillard, F., Leaphart, S., L.,
FIRST LIEUTENANT: Shuler, P.H.B.
SECOND LIEUTENANT: Brown, R., Myers, W.M., Eggleston, D.B.
SERGEANTS: West, W.H., Reid, J.C., Bryant, J.F., Livingston, J.B.,
Cooper, G.F., Gilbert, J.G., Wells, J.F., McTurious, E.C. Joiner, B.,
CORPORALS: Sulaff, W.C., Bruns, G., Newman, R., Rowan, S.W., Mack, J.M.,
PRIVATES: Atta, T.M., Andre, Geo., Anderson, M.J., Anderson, Geo.,
Andrews, T.P., Blackwell, Jas., Bryant, B.F., Brown, C.K., Brown, Jessie,
Baker, J.L., Burns, L., Benjamin, T., Banks, C.C., Casson, J.H., Cavis,
J.W., Canning, Thos., Clowdy, ----, Cannon, M., Calais, W.J.,
Cooper, J.W., DuBose, J.B., Durin, Thos., Deckerson, Geo., Dwight, W.M.,
Emlyn, H.N., Field, G.R., Forde, Edwin, Griffin, J.W., Gasoue, W., Gibson,
J., Graham, J., Graham, Thos., Glass, W.G., Hall, J.R., Hoeffir, Chas,
Hartnett, M., Hinton, S.P., Hinkle, E., Howard, W.P., Hays, A.G., Hall,
J.W., Hennies W., Holmes, C.R., Hollis, M., Hollis, Carles, Howell, O.F.,
Hutchinson, B.B., Halsey, M.P., Johnson, D.B., Joiner, P.H., Kelly, Tames,
Kind, Wm., Kelly, J.G., Kindman, J.D., Loomis, H.H., Ladd, P.B., Lee,
Isom, Lindsey, S.J., Landrum, A.P., Leaphart, J.E., Landrum, L.M.,
Magillan, C., McGee, Alex., McFie, Joseph, Mathews, Jno., McDonald, D.J.,
McCarter, W.E., McCully, W.H., Miller, R.L., Mitchell, D., Marsh, J.A.,
Murphy, Geo., Myers, John, Maw, R.E., Martin, E.R., Marsh. Thos., Martin,
Saml., Newman, J.M., Neuffer, C.E., Nott, Carles. Norton, R., Nott, W.J.,
Pritchard, D., Pelfry, J., Roberts, L.D., Roberts, J.F., Radcliff, L.J.,
Rentiers, J.G., Roach, W.J., Rose, J.C., Rulland, C.L., Randolph, W.J.,
Reilly, W.T., Stubbs, W.G., Stubbs, J.D., Starling, W.D., Starling, R.,
Starling. Jno., Smith, B., Smith, Richard. Stokes, E.R., Thurston, J.,
Taylor, H., Vaughn, B., Williams. Jno., Winchester, J.M., Winchester, J.
CAPTAINS: Hoke, A.D., Pulliam, R.C., Cagle, J.W.
FIRST LIEUTENANT: Isaacs, A., Holland, Wm.
SECOND LIEUTENANT: Elford, Geo.E.
SERGEANTS: Price, W.P., Watson, Wm. C., Dyer, G.B., Clyde, S.C., Pool,
R.W. Pickle, O.A., Moore, T.H.L., Stall, Thos., Sudwith. Peter P., Jones,
Jno. M., Towns, John M., Bacon, Randolph.
CORPORALS: Harris, Frank E., Jennings, Jno. A., West, L.M., Ingram, H.G.,
Roberts, J.M., Shumate, W.T.
PRIVATES: Anderson, G.T., Allen, D., Beacham, E.F., Bowen, O.E., Brown,
H.C., Bacon, A., Baldwin, Jas., Baldwin, W.W., Baldwin, E., Blakely, R.L.,
Bramlett, R.H., Bramlett, Joseph, Barbary, Wm., Carson, Joseph M., Carson,
John, Carson, C.H., Carpenter, S.J., Carpenter, J.F., Cureton, A.H.,
Chandler, W.G., Coxe, F., Cooper, M., Cox, J.A., Cox, Wm. F., Dyer, G.W.,
Dyer, J.N., Diver, W.S., Diver, J.E., Diver, R.F., D'Oyle, C.W., Duncan,
A.S., Duncan, W.H., Duncan, J.M., Duncan, Robert, Donaldson, Thos. R.,
Davis, Saml., Dauthit, S.J., Foster, A.A., Goodlett, F.M., Goodlett, L.M.,
Goodlett, J.H., Goodlett, J.Y., Garmany, W.H., Grogan, T.R., Gibson, S.K.,
Gibson, J., Gosett, I.P., Gibreath, W.W., Gibreath, L.P., Goldsmith, W.H.,
Gwin, R.A., Harris, R.A., Hawkins, L.P., Henning, N.P., Hirch, G.W., Hill,
J.W., Hudson, W.A., Huff, P.D., Huff, P.W., Holland, D.W., Holland, A.J.,
Holland, Jno., Irvin, D.P., Ingram, W.P., Jones, E.P., Jones, E.T., Jones,
B., Johnson, I.T., Kilburn, T.C., Kirkland, P., Long, W.D., Long, S.F.,
Mauldin, Jas., McKay, R.W., Miller, J.P., Miller, W.S., Markley, H.C.,
Markley, Jno., Markley, Charles, Morgan, W.N., Moore, F., Moore, Lewis M.,
Moore, John, Moore, J.T., Mills, J., Payne, J., Parkins, G.W., Parkins,
J.D., Pickett, J.H., Price, J.M., Poole, J.W., Pool, Cartery Y., Poor,
G.B., Rowley, E.F., S., Roe, H.D., Rice, J.H., Ramsey, W.H., Smith, L.R.,
Scrugg, W.L.M.A., Shumate, J.S., Shumate, R.Y.H., Shumate, L.J.,
Sullivan, J.N. Smyer, M.A., Sinder, J., Salmons, J.M., Turpin, W.P.,
Tracy, Fred. S., Thompson, W.D., Thornley, J.L., Turner, J.L., West, R.W.,
Wisnant, W.F., Wisnant, Alex., Whitmire, Wm., Walton, D.S., Williams,
G.W., Watson, P.D., Watson, W.W., Watkins, Lynn, Yeargin, J.O.
CAPTAINS: Wallace, Wm., Lorick, S., Vinson, A.P.
FIRST LIEUTENANT: Wood, W.S., Bell, J.C. Peck, W.D., Wallace, E. Youmans,
O.J., Scott, J.T., McGregor, W.C., Stenhouse, E.
SERGEANTS: Myers, Jno. A., Howie, Wm., Radcliff, L.J., Beck, Chas, J.,
Shand, R.W., Clarkson, I.O.H., Bell, Jacob, Hill, Wm., Medlin, N.,
Corrall. Jno., Edwards, J.G., Bell, E.H.
CORPORALS: McCullough, Jno., Owens, Peter, Garner, Thos., Robertson,
R.D., Lee, J.W.G., Osment, J.R., Davis, H., Freeman, R.G., Loomis, T.D.
PRIVATES: Ballard, J.N., Boyer, Thomas, Busard, Sam., Boyle, J.C., Brown,
S., Brice, Robert, Campbell, James, Campbell, J.M., Copeland, J., Cook,
P., Chestnut, ----, Chambers, E.R., Cupps, C.M., Douglass, Jno.,
Dougherty, J., Dickens, H.C., Davis, R.A., Flaherty, M., Freeman, Wm.,
Glaze, Jno., Garner, Wm., Goodwin, E.M., Gruber, Jno., Gruber, S., Goins,
Henry, Gunnell, J.S., Gunnell, W.H., Grier, J., Heminnis, M., Hurst, J.P.,
Harrison, B., Hauleely, Henry, Hendricks, Jno., Hunt, J., Hammett, H.B.,
Hamilton, D., Isbell, Walter, King, W.H., Kallestrane, M.H., Lee, U., Lee,
L.W., Lee, A.J., Leach, C., Lochlier, ----, Martin, J.M.,
Martin, Joel, Martin, C.B., Martin, Daniel, Martin, Saml., Manville, A.T.,
Medlin, C., McPherson, S. McPherson, W., McPherson, Jno., McGregor, P.C.,
Murrell, W.S., Medlin, P., Perry, J., Perry, C., Palmer, W.R., Pearson,
Robt, Poag, R.P., Ramsay, J., Robertson, F.L., Ransom, Wm., Scarborough,
Wm., Scott, J.R., Sheely, W.C., Sharp, G.W., Stubblefield, W.H., Tate,
I.O., Vinson, Wm., Wailes, R., Wilson, K., Walker, C.A., Williamson, W.I.,
Woolen, James, Zesterfelt, F.
