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Choice Specimens of American Literature, And Literary Reader by Benj. N. Martin

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CHOICE SPECIMENS

OF

AMERICAN LITERATURE,

AND

LITERARY READER,

BEING SELECTIONS FROM THE CHIEF AMERICAN WRITERS,

BY

PROF. BENJ. N. MARTIN, D.D., L.H.D., PROFESSOR OF THE UNIVERSITY OF THE
CITY OF NEW YORK. 1874

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.

The former edition of this work was prepared simply as a supplement to
Shaw's "Choice Specimens of English Literature." Though it extended to
a larger size than had been anticipated, and was therefore issued in a
separate volume, it still proved so straitened in point of space as to
be in some important respects defective and inadequate. The decision of
the publishers to reprint it in an enlarged form furnishes to the editor
a welcome opportunity to correct its deficiencies, and to make several
important emendations.

When the work of collecting suitable extracts from the great body of our
literature was fairly entered upon, it soon became apparent that little
aid could be had from the earlier manuals. Besides being in great
measure obsolete, they were from the beginning disproportionate, and
geographically too local in subject and spirit; both of which may be
deemed grave defects.

The last twenty years have made great changes in American authorship.
Many new names must now be added to the older lists, and many formerly
familiar ones must be dropped from them. Hence these extracts have for
the most part been derived, with assiduous care, directly from the
collected works of our standard authors. This part of my labor has been
greatly facilitated by the courtesy of the gentlemen connected with the
Society, the Mercantile, and the Astor, Library, whose constant kindness
I gratefully acknowledge.

The principal alterations which will be found in this edition are the
following.

1. The extracts, formerly, of necessity, brief and fragmentary, have
given place to more extended and coherent passages.

2. A much larger space has been allotted to the more eminent authors.
Such writers as Franklin, Jefferson, Calhoun, Webster, Wirt, Irving,
Cooper, Hawthorne, Channing, Beecher, Prescott, Motley, Shea, Bryant,
Poe, Emerson, and Lowell, have been much more adequately exhibited.

3. Many later writers have been added, so that the work more fully
represents the rapid development of literary effort among us.

4. A few writers, formerly included, have been dropped from the list,
not always as less deserving a place, but sometimes as having less
adaptation to the purposes of the book.

Much care has been bestowed upon the dates of the several authors, and
in bringing up details of information to the latest period. The same
pains have been taken to furnish a just representation of the writers,
too often overlooked in our manuals, of the Southern and Western
portions of our country. Though often wanting in mere grace of style,
they are apt to be original and vigorous; and often possessing valuable
material, they are well worthy of perusal. In all these respects this
collection has been carefully elaborated; and the editor hopes that it
will be found to give a somewhat proportionate and complete view for its
compass, of our best literature.

In adapting the selections to Mr. Tuckerman's interesting "Sketch of
American Literature," specimens have generally been taken from several
authors in each of his groups. Some names not found in his "Sketch,"
have been introduced, chiefly for the fuller illustration of the
literature of the south and west. In this particular, Coggeshall's
"Poets and Poetry of the West" has afforded great assistance. Among
the more recent aids of the same kind, I must also mention Davidson's
"Living Writers of the South," and Raymond's "Southland Writers."
Especial acknowledgment is due to the "Cyclopedia" of the Messrs.
Duyckinck; Appleton's "Annual Cyclopedia" has furnished many important
dates; and I have occasionally been indebted to the works of Allibone,
Cheever, Griswold, Cleveland, Hart, and Underwood. Not only the local
literature however, but the several professions, and the great religious
denominations, are also represented by prominent writers.

It seemed unnecessary to treat the female writers as a distinct class;
they are, therefore, arranged under the departments to which they
respectively belong, as Essayists, Novelists, Poets, &c.

I should be claiming a merit which does not belong to me, should I fail
to say, that, for much of the labor which this treatise has involved, I
am indebted to the co-operation of my brother, Mr. William T. Martin,
whose acquaintance with our literature has not often been surpassed, and
whose valuable aid and counsel have been freely afforded me.

The hours which have been spent in culling extracts from so many able
and entertaining writers, though laborious, have been to the editor full
of interest, and often of delight. He trusts that these fruits of his
labor will be useful, in imparting, especially to his youthful readers,
not only an acquaintance with the best of our national authors, but a
taste for literature, and a good ideal of literary excellence, than
which few things in intellectual education are more to be esteemed. If
successful in these respects, he will be abundantly satisfied; and in
this hope, he submits his work to the judgment of the public.

CONTENTS

CHAPTER I.

=_1._= RELIGIOUS WRITERS OF THE SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES.

Roger Williams, 1598-1683
1. True Liberty defined.

Cotton Mather, 1663-1728
2. Preservation of New England Principles.

Jonathan Edwards, 1703-1758
3. Meaning of the Phrase Moral Inability.

Samuel Davies, 1725-1761
4. Life and Immortality revealed through the Gospel.

Nathaniel Emmons, 1745-1840
5. Rule of Private Judgment.

=_2._= HISTORICAL WRITERS OF THE SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH
CENTURIES.

Cadwallader Colden, 1688-1776
6. The Five Nations assert their Superiority.

William Stith, 1689-1755
7. The rule of Powhatan.
8. Pocahontas in England.

William Smith, 1728-1793
9. Manners of the People of New York.

=_3._= MISCELLANEOUS WRITERS OF THE SEVENTEENTH AND
EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES.

John Winthrop, 1587-1649
10. True Liberty defined.
11. Proposed Treatment of the Indians.

William Byrd, 1674-1744
12. The Ginseng and Snakeroot Plants.

Benjamin Franklin, 1706-1790
13. Good Resolutions.--The Croaker.
14. Franklin's Electrical Kite.
15. Motion for Prayers in the Convention.
16. The Ephemeron. An Emblem.

=_4._= LATER RELIGIOUS WRITERS AND DIVINES.

John Woolman, 1730-1772
17. Remarks on Slavery and Labor.

John M. Mason, 1770-1829
18. Grandeur of the Bible Society.
19. The Right of the State to Educate.

Timothy Dwight, 1752-1817
20. The Wilderness reclaimed.
21. The Glory of Nature, from God.

John Henry Hobart, 1775-1830
22. The Divine Glory in Redemption.

Lyman Beecher, 1775-1863
23. The Being of a God.

William Ellery Channing, 1780-1842
24. Character of Napoleon.
25. Grandeur of the prospect of Immortality.
26. The Duty of the Free States.

Edward Payson, 1783-1827
27. Natural Religion.

Joseph S. Buckminster, 1784-1812
28. Necessity of Regeneration.

Nathaniel W. Taylor, 1786-1858
29. Proof of Immortality from the Moral Nature of Man.

Edward Hitchcock, 1793-1864
30. Geological Proof of Divine Benevolence.

John P. Durbin, 1800-
31. First Sight of Mount Sinai.

Leonard Bacon, 1802-
32. The Day approaching.
33. The Benefits of Capital.

James W. Alexander, 1804-1859
34. The Church a Temple.

Martin J. Spaulding, 1810-1872
35. Trials of the Pioneer Catholic Clergy in the West.

James H. Thornwell, 1811-1862
36. Evil tendencies of an act of Sin.

Charles P. McIlvaine, 1799-1873
37. Attestations of the Resurrection.

George W. Bethune, 1805-1862
38. Aspirations towards Heaven.
39. The Prospects of Art in the United States.

William R. Williams, 1804-
40. Lead us not into Temptation.

George B. Cheever, 1807-
41. Sin distorts the judgment.
42. Mont Blanc.

Horace Bushnell, 1804-
43. Unconscious Influence.
44. The True Rest of the Christian.

Alfred T. Bledsoe, about 1809-
45. Moral Evil consistent with the Holiness of God.

Richard Fuller, 1808-
46. The Desire of all Nations shall come. _Haggai_ ii. 7.

Henry Ward Beecher, 1813-
47. A Picture in a College at Oxford.
48. Frost on the Window.
49. Nature designed for our enjoyment.
50. Life in the Country.
51. The Conception of Angels, Superhuman.

John McClintock, 1814-1870
52. The Christian the only true Lover of Nature.

Noah Porter, 1811-
53. Science magnifies God.

