Part 8 out of 15
Capys the sightless seer;
From head to foot he trembled
As Romulus drew near.
And up stood stiff his thin white hair,
And his blind eyes flashed fire.
Lord Macaulay, _Lays of Ancient Rome_ ("The Prophecy of Capys," xi.).
CAR'ABAS (_Le marquis de_), an hypothetical title to express a
fossilized old aristocrat, who supposed the whole world made for his
behoof. The "king owes his throne to him;" he can "trace his pedigree
to Pepin;" his youngest son is "sure of a mitre;" he is too noble "to
pay taxes;" the very priests share their tithes with him; the country
was made for his "hunting-ground;" and, therefore, as Beranger says:
Chapeau bas! chapeau bas!
Gloire au marquis de Carabas!
The name occurs in Perrault's tale of _Puss in Boots_, but it is
Beranger's song (1816) which has given the word its present meaning.
CARACCI OF FRANCE, Jean Jouvenet, who was paralyzed on the right
side, and painted with his left hand (1647-1707).
CARACTACUS OR CARADOC, king of the Silures (_Monmouthshire_, etc.).
For nine years he withstood the Roman arms, but being defeated
by Ostorius Scapula the Roman general, he escaped to Brigantia
(_Yorkshire_, etc.) to crave the aid of Carthismandua (or
Cartimandua), a Roman matron married to Venutius, chief of those
parts. Carthismandua betrayed him to the Romans, A.D. 47.--Richard of
Cirencester, _Ancient State of Britain_, i. 6, 23.
Caradoc was led captive to Rome, A.D. 51, and, struck with the
grandeur of that city, exclaimed, "Is it possible that a people so
wealthy and luxurious can envy me a humble cottage in Britain?"
Claudius the emperor was so charmed with his manly spirit and bearing
that he released him and craved his friendship.
Drayton says that Caradoc went to Rome with body naked, hair to the
waist, girt with a chain of steel, and his "manly breast enchased with
sundry shapes of beasts. Both his wife and children were captives, and
walked with him."--_Polyolbion_, viii. (1612).
CARACUL (_i.e. Caraeatta_), son and successor of Severus the Roman
emperor. In A.D. 210 he made an expedition against the Caledonians,
but was defeated by Fingal. Aurelius Antoninus was called "Caracalla"
because he adopted the Gaulish _caracalla_ in preference to the Roman
The Caracul of Fingal is no other than Caracalla, who (as the son of
Severus) the emperor of Rome ... was not without reason called "The
Son of the King of the World." This was A.D. 210.--_Dissertation on
the Era of Ossian_.
CARACULIAM'BO, the hypothetical giant of the island of Malindra'ma,
whom don Quixote imagines he may one day conquer and make to kneel at
the foot of his imaginary lady-love.--Cervantes, _Don Quixote_, I.i.1
CAR'ADOC OR CRADOCK, a knight of the Round Table. He was husband of
the only lady in the queen's train who could wear "the mantle of
matrimonial fidelity." This mantle fitted only chaste and virtuous
wives; thus, when queen Guenever tried it on--
One while it was too long, another while too short,
And wrinkled on her shoulders in most unseemly sort.
Percy, _Reliques_ ("Boy and the Mantle," III. iii. 18).
_Sir Caradoc and the Boar's Head_. The boy who brought the test mantle
of fidelity to king Arthur's court drew a wand three times across a
boar's head, and said, "There's never a cuckold who can carve that
head of brawn." Knight after knight made the attempt, but only sir
Cradock could carve the brawn.
_Sir Cradock and the Drinking-horn._ The boy furthermore brought
forth a drinking-horn, and said, "No cuckold can drink from that horn
without spilling the liquor." Only Cradock succeeded, and "he wan the
golden can."--Percy, _Reliques_ ("Boy and the Mantle," III. iii. 18).
CARADOC OF MEN'WYGENT, the younger bard of Gwenwyn prince of
Powys-land. The elder bard of the prince was Cadwallon.--Sir W. Scott,
_The Betrothed_ (time, Henry II.).
CARATACH OR CARACTACUS, a British king brought captive before the
emperor Claudius in A.D. 52. He had been betrayed by Cartimandua.
Claudius set him at liberty.
And Beaumont's pilfered Caratach affords
A tragedy complete except in words.
Byron, _English Bards and Scotch Reviewers_ (1809).
(Byron alludes to the "spectacle" of _Caractacus_ produced by
Thomas Sheridan at Drury Lane Theatre. It was Beaumont's tragedy of
_Bonduca_, minus the dialogue.)
Digges [1720-1786] was the very absolute
"Caratach." The solid bulk of his frame, his
action, his voice, all marked him with identity.
Boaden, _Life of Siddons_.
CARATHIS, mother of the caliph Vathek. She was a Greek, and
induced her son to study necromancy, held in abhorrence by all good
Mussulmans. When her son threatened to put to death every one who
attempted without success to read the inscription of certain sabres,
Carathis wisely said, "Content yourself, my son, with commanding their
beards to be burnt. Beards are less essential to a state than men."
She was ultimately carried by an afrit to the abyss of Eblis, in
punishment of her many crimes.--W. Beckford, _Vathek_ (1784).
CARAUSIUS, the first British emperor (237-294). His full name was
Marcus Aurelius Valerius Carausius, and as emperor of Britain he was
accepted by Diocletian and Maximian; but after a vigorous reign of
seven years he was assassinated by Allectus, who succeeded him as
"emperor of Britain."--See Gibbon, _Decline and Fall, etc._, ii. 13.
CARDAN (_Jerome_) of Pavia (1501-1576), a great mathematician and
astrologer. He professed to have a demon or familiar spirit, who
revealed to him the secrets of nature.
CARDEN (_Grace_), lovely girl with whom Henry Little (an artisan) and
Frederick Coventry, gentleman, are enamored. Beguiled by Coventry into
a belief that Little is dead, she consents to the marriage ceremony
with his rival. Little reappears on the wedding-day, and she refuses
to live with her husband. The marriage is eventually set aside, and
Grace Carden espouses Henry Little.--Charles Reade, _Put Yourself in
CARDENIO of Andalusia, of opulent parents, fell in love with
Lucinda, a lady of equal family and fortune, to whom he was formally
engaged. Don Fernando his friend, however, prevailed on Lucinda's
father, by artifice, to break off the engagement and promise Lucinda
to himself, "contrary to her wish, and in violation of every principle
of honor." This drove Cardenio mad, and he haunted the Sierra Morena
or Brown Mountain for about six months, as a maniac with lucid
intervals. On the wedding-day Lucinda swooned, and a letter informed
the bridegroom that she was married to Cardenio. Next day she
privately left her father's house and took refuge in a convent; but
being abducted by don Fernando, she was carried to an inn, where
Fernando found Dorothea his wife, and Cardenio the husband of Lucinda.