CAPTAINS: Richardson, Jno. S., Bartlett, L.W., Graham, I.D.
FIRST LIEUTENANT: Wilder, J.D., Wilder, W.W., Jacob., I.
SECOND LIEUTENANT: Durant, T.M., Pelot, W.L., Rembert, L.M.
THIRD LIEUTENANT: Nettles, J.H., Gardner, H.W.
SERGEANTS: Gayle, I.P., Nettles, J.D., Hodge, J.W., Brennan, J.P.,
Bowman, S.J., McQueen, W.A., Pringle, S.M.
CORPORALS: Wilson, S.T., Thompson, R.M., Gardner, A., Reams, H.M.,
Miller, J.I., Cole, S.R.
PRIVATES: Ard, J.P., Alsobrooks, J.E., Alsobrooks, Bog., Baker, W.T.,
Beard, D., Beck, I.S., Bradford, J.P., Brogdon, J.D., Brogdon, T.M.,
Brown, F.H., Brown, H.J., Browning, T.S., Brumby, G.S., Brunson, W.E.,
Brunson, W.J., Ballard, W.R., Blight, J., Burkett, I.L., Burkett, T.H.,
Brunson, I.R., Brown, S.J., Bird, J.P., Bass, S.C., Blanding, O., Britton,
J.J., Caraway, P.T., Clyburn, B., Cook, W.H., Davis J.L., DeLorme, W.M.,
DeLorme, T.M., DeLorme, C., Dennis, John W., Dennis, J.M., Dennis, S.M.,
Dennis, R.E., Dennis, E.E., Dougherty, J., Dalrymple, S., Eubanks, A.,
Flowers, S.P., Flowers, T.E., Felder, W.E., A., Freman, I.H., Gallagher,
P.B., Garden, H.R., Green, H.D., Graham, J.A., Gibson, H., Grooms, A.,
Haynsworth, J.H., Haynsworth, M.E., Hodge, I.B., Hodge, W.T., Holladay,
D.J., Holladay, T.J., Huggins, W.H., Ives, J.E., Jenkins, W.W., Jackson,
J.H., Jones, C.H., Jones, E.C., Jones, P.H., Kavanagh, T.D., Kelly, H.T.,
Kinney, Jno., Lesesne, J.I., London, Peter, Lynam, T.M., Lucas, A.P.,
Mellett, J.Y., McLaurin, J.C., McNeal, W.M., Moses, M.B., McKagan, G.P.,
Moses, H.C., Moses, Perry, Moses, Perry, Muldrow. I.R., Myers, R.C.,
Norton, J.J., Newman, S.I., O'Neil, W.J., Pry, J.C., Pool, W.M.,
Patterson, J.S., Ramsay, W.M., Redford, J.B., Richardson, G. Rhame, J.F.
Ross, D.J.. Rodgers, I., Shaw, J.H., Scott, J., Sledge, W.A., Smith. F.H.,
Smith, T.J., Thompson, W.T., Troublefield, A.D., Troublefield, T.J.,
Troublefield. W.B., Vaughn, F.O., Watts, W.D., Wheeler. C.O., Wilson,
C.A., Wilson, T.D., Witler, O., Wedekind, H., Wilder, Saml., Wilder, J.,
Frazer. J.B., Gilbert, J.C.T., Kirkland, J.G., McCoy, W.P., Myers, J.B.,
Richburg, J.B., Sims, E.R., Wells, J.A., Wilson, Robt., Hartley, T.J.
CAPTAINS: Kennedy, Jno. D., Leitner, Wm. S.
LIEUTENANTS: Dunlop, Josp. D., Sill, E.E., Drakeford, Jos. J., DePass,
W.J., McKain, Jno. J., Riddle, James M.
SERGEANTS: Dutton, W.C., Pegues, R.H., Hodgson, H.F., McKalgen, H.G.,
Ryan, D.R., Gerald, R.L., Nettles, Hiram.
CORPORALS: Niles, A., Boswell, J.P., Perry, J.A., Honnet, B., Devine,
F.G., Gardner. E., Polk, J.W.
PRIVATES: Allen, W.R., Ancrum, Thos. J., Sr., Arrants, J.H., Arrants,
W.T., Arrants, R.H., Arrants, J.R., Barnes, J.B., Barnes, S.Y., Brown,
John, Brown, Jas. R., Baum, Marcus, Buchanan. W.L., Baker, M., Beaver,
Jno. R., Barrett, E., Barrington, J., Burchfield, E.C., Bowen, A., Bowen,
W., Baer, B.M., Boykin, Campell, Alex., Cook, M., Cook, J., Cook, John,
Cook, Joseph, Croft, J., Coker, R., Crump, T.M., Cusick, P., Cunningham,
J.S., Cooper, J.C., Cooper, J.D., Crenshaw, W.J., Davis, J.T., DeBruhl,
----, Dunlap, E.R., Dunlap, C.J., Durant, J.A., Dawkins, W.B.,
Doby, A.E., Delton, B.Z., Evans, D., Evans, G., Elkins, E.E., Francis.
Jno., Freeman, J., Freeman, M., Fullerton, G.P., Ford, A., Gardner, T.B.,
Gibson, H.B., Graham. D., Graham, T.T., Goens, E., Howell, M., Haile,
J.S., Harrison, B., Heath, B.D., Hinson, J.E., Jeffers, L., Jinks, E.W.,
Johnson, W.E., Kendrick, James, Kelly, B.E., Kelly, D.H., Kirkland, R.R.,
Kirkley, R., King, G., Legrand, J.M., Leitner, B.F., Love, Wm., Love,
L.W., Lawrence, E.H., Middleton, D.P., Munroe, G., Munroe, J., Munroe,
Alex., Munroe, Jno., Mickie, Jno. P., Murchison, A.A., Moroh, L.C., Moore,
Levi, Maddox, Tom, McDaniel, I., Miller, J.A., McCown, J., McMillan, J.,
McKain, Wm., McIntosh, T.R., Means, S.B., McRea, D., Nelson, G., Nettles,
W.N., Nettles, J.T., Nettles, J.E., Nettles, Joseph S., Pegue, C.J.,
Picket, J., Pope, T.W., Prichard, D., Proctor, R.W., Pennington, R.A.,
Pierson, P.J., Ryan, P.H., Rembert, T.M., Scarborough, H.G., Scarborough,
L.W., Scott, Jno., Strawbridge, B.R., Small, R.E., Smith, Jno., Stokes,
W., Smith, Geo., Smyth, J., Team, J., Tidwell, D., Turner, W., Vaughn,
Lewis, Wethersbee, J.A., Wethersbee, T.C., Waner, J.O., Watts. Wm.,
Wilson, Roland, Wilson, T.R., Wilson, J.S., Winder, J.R., Witherspoon,
T.M., Wood, J. Mc., Wood, Jno., Wood, Pinckney, Wells, D.E., Wright, W.H.
CAPTAINS: Perryman, W.W., McDowell, G.W., Vance, W. Cal.
LIEUTENANTS: Fouche, ----, Maxwell, J.C., McNeil, A., Parks,
J.T., Adams, J.J., Koon, S.A., Lunbecker, W.A., Appleton W.L., Connor,
G.W., Johnson, W.A.
SERGEANTS: Moore, A.W., Fuller, H.F., Smith, J.W., Bond, S. Lewis,
Brooks, Chas. E., Seaborn, ----.