William H. Milburn, 1823-
54. The Pioneer Preachers of the Mississippi Valley.

=_5._= ORATORS, AND LEGAL AND POLITICAL WRITERS, OF THE ERA
OF THE REVOLUTION.

John Dickinson, 1732-1808
55. Aspect of the War in May, 1779.

John Adams, 1735-1826
56. Character of James Otis.
57. The Requisites of a Good Government.

Patrick Henry, 1736-1799
58. The Necessity of the War.
59. The Constitution should be amended before Adoption.

John Rutledge, 1735-1826
60. An Independent Judiciary the Safeguard of Liberty.

Thomas Jefferson, 1743-1826
61. Essential Principles of American Government.
62. Character of Washington.
63. Geographical Limits of the Elephant and the Mammoth.
64. The Unhappy Effects of Slavery.

John Jay, 1745-1829
65. An Appeal to Arms.

=_6._= ORATORS, AND LEGAL AND POLITICAL WRITERS, OF THE ERA
SUBSEQUENT TO THE REVOLUTION.

Alexander Hamilton, 1757-1804
66. Nature of the Federal Debt.
67. The French Revolution.

Fisher Ames, 1758-1808
68. Obligation of National Good Faith.

Gouverneur Morris, 1752-1816
69. Qualifications of a Minister of Foreign Affairs.

William Pinkney, 1764-1820
70. Responsibility for Slavery.
71. American Belligerent Rights.

James Madison, 1751-1836
72. Value of a Record of the Debates on the Federal Constitution.
73. Inscription for a Statue of Washington.

John Randolph, 1773-1832
74. Change is not Reform.
75. The Error of Decayed Families.

James Kent, 1763-1847
76. Law of the States.

Edward Livingston, 1764-1836
77. The Proper Office of the Judge.

John Quincy Adams, 1767-1848
78. The Right of Petition Universal.
79. The Administration of Washington.

Henry Clay, 1777-1852
80. Emancipation of the South American States.
81. Dangers of Disunion.

John C. Calhoun, 1782-1850
82. Dangers of an Unlimited Power of Removal from Office.
83. Peculiar merit of our Political System.
84. Concurrent Majorities supersede Force.

Daniel Webster, 1782-1852
85. Inestimable Value of the Federal Union;--Extract from the Reply
to Hayne.
86. Object of the Bunker Hill Monument.
87. Benefits of the U.S. Constitution.
88. Right of changing Allegiance.

Joseph Story, 1779-1845
89. Chief Justice Marshall.
90. Progress of Jurisprudence.

Lewis Cass, 1782-1866
91. Policy of Removing the Indians.

Rufus Choate, 1799-1859
92. Conservative Force of the American Bar.
93. The Age of the Pilgrims the Heroic Period of our History.

William H. Seward, 1801-1872
94. Military Services of Lafayette in America.

Abraham Lincoln, 1809-1865
95. Obligation to the Patriot Dead.

Charles Sumner, 1811-1873
96. Prospective Results of the Kansas and Nebraska Bill.
97. Heroic Effort cannot Fail.
98. Our Foreign Relations.
99. Prophetic Voices about America.

Alexander H. Stephens, 1812-
100. Origin of the American Flag.

=_7._= BIOGRAPHICAL WRITERS.

Benjamin Rush, 1745-1813
101. Life of Edward Drinker, a Centenarian.

John Marshall, 1755-1835
102. The Conquest of Canada.

John Armstrong, 1759-1843
103. Capture of Stoney Point.

Charles Caldwell, 1772-1853
104. A Lecture of Dr. Rush.

Thomas H. Benton, 1783-1858
105. The Character of Macon.

Alexander Slidell Mackenzie, 1803-1848
106. Recapture of the Frigate Philadelphia, at Tripoli.

I.F.H. Claiborne. About 1804-
107. Tecumseh's Speech to the Creek Indians.

George W. Greene, 1811-
108. Foreign Officers in the Revolutionary Army.

James Parton, 1822-
109. Career and Character of Aaron Burr.
110. Henry Clay and the Western Bar.
111. Western Theatres.

=_8._= HISTORY, GENERAL AND SPECIAL.

John Heckewelder, 1743-1823
112. Settlements of the Christian Indians.

Jeremy Belknap, 1744-1798
113. The Mast Pine.

David Ramsay, 1749-1815
114. Feeling of South Carolina towards the Mother Country.

Henry Lee, 1756-1818
115. Indian Services of General Rodgers Clarke.
116. The career of Captain Kirkwood.

Peter S. Duponceau. 1760-1844
117. Character of William Penn.

Charles J. Ingersoll, 1782-1862
118. Calhoun Characterized.
119. Battle of Chippewa.

Henry M. Brackenridge, 1786-1871
120. Old St. Genevieve, in Missouri.

Gulian C. Verplanck, 1786-1870
121. The Profession of the Schoolmaster.

John W. Francis, 1789-1861
122. Public Changes during a Single Lifetime.

William Meade, 1789-1862
123. Character of the Early Virginia Clergy.

Jared Sparks, 1794-1866
124. The Battle of Bennington.
125. Services, Death, and Character of Pulaski.

William H. Prescott, 1796-1859
126. Moral Consequences of the Discovery of America.
127. Picture-writing of the Mexicans.
128. Ransom and Doom of the Inca.

George Bancroft, 1800-
129. Virginia and its Inhabitants, in early times.
130. Contrast of English and French Colonization in America.
131. Death of Montcalm.
132. Character of the Declaration of Independence.
133. The First Policy of Spain in the American Revolution.

J.G.M. Ramsey. About 1800-
134. The Military Services of General Sevier.

Charles Gayarre, 1805-
135. General Jackson at New Orleans.

Brantz Mayer, 1809-
136. Rekindling the Sacred Fire in Mexico.

Albert J. Pickett, 1810-1858
137. The Indians and the First Settlers in Alabama.

Charles W. Upham, 1803-
138. Defeat of the Indian King Philip.

John L. Motley, 1814-
139. Character of Alva.
140. Siege and Abandonment of Ostend.
141. The Rise of the Dutch Republic.

Alex'r B. Meek, 1814-1865
142. Exiled French Officers in Alabama.
143. The Youth of the Indian Chief, Weatherford.

Abel Stevens, 1815-
144. The Early Methodist Clergy in America.

Francis Parkman, 1823-
145. The Old Western Hunters and Trappers.
146. Marquette Exploring the Upper Mississippi.

John G. Shea, 1824-
147. Difficulties of the Catholic Indian Missionaries.
148. Exploration of the Mississippi.

John G. Palfrey, 1796-
149. Happiness of Winthrop's Closing Years.

CHAPTER II.

=_1._= ESSAYISTS, MORALISTS, AND REFORMERS.

Joseph Dennie, 1768-1813
150. Reflections on the Seasons.

William Gaston, 1778-1844
151. The Importance of Integrity.

Jesse Buel, 1778-1839
152. Extent and Defects of American Agriculture.

Robert Walsh, 1784-1859
153. False Sympathy with Criminals.

Thomas S. Grimke, 1786-1834
154. Literary Excellence of the English Bible.

Henry C. Carey, 1793-
155. Agriculture as a Science.

Edmund Ruffin, 1793-1863
156. Improvement of Acid Soils.

Francis Wayland, 1796-1865
157. Superiority of the Moral Sentiments.

Horace Mann, 1796-1857
158. Thoughts for a Young Man.

Orestes A. Brownson, 1800-
159. The Duty of Progress.
160. Catholic Europe in the Seventeenth Century, despotic.

Theodore D. Woolsey, 1801-
161. Importance of the Study of International Law.

Taylor Lewis, 1802-
162. Unity of the Mosaic Account of the Creation.
163. Cruel Intestine Wars caused by National Division.

Horace Greeley, 1811-1872
164. The Problem of Labor.
165. The Beneficence of Labor-saving Inventions.
166. Literature as a Vocation;--the Editor.
167. Tranquility of Rural Life.

Theodore Parker, 1810-1860
168. Winter and Spring.
169. The true idea of a Christian Church.
170. Character of Franklin.
171. Character of Jefferson.

Wendell Phillips, 1811-
172. The War for the Union.
173. Character of Toussaint L'Ouverture.

Thomas Starr King, 1824-1864
174. Great Principles and Small Duties.

