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EARLY EUROPEAN HISTORY by HUTTON WEBSTER

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king was fit or unfit to rule, Parliament might not change the succession,
depose a sovereign, or limit his authority in any way. James rather neatly
summarized his views in a Latin epigram, _a deo rex, a rege lex_--"the
king is from God and law is from the king."

[Illustration: GOLD COIN OF JAMES I.
The first coin to bear the legend "Great Britain".]

JAMES I AND PARLIAMENT

Naturally enough, the extreme pretensions of James encountered much
opposition from Parliament. That body felt little sympathy for a ruler who
proclaimed himself the source of all law. When James, always extravagant
and a poor financier, came before it for money, Parliament insisted on its
right to withhold supplies until grievances were redressed. James would
not yield, and got along as best he could by levying customs duties,
selling titles of nobility, and imposing excessive fines, in spite of the
protests of Parliament. This situation continued to the end of the king's
reign.

JAMES I AND PURITANISM

A religious controversy helped to embitter the dispute between James and
Parliament. The king, who was Puritanism a devout Anglican, made himself
very unpopular with the Puritans, as the reformers within the Church of
England were called. The Puritans had no intention of separating from the
national or established Church, but they wished to "purify" it of certain
customs which they described as "Romish" or "papist." Among these were the
use of the surplice, of the ring in the marriage service, and of the sign
of the cross in baptism. Some Puritans wanted to get rid of the _Book of
Common Prayer_ altogether. The Puritans were distinguished by their
austere lives. They looked with disfavor on May Day and Christmas
festivities, observed the Jewish Sabbath in all its rigor, and condemned
the Anglicans who played games and danced upon the village green on
Sundays. As the Puritans had a large majority in the House of Commons, it
was inevitable that the parliamentary struggle against Stuart absolutism
would assume in part a religious character.

[Illustration: A PURITAN FAMILY
Illustration in an edition of the _Psalms_ published in 1563 A.D.]

CHARLES I, KING, 1625-1649 A.D.

The political and religious difficulties which marked the reign of James I
did not disappear when his son, Charles I, came to the throne. Charles was
a true Stuart in his devotion to absolutism and divine right. Almost
immediately he began to quarrel with Parliament. When that body withheld
supplies, Charles resorted to forced loans from the wealthy and even
imprisoned a number of persons who refused to contribute. Such arbitrary
acts showed plainly that Charles would play the tyrant if he could.

PETITION OF RIGHT, 1628 A.D.

The king's attitude at last led Parliament to a bold assertion of its
authority. It now presented to Charles the celebrated Petition of Right.
One of the most important clauses provided that forced loans without
parliamentary sanction should be considered illegal. Another clause
declared that no one should be arrested or imprisoned except according to
the law of the land. The Petition thus repeated and reinforced two of the
leading principles of Magna Carta. [20] The people of England, speaking
this time through their elected representatives, asserted once more their
right to limit the power of kings.

PERSONAL RULE OF CHARLES I, 1629-1640 A.D.

Charles signed the Petition, as the only means of securing parliamentary
consent to taxation; but he had no intention of observing it. For the next
eleven years he managed to govern without calling Parliament in session.
The conduct of affairs during this period lay largely in the hands of Sir
Thomas Wentworth, afterwards earl of Strafford, and William Laud, who
later became archbishop of Canterbury. The king made these two men his
principal advisers and through them carried on his despotic rule.
Arbitrary courts, which tried cases without a jury, punished those who
resisted the royal will. A rigid censorship of the press prevented any
expression of popular discontent. Public meetings were suppressed as
seditious riots. Even private gatherings were dangerous, for the king had
swarms of spies to report any disloyal acts or utterances.

JOHN HAMPDEN AND "SHIP-MONEY"

Since Charles ruled without a Parliament, he had to adopt all sorts of
devices to fill his treasury. One of these was the levying of "ship-
money." According to an old custom, seaboard towns and counties had been
required to provide ships or money for the royal navy. Charles revived
this custom and extended it to towns and counties lying inland. It seemed
clear that the king meant to impose a permanent tax on all England without
the assent of Parliament. The demand for "ship-money" aroused much
opposition, and John Hampden, a wealthy squire of Buckinghamshire, refused
to pay the twenty shillings levied on his estate. Hampden was tried before
a court of the royal judges and was convicted by a bare majority. He
became, however, the hero of the hour. The England people recognized in
him one who had dared, for the sake of principle, to protest against the
king's despotic rule.

[Illustration: CHARLES I
A painting by Daniel Mytens in the National Portrait Gallery. London]

LAUD'S ECCLESIASTICAL POLICY

Archbishop Laud, the king's chief agent in ecclesiastical matters,
detested Puritanism and aimed to root it out from the Church of England.
He put no Puritans to death, but he sanctioned cruel punishments of those
who would not conform to the established Church. All that the dungeon and
the pillory, mutilation and loss of position, could do to break their will
was done. While the restrictions on Puritans were increased, those
affecting Roman Catholics were relaxed. Many people thought that Charles,
through Laud and the bishops, was preparing to lead the Church of England
back to Rome. They therefore opposed the king on religious grounds, as
well as for political reasons.

[Illustration: EXECUTION OF THE EARL OF STRAFFORD
After a contemporary print. The Tower of London is seen in the
background.]

THE LONG PARLIAMENT, 1640 A.D.