PRIVATES: Anderson, J.W., Anderson, James, Bailey, W.H., Benson, V.S.,
Blake, A.W., Burrell, W.J., Butler, Jno., Brooks, Stanmore, Boozer, S.P.,
Boozer, William, Benson, Thos., Brownlee, J.A., Barratt, Jno. G., Bell,
Wm. S., Bell, Wm. P., Carr, Jno. L., Chaney, Willis, Chaney, J.S., Chaney,
R.E., Chaney, Ransom, Cheatham, J.T., Cheatham, Jno., Crews, C.W., Crews,
M.A., Carter, V.C., Creswell, I.D., Creswell, P., Caldwell, G.R., Chipley,
W.W., Chipley, T.W., Cobb, C.A., Calvert, J.H., Crawford, H. Henry,
Cason, Richard, Cason, J.F., Day, M., Davis, Dr. Frank, Davis, Jno. F.H.,
Deal, S.C., Douglass, W.W., Ellis, A.B., Fisher, C.D., Fouche, Jno.,
Fouche, Ben., Fuller, P.M., Fennel, J.L., Gilmer, Robt. P., Gilmer, Wm.,
Gillam, J.M., Griffin, V., Griffin, G.W., Grant, W.H., Grant, Jno.,
Goodwin, Jno., Hancock, W.H., Harris, G.M., Heffernan, J.L., Hearst, T.J.,
Hughey, J.E., Hughey, Fred. T., Hughey, N., Hodges, J.W., Harris, T.,
Hutchison, Soule, Hutchison, Jno. W., Hutchison, R.F., Henderson, W.E.,
Hunter, W.C., Henderson, J.T., Ingraham, M.S., Jackson, C. Johnson, F.P.,
Johnson, Saml., Johnson, J.W., Johnson, D.Q., Johnson, G.W., Jones, J.R.,
Johnson, J.W., Jones, C.C., Jones, Thomas, Jones, Willie, Jester, Benj.,
Lomax, W.G., Lenard, V.A., Lenard, J.J., Meriwether, W.N., Moreen, Jno.
A., Milford, J.T., Marshall, G.W., McKellar, L.W., McKellar, G.W.,
McKellar, J.R., McCord, D.W., McNeill, H.B., McKensie, Jno., Major, R.W.,
Major, J.M., Moore, J.R., Moore, Robt., Moore, Henry, McCrary, B., Malone,
A., Malone, Jno., Partlow, Jno. E., Powers, J.W., Pinson, A., Pinson,
T.R., Pinson, Jno. V., Parks, Wm., Pelot, Dr. J.M., Rampey, G.W., Rampey,
S.D., Reynolds, B., Reynolds, A.D., Reynolds, Jno. M., Roderick, W.F.,
Riley, E.C., Rykard, T.J., Riley, W.N., Rykard, L.H., Robertson, Jno.,
Ross, T.M., Ross, Jno., Ross. G.P., Ross, Wiley, Reed, J.S., Saddler,
J.H., Saddler, Willis, Shadrick, W.S., Shepard, E.Y., Shepard, J.S.,
Selby, E.C., Selleck, C.W., Smith. R.G., Smith, T.N., Seal, J.R., Silk,
Jas., Turner, J.S., Townsend, J.F., Turner, Ira, Teddards, D.F., Vance, J.
C., Watson, G. McB., Waller, W.W., Waller, C.A.C., Walker, W.L., Wiss, E.,
CAPTAINS: Haile, C.C., Clyburn, T.J.
LIEUTENANTS: Cantley, T.R., Jones, W.J.
SERGEANTS: Cunningham, J.P., Tuesdale, J.E., Benton, F.J., Cauthen, A.J.
CORPORALS: West, W.S., Coats, D.W., Jones, B.N., Williams, R.H., Jones,
S.D., Kirkland, B.M.
PRIVATES: Alexander, J.H.R., Baskin, J.C.J., Blackburn, B.J., Blackwell,
J.A., Boone. J., Boone. W., Boone, J.W., Bruce, J.H., Bowers, G.M.,
Baskin, C.E., Baskin, R.C., Bird, W.L., Blackmon, J.E., Blackmon, W.N.,
Belk. J.M., Cauthen, J.S., Coats, H.J., Coats, G.H., Copeland, W.W.,
Crawford, S., Chancy, B., Clark, J.W., Croxton, J.Q., Cook, J.E., Cook,
T., Cato, A.D., Coon, S.S., Dixon, B.S., Dixon, F.L., Downs, A.J., Dixon,
G.L., Davis, D., Davis, H.G., Davis, H., Dumm, J.W., Falkinberry, J.W.,
Falkinberry, W.J., Fletcher. D.G., Falkenberry, J., Fail, J., Gaftin,
J.B., Gardner. R.C., Gray, W., Graham, J., Gaskin, D., Gaskin, J., Hall,
J.D., Holly, J., Howie. F.P., Howie, S.D., Hough, N., Hough, J., Hough,
W.P., Haile, G.W., Hunter, W.J., Johnson, W., Johnson, W.M., Johnson,
A.A., Knight, J.A., Knox, W.L., Kelly, M.P., Kirby, J., Kirkland, R.R.,
Knight, W.A. Love, McD. R., Mahaffy, W.W., Martin, J.S., Martin, W.H.,
Marshall, W.S., Marshall, J.S., Mosely, C., Mosely, F., Murchison, J.J.,
McLure, J., McDowell, J.E.C., McKay, H.C., Mahaffy, O.C., Mason, T.E.,
McMahan, A. W,. Marshall. W.D., Marshall, W.H., Mason, L.R., Nelson, T.J.,
Patterson, R.B., Patterson, W.W., Perry. T.J., Peach, W., Parker, B.,
Phaile, J., Powers, W.T., Philipps, W.P. Redick. R., Reaver, D.R.,
Robertson, L.D., Robertson, E.H., Roe, J., Ray, D., Raysor, J.C., Rasey,
B., Stover, D.G. Sheorn, Morris D., Sheorn, James, Sowell, J.A., Suggs,
Wm., Button, E., Small, A.J., Trantham, W.D., Tuesdel, W.J., Tuesdel, B.,
Tuesdel, W.M., Tuesdel. H., Tuesdel, J.T., West, T.A., West, T.G., West,
S., West, W.M., Williams, Jno., Williams, J.N., Williams, C.D.,
Wilkerson, J., Whitehead. S., Young, C.P., Young, G.W., Young, J.N.,
Young, W.C., Young, W.J.
CAPTAINS: McManus, A., Clyburn, B.R.
LIEUTENANT: Perry, A.M., Welsh, S.J., Brasington, G.C., Reeves, T.J.,
SERGEANTS: Perry, J.F., Gardener, S.C., Kennington, W.R., Williams, D.
A., McKay, Dr. J.P., Ingram, I.N., Moody, J.J., Love, M.C., Sowells, W.S.
CORPORALS: Baker, A.J., Small, J.M., Johnson, G.D., Johnson, D.G., Small,
J.M., Douglass, S.A., Kelly, B.L., Cook, J.C., McHorton, W., Williams,
T.E., Hilton, R.P., Boiling, R.A.
PRIVATES: Adkins, W.C., Baker, J.J.T., Baker, W., Bailey, J.D., Bailey,
Jno., Bell, W.T., Bunnett, G.W., Bowers, N.H., Bowers, W.J., Brasington,
W.M., Blackman, B., Bridges, P.H., Caston, W.J., Cato, R.E., Cauthen,
G.L., Cauthen, L.D., Craige, W.M., Cauthen, J.M., Deas, A., Ellis, G.W.,
Ellis, W.W., Funderburk, W.B., Funderburk, J.C., Faulkenberry, J.T.,
Gardener, C.L., Gardener, S., Gardener, W.W., Gregory, W.T., Gregory,
Willis, Harris, G.T., Harris, J.K., Harrell, D., Hilkon, T., Hinson, E.,
Hinson, W.L., Horton, A.J., Hough, M.J., Horton, W.C., Horton, J.B.,
Horton, J.T., Harvel, D.B., Jones, B.B., Johnson, J.D., Johnson, F.M.,
Johnson, D.T., Kennington, B.R., Kennington, R.W., Kennington, G.W.,
Kennington, J., Kennington, N., Kennington, R., Kennington, R., Jr.,
Kennington, W.J., Kennington, S.L., Knight, E.R., Lucas, M., Lowery,
R.J., Lowery, W.W., Minor, L., Lyles, W.J., Lynn, W.T., Lathan, J.T.,
Lucas, J.R., Love, V.H., McManus, W.H., McManus. C.W., McManus, W.A.,
McManus, G.B., Neal, W.M., Perry, B.C., Phifer, W.T., Phillips, A.,
Phillips. J., Phillips. H.S., Phillips, A.L., Reaves, T.C., Robertson, W.