=_2._= GENERAL AND POLITE LITERATURE.

William Wirt, 1772-1834
175. The Example of Patrick Henry no argument for Indolence.
176. Jefferson's Seat at Monticello.

Timothy Flint, 1780-1840
177. The Western Boatman.

Washington Irving, 1783-1859
178. Title and Table of Contents of Knickerbocker's History of New
York.
179. The Army at New Amsterdam.
180. A Mother's Memory.
181. Columbus a Prisoner.
182. Arrival of Columbus at Court.
183. A Time of Unexampled Prosperity.
184. Death and Burial of General Braddock.
185. Baron Steuben in the Revolutionary Army.

Richard H. Wilde, 1780-1847
186. Interest of Tasso's Life.

George Ticknor, 1791-1871
187. The Design of Cervantes in writing Don Quixote.

James Hall, 1793-1868
188. Description of a Prairie.

H.R. Schoolcraft, 1793-1864
189. The Chippewa Indian.

Edward Everett, 1794-1865
190. Astronomy for all Time.
191. Description of a Sunrise.
192. The Celtic Immigration.

Hugh S. Legare. 1797-1843
193. The Study of the Ancient Classics.
194. Disadvantages of Colonial Life.

Francis L. Hawks, 1798-1866
195. Japan interesting in many Aspects.

George P. Marsh, 1801-
196. Method of learning English.
197. The Evergreens of Southern Europe.

George H. Calvert, 1803-
198. Estimate of Coleridge.

Ralph W. Emerson, 1803-
199. Influence of Nature.
200. The power of Childhood.
201. Advantage of working in harmony with Nature.
202. Rules for Reading.

John R. Bartlett, 1805-
203. Lynch Law at El Paso.

Nat'l P. Willis, 1807-1867
204. The American Abroad.
205. Character and Writings of James Hillhouse.

H.W. Longfellow, 1807-
206. The interrupted Legend.

Henry Reed, 1808-1854
207. Legendary Period of Britain.

C.M. Kirkland, 1808-1864
208. The Felling of a Great Tree.
209. The Bee Tree.

Margaret Fuller Ossoli 1810-1850
210. Carlyle characterized.

Oliver W. Holmes, 1809-
211. Consequences of exposing an old error.
212. Pleasures of Boating.
213. The unspoken Declaration.
214. Mechanics of Vital Action.

John Wm. Draper, 1810-
215. Truths in the ancient Philosophies.
216. Future Influence of America.

James R. Lowell, 1810-
217. New England two Centuries ago.
218. From an Essay on Dryden.
219. Love of Birds and Squirrels.
220. Chaucer's love of Nature.

Edgar A. Poe, 1811-1849
221. The Chiming of the Clock.
222. The Philosophy of Composition.

H.T. Tuckerman, 1813-1871
223. The Heart superior to the Intellect.

H.N. Hudson, 1814-
224. Instructive Character of Shakespeare's Works.

Mary H. Eastman. About 1817-
225. Lake Itasca, the Source of the Mississippi.
226. A Plea for the Indians.

Mary E. Moragne, 1815-
227. The Huguenot Town.

Richard H. Dana, Jr., 1815-
228. A Death at Sea.

Evert A. Duyckinck, 1816-
229. Newspapers.

Horace B. Wallace, 1817-1852
230. Art an Emanation of Religious Affection.

H.D. Thoreau, 1817-1862
231. Description of "Poke" or Garget, (Phytolacca Decandra).
232. Walden Pond.
233. Wants of the Age.

Elizabeth F. Ellett, 1818-
234. Escape of Mary Bledsoe from the Indians.

James J. Jarves, 1818-
235. The Art Idea.

Edwin P. Whipple, 1819-
236. Poets and Poetry of America.

J.T.L. Worthington, 1847-
237. The Sisters.

Alice Cary, 1820-1871
238. Clovernook, the End of the History.

Donald G. Mitchell, 1822-
239. A Talk about Porches.

Richard Grant White, 1822-
240. The Character of Shakespeare's Style.

Thos. W. Higginson, 1823-
241. Elegance of French Style.

Charles G. Leland, 1824-
242. Aspect of Nuremberg.

Geo. Wm. Curtis, 1824-
243. Under the Palms.

John L. McConnell, 1826-
244. The Early Western Politician.

Sarah J. Lippincott. About 1833
245. Death in Town, and in Country.

Francis Bret Harte, 1837-
246. Birth of a Child in a Miner's Camp.

Wm. D. Howells, 1837-
247. Snow in Venice.

Mary A. Dodge, 1838-
248. Scenery of the Upper Mississippi.

=_3._= LATER MISCELLANEOUS WRITERS.

George Washington, 1732-1799
249. Natural advantages of Virginia.

Matthew F. Maury, 1806-1873
250. The Mariner's Guide across the Deep.
251. The Gulf Stream.

O.M. Mitchell, 1810-1862
252. The Great Unfinished Problems of the Universe.

=_4._= NATURAL HISTORY, SCENERY, ETC.

William Bartram, 1739-1813
253. Scenes on the Upper Oconee, Georgia.
254. The Wood Pelican of Florida.

Alex'r Wilson, 1766-1813
255. Nest of the Red-headed Woodpecker.
256. The White-headed, or Bald Eagle.

Stephen Elliott, 1771-1830
257. Completeness and variety of Nature.

John J. Audubon, 1776-1851
258. The Passenger Pigeon.
259. Emigrants Removing Westward.
260. Interest of Exploration in the Remote West.

Daniel Drake, 1785-1852
261. Objects of the Western Mound Builders.

John Bachman, 1790-1874
262. The Opossum.

J.A. Lapham, 1811-
263. The Smaller Lakes of Wisconsin.
264. Ancient Earthworks.

Chas. W. Webber, 1819-1856
265. The Mocking Bird.

Chas. Lanman, 1819-
266. Maple Sugar-Making among the Indians.

Ephraim G. Squier, 1821-
267. Indian Pottery.

=_5._= WRITERS OF TRAVEL AND ADVENTURE.

Benj'n Silliman, 1779-1864
268. The Falls of Montmorenci.

John L. Stephens, 1805-1852
269. Discovery of a Ruined City in the Woods.

John C. Fremont, 1813-
270. Ascent of a Peak of the Rocky Mountains.
271. The Columbia River, Oregon.

Elisha K. Kane, 1822-1857
272. Discovery of an Open Arctic Sea.

Bayard Taylor, 1825-
273. Monterey, California.
274. Approach to San Francisco.
275. Swiss Scenery;--a Battlefield;--Picturesque Dwellings.

=_6._= NOVELISTS AND WRITERS OF FICTION.

Chas. Brockden Brown, 1771-1810
276. The Yellow Fever in Philadelphia.

Washington Allston, 1779-1843
277. Impersonation of the Power of Evil.
278. On a Picture by Caracci.
279. Originality of Mind.

James K. Paulding, 1779-1860
280. Characteristics of the Dutch and German Settlers.
281. Abortive Towns.

Jas. Fenimore Cooper, 1789-1851
282. The Shooting Match.
283. Long Tom Coffin.
284. Death of the Old Trapper in the Pawnee Village.
285. Escape from the Wreck.
286. Naval Results of the War of 1812.

Catharine M. Sedgwick, 1789-1867
287. The Minister Condemning Vain Apparel.
288. Kosciusko's Garden at West Point.

John Neal, 1793-
289. The Nature of True Poetry.

John P. Kennedy, 1795-1870
290. The Mansion at Swallow Barn.
291. A Disappointed Politician.
292. Wirt's Style of Oratory.

William Ware, 1797-1852
293. The Christian Martyr.

Lydia M. Child, 1802-
294. Ill temper contagious.

Robert M. Bird, 1803-1854
295. The Quaker Huntsman.

Nathaniel Hawthorne, 1805-1864
296. Portrait of Edward Randolph.
297. Description of an Old Sailor.
298. A Picture of Girlhood.
299. Sculpture: Art and Artists.
300. Ruins of Furness Abbey.
301. Scenery of the Merrimac.
302. A Dungeon of Ancient Rome.

Wm. Gilmore Simms, 1806-1870
303. The Battle of Eutaw.
304. Character and Services of Gen. Marion.