But the personal rule of Charles was now drawing to an end. In 1637 A.D.
the king, supported by Archbishop Laud, tried The Long to introduce a
modified form of the English prayer book into Scotland. The Scotch,
Presbyterian [21] to the core, drew up a national oath, or Covenant, by
which they bound themselves to resist any attempt to change their
religion. Rebellion quickly passed into open war, and the Covenanters
invaded northern England. Charles, helpless, with a seditious army and an
empty treasury, had to summon Parliament in session. It met in 1640 A.D.
and did not formally dissolve till twenty years later. Hence it has
received the name of the Long Parliament.

[Illustration: Map, ENGLAND AND WALES--THE CIVIL WARS OF THE 17TH CENTURY]

REFORMS OF THE LONG PARLIAMENT

The Long Parliament no sooner assembled than it assumed the conduct of
government. The leaders, including John Hampden, John Pym, and Oliver
Cromwell, openly declared that the House of Commons, and not the king,
possessed supreme authority in the state. Parliament began by executing
Strafford and subsequently Laud, thus emphasizing the responsibility of
ministers to Parliament. Next, it abolished Star Chamber and other special
courts, which had become engines of royal oppression. It forbade the
levying of "ship-money" and other irregular taxes. It took away the king's
right of dissolving Parliament at his pleasure and ordered that at least
one parliamentary session should be held every three years. These measures
stripped the crown of the despotic powers acquired by the Tudors and the
Stuarts.

246. OLIVER CROMWELL AND THE CIVIL WAR, 1642-1649 A.D.

OUTBREAK OF THE GREAT REBELLION, 1642 A.D.

Thus far, the Long Parliament had acted along the line of reformation
rather than revolution. Had Charles been content to accept the new
arrangements, there would have been little more trouble. But the proud and
imperious king was only watching his chance to strike a blow at
Parliament. Taking advantage of some differences in opinion among its
members, Charles summoned his soldiers, marched to Westminister, and
demanded the surrender of five leaders, including Pym and Hampden. Warned
in time, they made their escape, and Charles did not find them in the
chamber of the Commons. "Well, I see all the birds are flown," he
exclaimed, and walked out baffled. The king's attempt to intimidate the
Commons was a great blunder. It showed beyond doubt that he would resort
to force, rather than bend his neck to Parliament. Both Charles and
Parliament now began to gather troops and prepare for the inevitable
conflict.

"CAVALIERS" AND "ROUND-HEADS"

The opposing parties seemed to be very evenly matched. Around the king
rallied nearly all of the nobles, the Anglican clergy, the Roman
Catholics, a majority of the "squires," or country gentry, and the members
of the universities. The royalists received the name of "Cavaliers." The
parliamentarians, or "Roundheads," [22] were mostly recruited from the
trading classes in the towns and the small landowners in the country. The
working people remained as a rule indifferent and took little part in the
struggle.

[Illustration: OLIVER CROMWELL
A painting by Robert Walker, in the National Portrait Gallery, London.]

OLIVER CROMWELL, 1599-1658 A.D.

Both Pym and Hampden died in the second year of the war, and henceforth
the leadership of the parliamentary party fell to Oliver Cromwell. He was
a country gentleman from the east of England, and Hampden's cousin.
Cromwell represented the university of Cambridge in the Long Parliament
and displayed there great audacity in opposing the government. An
unfriendly critic at this time describes "his countenance swollen and
reddish, his voice sharp and untuneable, and his eloquence full of
fervor." Though a zealous Puritan, who believed himself in all sincerity
to be the chosen agent of the Lord, Cromwell was not an ascetic. He
hunted, hawked, played bowls, and other games, had an ear for music, and
valued art and learning. In public life he showed himself a statesman of
much insight and a military genius.

THE "IRONSIDES" AND THE "NEW MODEL"

At the outset of the war fortune favored the royalists, until Cromwell
took the field. To him was due the formation of a cavalry regiment of
"honest, sober Christians," whose watchwords were texts from Scripture and
who charged in battle while singing psalms. These "Ironsides," as Cromwell
said, "had the fear of God before them and made some conscience of what
they did." They were so successful that Parliament permitted Cromwell to
reorganize a large part of the army into the "New Model," a body of
professional, highly disciplined soldiers. The "New Model" defeated
Charles decisively at the battle of Naseby, near the center of England
(1645 A.D.). Charles then surrendered to the Scotch, who soon turned him
over to Parliament.

PRESYBTERIANS AND INDEPENDENTS

The surrender of the king ended the Great Rebellion, but left the
political situation in doubt. By this time the Puritans had divided into
two rival parties. The Presbyterians wished to make the Church of England,
like that of Scotland, Presbyterian in faith and worship. Through their
control of Parliament, they were able to pass acts doing away with
bishops, forbidding the use of the _Book of Common Prayer_, and requiring
every one to accept Presbyterian doctrines. The other Puritan party, known
as the Independents, [23] felt that religious beliefs should not be a
matter of compulsion. They rejected both Anglicanism and Presbyterianism
and desired to set up churches of their own, where they might worship as
seemed to them right. The Independents had the powerful backing of
Cromwell and the "New Model," so that the stage was set for a quarrel
between Parliament and the army.

"PRIDE'S PURGE," 1648 A.D.

King Charles, though a prisoner in the hands of his enemies, hoped to find
profit in their divisions. The Presbyterian majority in the House of
Commons was willing to restore the king, provided he would give his assent
to the establishment of Presbyterianism in England. But the army wanted no
reconciliation with the captive monarch and at length took matters into
its own hand. A party of soldiers, under the command of a Colonel Pride,
excluded the Presbyterian members from the floor of the House, leaving the
Independents alone to conduct the government. This action is known as
"Pride's Purge." Cromwell approved of it, and from this time he became the
real ruler of England.