U.R., Robertson, V.A., Reaves, J.J., Short, J.G., Small, J.M., Small,
W.F., Sowell, S.F., Snipes, A., Sowell, A., Sodd, W., Swetty, A.M., Woeng.
W.D., Welsh, T.J., Wilkinson, H.W., Williams, C.H., Williams, D.A.,
Williams, J.F., Williams, W.J., Wilson, G.B., Wright, W., Williams, A.M.,
CAPTAINS: Cuthbert, G.B., Elliott, R.E., Fishburn, Robt.
LIEUTENANT: Holmes, C.R., Brownfield, T.S., Webb, L.S., Robinson, S.,
Darby, W.J., Brailsford, A.M., Bissell, W.S., Daniel, W.L.
SERGEANTS: Wright, J.E., Lalane, G.M., Hanahan, H.D.
CORPORALS: Boyd, J.B., Gaillard, T.E., DeSausure, E., Duttard, J.E.,
Bellinger, E.W., Mathews, O.D., Miller, R.S.
PRIVATES: Vincent, A.M., Artes, P.F., Bedon, H.D., Bellinger, J.,
Bellinger, C.C.P., Bird, J.B., Brownfield. R.I., Brailford, D.W.,
Brisbane, W., Bull, C.S., Baynord, E.M., Calder, S.C., Chaplain. D.J.,
Chaplain, E.A., Claney, T.D., Crawford, J.A., Cambell. J.E., Carr, J, T.,
Colcock, C.J., Davis, W.C., Dwight, C.S., Dyer, G.B., DeCavadene, F.,
Dupont, A., Elliott, W.S., Fludd, W.R., Farman, C.M., Gadsden, T.S.,
Galliard, T.G., Girardeau, G.M., Glover, J.B., Godfrey, W., Goodwin, J.J.,
Green, W.G., Hanckel, J.S., Hane, W.C., Harllee, J., Harllee, W.S.,
Harllee. P., Jackson, A., Jacobs, H.R., Kerrison, C., Kerrison, E.,
Larrisey, O., Lawton, W.M., Lawton, J.C., Miller, J.C., Mackey, J.J.,
Mackey, W.A., Mathews, P.F., Miller. A.B., Miller, P, G., Mills, E.J.,
Moses, J.L., Moses, P., Mortimer, Le. B., Munnerlyn, J.K., Mitchell, F.G.,
Myers. S.C., Montgomery, ----, McCoy, H.A., McLean, M.M.,
Pinckney, S.G., Palmer, J.J., Pinckney, H., Palmer, G., Palmer, K.L.,
People, H.M., Pendergrass, M.G., Prentiss, O.D., Prentiss, C.B., Ruffin,
E., Ruffin, C., Raysor, J.C., Reeder, T.H., Rice, L.L., Rivers. R.H.,
Rivers. W., Roumillat, A.J.A., Royal, J.P., Sanders, A.C., Sanders, J.B.,
Shipman, B.M., Screven, R.H., Seabrook, J.C., Scott. M.O., Shoolbred, J.,
Shoolbred, R.G., Smith, G. McB., Stocker, T.M., Strobhart, James,
Thompson. T.S., Tillinghast, E.L., Trapier, E.S., Walker, W.A., Walker,
W.J., Wescoat, W.P., Wescoat, T.M., Wickenberg, A.V., Zealy, J.E.
CAPTAINS: Rhett, A.B., Moorer, J.F., Webb, J., Dutart, J.E.
LIEUTENANT: Elliott, W., Dwight, W.M., Lamotte, C.O., Edwards, D.,
SERGEANTS: Fickling, W.W., Gilbert S.C., Webb J.J., Phillips, S.R.,
Fell, T.D., Hamilton, J., Phillips, L.R., Goldsmith, A.A., Moorer, R.G.,
Burrows, F.A., Williams, D.F., Wayne, R., Ferriera, F.C., O'Neill, E.F.,
CORPORALS: Purse, E.L., Lawson, P.A., Calvitt, W.L., Rushe, F.R.,
Sheller, D.A., Sparkman, A.J., Murphy, M., Plunkett, J., O'Neill, E.F.,
Heirs, G.S., Wooley A., Ackis, R.W., Autibus, G., Lord, R.
Privates: Anderson, Wm., Allgood, J.F., Ackison, R.W., Allgood, J.L.,
Adams, D.A., Appleby, C.E., Baily, J., Barrett, R., Blatz, J.B., Brum, H.,
Brown, R.M., Brown. W., Brady, J., Buckner, J., Buckner, A., Buckner,
J.A., Buckner, A.H., Burrows, F.A., Bruning, H., Ballentine, J.C., Byard,
D.E., Bartlett, S.C., Bartlett, F.C., Boag, W., Braswell, T.T., Bell,
C.W., Bell, W.P., Bull, C.J., Bull, E.E., Bazile, J.E., Bishop, J.S.,
Blume, C.C., Benson, J.N., Bailey, J., Bruce, J.H., Calvitt, W.T.,
Campsen, B., Casey, W.T., Conway, P., Cartigan, J.M., Cole, C., Cotchett,
A.H., Creckins, A., Castills, M., Coward, R.M., Craige, W.S., Copeland,
W.J., Deagen, P., Daly, F.R., Dillon, J.P., Dinkle, J., Dorum, W.D.,
Doran, J., Douglass, C.M., Day, M., Duncan, W.M., Estill, W., Elle, A.,
Tarrell, J.F., Ferria, R.C., Fisher, W.S., Fant, T.R., Furt, W., Fleming,
A.H., Froysell, J.D., Gammon, J.E., Gammon, E.M., Goldsmith, A.A., Gibbs,
W.H., Grubbs, W.L., Green, W.H., Grenaker, J.A., Griffeth, A., Gruber,
J.T., Hammond, C.S., Hoys, T., Hibbard, F.C., Happoldd, D., Hoeffer, C.M.,
Haganes, H.C., Harris, J., Hendricks, J.A., Hendricks, M., Hunt, H.D.,
Hunt, J.H., Hunt, R., Hunter, T.T., Haigler, E.N., Haigler, W.L., Heirs,
J.A., Howard, R.P., Hough, H.J., Heirs, G., Harley, J.M., Harley, P.,
Jones, G.T., Jones, D.H., Joseph, A.H., Jowers, J.P., Johnson, W.G.,
Kerney, G., Kelly, J.G., Kunney, A.A., Kennedy, J., Kennedy, H.R.,
Kennedy, J.A., Lavell, A.J., Lawson, T.A., Lonergan, J.D., Maher, E.,
Marshall, W., McCollum, E., Meylick, F.W., Meyleick, W., McKensie, A.,
McLure, A., Meyers, A.C., Murphy, M., Martin, W., McGellom, B., Martin,
A., Moorer, R.A., Mitchel, D.H., Mitchel, F.G., Musgrove, W.W., Martin,
J., Neill, R.T., Noll, C., Nicklus, J., Nevek, R.P., Nesmith, E.C., Nix.,
J.B., O'Neill, J., Oppenhimer, E.H., Oppenheimer, H.H., Platt, W.W.,
Philipps, L.R., Prace, A., Purse, E., Purse, W.G., Page, J.J., Phunkett,
J., Pearson. J.H., Payne, J.P., Richardson, C.O., Ryan, T.A., Randolph,
L.A., Robinson, S.L., Reentz, J.W., Righter, J.A., Reid, J.W., Reeves,
J.P., Rushe, F.D., Schmitt, T., Scott, W., Shepard, D.H., Sammonds, J.R.,
Sporkman, A.J., Sellick, C.H., Street, E., Summers, E., Sutherland, J.P.,
Sherer, J.R., Sandifer, J., Shuler, S.N., Spillers, W.F., Schmitt, R.,
Smith, J.C., Simons, J.R., Smith, O.A.C., Thompson, M.N., Timmonds, G.C.,
Turner, J.W., Taylor C.M., Turner, C., Welmer, M.W., Wallace, J.L., Walsh,
P., Wilkins, J.R., Wilkins, T.K., Willis. J.V., Watts, W.D., Williams, T.