Harriet B. Stowe, 1812-
305. Memorials of a Dead Child.
306. The Old Meeting House.

Maria J. McIntosh, 1815-
307. Debate between Webster and Hayne.

Catharine A. Warfield, 1817-
308. View of the Sky by Night.

Herman Melville, 1819-
309. Sperm-Whale Fishing.

Josiah G. Holland, 1819-
310. The Wedding-Present.

John Esten Cooke, 1830-
311. The Portrait.
312. Aspects of Summer.

Sarah A. Dorsey. About 1835-
313. Scenery at Natchez, Mississippi.

Anne M. Crane,
314. Impression of a Sea-Scene.

Mary C. Ames. About 1837-
315. A Railway Station in the Country.

CHAPTER III.

POETS.

Francis Hopkinson, 1737-1791
316. From "The Battle of the Kegs."

John Trumbull, 1750-1831
317. From "McFingall."

Philip Freneau, 1752-1832
318. From "An Indian Burying-ground."

David Humphreys, 1753-1818
319. From "The Happiness of America."

Sam'l J. Smith, 1771-1835
320. "Peace, Be Still."

William Clifton, 1772-1799
321. From "Lines to Fancy."

Robert Treat Paine, 1773-1811
322. The Miser.

John Blair Linn, 1777-1804
323. From "The Powers of Genius."

Francis S. Key, 1779-1843
324. "The Star-Spangled Banner."

Washington Allston, 1779-1843
325. From "The Sylphs of the Seasons."

John Pierpont, 1785-1866
326. A Temperance Song.
327. The. Pilgrim Fathers.

Jas. G. Percival, 1786-1856
328. The Coral Grove.

Richard H. Dana, 1787-
329. From "The Buccaneer."

Richard H. Wilde, 1789-1847
330. My Life is like the Summer Rose.

Jas. A. Hillhouse, 1789-1841
331. From "Hadad."
332. From "The Judgment."

John M. Harney, 1789-1825
333. From "Cristalina; a fairy tale."

Charles Sprague, 1791-
334. From "Curiosity."

L.H. Sigourney, 1791-1865
335. The Widow at her Daughter's Bridal.

Wm. O. Butler, 1793-
336. From "The Boatman's Horn."
337. The Battle-field of Raisin.

Wm. C. Bryant, 1794-
338. Lines to a Water Fowl.
339. Freedom Irrepressible.
340. Communion with Nature, Soothing.
341. The Living Lost.
342. The Song of the Sower.
343. The Planting of the Apple-Tree.

Maria Brooks, 1795-1845
344. "Marriage."

Joseph R. Drake, 1705-1820
345. The Fay's Departure.

Fitz-Greene Halleck, 1795-1869
346. Marco Bozzaris.
347. The Broken Merchant.

J.G.C. Brainard, 1796-1828
348. From "Lines to the Connecticut River."

Robert C. Sands, 1799-1832
349. From "Weehawken."

George W. Doane, 1799-1859
350. From "Evening."

Geo. P. Morris, 1801-1864
351. Highlands of the Hudson.

Geo. D. Prentice, 1802-1869
352. From "The Mammoth Cave."

Chas. C. Pise, 1802-1866
353. The Rainbow.
354. View at Gibraltar.

E.P. Lovejoy, 1802-1836
355. From "Lines to my Mother."

Edward C. Pinkney, 1802-1828
356. A Health.

R.W. Emerson, 1803-
357. Hymn sung at the Completion of the Concord Monument.
358. Disappearance of Winter.
359. Inspiration of Duty.

Thos. C. Upham, 1799-1873
360. On a Son Lost at Sea.

Jacob L. Martin, 1805-1848
361. The Church of Santa Croce, Florence.

Geo. W. Bethune, 1805-1862
362. Mythology gives place to Christianity.

Chas. F. Hoffman, 1806-
363. The Red Man's Heaven.

Wm. Gilmore Simms, 1806-1870
364. Nature inspires sentiment.

Nath'l P. Willis, 1807-1867
365. From "Hagar in the Wilderness."
366. Unseen Spirits.

H.W. Longfellow, 1807-
367. Lines to Resignation.
368. From The Wedding; The Launch: The Ship.
369. Song of the Mocking-bird, at Sunset.
370. Hiawatha's Departure.

Wm. D. Gallagher, 1808-
371. The Laborer.

John G. Whittier, 1808-
372. What the Voice said.
373. The Atlantic Telegraph.
374. Description of a Snow Storm.
375. The Quaker's Creed.

Albert Pike, 1809-
376. The Everlasting Hills.

Anne C. Lynch Botta. About 1809
377. The Dumb Creation.

Oliver W. Holmes, 1809-
378. From "The Last Leaf."
379. A Mother's Secret.

Willis G. Clark, 1810-1841
380. "An Invitation to Early Piety."

James R. Lowell, 1810-
381 A Song, "The Violet."
382. Importance of a Noble Deed.
383. The Spaniards' Graves at the Isles of Shoals.

Edgar A. Poe, 1811-1849
384. The Raven.

Alfred B. Street, 1811-
385. An Autumn Landscape.
386. The Falls of the Mongaup.

Laura M. H. Thurston, 1812-1842
387. Lines on Crossing the Alleghanies.

Frances S. Osgood, 1812-1850
388. From "The Parting."

Harriet B. Stowe, 1812-
389. The Peace of Faith.
390. Only a Year.

H.T. Tuckerman, 1813-1871
391. The Statue of Washington.

John G. Saxe, 1816-
392. The Blessings of Sleep.
393. "Ye Tailyor man; a contemplative ballad."
394. Ancient and Modern Ghosts contrasted.
395. Boys.
396. Sonnet to a Clam.

Lucy Hooper, 1816-1841
397. The "Death-Summons."

Catharine A. Warfield, 1817-
398. From "The Return to Ashland."

Arthur C. Coxe, 1818-
399. The Heart's Song.

Wm. Ross Wallace, 1819-
400. The North Edda.

Walter Whitman, 1819-
401. The Brooklyn Ferry at Twilight.

Amelia B. Welby, 1819-1852
402. The Bereaved.

R.S. Nichols. About 1820-
403. From "Musings."

Alice Cary, 1820-1871
404. Attractions of our early Home.

Sidney Dyer. About 1820-
405. The Power of Song.

Austin T. Earle, 1822-
406. From "Warm Hearts had We."

Thos. Buchanan Read, 1822-
407. The Mournful Mowers.
408. From "The Closing Scene."

Margaret M. Davidson, 1823-1837
409. From Lines in Memory of her Sister Lucretia.

John R. Thompson, 1823-1873
410. Music in Camp.

Geo. H. Boker, 1824-
411. From the "Ode to a Mountain Oak"
412. Dirge for a Sailor.

Wm. Allen Butler, 1825-
413. From "Nothing to Wear."

Bayard Taylor, 1825-
414. "The Burden of the Day."

John T. Trowbridge, 1827-
415. "Dorothy in the Garret."

Henry Timrod, 1829-1867
416. The Unknown Dead.

Susan A. Talley Von Weiss. About 1830-
417. The Sea-Shell.

Albert Sutliffe, 1830-
418. "May Noon."

Elijah E. Edwards, 1831-
419. "Let me Rest."

Paul H. Hayne, 1831-
420. October.

Rosa V. Johnson Jeffrey. About 1832-
421. From "Angel Watchers."

Sarah J. Lippincott, 1833-
422. "Absolution."

E.C. Stedman, 1833-
423. The Mountain.

John J. Piatt, 1835-
424. Long Ago.

Celia Thaxter, 1835-
425. "Regret."

Theophilus H. Hill, 1836-
426. From "The Song of the Butterfly."

Thos. B. Aldrich, 1836-
427. The Crescent and the Cross.

Francis Bret Harte, 1837-
428. Dickens in Camp.
429. The Two Ships.

Charles Dimitry, 1838-
430. From "The Sergeant's Story."

John Hay, 1841-
431. The Prairie.

Joaquin Miller,
432. The Future of California.

Joel C. Harris, 1846-
433. Agnes.

ALPHABETICAL INDEX OF AUTHORS.

* * * * *

(The Figures refer to the Number of the Selection.)