All parties were now reconciled, and the two gentlemen paired
respectively with their proper wives.--Cervantes, _Don Quixote_, I.
CARE, described as a blacksmith, who "worked all night and day." His
bellows, says Spenser, are Pensiveness and Sighs.--_Faery Queen_, iv.
CARE'LESS, one of the boon companions of Charles Surface.--Sheridan,
_School for Scandal_ (1777).
_Care'less (Colonel)_, an officer of high spirits and mirthful temper,
who seeks to win Ruth (the daughter of sir Basil Thoroughgood) for his
wife.--T. Knight, _The Honest Thieves_.
This farce is a mere _rechauffe_ of _The Committee_, by the hon. sir
R. Howard. The names "colonel Careless" and "Ruth" are the same, but
"Ruth" says her proper Christian name is "Anne."
_Careless_, in _The Committee_, was the part for which Joseph Ashbury
(1638-1720) was celebrated.--Chetwood, _History of the Stage._
(_The Committee_, recast by T. Knight, is called _The Honest
_Careless (Ned)_, makes love to lady Pliant.--W. Congreve, _The Double
CARELESS HUSBAND _(The)_, a comedy by Colley Cibber (1704). The
"careless husband" is sir Charles Easy, who has amours with different
persons, but is so careless that he leaves his love-letters about, and
even forgets to lock the door when he has made a _liaison_, so that
his wife knows all; yet so sweet is her temper, and under such entire
control, that she never reproaches him, nor shows the slightest
indication of jealousy. Her confidence so wins upon her husband that
he confesses to her his faults, and reforms entirely the evil of his
CAREME _(Jean de), chef de cuisine_ of Leo X. This was a name given
him by the pope for an admirable _soupe maigre_ which he invented
for Lent. A descendant of Jean was _chef_ to the prince regent, at
a salary of L1000 per annum, but he left this situation because the
prince had only a _menage bourgeois_, and entered the service of baron
Rothschild at Paris (1784-1833).
CAREY, innocent-faced rich young dude in Ellen Olney Kirk's novel, _A
Daughter of Eve_ (1889).
_Carey (Patrick)_, the poet brother of lord Falkland, introduced by
sir W. Scott in _Woodstock_ (time, Commonwealth).
CAR'GILL _(The Rev. Josiah_), minister of St. Ronan's Well, tutor of
the hon. Augustus Bidmore (2 _syl_.), and the suitor of Miss Augusta
Bidmore, his pupil's sister.--Sir W. Scott, _St. Ronan's Well_ (time,
CARI'NO, father of Zeno'cia, the chaste troth-plight wife of
Arnoldo (the lady dishonorably pursued by the governor count
Clodio).--Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Custom of the Country_ (1647).
CAR'KER _(James)_, manager in the house of Mr. Dombey, merchant.
Carker was a man of forty, of a florid complexion, with very
glistening white teeth, which showed conspicuously when he spoke. His
smile was like "the snarl of a cat." He was the Alas'tor of the house
of Dombey, for he not only brought the firm to bankruptcy, but he
seduced Alice Marwood (cousin of Edith, Dombey's second wife), and
also induced Edith to elope with him. Edith left the wretch at Dijon,
and Carker, returning to England, was run over by a railway train and
_John Carker_, the elder brother, a junior clerk in the same firm. He
twice robbed it and was forgiven.
_Harriet Carker_, a gentle, beautiful young woman, who married Mr.
Morfin, one of the _employes_ in the house of Mr. Dombey, merchant.
When her elder brother John fell into disgrace by robbing his
employer, Harriet left the house of her brother James (the manager) to
live with and cheer her disgraced brother John.--C. Dickens, _Dombey
and Son_ (1846).
CARLETON (_Captain_), an officer in the Guards.--Sir W. Scott,
_Peveril of the Peak_ (time, Charles II.).
CARLISLE (_Frederick Howard, earl of_), uncle and guardian of lord
Byron (1748-1826). His tragedies are _The Father's Revenge_ and
The paralytic puling of Carlisle...
Lord, rhymester, _petit-maitre_, pamphleteer.
Byron, _English Bards and Scotch Reviewers_ (1809).
CARLOS, elder son of don Antonio, and the favorite of his paternal
uncle Lewis. Carlos is a great bookworm, but when he falls in love
with Angelina he throws off his diffidence and becomes bold, resolute,
and manly. His younger brother is Clodio, a mere coxcomb.--C. Cibber,
_Love Makes a Man_ (1694).
_Carlos_ (under the assumed name of the marquis D'Antas) married
Ogarita, but as the marriage was effected under a false name it was
not binding, and Ogarita left Carlos to marry Horace de Brienne.
Carlos was a great villain: he murdered a man to steal from him the
plans of some Californian mines. Then embarking in the _Urania_, he
induced the crew to rebel in order to obtain mastery of the ship.
"Gold was the object of his desire, and gold he obtained." Ultimately,
his villainies being discovered, he was given up to the hands of
justice.--E. Stirling, _The Orphan of the Frozen Sea_ (1856).
_Carlos (Don)_, son of Philip II. of Portugal; deformed in person,
violent and vindictive in disposition. Don Carlos was to have married
Elizabeth of France, but his father supplanted him. Subsequently he
expected to marry the arch-duchess Anne, daughter of the emperor
Maximilian, but her father opposed the match. In 1564 Philip II.
settled the succession on Rodolph and Ernest, his nephews, declaring
Carlos incapable. This drove Carlos into treason, and he joined the
Netherlands in a war against his father. He was apprehended and
condemned to death, but was killed in prison. This has furnished the
subject of several tragedies: _i.e._, Otway's _Don Carlos_ (1672), in
English; those of J.G. de Campistron (1683) and M.J. de Chenier (1789)
in French; J.C.F. Schiller (1798) in German; Alfieri in Italian, about
the same time.
_Car'los (Don)_, the friend of don Alonzo, and the betrothed husband
of Leono'ra, whom he resigns to Alonzo out of friendship. After
marriage, Zanga induces Alonzo to believe that Leonora and don Carlos
entertain a criminal love for each other, whereupon Alonzo, out of
jealousy, has Carlos put to death, and Leonora kills herself.--Edward
Young, _The Revenge_ (1721).