A., Weeks, T.S., Wolley, A., Wolly, H.A., Williman, W.H., Yates, M.J.,
Youngblood, J., Zimmerman, U.A., Zeigler, J.B.E.
* * * * *
ROLL OF THIRD SOUTH CAROLINA VOLUNTEER REGIMENT.
Field and Staff: COLONELS: Williams, James H., Nance, James D.,
Rutherford, W.D., Moffett, R.C.
LIEUTENANT COLONELS: Foster, B.B., Garlington, B.C., Todd, R.P. Majors:
Baxter, James M., Nance, J.K.G.
ADJUTANTS: Rutherford, W.D., Pope, Y.J. Sergeant
MAJORS: Williams, J.W., Simpson, O.A., Garlington, J.D.
QUARTERMASTERS: McGowan, Jno. G. (Captain), Shell, G.W. (Captain).
COMMISSARIES: Hunt, J.H. (Captain), Lowrance, R.N. (Captain).
SURGEONS: Ewart, D.E., Evans, James.
ASSISTANT SURGEONS: Dorroah, Jno. F., Drummond, ----, Brown,
CAPTAINS: Garlington, B.C., Hance, W.W., Richardson, R.E.
LIEUTENANTS: Gunnels, G.M., Arnold, J.W., Garlington, H.L.,
Hollingsworth, J., Hudgens, W.J., Mosely, Jno. W., Shell, G.W., Shell,
Henry D., Simpson, C.A., Fleming, H.F.
SERGEANTS: Simpson, T.N., Robertson, V.B., Wilson, T.J., Teague, A.W.,
Motte, Robert P., Garlington, Jno., Jr., McDowells, Newman, Griffin, W.D.,
Jones, P.C., Gunnels, W.M.
CORPORALS: Mosely, R.H., Sullivan, W.P., Martin, R.J., Richardson, S.F.,
West, E., Atwood, I.L., Richardson, W.M.
PRIVATES: Anderson, D.A., Anderson, W.J., Allison, T.W., Anderson, W.Y.,
Allison, W.I., Adams, Jno. S., Atwood, W.M., Ballew, J.B., Ballew, B.F.,
Bass, John, Beard, W.F., Boyd, W.T., Black, W.E., Ball, J.S., Bolt, T.W.,
Bolt, W.T., Bolt, Pink, Bolt, John L., Bolt, H., Bradford, W.A., Bright,
Jno. M., Beasley, B.H., Cason, W.B., Clark, J.Q.A., Campton, L.D., Crasy,
J.B., Chappell, W.T., Day, N.T., Day, John, Davenport, T.J., Donaldson,
W.M., Davis, J.J., Donnon, J.M., Evans, Wm., Elmore, ----,
Fleming, J.O.C, Finley, C.G., Finley, J.M., Finley, J.R., Franks, N.D.,
Franks, C.M., Franks, T.B., Franks, J.W.W., Gray, Duff, Gary, J.D., Going,
Wm., Garrett, W.H., Garlington, S.D., Hall, J.F., Hance, Theodore, Ham,
James E., Harrison, P.M., Harrison, J.A., Hill, L.C., Hellams, D.L.,
Henderson, W.H., Henderson, Lee A., Hix, E.M., Hawkins, J.B., Hix, W.P.,
Hix, Willis, Hix, C.E., Hudgens, J.M., Hudgens, J.H., Hudgens, W.H.,
Hudgens, J.B., Irby, G.M., Irby, A.G., Jennings, A., Jennings, R.,
Jenerette, Wm., Jones, B.P., Kirk, C.E., Lovelace, J.H., Monroe, W.,
Medlock, J.T., McKnight, H.W., McDowell. Baker, McCollough, J.L., Milan,
Jno. A., Milan, W.W., Milan, M.F., McAbee, A., McAbee, ----,
McAbee, ----, Metts, J.A., Miller, Harry, Neal, S.H., Nolan,
Jno., Oliver, S.A., Odell, L.M., Parks, John M., Pinson, W.V., Pinson.
W.S., Pinson, M.A., Pope, D.Y., Ramage, Frank, Robertson, Z., Robertson,
A., Rodgers, W.S., Simpson, B.C., Simpson, R.W., Simpson, J.D., Simpson,
O.F., Sullivan, M.A., Sullivan, J.M., Smith, P., Shell, Frank, Simmons,
S.P., Sharp, A.L., Speke, S.A., Teague, Thomas J., Teague, M.M.,
Templeton, J.L., Templeton, P., Templeton, S.P., Templeton, W.A., Tribble,
M.P., Tribble, J.C.C., Tobin, Thos. A., Todd, S.F., Vance, S.F., Vaughan,
Jno., Winebrenner, George, Williams, Jno., Williams, W.A., Wilson, J.M.,
West, S.W. West, Joseph, Wilbanks, John S., Woods, Harvey, Willis, E.R.,
Young, Martin J., Young, Robert H.
CAPTAINS: Davidson, Samuel N., Gary, Thomas W., Connor, Thompson.
LIEUTENANTS: Hunter, W.P., Lipscomb, T.J., Buzhardt, M.P., Davenport,
C.S., Pulley, S.W.
SERGEANTS: Summer, M.B., Reeder, J.R.C., Moffett, R.D., Clark, J.P.,
Spears, L.M., Copeland, J.A., Peterson, W.G., Livingston, A.J., Smith,
J.D., Bradley, E.P., Tribble, A.K.
CORPORALS: Davis, T.M., Gary, Jno. C., Dean, Julius, Lark, Dennis,
Chalmers, Joseph H., Anderson, W.A., Wallace, W.W., Spears, A.S., Perkins,
H.S., Gibson, B.W., Workman, Robt., Stephens, P.J., Suber, Mid.
PRIVATES: Brooks, E.A., Burton, Kay, Butler, J.C., Bishop, W.F., Bishop,
Jno., Bailey, A.W., Brown, D., Brown, J.A., Butler, E.A., Butler, J.N.,
Butler, B.R., Butler, D.M., Cannon, Isaac P., Crooks, L.T., Crooks,
J.A.B., Chalmers, E.P., Craddock, D.F., Craddock, S., Chupp, J.G., Cole,
John, Campell, Jno. B., Cleland, J.P., Clark, E.G., Connor, Robt., Clamp,
D.L., Chappells, J.B., Davenport, H., Davenport, W.P., Davenport, E.W.,
Dalrymple, John, Davis, A.P., Davis, D.P., Davis, J.T., Dumas, J.H.,
Davenport, J.C., Floyd, Jno. S., Floyd, J.N., Gary, J.W., Gary, M.H.,
Gary, C.M., Gary, Jessie, Griffin, S.B., Griffin, W.B., Grimes, W.M.,
Grimes, T.A., Gibson, M., Gibson, W.W., Golding, James W., Golding, Jno.
P., Galloway, Jno., Graham, T.J., Greer, R.P., Hopkins, G.T., Harp, David,
Harmon, W.C., Harmon, H.T., Jones, J.S.B., Johnson, W., Johnson, W.R.,
James, W.A., King, W.H., Keller, W.J., Lank, J.W., Lyles, I.E.,
Livingston, H., Livingston, E., Longshore, E.C., Longshore, A.J.,
McKettrick, J.W., Middleton, J.H., Moates, J.L., Moates, F., Montgomery,
G.B., McEllunny, R.N., Neel, J.M., Neel, T.M., Pitt. J.M., Pitt, W., Pitt,
J., Pitt, D., Pitt, A.N., Reeder, A.M., Richey, E., Robertson, S.J., Reid,
W.W., Reeder, W., Spruel, J.S., Spruel, W.F., Stewart, J.P., Senn, D.R.,
Satterwhite, R.S., Scurry, J.R., Sterling, G.P., Saddler, G.W., Suber,
G.A., Suber, A., Thrift, C., Thrift, G.W., Templeton, R.W., Willinghan,
W.W., Workman, J.A., Workman, J.M., Workman, H., Workman, P., Whitman,
J.C., White, G.F., Wells, G.F., Waldrop. W.W., Williams, B.