[Illustration: INTERIOR OF WESTMINSTER HALL
Next to the Tower and the Abbey Westminster Hall adjoining the Houses of
Parliament, is the most historic building in London. The hall was begun by
William Rufus in 1097 A.D. and was enlarged by his successors. Richard II
in 1397 A.D. added the great oak roof, which has lasted to this day Here
were held the trials of Stafford and Charles I.]

EXECUTION OF CHARLES I, 1649 A.D.

The "Rump Parliament," as the remnant of the House of Commons was called,
immediately brought the king before a High Court of Justice composed of
his bitterest enemies. He refused to acknowledge the right of the court to
try him and made no defense whatever. Charles was speedily convicted and
sentenced to be beheaded, "as a tyrant, traitor, murderer, and public
enemy to the good of the people." He met death with quiet dignity and
courage on a scaffold erected in front of Whitehall Palace in London. The
king's execution went far beyond the wishes of most Englishmen; "cruel
necessity" formed its only justification; but it established once for all
in England the principle that rulers are responsible to their subjects.

247. THE COMMONWEALTH AND THE PROTECTORATE, 1649-1660 A.D.

ENGLAND A REPUBLIC

Shortly after the execution of Charles I the "Rump Parliament" abolished
the House of Lords and the office of king. It named a Council of State,
most of whose members were chosen from the House of Commons, to carry on
the government. England now became a commonwealth, or national republic,
the first in the history of the world. It is clear that this republic was
the creation of a minority. The Anglicans, the Presbyterians, and the
Roman Catholics were willing to restore the monarchy, but as long as the
power lay with the army, the small sect of Independents could impose its
will on the great majority of the English people.

SUBJECTION OF IRELAND

Besides confusion and discontent at home, many dangers confronted the
Commonwealth abroad. In both Ireland and Scotland Prince Charles, the
oldest son of the dead sovereign, had been proclaimed king. But Cromwell
rose to the emergency. Invading Ireland with his trained soldiers, he
captured town after town, slaughtered many royalists, and shipped many
more to the West Indies as slaves. This time Ireland was completely
subdued, at a cost, from fighting, famine, and pestilence, of the lives of
a third of its population. Cromwell confiscated the land of those who had
supported the royalist cause and planted colonies of English Protestants
in Ulster, Leinster, and Munster. The Roman Catholic gentry were compelled
to remove beyond the Shannon River to unfruitful Connaught. Even there the
public exercise of their religion was forbidden them. Cromwell's harsh
measures brought peace to Ireland, but only intensified the hatred felt by
Irish Roman Catholics for Protestant England. [24]

SCOTLAND SUBDUED

While Cromwell was still in Ireland, Prince Charles, who had been living
as an exile at the French court, came to Scotland. On his promise to be a
Presbyterian king the whole nation agreed to support him. Cromwell, in two
pitched battles, broke up the Scotch armies and compelled Prince Charles
to seek safety in flight. After thrilling adventures the prince managed to
reach his asylum in France. Cromwell treated the Scotch with leniency, but
took away their Parliament and united their country with England in a
single state.

[Illustration: Map, IRELAND In the 16th Century]

DISSOLUTION OF THE "RUMP PARLIAMENT," 1653 A.D.

Meanwhile, the "Rump Parliament" had become more and more unpopular. The
army, which had saved England from Stuart despotism, did not relish the
spectacle of a small group of men, many of them selfish and corrupt,
presuming to govern the country Cromwell found them "horridly arbitrary"
and at last resolved to have done with them. He entered the House of
Commons with a band of musketeers and ordered the members home. "Come,
come," he cried, "I will put an end to your prating. You are no
Parliament, I say you are no Parliament. I will put an end to your
sitting." Another Parliament, chosen by Cromwell and the army, proved
equally incapable. After a few months' rule it resigned its authority into
the hands of Cromwell.

[Illustration: GREAT SEAL OF ENGLAND UNDER THE COMMONWEALTH (REDUCED)
The reverse represents the House of Commons in session.]

THE INSTRUMENT OF GOVERNMENT

By force of circumstances Cromwell had become a virtual dictator, but he
had no love of absolute power. He therefore accepted a so-called
Instrument of Government, drawn up by some of his officers. It provided
that Cromwell should be Lord Protector for life, with the assistance of a
council and a Parliament. The Instrument is notable as the first written
constitution of a modern nation. It is the only one which England has ever
had.

CROMWELL AS LORD PROTECTOR, 1653-1658 A.D.

As Lord Protector in name, though a king in fact, Cromwell ruled England
for five years. He got along with Parliament no better than the Stuarts
had done, but his successful conduct of foreign affairs gave England an
importance in the councils of Europe which it had not enjoyed since the
time of Elizabeth. Cromwell died in 1658 A.D. Two years later the nation,
weary of military rule, restored Charles II to the throne of his
ancestors.

THE PURITAN REVOLUTION

It seemed, indeed, as if the Puritan Revolution had been a complete
failure. But this was hardly true. The revolution arrested the growth of
absolutism in England. It created among Englishmen a lasting hostility to
absolute power, whether exercised by King, Parliament, Protector, or army.
And, furthermore, it sent forth into the world ideas of political liberty,
which, during the eighteenth century, helped to produce the American and
French revolutions.