_Carlos (Don)_, husband of donna Victoria. He gave the deeds of his
wife's estate to donna Laura, a courtesan, and Victoria, in order to
recover them, assumed the disguise of a man, took the name of Florio,
and made love to her. Having secured a footing, Florio introduced
Gaspar as the wealthy uncle of Victoria, and Gaspar told Laura the
deeds in her hand were utterly worthless. Laura in a fit of temper
tore them to atoms, and thus Carlos recovered the estate and was
rescued from impending ruin.--Mrs. Cowley, _A Bold Stroke for a
CARLTON (_Admiral George_), George IV., author of _The Voyage of--in
search of Loyalty_, a poetic epistle (1820).
CARMEN, the fisherman's wife who, in Lufcadio Hearn's story _Chita_,
adopts the baby dragged by her husband from the surf, and takes it to
her heart in place of the child she has lost (1889).
_Carmen (Eschelle)_, beautiful, ambitious, and intriguing New York
society girl.--Charles Dudley Warner, _A Little Journey in the World_
CARMILHAN, the "phantom ship." The captain of this ship swore he
would double the Cape, whether God willed it or not, for which impious
vow he was doomed to abide forever and ever captain in the same
vessel, which always appears near the Cape, but never doubles it. The
kobold of the phantom ship is named Klaboterman, a kobold who helps
sailors at their work, but beats those who are idle. When a vessel is
doomed the kobold appears smoking a short pipe, dressed in yellow, and
wearing a night-cap.
CARO, the Flesh or "natural man" personified. Phineas Fletcher says
"this dam of sin" is a hag of loathsome shape, arrayed in steel,
polished externally, but rusty within. On her shield is the device
of a mermaid, with the motto, "Hear, Gaze, and Die."--_The Purple
Island_, vii. (1633).
CAROLINE, queen-consort of George II., introduced by sir W. Scott in
_The Heart of Midlothian_. Jeanie Deans has an interview with her in
the gardens at Richmond, and her majesty promises to intercede with
the king for Effie Deans's pardon.
CAROS OR CARAUSIUS, a Roman captain, native of Belgic Gaul. The
emperor Maximian employed Caros to defend the coast of Gaul against
the Franks and Saxons. He acquired great wealth and power, but fearing
to excite the jealousy of Maximian, he sailed for Britain, where (in
A.D. 287) he caused himself to be proclaimed emperor. Caros resisted
all attempts of the Romans to dislodge him, so that they ultimately
acknowledged his independence. He repaired Agricola's wall to obstruct
the incursions of the Caledonians, and while he was employed on this
work was attacked by a party commanded by Oscar, son of Ossian and
grandson of Fingal. "The warriors of Caros fled, and Oscar remained
like a rock left by the ebbing sea."--Ossian, _The War of Caros_.
CARPATH'IAN WIZARD (_The_), Proteus (2 _syl_.), who lived in the
island of Car'pathos, in the Archipelago. He was a wizard, who could
change his form at will. Being the sea-god's shepherd, he carried a
[_By_] the Carpathian wizard's book [_crook_]. Milton, _Comus_, 872
CARPET (_Prince Housain's_), a magic carpet, to all appearances quite
worthless, but it would transport any one who sat on it to any part
of the world in a moment. This carpet is sometimes called "the magic
carpet of Tangu," because it came from Tangu, in Persia.--_Arabian
Nights_ ("Prince Ahmed").
_Carpet_ (_Solomon's_). Solomon had a green silk carpet, on which his
throne was set. This carpet was large enough for all his court to
stand on; human beings stood on the right side of the throne, and
spirits on the left. When Solomon wished to travel he told the wind
where to set him down, and the carpet with all its contents rose into
the air and alighted at the proper place. In hot weather the birds
of the air, with outspread wings, formed a canopy over the whole
party.--Sale, _Koran_, xxvii. (notes).
CARPIL'LONA (_Princess_), the daughter of Subli'mus king of the
Peaceable Islands. Sublimus, being dethroned by a usurper, was with
his wife, child, and a foundling boy thrown into a dungeon, and kept
there for three years. The four captives then contrived to escape;
but the rope which held the basket in which Carpillona was let down
snapped asunder, and she fell into the lake. Sublimus and the other
two lived in retirement as a shepherd family, and Carpillona, being
rescued by a fisherman, was brought up by him as his daughter. When
the "Humpbacked" Prince dethroned the usurper of the Peaceable
Islands, Carpillona was one of the captives, and the "Humpbacked"
Prince wanted to make her his wife; but she fled in disguise, and
came to the cottage home of Sublimus, where she fell in love with his
foster-son, who proved to be half-brother of the "Humpbacked" Prince.
Ultimately, Carpillona married the foundling, and each succeeded to
a kingdom.--Comtesse D'Aunoy, _Fairy Tales_ ("Princess Carpillona,"
CAR'PIO (_Bernardo del_), natural son of don Sancho, and dona Ximena,
surnamed "The Chaste." It was Bernardo del Carpio who slew Roland at
Roncesvalles (4 _syl._). In Spanish romance he is a very conspicuous
CARRAS'CO (_Samson_), son of Bartholomew Carrasco. He is a licentiate
of much natural humor, who flatters don Quixote, and persuades him to
undertake a second tour.
CARRIER _(Martha)_, a Salem goodwife, tried and executed for
witchcraft. To Rev. Cotton Mather's narrative of her crimes and
punishment is appended this memorandum:
This rampant hag, Martha Carrier, was the person of whom the
confessions of the witches, and of her own children among the rest,
agreed that the devil had promised her she should be Queen of
Hell.--Cotton Mather, _The Wonders of the Invisible World_ (1693).
CARRIL, the gray-headed, son of Kinfe'na bard of Cuthullin, general of
the Irish tribes.--Ossian, _Fingal_.
CARRLLLO _(Fray)_ was never to be found in his own cell, according to
a famous Spanish epigram.
Like Fray Carillo, the only place in which one cannot find him Is his
Longfellow, _The Spanish Student_, i. 5.
CAR'ROL, deputy usher at Kenilworth Castle.--Sir W. Scott,
_Kenilworth_ (time, Elizabeth).
CAR'STONE _(Richard)_, cousin of Ada Clare, both being wards in
Chancery interested in the great suit of "Jarndyce _v_. Jarndyce."
Richard Carstone is a "handsome youth, about nineteen, of ingenuous
face, and with a most engaging laugh." He marries his cousin Ada, and
lives in hope that the suit will soon terminate and make him rich. In
the meantime he tries to make two ends meet, first by the profession
of medicine, then by that of law, then by the army; but the rolling
stone gathers no moss, and the poor fellow dies of the sickness of
hope deferred.--C. Dickens, _Bleak House_ (1853).