* * * * *

ADAMS, JOHN 56, 57
ADAMS, JOHN QUINCY 78, 79
ALEXANDER, JAMES W. 34
ALDRICH, THOMAS B. 427
ALLSTON, WASHINGTON 277, 278, 279, 325
AMES, FISHER 68
AMES, MARY C. 315
ARMSTRONG, JOHN 103
AUDUBON, JOHN J. 258, 259, 260

BACHMAN, JOHN 262
BACON, LEONARD 32, 33
BANCROFT, GEORGE 129, 130, 131, 132, 133
BARTLETT, JOHN R. 203
BARTRAM, WILLIAM 253, 254
BEECHER, HENRY WARD 47, 48, 49, 50, 51
BEECHER, LYMAN 23
BELKNAP, JEREMY 113
BENTON, THOMAS H. 105
BETHUNE, GEORGE W. 38, 39, 362
BIRD, ROBERT M. 295
BLEDSOE, ALBERT T. 45
BOKER, GEORGE HENRY 411, 412
BOTTA, ANNE C. LYNCH 377
BRACKENRIDGE, HENRY M. 120
BRAINARD, JOHN G.C. 348
BROOKS, MARIA 344
BROWN, C. BROCKDEN 276
BROWNSON, ORESTES A. 159, 160
BRYANT, WILLIAM C. 338, 339, 340, 341, 342, 343
BUCKMINSTER, JOSEPH S. 28
BUEL, JESSE 152
BUSHNELL, HORACE 43, 44
BUTLER, WILLIAM ALLEN 413
BUTLER, WILLIAM O. 336, 337
BYRD, WILLIAM 12

CALDWELL, CHARLES 104
CALHOUN, JOHN C. 82, 83, 84
CALVERT, GEORGE H. 198
CAREY, HENRY C. 155
CARY, ALICE 238, 404
CASS, LEWIS 91
CHANNING, WM. ELLERY 24, 25, 26
CHEEVER, GEORGE B. 41, 42
CHILD, LYDIA MARIA 294
CHOATE, RUFUS 92, 93
CLAIBORNE, I.F.H. 107
CLARK, WILLIS G. 380
CLAY, HENRY 80, 81
CLIFTON, WILLIAM 321
COLDEN, CADWALLADER 6
COOKE, JOHN ESTEN 311, 312
COOPER, J. FENIMORE 282, 283, 284, 285, 286
COXE, ARTHUR C. 399
CRANE, ANNE M. 314
CURTIS, GEORGE WM. 243

DANA, RICHARD H. 329
DANA, RICHARD H., JR. 228
DAVIDSON, MARGARET M. 409
DAVIES, SAMUEL 4
DENNIE, JOSEPH 150
DICKINSON, JOHN 55
DIMITRY, CHARLES 430
DOANE, GEORGE W. 350
DODGE, MARY A. 248
DORSEY, SARAH A. 313
DRAKE, DANIEL 261
DRAKE, JOSEPH R. 345
DRAPER, JOHN WM. 215, 216
DUPONCEAU, PETER S. 117
DWIGHT, TIMOTHY 20, 21
DURBIN, JOHN P. 31
DUYCKINCK, EVERT A. 229
DYER, SIDNEY 405

EARLE, AUSTIN T. 406
EASTMAN, MARY H. 225, 226
EDWARDS, ELIJAH E. 419
EDWARDS, JONATHAN 3
ELLETT, ELIZABETH F. 234
ELLIOTT, STEPHEN 257
EMERSON, RALPH WALDO 199, 200, 201, 202, 357, 358, 359
EMMONS, NATHANIEL 5
EVERETT, EDWARD 190, 191, 192

FLINT, TIMOTHY 177
FRANCIS, JOHN W. 122
FRANKLIN, BENJAMIN 13, 14, 15, 16
FREMONT, JOHN C. 270, 271
FRENEAU, PHILIP 318
FULLER, RICHARD 46

GALLAGHER, WILLIAM D. 371
GASTON, WILLIAM 151
GAYARRE, CHARLES 135
GREELEY, HORACE 164, 165, 166, 167
GREENE, GEORGE W. 108
GRIMKE, THOMAS S. 154

HALL, JAMES 188
HALLECK, FITZ-GREENE 346, 347
HAMILTON, ALEXANDER 66, 67
HARNEY, JOHN M. 333
HARRIS, JOEL C. 433
HARTE, FRANCIS BRET 246, 428, 429
HAWKS, FRANCIS L. 195
HAWTHORNE, NATHANIEL 296, 297, 298, 299, 300, 301, 302
HAY, JOHN 431
HAYNE, PAUL H. 420
HECKEWELDER, JOHN 112
HENRY, PATRICK 58, 59
HIGGINSON, THOMAS 241
HILL, THEOPHILUS H. 426
HILLHOUSE, JAMES A. 331, 332
HITCHCOCK, EDWARD 30
HOBART, JOHN H. 22
HOFFMAN, CHARLES F. 363
HOLLAND, JOSIAH G. 310
HOLMES, OLIVER W. 211, 212, 213, 214, 378, 379
HOOPER, LUCY 397
HOPKINSON, FRANCIS 316
HUDSON, HENRY N. 224
HOWELLS, WILLIAM D. 247
HUMPHREYS, DAVID 319

INGERSOLL, CHARLES J. 118, 119
IRVING, WASHINGTON 178, 179, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185

JARVES, JAMES J. 235
JAY, JOHN 65
JEFFERSON, THOMAS 61, 62, 63, 64
JEFFREY, ROSA V. JOHNSON 421

KANE, ELISHA K. 272
KENNEDY, JOHN P. 290, 291, 292
KENT, JAMES 76
KEY, FRANCIS S. 324
KING, THOS. STARR 174
KIRKLAND, CAROLINE M. 208, 209

LANMAN, CHARLES 266
LAPHAM, J.A. 263, 264
LEE, HENRY 115, 116
LEGARE, HUGH S. 193, 194
LELAND, CHARLES G. 242
LEWIS, TAYLOR 162, 163
LINCOLN, ABRAHAM 95
LINN, JOHN B. 323
LIPPINCOTT, SARAH J. 245, 422
LIVINGSTON, EDWARD 77
LONGFELLOW, HENRY W. 206, 367, 368, 369, 370
LOVEJOY, ELIJAH P. 355
LOWELL, JAS. RUSSELL 217, 218, 219, 220, 381, 382, 383

MACKENZIE, A. SLIDELL 106
McCLINTOCK, JOHN 52
McCONNELL, JOHN L. 244
McILVAINE, CHARLES P. 37
McINTOSH, MARIA J. 307
MADISON, JAMES 73, 73
MANN, HORACE 158
MARSH, GEORGE P. 196, 197
MARSHALL, JOHN 102
MARTIN, JACOB L. 361
MASON, JOHN M. 18, 19
MATHER, COTTON 2
MAURY, MATTHEW F. 250, 251
MAYER, BRANTZ 136
MEADE, WILLIAM 123
MEEK, ALEXANDER B. 142, 143
MELVILLE, HERMAN 309
MILBURN, WILLIAM H. 54
MILLER, JOAQUIN 432
MITCHELL, DONALD G. 239
MITCHELL, ORMSBY M. 252
MORAGNE, MARY E. 227
MORRIS, GEORGE P. 351
MORRIS, GOUVERNEUR 69
MOTLEY, JOHN L. 139, 140, 141

NEAL, JOHN 289
NICHOLS, REBECCA S. 403

OSGOOD, FRANCIS S. 388
OSSOLI, MARGARET FULLER 210

PAINE, ROBERT T. 322
PALFREY, JOHN G. 149
PARKER, THEODORE 168, 169, 170, 171
PARKMAN, FRANCIS 145, 146
PARTON, JAMES 109, 110, 111
PAULDING, JAMES K. 280, 281
PAYSON, EDWARD 27
PERCIVAL, JAMES G. 328
PHILLIPS, WENDELL 172, 173
PIATT, JOHN J. 424
PICKETT, ALBERT J. 137
PIERPONT, JOHN 326, 327
PIKE, ALBERT 376
PINKNEY, EDWARD C. 356
PINKNEY, WILLIAM 70, 71
PISE, CHARLES C. 353, 354
POE, EDGAR A. 221, 222, 384
PORTER, NOAH 53
PRENTICE, GEORGE 352
PRESCOTT, WILLIAM H. 126, 127, 128