248. THE RESTORATION AND THE "GLORIOUS REVOLUTION," 1660-1689 A.D.

REIGN OF CHARLES II, 1660-1685 A.D.

Charles II, on mounting the throne, pledged himself to maintain Magna
Carta, the Petition of Right, and other statutes limiting the royal power.
The people of England wished to be governed by the king, but they also
wished that the king should govern by the advice of Parliament. Charles,
less obstinate and more astute than his father, recognized this fact, and,
when a conflict threatened with his ministers or Parliament, always
avoided it by timely concessions. Whatever happened, he used to say, he
was resolved "never to set on his travels again." Charles's charm of
manner, wit, and genial humor made him a popular monarch, in spite of his
grave faults of character. One of his own courtiers well described him as
a king who "never said a foolish thing and never did a wise one."

REACTION AGAINST PURITANISM

The period of the Restoration was characterized by a reaction against the
austere scheme of life which the Puritans had imposed on society.
Puritanism not only deprived the people of evil pleasures, such as bear-
baiting, Cock-fighting, and tippling, but it also prohibited the Sunday
dances and games, the village festivals, and the popular drama. When
Puritanism disappeared, the people went to the opposite extreme and cast
off all restraint. In this the king, who had lived long at the gay court
of Louis XIV, set the example. England was nevermore merry and never less
moral than under its "Merry Monarch."

[Illustration: BOYS' SPORTS
From a book of 1659 A.D.]

THE DISSENTERS

The Restoration brought back the Church of England, together with the
Stuarts. Parliament, more intolerant than the king, passed an Act of
Uniformity, which made the use of the _Book of Common Prayer_ compulsory
and required all ministers to express their consent to everything
contained in it. Nearly two thousand clergymen resigned their positions
rather than obey the act. Among them were found Presbyterians,
Independents (or Congregationalists), Baptists, and Quakers. These
Puritans, since they did not accept the national Church, were henceforth
classed as Dissenters. [25] They might not hold meetings for worship, or
teach in schools, or accept any public office. For many years the
Dissenters had to endure harsh persecution.

HABEAS CORPUS ACT, 1679 A.D.

One of the most important events belonging to the reign of Charles II was
the passage by Parliament of the Habeas Corpus Act. The writ of _habeas
corpus_ [26] is an order, issued by a judge, requiring a person held in
custody to be brought before the court. If upon examination there appears
to be good reason for keeping the prisoner, he is to be remanded for
trial; otherwise he is to be freed or released on bail. This writ had been
long used in England, and one of the clauses of Magna Carta expressly
provided against arbitrary imprisonment. It had always been possible,
however, for the king or his ministers to order the arrest of a person
considered dangerous to the state, without making any formal charge
against him. The Habeas Corpus Act established the principle that every
man, not charged with or convicted of a known crime, is entitled to
personal freedom. Most of the British possessions where the Common law
prevails have accepted the act, and it has been adopted by the federal and
state legislatures of the United States.

[Illustration: SILVER CROWN OF CHARLES II]

WHIGS AND TORIES

The reign of Charles II also saw the beginning of the modern party system
in Parliament. Two opposing parties took shape, very largely out of a
religious controversy. The king, from his long life in France, had become
partial to Roman Catholicism, though he did not formally embrace that
faith until at the moment of death. His brother James, the heir to the
throne, became an open Roman Catholic, however, much to the disgust of
many members of Parliament. A bill was now brought forward to exclude
Prince James from the succession, because of his conversion. Its
supporters received the nickname of Whigs, while those who opposed it were
called Tories. [27] The bill did not pass the House of Lords, but the two
parties in Parliament continued to divide on other questions. They survive
to-day as the Liberals and the Conservatives, and still dispute the
government of England between them.

REIGN OF JAMES II, 1685-1688 A.D.

James II was without the attractive personality which had made his brother
a popular ruler; moreover, he was an avowed Roman Catholic and a staunch
believer in the divine right of kings. During his three years' reign,
James managed to make enemies of most of his Protestant subjects. He
"suspended" the laws against Roman Catholics and appointed them to
positions of authority and influence. James also dismissed Parliament and
supported himself with subsidies from Louis XIV. At last a number of Whig
and Tory leaders, representing both parties in Parliament, invited that
sturdy Protestant, William of Orange, [28] to rescue England from Stuart
absolutism.

ACCESSION OF WILLIAM AND MARY, 1689 A.D.

William landed in England with a small army and marched unopposed to
London. The wretched king, deserted by his courtiers and his soldiers,
soon found himself Harness alone. He fled to France, where he lived the
remainder of his days as a pensioner at the court of Louis XIV. Parliament
granted the throne conjointly to William and Mary, William to rule during
his lifetime and Mary to have the succession, should she survive him.

THE BILL OF RIGHTS

In settling the crown on William and Mary, Parliament took care to
safeguard its own authority and the of Protestant religion. It enacted the
Bill of Rights, which has a place by the side of Magna Carta and the
Petition of Right among the great documents of English constitutional
history. This act decreed that the sovereign must henceforth be a member
of the Anglican Church. It forbade the sovereign to "suspend" the
operation of the laws, or to levy money or maintain a standing army except
by consent of Parliament. It also declared that election of members of
Parliament ought to be free; that they ought to enjoy freedom of speech
and action within the two Houses; and that excessive bail ought not to be
required, or excessive fines imposed, or cruel and unusual punishments
inflicted. Finally, it affirmed the right of subjects to petition the
sovereign and ordered the holding of frequent Parliaments. These were not
new principles of political liberty, but now the English people were
strong enough not only to assert, but also to uphold them. They reappear
in the first ten amendments to the Constitution of the United States.