CARTAPH'ILUS, the Wandering Jew of _Jewish_ story. Tradition says he
was doorkeeper of the judgment-hall, in the service of Pontius Pilate,
and, as he led our Lord from the judgment-hall, struck Him, saying
"Get on! Faster, Jesus!" Whereupon the Man of Sorrows replied, "I am
going fast, Cartaphilus; but tarry thou till I come again." After
the crucifixion, Cartaphilus was baptized by the same Anani'as who
baptized Paul, and received the name of Joseph. At the close of every
century he falls into a trance, and wakes up after a time a young man
about thirty years of age.--_Book of the Chronicles of the Abbey of
(This "book" was copied and continued by Matthew Paris, and contains
the earliest account of the Wandering Jew, A.D. 1228. In 1242 Philip
Mouskes, afterwards bishop of Tournay, wrote the "rhymed chronicle.")
CARTER _(Mrs. Deborah_), housekeeper to Surplus the lawyer.--J. M.
Morton, _A Regular Fix_.
CAR'THAGE (2 _syl_.). When Dido came to Africa she bought of the
natives "as much land as could be encompassed with a bull's hide." The
agreement being made, Dido cut the hide into thongs, so as to enclose
a space sufficiently large for a citadel, which she called Bursa "the
hide." (Greek, _bursa_, "a bull's hide.")
The following is a similar story in Russian history:--The Yakutsks
granted to the Russian explorers as much land as they could encompass
with a cow's hide; but the Russians, cutting the hide into strips,
obtained land enough for the town and fort which they called Yakutsk.
CARTHAGE OF THE NORTH. Luebeck was so called when it was the head of
the Hanseatic League.
CAR'THON, son of Cless'ammor and Moina, was born while Clessammor was
in flight, and his mother died in childbirth. When he was three
years old, Comhal (Fingal's father) took and burnt Balclutha (a town
belonging to the Britons, on the Clyde), but Carthon was carried away
safely by his nurse. When grown to man's estate, Carthon resolved to
revenge this attack on Balclutha, and accordingly invaded Morven, the
kingdom of Fingal. After overthrowing two of Fingal's heroes, Carthon
was slain by his own father, who knew him not; but when Clessammor
learnt that it was his own son whom he had slain, he mourned for him
three days, and on the fourth he died.--Ossian, _Carthon_.
CAR'TON _(Sydney)_, a friend of Charles Darnay, whom he personally
resembled. Sydney Carton loved Lucie Manette, but knowing of her
attachment to Darnay, never attempted to win her. Her friendship,
however, called out his good qualities, and he nobly died instead of
his friend.--C. Dickens, _A Tale of Two Cities_ (1859).
CARTOUCHE, an eighteenth century highwayman. He is the French Dick
CA'RUS _(Slow)_, in Garth's _Dispensary_, is Dr. Tyson (1649-1708).
CARYATI'DES (5 _syl_.), or CARYA'TES (4 _syl_.), female figures in
Greek costume, used in architecture to support entablatures Ca'rya, in
Arcadia, sided with the Persians when they invaded Greece, so after
the battle of Thermop'ylae, the victorious Greeks destroyed the city,
slew the men, and made the women slaves, Praxit'eles, to perpetuate
the disgrace, employed figures of Caryan women with Persian men, for
CAS'CA, a blunt-witted Roman, and one of the conspirators who
assassinated Julius Caesar. He is called "Honest Casca," meaning
_plain-spoken._--Shakespeare, _Julius Caesar_ (1607).
CASCH'CASCH, a hideous genius, "hunch-backed, lame, and blind of one
eye; with six horns on his head, and both his hands and feet hooked."
The fairy Maimou'ne (3 _syl_.) summoned him to decide which was the
more beautiful, "the prince Camaral'zaman or the princess Badou'ra,"
but he was unable to determine the knotty point.--_Arabian Nights_
("Camaralzaman and Badoura").
CASEL'LA, a musician and friend of the poet Dante, introduced in his
_Purgatory_, ii. On arriving at purgatory, the poet sees a vessel
freighted with souls come to be purged of their sins and made fit for
paradise; among them he recognizes his friend Casella, whom he "woos
to sing;" whereupon Casella repeats with enchanting sweetness the
words of [Dante's] second canzone.
Dante shall give Fame leave to set thee higher
Than his Casella, whom he wooed to sing,
Met in the milder shades of purgatory.
Milton, _Sonnet_, xiii. (To H. Lawes).
CASEY, landlord of the tavern on "Red Hoss Mountain" in Eugene Field's
poem _Casey's Table d'Hote_.
He drifted for a fortune to the undeveloped West,
And he come to Eed Hoss Mountain when the little camp was new,
When the money flowed like likker, an' the folks wuz brave an'
And, havin' been a stewart on a Mississippi boat,
He opened up a caffy, 'nd he run a _tabble dote_.
CAS'PAR, master of the horse to the baron of Arnheim. Mentioned in
Donnerhugel's narrative.--Sir W. Scott, _Anne of Geierstein_ (time,
_Cas'par_, a man who sold himself to Za'miel the Black Huntsman. The
night before the expiration of his life-lease, he bargained for a
respite of three years, on condition of bringing Max into the power of
the fiend. On the day appointed for the prize-shooting, Max aimed at a
dove but killed Caspar, and Zamiel carried off his victim to "his own
place."--Weber's opera, _Der Freischuete_ (1822).
CASS (_Godfrey_), young farmer in _Silas Marner_, by George Eliot.
Father of the heroine.
CASSAN'DRA, daughter of Priam, gifted with the power of prophecy; but
Apollo, whom she had offended, cursed her with the ban "that no one
should ever believe her predictions."--Shakespeare, _Troilus and
CASSEL (_Count_), an empty-headed, heart less, conceited puppy,
who pays court to Amelia Wildenhaim, but is too insufferable to be
endured. He tells her he "learnt delicacy in Italy, hauteur in Spain,
enterprise in France, prudence in Russia, sincerity in England, and
love in the wilds of America," for civilized nations have long since
substituted intrigue for love.--Inchbald, _Lovers' Vows_ (1800),
altered from Kotzebue.