CAPTAINS: Moffett, R.C., Herbert, C.W.
LIEUTENANTS: Moffett, D.S., Wilson, Jno. C., Culbreath, Joseph, Speake,
J.L., Piester, ----
SERGEANTS: Kibler, A.A., Moffett, T.J., Cromer, E.P., Wilson, T.R., Long,
G.F., Fellers, J.B.
CORPORALS: Young, N.H., Boozer, D.W., Fulmer, J.B., Bowers, J.S., Sites,
George, Kelly, James M., Paysinger, S.S.
PRIVATES: Adams, W.H. Albritton, Joseph, Banks, James C. Baird, Henry,
Baughn, Henry, Bouknight, F., Blair, T.S., Blair, J.P., Boland, S.D.,
Boland, James M., Boozer, C.P., Boozer, S.D., Boulware, I.H., Boyd, G.M.,
Cannon, H.D., Calmes, Jno. T., Calmes, Wash., Carmichael, J.D., Counts,
W.F., Cromer, A.B., Crosson, H.S.N., Crosson, D.A., Crouch, Jacob, Crouch,
Wade, Davenport, Wm., Davenport, J.M., Davis, Jno., Duncal, J.W.,
Dominick, D.W.S., Elmore, J.A., Enlow, Nathan, Ferguson, G., Fellers,
J.P., Fellers, S.H., Folk, H.S., Frost, Eli, Gallman, D.F., Gallman, Henry
G., Gallman, J.J., George, James M., George, N.B., George, L.O., Griffeth,
G.W., Gruber, I.H., Grimes, Thos., Guise, Albert, Hair, J.B., Hartman,
J.M., Hawkins, P.M., Hawkins, J.M., Hawkins, E.P., Hendricks, J.E.,
Herbert, J.W., Hussa, Carwile, Halfacre, D.N., Huff, Andrew, Kelly, J.H.,
Kelly, Y.S., Kelly, W.J., Kinard, Levi, Kibler, Levi, Kibler, I.M.,
Kibler, J.H., Kibler, H.C., Lane, G.G., Lane, W.R., Lester, Alen, Lester,
Alfred, Lester, Charles, Long, A.J., Long, M.J., Long, L.W., Livingston,
J.M., McGraw, P.T., McGraw, B.F., McCracken, L.C., McCracken, Jno.,
McNealus, Jno., Mansel, R.J., Moffett, R.D., Martin, Allen, Moon, Frank,
Morris, S., Nates, J.C., Neill, J.B., Neill, J. Calvin, Neill, J. Spencer,
Nelson, J.G., Paysinger, H.M., Paysinger, T.M., Pugh, Wm., Pugh, H.,
Quattlebaum, I.E., Quattlebaum, D.B., Rankin, A.J., Rankin, G.W., Rawls,
S. Sanders, Reagen, James B., Reagen, H.W., Reagen, Jno. W., Reid, Newt.,
Reid, J.P., Richardson, D., Rikard, J.A., Rikard, J.W., Kinard, L.C.,
Sease, N.A., Sease, J. Luke, Shepard, Jno. R., Seigman, Jesse E., Spence,
Saml, Spence, Jno. D., Sligh, J.W., Sligh, D.P., Stillwell, J.T.,
Stockman, J.Q.A., Stribbling, J.M., Stockman, Jno. C., Stuart, W., Stuart,
C.T., Sultan, R.J., Thompson, T.J., Whites, J.D., Werts, M., Whites, G.J.,
Werts, Andrew, Werts, Jno. A., Wilson, Wm., Willingham, Hav.
CAPTAINS: Fergerson, Thos. B., Walker, F.N.
LIEUTENANT: Bobo, Y.J., Abernathy, C.P., Moore, J.P., Floyd, N.P., Ray,
P. John, Walker, J., Henry, Allen, Wade, Gordon, F.M., Bobo, Hiram.
SERGEANTS: Campell, Levi, Allen, Garland, Floyd. Chance, M., Ray, Hosea,
Roy, Robt. Y., Ducker, H.W., Davis, M.M.
CORPORALS: Abernathy, J.D.C., Hill, T.F.C., Dillard, Geo. M., Fergerson,
Jno. W., Welburn, Robt. C.
PRIVATES: Allen, B.R., Bobo, J.P., Sardine, T.C., Barrett, J., Browning,
Hosea, Carson, John, Cathcart, H.P., Cooper, J., Dodd, W.T., Cooper, T.M.,
Fergerson, H.T., Floyd, A.F., Floyd, J.M., Farmer, W., Fergerson, E.,
Franklin, Y.P., Farrow, A.T., Finger, Mark, Graham, Isaac, Graham, J.F.,
Gentry, J.W., Gentry. E., Huckaby, P., Hill, B.M., Hollis, P.W., Hembree,
C.B., Andrew, ----, Jackson, Drewy, Graham, A., Kelly, Wm.,
Kelly, M., Lamb, Thomas, Lamb, Robert, Lynch, W.E., Lynch, A., Lynch,
John, Lynch, B.S., Murphy, R.C., Myers, J.D., McCravy, A.F., McCravy,
R.S., McCravy, Sam., Murray, Peter, Murray, F.H., Nix, Stephen, McMillen,
Wm., Ramsay, Robt, Ramsay, P., Mullens, Wm., Pruitt, E.A., Pope, C.,
Poole, Robt., Smith, Caspar, Smith, Wm., Stephens, M., Stephens, J.F.,
Shands, Anthony, Shands, Frank, Stone, T.B., Stearns, A.B., Shands, Saml.,
Pruitt, John, Sexton, J.W., Tinsley, J.L., Tinsley, A.R., Tinsley, J.P.,
Taylor, W.B., Varner, Andrew, Varner, M.S., Varner, J.W., Vaugh, Jas.,
Williams, C.M., Williams, J.D., Workman, H., Wesson, Frank, Woodbanks,
Thomas, Woodbanks, Jno., Lynch, Pink. Ray, Thos., Poole, Robt.
CAPTAINS: Nance, J.D., Nance, Jno. K.G., Wright, Robt. H.
LIEUTENANT: Bailey, E.S., Moorman, Thos. S., Hair, Jno. S., Hentz, D.J.,
Haltiwanger, Richard, Martin, J.N., James, B.S., Langford, P.B., Weir,
Robt. L., Cofield, Jas. E.
SERGEANTS: Pope, Y.J., Lake, T.H., Boyd, C.F., Chapman, S.B., Ruff, Jno.
S., Kingore. A.J., Buzzard, B.S., Reid, H.B., Hood, Wm., Duncan, T.S.,
Rutherford, W.D., Paysinger, T.M., Thompson, W.H., Ramage, D.B., Leavell,
R.A., Horris, T.J., Glymph, L.P., Sloan, T.G., Blatts, Jno., Harris, J.R.