THE TOLERATION ACT

At this time, also, England took an important step in the direction of
religious liberty. Parliament passed a Toleration Act, conceding to the
Dissenters the right of worship, though not the right of holding any civil
or military office. The Dissenters might now serve their God as they
pleased, without fear of persecution. Unitarians and Roman Catholics, as
well as Jews, were expressly excluded from the benefits of the act. The
passage of this measure did much to remove religion from English politics
as a vital issue.

THE "GLORIOUS REVOLUTION"

The revolution of 1688-89 A.D. thus struck a final blow at absolutism and
divine right in England. An English king became henceforth the servant of
Parliament, holding office only on good behavior. An act of Parliament had
made him and an act of Parliament might depose him. It is well to
remember, however, that the revolution was not a popular movement. It was
a successful struggle for parliamentary supremacy on the part of the upper
and middle classes--the nobles, squires, merchants, and clergy. England
now had a "limited" or "constitutional" monarchy controlled by the
aristocracy. Not till the nineteenth century did the common people succeed
in establishing a really democratic government in England.

249. ENGLAND IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY

SOCIAL ENGLAND

The population of England at the close of the seventeenth century exceeded
five millions, of whom at least two-thirds lived in the country. Except
for London there were only four towns of more than ten thousand
inhabitants. London counted half a million people within its limits and
had become the largest city in Europe. Town life still wore a medieval
look, but the increase of wealth gradually introduced many new comforts
and luxuries. Coal came into use instead of charcoal; tea, coffee, and
chocolate competed with wine, ale, and beer as beverages; the first
newspapers appeared, generally in weekly editions; amusements multiplied;
and passenger coaches began to ply between London and the provincial
centers. The highways, however, were wretched and infested with robbers.
The traveler found some recompense for the hardships of a journey in the
country inns, famous for their plenty and good cheer. The transport of
goods was chiefly by means of pack horses, because of the poor roads and
the absence of canals. Postal arrangements also remained very primitive,
and in remote country districts letters were not delivered more than once
a week. The difficulties of travel and communication naturally made for
isolation; and country people, except the wealthy, rarely visited the
metropolis.

[Illustration: A LONDON BELLMAN
Title-page of a tract published in 1616 A.D. It was part of the duties of
a bellman, or night-watchman, to call out the hours, the state of the
weather, and other information as he passed by.]

ECONOMIC ENGLAND

As the population of England increased, old industries developed and new
ones sprang up. The chief manufacture was that of wool, while that of silk
flourished after the influx of Huguenots which followed the revocation
[29] of the Edict of Nantes. The absence of large textile mills made it
necessary to carry on spinning and weaving in the homes of the operatives.
The vast mineral deposits, which in later times became the main source of
England's prosperity, were then little worked. Farming and the raising of
sheep and cattle still remained the principal occupations. But agriculture
was retarded by the old system of common tillage and open fields, just as
industry was fettered by the trade monopoly of the craft guilds. These
survivals of the Middle Ages had not yet disappeared.

[Illustration: COACH AND SEDAN CHAIR
Title-page of a tract published in 1636 A.D.]

SCIENTIFIC PROGRESS

The seventeenth century in England saw a notable advance in science. At
this time Harvey revealed the circulation of the blood. [30] Napier, a
Scotchman, invented logarithms, which lie at the basis of the higher
mathematics. Boyle, an Irishman, has been called the "father of modern
chemistry," so many were his researches in that field of knowledge. Far
greater than any of these men was Sir Isaac Newton, who discovered the law
of gravitation and the differential calculus. During the Civil War a group
of students interested in the natural world began to hold meetings in
London and Oxford, and shortly after the Restoration they obtained a
charter under the name of the Royal Society. It still exists and enrolls
among its members the most distinguished scientists of England. The Royal
Observatory at Greenwich also dates from the period of the Restoration.
Altogether much was being done to uncover the secrets of nature.

[Illustration: DEATH MASK OF SIR ISAAC NEWTON.
In the possession of the Royal Society of London.]

PROGRESS OF ART

Seventeenth century England produced no very eminent painters or
sculptors, though foreign artists, such as Rubens and Van Dyck, were
welcomed there. Among architects the most famous was Sir Christopher Wren,
who did much to popularize the Renaissance style of building. [31] A great
fire which destroyed most of old London during the reign of Charles II
gave Wren an opportunity to rebuild about fifty parish churches, as well
as St. Paul's Cathedral. His tomb in the crypt of the cathedral bears the
famous inscription: _Si monumentum requieris, circumspice_: "If you seek
his monument, look around you."

LITERATURE

English literature in the seventeenth century covered many fields.
Shakespeare and Bacon, the two chief literary ornaments of the Elizabethan
Age, did some of their best work during the reign of James I. In 1611 A.D.
appeared the Authorized Version of the Bible, sometimes called the King
James Version because it was dedicated to that monarch. The simplicity,
dignity, and eloquence of this translation have never been excelled, and
it still remains in ordinary use among Protestants throughout the English-
speaking world. [32] The Puritan poet, John Milton, composed his epic of
_Paradise Lost_ during the reign of Charles II. About the same time
another Puritan, John Bunyan, wrote the immortal _Pilgrim's Progress_, a
book which gives an equal though different pleasure to children and
adults, to the ignorant and the learned. But these are only a few of the
eminent poets and prose writers of the age.