CASSI, the inhabitants of Hertfordshire or Cassio.--Caesar,
CASSIB'ELLAUN or CASSIB'ELAN (probably "Caswallon"), brother and
successor of Lud. He was king of Britain when Julius Caesar invaded
the island. Geoffrey of Monmouth says, in his _British History_, that
Cassibellaun routed Caesar, and drove him back to Gaul (bk. iv. 3, 5).
In Caesar's second invasion, the British again vanquished him (ch. 7),
and "sacrificed to their gods as a thank-offering 40,000 cows,
100,000 sheep, 30,000 wild beasts, and fowls without number" (ch. 8).
Androg'eus (4 _syl_.) "duke of Trinovantum," with 5000 men, having
joined the Roman forces, Cassibellaun was worsted, and agreed "to pay
3000 pounds of silver yearly in tribute to Rome." Seven years after
this Cassibellaun died and was buried at York.
In Shakespeare's _Cymbeline_ the name is called "Cassibelan."
[Illustration] Polyaenus of Macedon tells us that Caesar had a huge
elephant armed with scales of iron, with a tower on its back,
filled with archers and slingers. When this beast entered the sea,
Cassivelaunus and the Britons, who had never seen an elephant, were
terrified, and their horses fled in affright, so that the Romans were
able to land without molestation.--Drayton, _Polyolbion_, viii.
There the hive of Roman liars worship a gluttonous emperor-idiot.
Such is Rome ... hear it, spirit of Cassivelaun.
CAS'SILANE (3 _syl_.), general of Candy and father of Annophel.--_Laws
of Candy_ (1647).
CASSIM, brother of Ali Baba, a Persian. He married an heiress and soon
became one of the richest merchants of the place. When he discovered
that his brother had made himself rich by hoards from the robbers'
cave, Cassim took ten mules charged with panniers to carry away part
of the same booty. "Open Sesame!" he cried, and the door opened. He
filled his sacks, but forgot the magic word. "Open Barley!" he cried,
but the door remained closed. Presently the robber band returned, and
cut him down with their sabres. They then hacked the carcass into four
parts, placed them near the door, and left the cave. Ali Baba carried
off the body and had it decently interred.--_Arabian Nights_ ("Ali
Baba, or the Forty Thieves").
CAS'SIO (_Michael_), a Florentine, lieutenant in the Venetian army
under the command of Othello. Simple minded but not strong-minded, and
therefore easily led by others who possessed greater power of will.
Being overcome with wine, he engaged in a street-brawl, for which he
was suspended by Othello, but Desdemona pleaded for his restoration.
Iago made capital of this intercession to rouse the jealousy of the
Moor. Cassio's "almost" wife was Bianca, his mistress.--Shakespeare,
"Cassio" is brave, benevolent, and honest, ruined only by his want of
stubbornness to resist an insidious invitation.--Dr. Johnson.
CASSIODO'RUS (_Marcus Aurelius_), a great statesman and learned writer
of the sixth century, who died at the age of one hundred, in A.D. 562.
He filled many high offices under Theod'oric, but ended his days in a
Listen awhile to a learned prelection
On Marcus Aurelius Cassiodorus.
Longfellow, _The Golden Legend_.
CASSIOPEIA, wife of Ce'pheus (2 _syl_.) king of Ethiopia, and mother
of Androm'eda. She boasted herself to be fairer than the sea-nymphs,
and Neptune, to punish her, sent a huge sea-serpent to ravage her
husband's kingdom. At death she was made a constellation, consisting
of thirteen stars, the largest of which form a "chair" or imperfect W.
... had you been
Sphered up with Cassiopeia.
Tennyson, _The Princess_, iv.
CASSIUS, instigator of the conspiracy against Julius Caesar, and friend
of Brutus.--Shakespeare, _Julius Ccesar_ (1607).
_Brutus_. The last of all the Romans, fare thee
It is impossible that ever Rome
Should breed thy fellow. Friends, I owe more
To this dead man than you shall see me pay.
I shall find time, Cassius, I shall find time.
Act. v. sc. 3.
Charles Mayne Young trod the boards with freedom. His countenance was
equally well adapted for the expression of pathos or of pride; thus in
such parts as "Hamlet," "Beverley," "The Stranger," "Pierre," "Zanga,"
and "Cassius," he looked the men he represented.--Rev. J. Young, _Life
of G. M. Young_.
[Illustration] "Hamlet" (Shakespeare); "Beverley" (_The Gamester_,
Moore); "The Stranger" (B. Thompson); "Pierre" (_Venice Preserved_,
Otway); "Zanga" (_Revenge_, Young).
CASSY, a colored woman, mistress of Legree, in Harriet Beecher Stowe's
_Uncle Tom's Cabin_. Disgusted with her master and with her life,
she befriends another woman, even more helpless than herself, and by
stratagem and force of will contrives her escape (1852).
CASTAGNETTE _(Captain)_, a hero whose stomach was replaced by a
leather one made by Desgenettes [_Da'.ge.net_'], but his career was
soon ended by a bomb-shell, which blew him into atoms,--Manuel, _A
CASTA'LIO, son of lord Acasto, and Polydore's twin-brother. Both the
brothers loved their father's ward, Monim'ia "the orphan." The love
of Polydore was dishonorable love, but Castalio loved her truly and
married her in private. On the bridal night Polydore by treachery took
his brother's place, and next day, when Monimia discovered the deceit
which had been practised on her, and Polydore heard that Monimia
was really married to his brother, the bride poisoned herself, the
adulterer ran upon his brother's sword, and the husband stabbed
himself.--Otway, _The Orphan_ (1680).
CASTA'RA, the lady addressed by Wm. Habington in his poems. She was
Lucy Herbert (daughter of Wm. Herbert, first lord Powis), and became
his wife. (Latin, _casta_, "chaste.")
If then, Castara, I in heaven nor move,
Nor earth, nor hell, where am I but in love?
W. Habington, _To Castara_ (died 1654).
The poetry of Habington shows that he possessed ... a real passion
for a lady of birth and virtue, the "Castara" whom he afterwards
CAS'TLEWOOD (_Beatrix_), the heroine of _Esmond_, a novel by
Thackeray, the "finest picture of splendid lustrous physical beauty
ever given to the world."
CAS'TOR (_Steph'anos_), the wrestler.--Sir W. Scott, _Count Robert of
Paris_ (time, Rufus).
_Castor_, of classic fable, is the son of Jupiter and Leda, and
twin-brother of Pollux. The brothers were so attached to each
other that Jupiter set them among the stars, where they form the
constellation _Gemini_ ("the twins"). Castor and Pollux are called the
_Dios'curi_ or "sons of Dios," _i.e._ Jove.