RAMSAY, DAVID 114
RAMSEY, J.G.M. 134
RANDOLPH, JOHN 74, 75
READ, THOS. BUCHANAN 407, 408
REED, HENRY 207
RUFFIN, EDMUND 156
RUSH, BENJAMIN 101
RUTLEDGE, JOHN 60

SANDS, ROBERT C. 349
SAXE, JOHN G. 392, 393, 394, 395, 396
SCHOOLCRAFT, HENRY R. 189
SEDGWICK, CATHARINE M. 287, 288
SEWARD, WILLIAM 94
SHEA, JOHN G. 147, 148
SIGOURNEY, LYDIA H. 335
SILLIMAN, BENJAMIN 268
SIMMS, WM. GILMORE 303, 304, 364
SMITH, SAMUEL J. 320
SMITH, WILLIAM 9
SPARKS, JARED 124, 125
SPAULDING, MARTIN J. 35
SPRAGUE, CHARLES 334
SQUIER, EPHRAIM G. 267
STEDMAN, E.C. 423
STEPHENS, ALEXANDER H. 100
STEPHENS, JOHN L. 269
STEVENS, ABEL 144
STITH, WILLIAM 7, 8
STORY, JOSEPH 89, 90
STOWE, HARRIET BEECHER 305, 306, 389, 390
STREET, ALFRED B. 385, 386
SUMNER, CHARLES 96, 87, 98, 99
SUTLIFFE, ALBERT 418

TAYLOR, BAYARD 273, 274, 275, 414
TAYLOR, NATHANIEL W. 29
THAXTER, CELIA 425
THOMPSON, JOHN R. 410
THORNWELL, JAMES H. 36
THOREAU, HENRY D. 231, 232, 233
THURSTON, LAURA M.H. 387
TICKNOR, GEORGE 187
TIMROD, HENRY 416
TROWBRIDGE, JOHN T. 415
TRUMBULL, JOHN 317
TUCKERMAN, HENRY T. 223, 391

UPHAM, CHARLES W. 138
UPHAM, THOMAS C. 360

VERPLANCK, GULIAN C. 121
VON WEISS, SUSAN A. TALLEY 417

WALLACE, HORACE B. 230
WALLACE, WILLIAM R. 400
WALSH, ROBERT 153
WARE, WILLIAM 293
WARFIELD, CATHERINE A. 308, 398
WASHINGTON, GEORGE 249
WAYLAND, FRANCIS 157
WEBBER, CHARLES W. 265
WEBSTER, DANIEL 85, 86, 87, 88
WELBY, AMELIA B. 402
WHIPPLE, EDWIN P. 236
WHITE, RICHARD GRANT 240
WHITMAN, WALTER 401
WHITTIER, JOHN G. 372, 373, 374, 375
WILDE, RICHARD H. 186, 330
WILLIAMS, ROGER 1
WILLIAMS, WILLIAM R. 40
WILLIS, NATHANIEL P. 204, 205, 365, 366
WILSON, ALEXANDER 255, 256
WINTHROP, JOHN 10, 11
WIRT, WILLIAM 176
WOOLMAN, JOHN 17
WOOLSEY, THEODORE D. 161
WORTHINGTON, JANE T.L. 237

CHOICE SPECIMENS

OF

AMERICAN LITERATURE.

* * * * *

CHAPTER I.

RELIGIOUS WRITERS OF THE SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES.

=_Roger Williams, 1598-1683._= (Manual, pp. 480, 512.)

From his "Memoirs."

=_1.=_ EXTENT OF RELIGIOUS FREEDOM.

There goes many a ship to sea, with many hundred souls in one ship,
whose weal and woe is common, and is a true picture of a commonwealth,
or a human combination or society. It hath fallen out, sometimes, that
both Papists and Protestants, Jews and Turks, may be embarked into one
ship. Upon which supposal, I affirm that all the liberty of conscience,
that ever I pleaded for, turns upon these two hinges; that none of the
Papists, Protestants, Jews, or Turks, be forced to come to the ship's
prayers, nor compelled from their own particular prayers or worship,
if they practice any.... If any of the seamen refuse to perform their
service, or passengers to pay their freight; if any refuse to help, in
person or purse, towards the common charges or defence; if any refuse to
obey the common laws or orders of the ship concerning their common
peace or preservation; if any shall mutiny and rise up against their
commanders and officers; if any should preach or write, that there ought
to be no commanders nor officers, because all are equal in Christ,
therefore no masters nor officers, no laws, nor orders, no corrections
nor punishments,--I say I never denied but in such cases, whatever is
pretended, the commander or commanders may judge, resist, compel, and
punish such transgressors, according to their deserts and merits.

* * * * *

=_Cotton Mather, 1663-1728._= (Manual pp. 479, 512.)

From the "Antiquities," or Book I, of the "Magnalia."

=2.= PRESERVATION OF NEW ENGLAND PRINCIPLES.

'Tis now time for me to tell my reader, that in _our age_, there has
been another essay made, not by French, but by English PROTESTANTS, to
fill a certain country in America with _Reformed Churches_; nothing
in _doctrine_, little in _discipline_, different from that of Geneva.
Mankind will pardon _me_, a native of that country, if smitten with a
just fear of encroaching and ill-bodied _degeneracies_, I shall use my
modest endeavors to prevent the _loss_ of a country so signalized for
the _profession_ of the purest _Religion_, and for the _protection_ of
God upon it in that holy profession. I shall count my country _lost_, in
the loss of the primitive _principles_, and the primitive _practices_,
upon which it was at first established: but certainly one good way to
save that _loss_, would be to do something, that the memory of _the
great things done for us by our God_, may not be _lost_, and that the
story of the circumstances attending the _foundation_ and _formation_
of this country, and of its _preservation_ hitherto, may be impartially
handed unto posterity. THIS is the undertaking whereto I now address
myself; and now, _Grant me thy gracious assistances, O my God! that in
this my undertaking I may be kept from every false way._

* * * * *

=_Jonathan Edwards, 1703-1758_=. (Manual, p. 479.)

From the "Inquiry, &c., into the Freedom of the Will."

=_3._= MEANING OF THE PHRASE "MORAL INABILITY."

It must be observed concerning Moral Inability, in each kind of it, that
the word _Inability_ is used in a sense very diverse from its original
import.... In the strictest propriety of speech, a man has a thing in
his power, if he has it in his choice, or at his election; and a man
cannot be truly said to be unable to do a thing, when he can do it if he
will. It is improperly said, that a person cannot perform those external
actions which are dependent on the act of the will, and which would be
easily performed, if the act of the will were present. And if it be
improperly said, that he cannot perform those external voluntary actions
which depend on the will, it is in some respect more improperly said,
that he is unable to exert the acts of the will themselves; because it
is more evidently false, with respect to these, that he cannot if he
will; for to say so is a downright contradiction: it is to say he cannot
will if he does will. And in this case, not only is it true, that it is
easy for a man to do the thing if he will, but the very willing is the
doing; when once he has willed, the thing is performed; and nothing
else remains to be done. Therefore, in these things to ascribe a
non-performance to the want of power or ability, is not just; because
the thing wanting is not a being able, but a being willing. There
are faculties of mind, and capacity of nature, and everything else
sufficient, but a disposition; nothing is wanting but a will.

* * * * *

=_Samuel Davies, 1725-1761._= (Manual, p. 480.)

From his "Sermons."

=_4._= LIFE AND IMMORTALITY REVEALED THROUGH THE GOSPEL.