PRIVATES: Abrams, J.N., Abrams, J.K., Abrams, C.R., Atchison, S.L.,
Atkins, R.W., Assman, H.M., Brandy, H., Bernhart, H.C., Blatts, W.H.,
Bell, Jno. F., Bruce, J.D., Boazman, W.W., Boazman, Grant, Eramlett, A.W.,
Boozer, D.C., Boozer, E.P., Boyd, M.P., Burgess, C.H., Brown, T.C., Brown,
J.E., Blackburn, James, Bailey, A. Wm., Butler, J.C., Canedy, A.B., Clend,
M.P., Caldwell, J.E., Collins, A.B., Clamp, G., Cameron, J.S., Cameron,
J.P., Cromer, S.D., Davis, J.H., Davis, Jas., Davis, Jno., Derick, S.S.,
Duckett. Jno. G., Duckett, J.C., Duckett, J., Duckett. G.T., Faeir, W.Y.,
Fair, Robt., Faeir, G.A., Foot, M., Gary, J.N., Glasgow, L.K., Graham,
C.P., Gall man, H., Harris, M.M., Hargrove, P.H., Hiller, S.J., Hiller,
G.E., Haltin, Wm., Haltin, R., Johnson, J.A., Johnson, W., Kelly, I.J.,
Keom, G., Keney, G., Keitler, J.N., Lindsey, J., Lovelace, B.H., Lake,
T.W., Lake, E.G., Lee, W., Lindsey, W.R., Marshall, J.R., Mayes, J.B.,
McCrey, S.T., McCaughrin, S.T., McMillen, W.J., Miller, J.W., Mathis,
J.M., Marshal, J.L., Melts, W., Metts, McD., Metts, W.G., Murtishaw, S.W.,
Nance, A.D., O'Dell, I.N., Pratt, S., Price, S., Pope, B.H., Pope, W.H.,
Pope, T.H., Pope, H., Reid, J.M., Reid, W.W., Renwick, H., Ruff, J.H.,
Ruff, W.W., Ruff, J.M.H., Ruff, R.S., Rodlesperger, T., Rice, J., Riser,
J.W., Riser, W.W., Riser, Joe, Ruff, M., Sligh, T.W., Sloan, E.P., Sligh,
G., Sligh, W.C., Suber, W.H., Suber, G.B., Souter, F.A., Summer, F.M.,
Schumpert, B., Schumpert, P.L., Sawyer, F.A., Sultsbacer, W., Stribling,
M., Scurry, D.V., Tarrant, W.T., Tribble, J.R., Turnipseed, J.O., Wheeler,
D.B., Wright, J.M., Witt, M.H., Wilson, T.R., Wilson, C., Wood, S.J.,
Wingard, H.S., Wideman, S., Wilson, J.W., Willingham, W.P., Weir T.W.,
Willingham, ----, Zoblel, J., Hornsby, J.D., Harris, J.Y.
CAPTAIN: Walker, T.
LIEUTENANT: McGowan, H.L., Williams, J.G., Loaman, S.
SERGEANTS: East, I.H.L., Hill, J.C., Neil, W.W., Bailey, W.F., Gray,
W.S., Madden, J., Wells, B.W.
PRIVATES: Alston, F.V., Andrews, H.A., Andrews, T., Ballew, R., Bryson,
H.H., Byson, R., Boyd, W.M.J., Boyd, W., Bryson, H.J., Bryson, J.E.,
Byson, J.A., Burrill, B., Burrill, W., Byson, J.G., Boseman, L.J., Bale,
A., Cannon, J.L., Cole, J., Conner, J.B., Coleman, O.A., Cook, M.C.,
Crisp, J.T., Crim, S.J., Cannon, L.A., Dogan, W.S., Dalrymple, T.E.J.,
Donald, T.P., Darnell, W.R., Davenport, W.R., Dobbins, J., Franklin, H.G.,
Franklin, J.N., Franklin, N., Feets, J., Fowler, P.O., Fuller, J.C.,
Fuller, J.N., Fuller, W., Furguson, J.W., Goodlett, S.P., Grant, M.,
Garlington, J.D., Hollingworth, J., Hitt, H., Hitt, B., Hitt, E., Jones,
W., Johnson, H.S., Johnson, W.R., Johnson, Miller, Langey, B.P., Lindsay,
J., Lindsay, A., Lowe, W.W., Lowe, P.W., Lake, J., Lake, Y., Madden, A.,
Madden, S.C., Madden, D.N., Madden, J.H., Madden, J., Martin, L., McGowan,
J.S., McDowell, W., McGee, J., McCoy, A., McClure, D., McClure, W.,
McGowan, S., McWilliams, I., Mauldin, J., Monroe, W.E., Monroe, J.W.,
Morgan, J.C., Moore, H., Moore, E., Moore, G., Nabors, W.A.,.Nichols,
R.M., Nichols, T.D., Nichols, J., Nelson, A., Nelson, M., Neely, W.,
Nixon, W., O'Neal, J.B., Puckett, R., Pirvem, J.H., Pierce, C.E., Pills,
J., Propes, M., Reid, M., Riddle, T.R., Riddle, J.S., Sadler, G.M.,
Shirley, J., Smith, T.M., Sincher, T., Sparks, S., Vance, W.A., Waldrop,
T.M., Walker, J.P., Winn, J., Wilbur, J.Q., Waldrop, E., Wilson, C.,
CAPTAIN: Todd, R.P.
LIEUTENANT: Burnside, A.W., Barksdale, J.A., Watts, J.W.
SERGEANTS: Wright, A.Y., Garlington, J.D., Winn, W.C., Sanford, B.W.,
Parley, H.L. CORPORALS: Owengs, A.S., Brownlee, D.J.G., McCarley, T.A.,
Patton, M.P., Thompson, A.G.H., Templeton, D.C.
PRIVATES: Avery, T.M., Avery, F.H., Adams, W.A., Ball, W.H., Ball, H.P.,
Barksdale, A., Barksdale, T.B., Barksdale, M.S., Branks, C.B., Brooks,
L.R., Brooks, W.J., Bendle, R.T., Byrant, R.F., Blackaby J.L., Burns,
B.F., Burns, J.H., Brownlee, J.R., Brumlett, C., Childress, D., Childress,
W.A., Cook, Geo., Curry, J.A., Curry, T.R., Curry, W.L., Curry, J.P.,
Crisp. J., Coleman, J.D., Chisney, W., Chisney, J.N., Chisney, N.,
Chisney, R.J., Chisney, G., Craig, J., Chick, W., Coley, R.B., Dorroh,
J.A., Dorroh, J.R., Dorroh, J.W., Dial, J., Edwards, L.L., Edwards, M.,
Evins, H.C., Fairbairn, E.J., Fairbairn, J.A., Fairbairn, J.D., Franks,
B.T., Franks, S., Franklin, W., Fleming, M., Fuller J., Grumbles, R.P.,
Garrett, H.M., Harris, R.T., Hellams, J.T., Hellams, R.V., Hellams, W.R.,
Hellams, R.T. Hellams, W.H., Henderson, T.Y., Henry, I.F., Henry, S.P.,
Hill, D.S., Higgins, R.J., Higgins, R.J., Higgins, J.B., Hunter, J.P.,
Hobby, J.A., Jones, E., Knight, J., Knight, R.S., Lamb, W., Lanford, J.M.,
Landford, P., Lindsey, E.E., Lanford, E.L., McNeely, A.Y., Martin, J.A.,
Martin, B.A., Martin, M.P., Martin, M.G., Martin, J., Martin, J.A.,
Morgan, W.B., Morris, W.H., McClentock, W.A., Maddox, J., A., Simpson,
W.W., Simpson, A., Simpson, S., Stoddard, D.F., Stoddard, J.F., Stoddard,
D.C., Stoddard, A.R., Stewart, J.C., Summers, W.W., Smith, R., Shockley,
J.W., Stone, E., Shesly, E., Templeton, J.P., Thackston, E.R., Thackston,
S.R., Thompson, I.G., Thompson, W., Thompson, A.Y., Thompson, W.F.,
Townsend, J., Vonodore, J., Wadell, A.J., Wadell, J.T., Wine, A.W.,
Wilson, T.C., Witte, J.B.H., White, J.K., Workman, J.M., Wofford, B.H.
CAPTAINS: Nunnamaker, D., Summer, J.C., Swygert, G.A., Dickert, D.A.
LIEUTENANT: Epting, J.H., Nunnamaker, S., White, U.B., Fulmer, A.P.,
SERGEANTS: Hipp, A.J., Derrick, F.W., Kesler, W.A., Swindler, W.C.,
Werts, A.A., Haltiwanger, J.S., Wheeler, S., Kempson, L.C.
CORPORALS: Weed, T.C., Busby, W.A., Stoudemire, J.A.W., Mayer, J.A.,
Counts, W.J., Werts, W.W., Guise, A.