CAS'TRIOT (_George_), called by the Turks "Scanderbeg" (1404-1467).
George Castriot was son of an Albanian prince, delivered as a hostage
to Amurath II. He won such favor from the sultan that he was put in
command of 5000 men, but abandoned the Turks in the battle of Mora'va
This is the first dark blot
On thy name, George Castriot.
Longfellow, _The Wayside Inn_ (an interlude).
CASTRUC'CIO CASTRACA'NI'S SWORD.
When Victor Emmanuel II went to Tuscany, the path from Lucca to
Pistoia was strewed with roses. At Pistoia the orphan heirs of
Pucci'ni met him, bearing a sword, and said, "This is the sword of
Castruccio Castracani, the great Italian soldier, and head of the
Ghibelines in the fourteenth century. It was committed to our ward and
keeping till some patriot should arise to deliver Italy and make it
free." Victor Emmanuel, seizing the hilt, exclaimed, "_Questa e per
me_!" ("This is for me.")--E. B. Browning, _The Sword of Castruccio
CAS'YAPA. The father of the immortals, who dwells in the mountain
called Hemacu'ta or Himakoot, under the Tree of Life, is called
"Casyapa." Southey, _Curse of Kehama_. Canto vi. (1809).
CATEUCLA'NI, called _Catieuchla'ni_ by Ptolemy, and _Cassii_ by
Richard of Cirencester. They occupied Buckinghamshire, Bedfordshire,
and Hertfordshire. Drayton refers to them in his _Polyolbion_, xvi.
CATGUT (_Dr._), a caricature of Dr. Arne in _The Commissary_, by Sam.
CATH'ARINE, queen-consort of Charles II; introduced by sir W. Scott in
_Peveril of the Peak_. (See CATHERINE, and also under the letter K.)
_Cath'arine (St.)_ of Alexandria (fourth century), patron saint of
girls and virgins generally. Her real name was Dorothea; but St.
Jerome says she was called Catharine from the Syriac word _Kethar_ or
_Kathar_, "a crown," because she won the triple crown of martyrdom,
virginity, and wisdom. She was put to death on a wheel, November 25,
which is her _fete_ day.
_To braid St. Catharine's hair_ means "to live a virgin."
Thou art too fair to be left to braid St. Catharine's
Longfellow, _Evangeline_ (1848).
CATH'BA, son of Torman, beloved by Morna, daughter of Cormac king of
Ireland. He was killed out of jealousy by Ducho'mar, and when Duchomar
told Morna and asked her to marry him she replied, "Thou art dark to
me, Duchomar; cruel is thine arm to Morna. Give me that sword, my
foe;" and when he gave it, she "pierced his manly breast," and he
Cathba, young son of Torman, thou art of the love of Morna. Thou art a
sunbeam in the day of the gloomy storm.--Ossian, _Fingal_, i.
CATH'ERINE, wife of Mathis, in _The Polish Jew_, by J. R. Ware.
_Catherine_, the somewhat uninteresting heroine of _Washington
Square_, by Henry James, a commonplace creature made more commonplace
by the dull routine of wealthy respectability (1880).
_Catherine (The countess_), usually called "The Countess," falls in
love with Huon, a serf, her secretary and tutor. Her pride revolts at
the match, but her love is masterful. When the duke her father is told
of it, he insists on Huon's marrying Catherine, a freed serf, on pain
of death. Huon refuses to do so till the countess herself entreats him
to comply. He then rushes to the wars, where he greatly distinguishes
himself, is created prince, and learns that his bride is not Catherine
the quondam serf, but Catherine the duke's daughter.--S. Knowles,
CATH'ERINE OF NEWPORT, the wife of Julian Avenel (2 _syl.)._--Sir W.
Scott, _The_ _Monastery_ (time, Elizabeth). (See CATHARINE, and under
CATH'LEEN, one of the attendants on Flora M'Ivor.--Sir W. Scott,
_Waverley_ (time, Greorge II.).
CATH'LIN OF CLU'THA, daughter of Cathmol. Duth-Carmor of Cluba had
slain Cathmol in battle, and carried off Cathlin by force, but she
contrived to make her escape and craved aid of Fingal. Ossian and
Oscar were selected to espouse her cause, and when they reached
Rathcol (where Duth-Carmor lived), Ossian resigned the command of the
battle to his son Oscar. Oscar and Duth-Carmor met in combat, and the
latter fell. The victor carried the mail and helmet of Duth-Carmor to
Cathlin, and Cathlin said, "Take the mail and place it high in Selma's
hall, that you may remember the helpless in a distant land."--Ossian,
_Cathlin of Clutha_.
CATH'MOR, younger brother of Cair'bar ("lord of Atha"), but totally
unlike him. Cairbar was treacherous and malignant; Cathmor high-minded
and hospitable. Cairbar murdered Cormac king of Ireland, and having
inveigled Oscar (son of Ossian) to a feast, vamped up a quarrel, in
which both fell. Cathmor scorned such treachery. Cathmore is the
second hero of the poem called _Tem'ora_, and falls by the hand of
Fingal (bk. viii.).
Cathmor, the friend of strangers, the brother of red-haired Cairbar.
Their souls were not the same. The light of heaven was in the bosom of
Cathmor. His towers rose on the banks of Atha; seven paths led to his
halls; seven chiefs stood on the paths and called strangers to
the feast. But Cathmor dwelt in the wood, to shun the voice of
praise.--Ossian, _Temora_, i.
CATH'OLIC _(The)._ Alfonso I. of Asturias, called by Gregory III. _His
Catholic Majesty_ (693, 739-757).
Ferdinand II. of Ar'agon, husband of Isabella. Also called _Ruse_,
"the wily" (1452, 1474-1516).
Isabella wife of Ferdinand II. of Aragon, so called for her zeal in
establishing the Inquisition (1450, 1474-1504).
CATHOLIC MAJESTY _(Catholica Majestad_), the special title of the
kings of Spain. It was first given to king Recared (590) in the third
Council of Toledo, for his zeal in rooting out the "Arian heresy."
Cui a Deo aeternum meritum nisi vero Catholico Recaredo regi? Cui a Deo
aeterna corona nisi vero orthodoxo Recaredo regi?--_Gregor._ _Mag._,
127 and 128.
But it was not then settled as a fixed title to the kings of Spain. In
1500 Alexander VI. gave the title to Ferdinand V. king of Aragon and
Castile, and from that time it became annexed to the Spanish crown.