So extensive have been the havoc and devastation which death has made
in the world for near six thousand years, ever since it was first
introduced by the sin of man, that this earth is now become one vast
grave-yard or burying-place for her sons. The many generations that have
followed upon each other, in so quick a succession, from Adam to this
day, are now in the mansions under ground.... Some make a short journey
from the womb to the grave; they rise from nothing at the creative
fiat of the Almighty, and take an immediate flight into the world of
spirits.... Like a bird on the wing, they perch on our globe, rest a
day, a month, or a year, and then fly off for some other regions. It is
evident these were not formed for the purposes of the present state,
where they make so short a stay; and yet we are sure they are not made
in vain by an all-wise Creator; and therefore we conclude they are young
immortals, that immediately ripen in the world of spirits, and there
enter upon scenes for which it was worth their while coming into
existence.... A few creep into their beds of dust under the burden of
old age and the gradual decays of nature. In short, the grave is _the
place appointed for all living_; the general rendezvous of all the sons
of Adam. There the prince and the beggar, the conqueror and the slave,
the giant and the infant, the scheming politician and the simple
peasant, the wise and the fool, Heathens, Jews, Mahometans, and
Christians, all lie equally low, and mingle their dust without
distinction.... There lie our ancestors, our neighbors, our friends,
our relatives, with whom we once conversed, and who were united to our
hearts by strong and endearing ties; and there lies our friend, the
sprightly, vigorous youth, whose death is the occasion of this funeral
solemnity. This earth is overspread with the ruins of the human frame:
it is a huge carnage, a vast charnel-house, undermined and hollowed with
the graves, the last mansions of mortals.

* * * * *

=_Nathaniel Emmons,[1] 1745-1840._=

From his "Sermons."

=_5._= THE RIGHT OF PRIVATE JUDGMENT.

The right of private judgment involves the right of forming our opinions
according to the best light we can obtain. After a man knows what
others have said or written, and after he has thought and searched the
Scriptures, upon any religious subject, he has a right to form his own
judgment exactly according to evidence. He has no right to exercise
prejudice or partiality; but he has a right to exercise impartiality, in
spite of all the world. After all the evidence is collected from every
quarter, then it is the proper business of the understanding or judgment
to compare and balance evidence, and to form a decisive opinion or
belief, according to apparent truth. We have no more right to judge
without evidence than we have to judge contrary to evidence; and we have
no more right to doubt without, or contrary to, evidence, than we have
to believe without, or contrary to, evidence. We have no right to keep
ourselves in a state of doubt or uncertainty, when we have sufficient
evidence to come to a decision. The command is, "Prove all things; hold
fast that which is good." The meaning is, Examine all things; and after
examination, decide what is right.

[Footnote 1: A Congregational clergyman of Massachusetts, original in
theology, and eminently lucid in style.]

* * * * *

HISTORICAL WRITERS OF THE SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES.

=_Cadwallader Colden,[2] 1688-1776._=

From "The History of the Five Nations."

=_6._= CONVICTION OF THEIR SUPERIORITY

The _Five Nations_ think themselves by nature superior to the rest of
mankind.... All the nations round them have, for many years, entirely
submitted to them, and pay a yearly tribute to them in _wampum_; they
dare neither make war nor peace without the consent of the _Mohawks_.
Two old men commonly go, about every year or two, to receive this
tribute; and I have often had opportunity to observe what anxiety the
poor Indians were under while these two old men remained in that part of
the country where I was. An old Mohawk Sachem, in a poor blanket and
a dirty shirt, may be seen issuing his orders with as arbitrary an
authority as a Roman dictator. It is not for the sake of tribute,
however, that they make war, but from the notions of glory which they
have ever most strongly imprinted on their minds; and the farther they
go to seek an enemy, the greater glory they think they gain; there
cannot, I think, be a greater or stronger instance than this, how
much the sentiments impressed on a people's mind conduce to their
grandeur.... The Five Nations, in their love of liberty and of their
country, in their bravery in battle, and their constancy in enduring
torments, equal the fortitude of the most renowned Romans.

[Footnote 2: A native of Scotland, but for many years a resident of New
York, where he was eminent in politics and science.]

* * * * *

=_William Stith, 1755._= (Manual, p. 490.)

From "The History of Virginia."

=_7._= THE RULE OF POWHATAN.

Although both himself and people were very barbarous, and void of all
letters and civility, yet was there such a government among them, that
the magistrates for good command, and the people for due subjection,
excelled many places that would be counted very civil. He had under him
above thirty inferior Kings or Werowances, who had power of life and
death, but were bound to govern according to the customs of their
country. However, his will was in all cases, their supreme law, and must
be obeyed. They all knew their several lands, habitations, and limits,
to fish, fowl, or hunt in. But they held all of their great Werowance,
_Powhatan_; to whom they paid tribute of skins, beads, copper, pearl,
deer, turkies, wild beasts, and corn. All his subjects reverenced him,
not only as a King, but as half a God; and it was curious to behold,
with what fear and adoration they obeyed him. For at his feet they
presented whatever he commanded; and a frown of his brow would make
their greatest Spirits tremble. And indeed it was no wonder; for he was
very terrible and tyrannous in punishing such as offended him, with
variety of cruelty, and the most exquisite torture.

* * * * *

=_8._= POCAHONTAS IN ENGLAND.

However, Pocahontas was eagerly sought and kindly entertained
everywhere. Many courtiers, and others of his acquaintance, daily
flocked to Captain Smith to be introduced to her. They generally
confessed that the hand of God did visibly appear in her conversion,
and that they had seen many English ladies worse favored, of less exact
proportion, and genteel carriage than she was.... The whole court were
charmed and surprised at the decency and grace of her deportment; and
the king himself, and queen, were pleased honorably to receive and
esteem her. The Lady Delawarr, and those other persons of quality,
also waited on her to the masks, balls, plays, and other public
entertainments, with which she was wonderfully pleased and delighted.
And she would, doubtless, have well deserved, and fully returned, all
this respect and kindness, had she lived to arrive in Virginia.

* * * * *

=_William Smith, 1793._= (Manual, p. 490.)

From "The History of the Province of New York."

=_9._=. MANNERS OF THE INHABITANTS.

New York is one of the most social places on the continent. The men
collect themselves into weekly evening clubs. The ladies, in winter, are
frequently entertained either at concerts of music or assemblies, and
make a very good appearance. They are comely, and dress well, and scarce
any of them have distorted shapes. Tinctured with a Dutch education,
they manage their families with becoming parsimony, good providence, and
singular neatness. The practice of extravagant gaming, common to the
fashionable part of the fair sex in some places, is a vice with which
my countrywomen cannot justly be charged. There is nothing they
so generally neglect as reading, and indeed all the arts for the
improvement of the mind; in which, I confess, we have set them the
example. They are modest, temperate, and charitable; naturally
sprightly, sensible, and good-humored; and, by the helps of a more
elevated education, would possess all the accomplishments desirable
in the sex. Our schools are in the lowest order: the instructors want
instruction; and, through a long, shameful neglect of all the arts and
sciences, our common speech is extremely corrupt, and the evidences of
a bad taste, both as to thought and language, are visible in all our
proceedings, public and private.

The history of our diseases belongs to a profession with which I am
very little acquainted. Few physicians amongst us are eminent for
their skill. Quacks abound like locusts in Egypt, and too many have
recommended themselves to a full practice and profitable subsistence.
Loud as the call is, to our shame be it remembered, we have no law
to protect the lives of the king's subjects from the malpractice of
pretenders. Any man, at his pleasure, sets up for physician, apothecary,
and chirurgeon. The natural history of this province would of itself
furnish a small volume; and, therefore, I leave this also to such as
have capacity and leisure to make useful observations in that curious
and entertaining branch of natural philosophy.

The clergy of this province are, in general, but indifferently
supported, it is true they live easily, but few of them leave any thing
to their children.... As to the number of our clergymen, it is large
enough at present, there being but few settlements unsupplied with a
ministry and some superabound. In matters of religion we are not so
intelligent in general as the inhabitants of the New England colonies,
but both in this respect and good morals we certainly have the advantage
of the Southern provinces. One of the king's instructions to our
governors recommends the investigation of means for the conversion of
negroes and Indians. An attention to both, especially the latter, has
been too little regarded. If the missionaries of the English Society for
propagating the Gospel instead of being seated in opulent christianized
towns had been sent out to preach among the savages, unspeakable
political advantages would have flowed from such a salutary measure.

* * * * *

MISCELLANEOUS WRITERS OF THE SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES.

=_John Winthrop, 1587-1649._= (Manual, p. 490.)

From his "Life and Letters."

=_10._= TRUE LIBERTY DEFINED.