PRIVATES: Adams, M., Addy, J.M., Burrett, J., Burkett, H., Boozer, L.,
Boozer, B.F., Boozer, D.T., Bedenbaugh, L., Bundric, T.J., Busby, J.L.,
Busby, L., Busby, W., Cannon, J.J., Caughman, L., Chapman, H.H., Chapman,
D., Chapman, B.F., Cook, J.S., Comerlander, M., Corley, F., Dawkins, J.D.,
Dickert, J.O., Dickert, B.F., Dickert, C.P., Dominick, H., Dreher, D.J.,
Dreher, T., Derrick, A., Ellisor, C.G., Ellisor, G.M., Ellisor, G.P.,
Ellisor, J.T., Enlow, B., Epting, J., Fulmer, H.J., Fulmer, G.W., Fulmer,
J.E., Frost, E., Folk, S.H., Farr, J., Feugle, J.N., Fort, H.A., Green,
W.T., Gibson, A., Guise, N.A., Geiger. W.D., George, J., Gortman, M.,
Hamiter, J.H., Haltiwanger, J.L., Haltiwanger, A.K., Hartman, S., Hobbs,
L.P., Hipp, W.W., Hipp, J.M., Hipp, J.J., Hiller, G., Jacob, W.A., Kelly,
B., Kinard, J.J., Kunkle, H.L., Koon, G.W., Long, H.M., Long, D.S., Long,
D.P., Long, G.A., Long, J.H., Long, G., Long, J., Lake, T., Lake, E.J.,
Livingstone, J., Livingstone, S., Livingstone, M., Lester, G., Lever, C.,
Mayer, A.B., Miller, A.B., Miller, J., Miller, L., Monts, J.W., Monts, T.,
Monts, N., Monts, F., Monts. J., Martin, A., Metts, T., Nunnamaker, T.C.,
Rucker, W., Russell, L.F., Rikard, L., Riser. R.E., Summer, J.G., Summer,
W., Summer, P., Summer, J.B., Summer, J.K., Summer, A.J., Stoudemire,
G.W., Stoudemire, R.T., Smith, S.H., Smith, J.A., Shealy, P.H., Schwarts,
G., Schwarts, H.C., Sease, A.M., Slice, G.N., Slice. R., Setzler, W.,
Setzler, J.T., Spillers, I., Stuck, G.M., Stuck, M.C., Swetingburg, D.R.,
Suber, A., Thompson, P., Wilson, H.C., Wilson, A.A., Werts, A., Werts,
W.A., Werts, J., Werts, W.A., Werts, T., Weed, W., Wheeler, L.B.,
Youngener, G.W., Yonce, J., Yonce, W.
CAPTAINS: Jones, B.S., Langston, D.M.H., Pitts, T.H., Johnson, J.S.
LIEUTENANTS: Harris, N.S., West, S.L., Byrd, W.B., Belk, W.B., Duckett,
SERGEANTS: Henry, D.L., Williams, E., McLangston, G., Byrd, A.B.,
Copeland, D.T., Berkley, T., Adair, J.W.
CORPORALS: Maylan, P., Blakely, M., Goodwin, R., Butler, P.M., Blakely, W.
PRIVATES: Arnant, ----, Atrams, R., Anderson, J., Anderson, W.,
Anderson. M., Byrd, G., Byrd, J.D., Beasley, G., Bell, J.L., Bell, J.E.,
Blakely, E.T., Blakely, M.P., Richmond, ----, Boyce, C.B.,
Brown, J., Bearden. T., Compton, E., Canady, J.W., Craige, G., Cannon, H.,
Casey, C.C., Campbell, P., Dillard, G.W., Donnon, G.M., Donnon, W., Duval,
C.W., Davis, W., Ferguson, J.G., Ferguson. C.C., Foster, J.F.M., Gordon,
M., Graham, D., Hill, S., Holland, J.G., Holland, R.R., Hollingsworth,
F., Hollingsworth, J., Hanby. J.W., Harris, F., Holland, W., Hewett, F.M.,
Hemkapeeler, C., Hipps, R., Hipps, C.M., Hirter, M., Huskey, W., Henry,
J.E., Huckabee, J., Jones, A., Jones, R.F., James, Z., Johnson, R.C.,
Jacks, I., King, A.A., Langston, J.T., Lyles, P., McKelvy, J., Maddox,
W.C., McInown, M.M., Meeks, T., Mars, N., McDowell, J.T.B., McMakin, G.,
Merton, G, Newman T.D., Neal, S.H., Owens, T., Oxner, J.T., Prather, G.,
Prather, N.C., Powell, A., Powell, R.,.Potter, M., Pearson. J.P., Philson,
S.P., Philips, A.N., Ramage, J.W., Ray, W., Reynolds, M., Suber.M., Suber,
M., Stokes, T., Stokes, W., Sneed, C., Simpson, J.M., Snook W.M., Smith,
J.C., Taylor, W.J., Taylor.H.S., Templeton, A., Templeton, H., Templeton,
J., Talleson, J., Talleson, J., Todd, N.C., Todd, S.A., Thaxton, Z.A.,
Willard, J., Young, G.R., Zeigler, ----.
CAPTAINS: Kennedy, B., Lanford, S.M., Poster, L.P., Young, W.H.,
Cunningham, J.H., Roebuck, J.P.
LIEUTENANTS: Wofford, J.W., Wofford, J.Y., Bearden, W., Layton, A.B.,
Thomas, W., Smith, R.M.
SERGEANTS: Bray, D.S., Wofford, W.B., Thomas, J.A., Varner, C.P.,
McArthur, J.N., Jentry, J.L.
CORPORALS: Vise, James S., Nesbitt, W.A., Smith, W.A., Davis, A.F.,
James, G.W., Lanford, F.M., Pettitt, N.H., Roundtree, J.R., Smith, A.S.,
West, T.H., Bass, J.B.C.
PRIVATES: Bass, G.W., Beason, B.S., Beason, B., Bishop, J.W., Beard,
J.C., Brewton, I., Brice, D., Birch, F.C., Bearden, W.S., Barnett, W.H.,
Bearden, G., Cook, N., Cunningham, H.W., Chunmey, G.W., Chunmey, J.,
Drummond, R.A., Elmore, J.H., Foster, J.A., Gwinn, C.T., Gwinn, D., Gwinn,
M., Gwin, J., Harmon, T.P., Harmon, J., Harmon, W., Havener, J.P., Hyatt,
G.T., Hyatt, J., Hamby, J.H., Hill, L., Johnson, J.A., Lanham S.W.T.,
Lawrence, W., Lancaster, W.H., Marco, J.J., Mattox, P., Mayes, S.S.,
Mayes, D.W., Mayes, W.J., Meadows, T.M., Meadows, T.S., McAbee, W.,
McAbee, J., McDonald, J.E., McArther, J., Pearson, J.W., Petty, T., Petty,
P., Pettis, B.F., Pearson, H., Roundtree, J.S., Riddle, J.M., Riddle, T.,
Rogers, M., Rogers, J., Rogers, E., Rogers, W., Rogers, G., Roebuck, B.F.,
Roebuck, J., Roebuck, W., Sammonds, G., Shackleford, J.L., Stribblan,
A.C., Stribland, S., Stribland, J., Shands, B.A., Shands, S., Stallions,
J., Smith, B.M., Smith, S., Smith, E.F., Smith, Robt., Smith, W.P.,
Sherbutt, W.T., Sherbutt, S.Z., Sherbutt, A.T., Slater, Jno., Story, G.H.,
Storey, D.G., Story, J.S., Thomas, T.S., Thomas, L.P., Thomas, W., Thomas,
M., Turner, J., Vehorn, W.J., Vaughan, L., Vaughan, J., Varner.R.,
Williams, R.M., Wofford, B., Wofford, W.T., Wofford, J.H., Wofford, W.A.,
West, T.J., West, G.W., West.E.M., West, H., Wingo, H.A., White, R.B.,
Westmoreland, S.B., Wright, W.M., Woodruff, R., Zimmerman, T.H.
* * * * *