Ab Alexandro pontifice Ferdinandus "Catholici" cognomentum accepit in
posteros cum regno transfusum stabili possessione. Honorum titulos
principibus dividere pontincibus Romanis datur.--Mariana, _De Rebus
Hesp_., xxvi. 12; see also vii. 4.
CA'THOS, cousin of Madelon, brought up by her uncle Gor'gibus, a plain
citizen in the middle rank of life. These two silly girls have had
their heads turned by novels, and thinking their names commonplace,
Cathos calls herself Aminta, and her cousin adopts the name of
Polix'ena. Two gentlemen wish to marry them, but the girls consider
their manners too unaffected and easy to be "good style," so the
gentlemen send their valets to represent the "marquis of Mascarille"
and the "viscount of Jodelet." The girls are delighted with these
"distinguished noblemen;" but when the game has gone far enough, the
masters enter, and lay bare the trick. The girls are taught
a useful lesson, without being involved in any fatal ill
consequences.--Moliere, _Les Precieuses Ridicules_ (1659).
CATHUL'LA, king of Inistore (_the Orkneys_) and brother of Coma'la
(_q.v._). Fingal, on coming in sight of the palace, observed a
beacon-flame on its top as signal of distress, for Frothal king of
Sora had besieged it. Fingal attacked Frothal, engaged him in single
combat, defeated him, and made him prisoner.--Ossian, _Carrick-Thura._
CAT'ILINE (3 _syl_.), a Roman patrician, who headed a conspiracy to
overthrow the Government, and obtain for himself and his followers all
places of power and trust. The conspiracy was discovered by Cicero.
Catiline escaped and put himself at the head of his army, but fell in
the battle after fighting with desperate daring (B.C. 62). Ben Jonson
wrote a tragedy called _Catiline_ (1611), and Voltaire, in his _Rome
Sauvee_, has introduced the conspiracy and death of Catiline (1752).
CA'TO, the hero and title of a tragedy by J. Addison (1713). Disgusted
with Caesar, Cato retired to U'tica (in Africa), where he had a small
republic and mimic senate; but Caesar resolved to reduce Utica as he
had done the rest of Africa, and Cato, finding resistance hopeless,
fell on his own sword.
Tho' stern and awful to the foes of Rome,
He is all goodness, Lucia, always mild,
Compassionate, and gentle to his friends;
Filled with domestic tenderness.
Act v. 1.
When Barton Booth  first appeared as "Cato," Bolingbroke called
him into his box and gave him fifty guineas for defending the cause of
liberty so well against a perpetual dictator.--_Life of Addison_.
_He is a Cato_, a man of simple habits, severe morals, strict justice,
and blunt speech, but of undoubted integrity and patriotism, like the
Roman censor of that name, the grandfather of the Cato of Utica, who
resembled him in character and manners.
CATO AND HORTENS'IUS. Cato of Utica's second wife was Martia daughter
of Philip. He allowed her to live with his friend Hortensius, and
after the death of Hortensius took her back again.
_[Sultans]_ don't agree at all with the wise Roman,
Heroic, stoic Cato, the sententious,
Who lent his lady to his friend Hortensius.
Byron, _Don Juan_, vi. 7 (1821).
CATUL'LUS. Lord Byron calls Thomas Moore the "British Catullus,"
referring to a volume of amatory poems published in 1808, under the
pseudonym of "Thomas Little."
'Tis Little! young Catullus of his day,
As sweet but as immoral as his lay.
Byron, _English Bards and Scotch Reviewers_ (1809).
_The Oriental Catullus_, Saadi or Sadi, a Persian poet. He married a
rich merchant's daughter, but the marriage was an unhappy one. His
chief works are _The Gulistan_ (or "garden of roses") and _The Bostan_
(or "garden of fruits") (1176-1291).
CAU'DLE _(Mrs. Margaret_), a curtain lecturer, who between eleven
o'clock at night and seven the next morning delivered for thirty years
a curtain lecture to her husband Job Caudle, generally a most gentle
listener; if he replied she pronounced him insufferably rude, and if
he did not he was insufferably sulky.--Douglas Jerrold, _Punch_ ("The
CAU'LINE _(Sir)_, a knight who served the wine to the king of Ireland.
He fell in love with Christabelle (3 _syl_.), the king's-daughter, and
she became his troth-plight wife, without her father's knowledge. When
the king knew of it, he banished sir Cauline (2 _syl_.). After a time
the Soldain asked the lady in marriage, but sir Cauline challenged his
rival and slew him. He himself, however, died of the wounds he had
received, and the lady Christabelle, out of grief, "burst her gentle
hearte in twayne."--Percy's _Reliques_, I. i. 4.
CAU'RUS, the stormy west-north-west wind; called in Greek _Argestes_.
The ground by piercing Caurus seared.
Thomson, _Castle of Indolence_, ii. (1748).
CAUSTIC, of the _Despatch_ newspaper, was the signature of Mr. Serle.
_Christopher Caustic_, the pseudonym of Thomas Green Fessenden, author
of _Terrible Tractoration_, a Hudibrastic poem (1771-1837).
_Caustic_ (_Colonel_), a fine gentleman of the last century, very
severe on the degeneracy of the present race.--Henry Mackenzie, in
CA'VA, or _Florida_, daughter of St. Julian. It was the violation of
Cava by Roderick that brought about the war between the Goths and the
Moors, in which Roderick was slain (A.D. 711).
CAVALIER _(The)._ Eon de Beaumont, called by the French _Le Chevalier
d'Eon_ (1728-1810). Charles Breydel, the Flemish landscape painter
(1677-1744). Francisco Cairo, the historian, called _El Chavaliere
del Cairo_ (1598-1674). Jean le Clerc, _Le Chevalier_ (1587-1633). J.
Bapt. Marini, the Italian poet, called _Il Cavaliere_ (1569-1625).
Andrew Michael Ramsay (1686-1743).
[Illustration] James Francis Edward Stuart, the
"Old Pretender," was styled _Le Chevalier de St. George_ (1688-1765).
Charles Edward, the "Young Pretender," was styled _The Bonnie
Chevalier_ or _The Young Cavalier_ (1720-1788).
CAVALL', "king Arthur's hound of deepest mouth."--Tennyson, _Idylls of
the King_ ("Enid").
CAV'ENDISH, author of _Principles of Whist_, and numerous guide-books
on games, as _Bezique, Piquet, Ecarte, Billiards_, etc. Henry Jones,
editor of "Pastimes" in _The Field_ and _The Queen_ newspapers
CAX'ON _(Old Jacob_), hairdresser of Jonathan Oldbuck ("the
antiquary") of Monkbarns.