For the other point concerning liberty, I observe a great mistake in the
country about that. There is a twofold liberty,--natural (I mean as our
nature is now corrupt) and civil, or federal. The first is common to man
with beasts and other creatures. By this, man, as he stands in relation
to man simply, hath liberty to do what he lists: it is a liberty to evil
as well as to good. This liberty is incompatible and inconsistent with
authority, and cannot endure the least restraint of the most just
authority. The exercise and maintaining of this liberty makes men grow
more evil, and, in time, to be worse than brute beasts. This is
that great enemy of truth and peace, that wild beast, which all the
ordinances of God are bent against, to restrain and subdue it. The other
kind of liberty I call civil, or federal; it may also be termed moral,
in reference to the covenant between God and man in the moral law, and
the politic covenants and constitutions amongst men themselves. This
liberty is the proper end and object of authority, and cannot subsist
without it; and it is a liberty to that only which is good, just, and
honest. This liberty you are to stand for, with the hazard not only of
your goods, but of your lives, if need be.

* * * * *

From "The History of New England."

=_11._= PROPOSED TREATMENT OF THE INDIANS.

We received a letter at the General Court from the magistrates of
Connecticut, and New Haven, and of Aquiday,[3] wherein they declared
their dislike of such as would have the Indians rooted out, as being of
the cursed race of Ham, and their desire of our mutual accord in seeking
to gain them by justice and kindness, and withal to watch over them to
prevent any danger by them, &c. We returned answer of our consent with
them in all things propounded, only we refused to include those of
Aquiday in our answer, or to have any treaty with them.

[Footnote 3: The original name of Rhode Island.]

* * * * *

=_William Byrd,[4] 1674-1744._=

From "History of the Dividing Line between Virginia and North Carolina."

=_12._= THE GINSENG AND SNAKEROOT PLANTS.

Though practice will soon make a man of tolerable vigor an able footman,
yet, as a help to bear fatigue, I used to chew a root of ginseng as I
walked along. This kept up my spirits, and made me trip away as nimbly
in my half jack-boots as younger men could in their shoes.... The
Emperor of China sends ten thousand men every year on purpose to gather
it.... Providence has planted it very thin in every country. Nor,
indeed, is mankind worthy of so great a blessing, since health and
long life are commonly abused to ill purposes. This noble plant grows
likewise at the Cape of Good Hope. It grows also on the northern
continent of America, near the mountains, but as sparingly as truth and
public spirit.

Its virtues are, that it gives an uncommon warmth and vigor to the
blood, and frisks the spirits beyond any other cordial. It cheers the
heart even of a man that has a bad wife, and makes him look down with
great composure on the crosses of the world. It promotes insensible
perspiration, dissolves all phlegmatic and viscous humors that are apt
to obstruct the narrow channels of the nerves. It helps the memory, and
would quicken even Helvetian dullness. 'Tis friendly to the lungs, much
more than scolding itself. It comforts the stomach and strengthens the
bowels, preventing all colics and fluxes. In one word, it will make a
man live a great while, and very well while he does live; and, what
is more, it will even make old age amiable, by rendering it lively,
cheerful, and good-humored....

I found near our camp some plants of that kind of Rattlesnake
root, called star-grass. The leaves shoot out circularly, and grow
horizontally and near the ground. The root is in shape not unlike the
rattle of that serpent, and is a strong antidote against the bite of it.
It is very bitter, and where it meets with any poison, works by violent
sweats, but where it meets with none, has no sensible operation but
that of putting the spirits into a great hurry, and so of promoting
perspiration.

The rattlesnake has an utter antipathy to this plant, insomuch that if
you smear your hands with the juice of it, you may handle the viper
safely. Thus much I can say on my own experience, that once in July,
when these snakes are in their greatest vigor, I besmeared a dog's nose
with the powder of this root, and made him trample on a large snake
several times, which, however, was so far from biting him, that it
perfectly sickened at the dog's approach, and turned his head from him
with the utmost aversion.

In our march one of the men killed a small rattlesnake, which had no
more than two rattles. Those vipers remain in vigor generally till
towards the end of September, or sometimes later, if the weather
continues a little warm. On this consideration we had provided three
several sorts of rattlesnake root, made up into proper doses, and ready
for immediate use, in case any one of the men or their horses had been
bitten....

In the low grounds the Carolina gentlemen shewed us another plant, which
they said was used in their country to cure the bite of the rattlesnake.
It put forth several leaves, in figure like a heart, and was clouded so
like the common Assarabacca, that I conceived it to be of that family.
[Footnote 4: A native of Virginia:--was sent to England for his
education, where he became intimate with the wits of Queen Anne's time.
On his return to Virginia, he became a prominent official. He has left
very pleasing accounts of his explorations.]

* * * * *

=_Benjamin Franklin, 1706-1790._= (Manual, pp. 478, 486.)

Extract from his Autobiography.

=_13._= GOOD RESOLUTIONS.--THE CROAKER.

I grew convinced, that _truth, sincerity_, and _integrity_, in dealings
between man and man, were of the utmost importance to the felicity of
life, and I formed written resolutions, which still remain in my journal
book, to practice them ever while I lived. Revelation had indeed no
weight with me, as such; but I entertained an opinion, that, though
certain actions might not be bad, _because_ they were forbidden by it,
or good _because_ it commended them; yet probably those actions might be
forbidden _because_ they were bad for us, or commanded because they were
beneficial to us, in their own natures, all the circumstances of things
considered. And this persuasion, with the kind hand of Providence,
or some guardian angel, or accidental favorable circumstances or
situations, or all together, preserved me, through this dangerous
time of youth, and the hazardous situations I was sometimes in among
strangers, remote from the eye and advice of my father, free from any
_wilful_ gross immorality or injustice, that might have been expected
from my want of religion. I say wilful because the instances I have
mentioned had something of _necessity_ in them, from my youth,
inexperience, and the knavery of others. I had therefore a tolerable
character to begin the world with; I valued it properly, and determined
to preserve it.

We had not been long returned to Philadelphia, before the new types
arrived from London. We settled with Keimer and left him by his consent
before he heard of it. We found a house to let near the market, and took
it. To lessen the rent, which was then but twenty-four pounds a year,
though I have since known it to let for seventy, we took in Thomas
Godfrey, a glazier, and his family, who were to pay a considerable part
of it to us, and we to board with them. We had scarce opened our letters
and put our press in order, before George House, an acquaintance of
mine, brought a countryman to us, whom he had met in the street,
inquiring for a printer. All our cash was now expended in the variety of
particulars we had been obliged to procure, and this countryman's five
shillings, being our first-fruits, and coming so seasonably, gave me
more pleasure than any crown I have since earned; and the gratitude
I felt towards House has made me often more ready, than perhaps I
otherwise should have been, to assist young beginners.

There are croakers in every country, always boding its ruin. Such a one
there lived in Philadelphia; a person of note, an elderly man, with
a wise look and a very grave manner of speaking; his name was Samuel
Mickle. This gentleman, a stranger to me, stopped me one day at my
door, and asked me if I was the young man, who had lately opened a new
printing-house? Being answered in the affirmative, he said he was sorry
for me, because it was an expensive undertaking, and the expense would
be lost; for Philadelphia was a sinking place, the people already half
bankrupts, or near being so; all the appearances of the contrary, such
as new buildings and the rise of rents, being to his certain knowledge
fallacious; for they were in fact among the things that would ruin us.
Then he gave me such a detail of misfortunes now existing, or that were
soon to exist, that he left me half melancholy. Had I known him before
I engaged in this business, probably I never should have done it. This
person continued to live in this decaying place, and to declaim in the
same strain, refusing for many years to buy a house there, because all
was going to destruction; and at last I had the pleasure of seeing him
give him five times as much for one, as he might have bought it for when
he first began croaking.

* * * * *

From a Letter to Peter Collinson.

=_14._= FRANKLIN'S ELECTRICAL KITE.

As frequent mention is made in public papers from Europe of the success
of the Philadelphia experiment for drawing the electric fire from
clouds, by means of pointed rods of iron erected on high, buildings,
&c., it may be agreeable to the curious to be informed that the same
experiment has succeeded in Philadelphia, though made in a different and
more easy manner, which is as follows:

Make a small cross of two light strips of cedar, the arms so long as
to reach to the four corners of a large thin silk handkerchief, when
extended; tie the corners of the handkerchief to the extremities of
the cross, so you have the body of a kite; which, being properly
accommodated with a tail, loop, and string, will rise in the air, like
those made of paper; but this, being of silk, is fitter to bear the wet

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