POSITION OF ENGLAND

Thus, aside from its political importance, the seventeenth century formed
a noteworthy period in English history. England until this time had been,
on the whole, a follower rather than a leader of Europe. The defeat of the
Spanish Armada, the overthrow of Stuart absolutism, and the check
administered to the aggressive designs of Louis XIV were so many
indications that England had risen to a place of first importance in
European affairs. During this century, too, the American colonies of
England began to lay the basis for Anglo-Saxon predominance in the New
World.

STUDIES

1. Give dates for (a) Peace of Utrecht, (b) execution of Charles I, (c)
the "Glorious Revolution," and (d) revocation of the Edict of Nantes.

2. For what were the following men notable: Pym; Bossuet; duke of
Marlborough; Louvois; Hampden; Mazarin; William III; and Colbert?

3. Explain and illustrate the following terms: (a) balance of power; (b)
budget system; (c) absolutism; (d) writ of _habeas corpus_; (e)
militarism; (f) "ship money," and (g) Star Chamber.

4. Compare the theory of the divine right of kings with the medieval
theory of the papal supremacy.

5. In what European countries do kings still rule by divine right?

6. What is the essential distinction between a "limited" or
"constitutional" monarchy and an "absolute" or "autocratic" monarchy?

7. Why is it very desirable for the United States to adopt the budget
system?

8. After what French king was Louisiana named?

9. Why did the French language in the seventeenth century become the
language of fashion and diplomacy? Is this still the case?

10. "The age of Louis XIV in France is worthy to stand by the side of the
age of Pericles in Greece and of Augustus in Italy." Does this statement
appear to be justified?

11. How does the preservation of the balance of power help to explain the
Great European War?

12. By reference to the map on page 699 show how far the "natural
boundaries" of France were attained during the reign of Louis XIV.

13. How did the condition of Germany after 1648 A.D. facilitate the
efforts of Louis XIV to extend the French frontiers to the Rhine?

14. Show that in the Peace of Utrecht nearly all the contestants profited
at the expense of Spain.

15. Explain: "Rump Parliament"; "Pride's Purge"; the "New Model"; the
"Ironsides"; "Cavalier"; and "Roundhead."

16. What circumstances gave rise to (a) the Petition of Right; (b) the
Institute of Government; (c) the Habeas Corpus Act; and (d) the Bill of
Rights?

17. Why were the reformers within the Church of England called "Puritans"?

18. Contrast the Commonwealth as a national republic with the Athenian and
Roman city-states, the medieval Italian cities, the Swiss Confederation,
and the United Netherlands.

19. Under what circumstances does the Constitution of the United States
provide for the suspension of the writ of _habeas corpus_?

20. Why has the Bill of Rights been called the "third great charter of
English liberty"?

21. Show that the revolution of 1688 A.D. was a "preserving" and not a
"destroying" revolution.

22. How did the revolution of 1688 A.D. affect the fortunes of Louis XIV?

23. Why did it prove more difficult to establish a despotic monarchy in
England than in France during the seventeenth century?

24. What is the present population of England? of "Greater London?"

FOOTNOTES

[1] Webster, _Readings in Medieval and Modern History_, chapter xxv,
"Characters and Episodes of the Great Rebellion"; chapter xxvi, "Oliver
Cromwell"; chapter xxvii, "English Life and Manners under the
Restoration"; chapter xxviii, "Louis XIV and his Court."

[2] _Hamlet_, iv, Y,123.

[3] _King Richard the Second_, in, ii, 54-57.

[4] _Politics as derived from the Very Words of the Holy Scriptures_. This
work was prepared for the use of the young son of Louis XIV, the French
king.

[5] See pages 682, 684.

[6] "_L'Etat, c'est moi._"

[7] See page 514, 515.

[8] See page 681.

[9] See page 597, note 4.

[10] See page 601.

[11] See page 573.

[12] In America the war was known as "King William's War."

[13] In 1689 A.D. he ascended the English throne as William III. See page
720.

[14] In America the war was known as "Queen Anne's War."

[15] See page 315, note 2

[16] His great-grandson, then a child of five years. The reign of Louis XV
covered the period 1715-1774 A.D.

[17] See pages 518-519, 658, 675-676.

[18] See page 507.

[19] See page 511, note 1, 676 and note 1.

[20] See page 505.

[21] See page 657, 664, note 1, 676.

[22] So called, because some of them wore closely cropped hair, in
contrast to the flowing locks of the "Cavaliers."

[23] Also called Separatists, and later known as Congregationalists.

[24] See pages 511, 676.

[25] Or Noncomformists. This name is still applied to English Protestants
not members of the Anglican Church.

[26] A Latin phrase meaning "You may have the body."

[27] Whig had originally been applied to rebellious Presbyterians in
Scotland; Tory had designated Roman Catholic outlaws in Ireland.

[28] See page 701. William had married James's eldest daughter, Mary.

[29] See page 696.

[30] See page 609.

[31] See page 597.

[32] Many important corrections were embodied in the Revised Version,
published in 1881-1885 A.D. by a committee of English scholars.

APPENDIX

TABLE OF EVENTS AND DATES

Before 1000 B.C., and in some instances even later, nearly all dates must
be regarded as merely approximate.

(Specially important dates are in italics)

THE ORIENT

B.C.

3400 _Menes, king of Egypt_
3000-2500 The pyramid kings
2000 _Hammurabi, king of Babylonia_
1800-1600 Rule of the Hyksos in Egypt
1292-1225 Rameses II, king of Egypt
1035-925 The undivided Hebrew monarchy
Saul, 1035-1015
David, 985-955
Solomon, 955-925
925-722 Kingdom of Israel
925-586 Kingdom of Judea
722-705 Sargon II, king of Assyria
705-681 Sennacherib, king of Assyria
606 _Destruction of Nineveh_
604-561 Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylonia
553-465 Persian kings
Cyrus the Great, 553-529
Cambyses, 529-522
Darius I, 521-485
Xerxes I, 485-465
539 _Capture of Babylon by Cyrus the Great_

GREECE

B.C.

1600-1100 The Aegean Age
1100-750 Homeric Age
776 _First recorded Olympiad_
750-500 Period of colonial expansion
594-593 Reforms of Solon
560-527 Tyranny of Pisistratus
508-507 Reforms of Clisthenes
499-493 Ionian Revolt
490 _Battle of Marathon_
480 _Battles of Thermopylae and Salamis_
479 _Battles of Plataea and Mycale_
477-454 Delian League
461-429 Age of Pericles
431-404 _The Peloponnesian War_
404-371 Spartan supremacy
401-400 _Expedition of the "Ten Thousand"_
371-362 Supremacy of Thebes
371 _Battle of Leuctra_
362 Battle of Mantinea
359-336 Philip II, king of Macedonia
338 _Battle of Chaeronea_
336-323 Reign of Alexander the Great
335 Destruction of Thebes
334 Battle of the Granicus
333 Battle of Issus
332 Siege of Tyre; founding of Alexandria
331 _Battle of Arbela_
323 _Death of Alexander_

THE ROMAN REPUBLIC

B.C.

753(?) _Founding of Rome_
753(?)-509(?) Legendary Roman kings
509(?) Establishment of the republic
449 Laws of the Twelve Tables
390(?) _Battle of the Allia; capture of Rome by the
Gauls_
340-338 Latin War; dissolution of the Latin League
327-290 Samnite Wars
281-272 War between Rome and Tarentum; invasion of Pyrrhus
264-241 _First Punic War_
218-201 _Second Punic War_
216 Battle of Cannae
202 _Battle of Zama_
201 Peace between Rome and Carthage
197 Macedonia becomes a dependent ally of Rome
190 Syria becomes a dependent ally of Rome
149-146 Third Punic War
146 _Destruction of Carthage and Corinth; Africa and
Macedonia become Roman provinces_
133 Acquisition of the province of Asia; final
subjugation of Spain
133 Tribunate of Tiberius Gracchus
123-122 Tribunate of Gaius Gracchus
112-106 Jugurthine War
102-101 Invasion of the Germans
90-88 The Social War
88-84 War with Mithridates
83-82 Civil War between Marius and Sulla
82-79 Dictatorship of Sulla
70 Impeachment of Verres
67 Pompey and the war with the pirates
63 _Conspiracy of Catiline_
60-53 First Triumvirate: Pompey, Crassus, and Caesar
58-50 Conquest of Gaul by Caesar
53 Defeat of Crassus by the Parthians at Carrhae
48 Battle of Pharsalus
44 _Assassination of Caesar_
43 Second Triumvirate: Lepidus, Antony, and Octavian
42 Battles of Philippi
31 _Battle of Actium_

THE ROMAN EMPIRE

31 B.C.-68 A.D. The Julian and Claudian Caesars
Augustus, 31 B.C.-I4 A.D.
Tiberius, 14-37
Gaius (Caligula), 37-41
Claudius, 41-54
Nero 54-68
27 Octavian receives the title _Augustus_
4(?) Birth of Christ

A.D.

43-85 Conquest of Britain
64 The Great Fire in Rome; Nero's persecution of the
Christians
68-69 The year of military revolution; Galba, Otho, and
Vitellius emperors
69-96 The Flavian Caesars
Vespasian, 69-79
Titus, 79-81
Domitian, 81-96
70 Capture of Jerusalem by Titus
79 _Destruction of Pompeii and Herculaneum_
96-180 The "Good Emperors"
Nerva, 96-98
Trajan, 98-117
Hadrian, 117-138
Antoninus Pius, 138-161
Marcus Aurelius, 161-180
101-106 Conquest of Dacia by Trajan
180-284 The "Soldier Emperors"
Commodus, 180-192
Septimius Severus, 193-211
Aurelian, 270-275
212 _Edict of Caracalla_
227 Rise of the Sassanian or New Persian Empire
284 _Reorganization of the Roman Empire by Diocletian_
284-395 The "Absolute Emperors"
/Diocletian, 284-305
\Maximian, 286-305
Constantine I, 306-337
(sole emperor, 324-337)
Julian, 361-363
Theodosius I (East), 379-395
311 Edict of Galerius
312 Battle of the Milvian Bridge
313 _Edict of Milan_
325 _Council of Nicaea_
326 330 Removal of the capital to Constantinople
376 The Visigoths cross the Danube
378 Battle of Adrianople
395 _Death of Theodosius I_
410 _Capture of Rome by Alaric_
415-711 Visigothic kingdom in Spain (in Gaul, 415-507)
429-534 Vandal kingdom in Africa
443-534 Kingdom of the Burgundians
449 Invasion of Britain by the Anglo-Saxons
451 _Battle of Chalons_
455 Sack of Rome by the Vandals
476 _Deposition of Romulus Angustulus_

THE MIDDLE AGES

486 Clovis defeats the Romans at Soissons
493-553 Ostrogothic kingdom in Italy
496 _Clovis accepts Christianity_
527-565 Justinian, Roman emperor in the East
529(?) Rule of St. Benedict
568-774 Lombards in Italy
590-604 Pontificate of Gregory the Great
597 Augustine's mission to the Anglo-Saxons
610-641 Heraclius, Roman emperor in the East
622 _The Hegira_
632-661 The "Orthodox Caliphs"
661-750 The Ommiad Caliphs
711 Arabs and Berbers invade Spain
716-717 Siege of Constantinople by the Arabs
732 _Battle of Tours_
750-1058 The Abbassid Caliphs
768-814 Reign of Charlemagne
800 _Charlemagne crowned Emperor of the Romans_
829 England united under Egbert
843 Treaty of Verdun
862(?) Northmen under Ruric settle in Russia
870 Treaty of Mersen
871-901(?) Reign of Alfred the Great
911 Northmen settle in northwestern France (Normandy)
962 _Otto the Great crowned Holy Roman Emperor_
982 Greenland discovered
987-996 Reign of Hugh Capet
988 Christianity introduced into Russia
1000(?) Vinland discovered
1016 England conquered by Canute
1054 Final rupture of Greek and Roman churches
1066 _Battle of Hastings; Norman conquest of England_
1066-1087 William I, the Conqueror, king of England
1073-1085 Pontificate of Gregory VII
1077 Humiliation of Henry IV at Canossa
1090-1153 St. Bernard
1095-1291 The Crusades
1095 _Council of Clermont_
1099 Capture of Jerusalem
1147-1149 Second Crusade
1189-1192 Third Crusade
1202-1204 Fourth Crusade; sack of Constantinople
1204-1261 Latin Empire of Constantinople
1291 _Fall of Acre; end of the crusades_
1122 Concordat of Worms
1152-1190 Reign of Frederick I, Barbarossa
1154-1189 Henry II, king of England
1180-1223 Philip II, Augustus, king of France
1181(?)-1226 St. Francis of Assisi
1198-1216 Pontificate of Innocent III
1206-1227 Mongol conquests under Jenghiz Khan
1215 _Magna Carta_
1226-1270 Louis IX, the Saint, king of France
1230 Union of Leon and Castile
1237-1240 Mongol conquest of Russia
1254-1273 The Interregnum
1261 Fall of Latin Empire of Constantinople
1271-1295 Travels of Marco Polo
1272-1307 Edward I, king of England
1273 _Rudolf of Hapsburg becomes Holy Roman Emperor_
1285-1314 Philip IV, the Fair, king of France
1291 First Swiss Confederation
1295 "Model Parliament" of Edward I
1309-1377 "Babylonian Captivity" of the Papacy
1314 Battle of Bannockburn
1337-1453 Hundred Years' War
1346 Battle of Crecy
1356 Battle of Poitiers
1429 Joan of Arc appears
1348-1349 Black Death in Europe
1378-1417 The "Great Schism"
1381 Peasants' Revolt in England
1396 Greek first taught at Florence
1405 Death of Timur the Lame
1415 John Huss burned

TRANSITION TO MODERN TIMES

1453 _Constantinople captured by the Ottoman Turks_
1455-1485 War of the Roses
1461-1483 Louis XI, king of France
1462-1505 Ivan III, the Great, tsar of Russia
1476 Caxton's printing press set up in England
1479 Castile and Aragon united under Ferdinand and
Isabella
1485-1509 Henry VII, king of England
1488 Cape of Good Hope rounded by Diaz
1492 _America discovered by Columbus_
1497 North America rediscovered by John Cabot
1498 _Vasco da Gama reaches India_
1513 Discovery of the Pacific by Balboa
1517-1555 Reformation in Germany
1517 _The Ninety-five Theses_
1520 Burning of the papal bull
1521 Edict of Worms
1555 Peace of Augsburg
1519-1521 Mexico conquered by Cortes
1519-1522 Magellan's circumnavigation of the globe
1519-1556 Reign of Charles V
1531-1537 Peru conquered by Pizarro
1533-1558 Reformation in England
1534 Jesuit order founded by Loyola
1545-1563 Council of Trent
1556-1598 Reign of Philip II
1558-1603 Elizabeth, queen of England
1568-1609 Revolt of the Netherlands
1571 Battle of Lepanto
1572 Massacre of St. Bartholomew
1579 Union of Utrecht
1588 _Defeat of the Spanish Armada_
1589-1610 Henry IV, king of France
1598 _Edict of Nantes_
1600 English East India Company chartered
1603-1625 Reign of James I
1607 Colonization of Virginia; Jamestown founded
1611 Authorized Version of the Bible
1618-1648 Thirty Years' War
1625-1649 Reign of Charles I
1628 The Petition of Right
1630-1640 Puritan exodus to Massachusetts
1640 Meeting of the Long Parliament
1642-1649 The Great Rebellion
1643-1715 Louis XIV, king of France
1648 _Peace of Westphalia_
1649 Execution of Charles I
1649-1660 The Commonwealth and the Protectorate
1651 First Navigation Act
1660 Restoration of Charles II
1688-1689 _The "Glorious Revolution"_
1692 Salem witchcraft persecution
1702-1713 War of the Spanish Succession
1713 _Peace of Utrecht_
1744-1748 "King George's War"
1754-1763 "French and Indian War"
1763 _Peace of Paris_

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