_Jenny Caxon_, a milliner; daughter of Old Jacob.--Sir W. Scott, _The
Antiquary_ (time, George III.).
CAXTON _(Pisistratus)_, Edward George Earle Lytton Bulwer Lytton,
baron Lytton, author of _My Novel_ (1853); _What will He do with it?_
(1859); _Caxtoniania_ (1863); _The Boatman_ (1864).
CECIL, the hero of a novel so called by Mrs. Gore (1790-1861).
CECIL DREEME, _alias_ Clara Denman. The young woman assumes a man's
dress and character, and sustains it so well as to deceive those
dearest to her. She is kidnapped and in danger of death, and her
rescuers discover the truth.--Theodore Winthrop, _Cecil Dreeme_
CECILIA, belle of the village in which H. W. Longfellow's Kavanagh is
the clergyman. She wins his affections easily, unconsciously becoming
the rival of her dearest friend (1872).
_Cecilia (St.)_, the patroness of musicians and "inventor of the
organ." The legend says that an angel fell in love with Cecilia for
her musical skill, and nightly brought her roses from paradise. Her
husband saw the angel visitant, who gave to both a crown of martyrdom.
Thou seem'st to me like the angel
That brought the immortal roses
To St. Cecilia's bridal chamber.
Longfellow, _The Golden Legend_.
CE'DRIC, a thane of Rotherwood, and surnamed "the Saxon."--Sir W.
Scott, _Ivanhoe_ (time, Richard I.).
CEL'ADON AND AME'LIA, lovers of matchless beauty, and most devoted to
each other. Being overtaken by a thunderstorm, Amelia became alarmed,
but Celadon, folding his arm about her, said, "'Tis safety to be near
thee, sure;" but while he spoke, Amelia was struck by lightning and
fell dead in his arms.--Thomson, _The Seasons_ ("Summer," 1727).
CELE'NO OR CELSAE'NO, chief of the harpies.
There on a craggy stone
Celeno hung, and made his direful moan.
Giles Fletcher, _Christ's Triumph [on Earth_]
CE'LIA, daughter of Frederick the usurping duke, and cousin of
Ros'alind, daughter of the banished duke. When Rosalind was driven
from her uncle's court, Celia determined to go with her to the forest
of Arden to seek out the banished duke, and for security's sake
Rosalind dressed in boy's clothes and called herself "Gan'ymede,"
while Celia dressed as a peasant girl and called herself "Aliena."
When they reached Arden they lodged for a time in a shepherd's hut,
and Oliver de Boys was sent to tell them that his brother Orlando was
hurt and could not come to the hut as usual. Oliver and Celia fell
in love with each other, and their wedding-day was fixed. Ganymede
resumed the dress of Bosalind, and the two brothers married at the
same time.--Shakespeare, _As You Like It_ (1598).
_Ce'lia_, a girl of sixteen, in Whitehead's comedy of _The School for
Lovers_. It was written expressly for Mrs. Cibber, daughter of Dr.
Mrs. Cibber was at the time more than fifty years old, but the
uncommon symmetry and exact proportion in her form, with her singular
vivacity, enabled her to represent the character of "Celia" with all
the juvenile appearance marked by the author.--Percy, _Anecdotes_.
_Ce'lia_, a poetical name for any lady-love: as "Would you know my
Celia's charms ...?" Not unfrequently Streph'on is the wooer when
Celia is the wooed. Thomas Carew calls his "sweet sweeting" Celia; her
real name is not known.
_Ce'lia (Dame)_, mother of Faith, Hope, and Charity. She lived in
the hospice called Holiness. (Celia is from the Latin, _coelum_,
"heaven.")--Spenser, _Faery Queen_, i. 10 (1590).
CELIA SHAW, a gentle-hearted mountain girl who, learning that her
father and his clan intend to "clean out" a family fifteen miles up
the mountain, steals out on a snowy night and makes her way to their
hut to warn them of their danger. She takes cold on the fearful
journey, and dies of consumption.--Charles Egbert Craddock, _In the
Tennessee Mountains_ (1884).
CELIMENE (3_syl_.), a coquette courted by Alceste (2 _syl_.) the
"misanthrope" (a really good man, both upright and manly, but blunt in
behavior, rude in speech, and unconventional). Alceste wants Celimene
to forsake society and live with him in seclusion; this she refuses to
do, and he replies, as you cannot find, "tout en moi, comme moi tout
en vous, allez, je vous refuse." He then proposes to her cousin
Eliante (3 _syl_.), but Eliante tells him she is already engaged to
his friend Philinte (2 _syl_), and so the play ends.--Moliere, _Le
"Celimene" in Moliere's _Les Precieuses Ridicules_ is a mere dummy.
She is brought on the stage occasionally towards the end of the play,
but never utters one word, and seems a supernumerary of no importance
CELIN'DA, the victim of count Fathom's seduction.--Smollett, _Count
CEL'LIDE (2 _syl_.), beloved by Valentine and his son Francisco. The
lady naturally prefers the younger man.--Beaumont and Fletcher, _Mons.
CELTIC HOMER _(The)_, Ossian, said to be of the third century.
If Ossian lived at the introduction of Christianity, as by all
appearances he did, his epoch will be the latter end of the third and
beginning of the fourth century.
The "Caracul" of Fingal, who is no other than Caracalla (son of
Seve'rus emperor of Rome), and the battle fought against Caros or
Carausius ... fix the epoch of Fingal to the third century, and Irish
historians place his death in the year 283. Ossian was Fingal's
son.--_Era of Ossian._
CENCI. Francesco Cenci was a most profligate Roman noble, who had four
sons and one daughter, all of whom he treated with abominable cruelty.
It is said that he assassinated his two elder sons and debauched his
daughter Beatrice. Beatrice and her two surviving brothers, with
Lucretia (their mother), conspired against Francesco and accomplished
his death, but all except the youngest brother perished on the
scaffold, September 11, 1501.
It has been doubted whether the famous portrait in the Barberini
palace at Rome is really of Beatrice Cenci, and even whether Guido
Eeni was the painter.
Percy B. Shelley wrote a tragedy called _The Cenci_ (1819).
CENIMAG'NI, the inhabitants of Norfolk, Suffolk, and
CENTAUR (_The Blue_), a human form from the waist upwards, and a goat
covered with blue shag from the waist downwards. Like the Ogri, he fed
on human flesh.
"Shepherds," said he, "I am the Blue Centaur. If you will give me
every third year a young child, I promise to bring a hundred of my
kinsmen and drive the Ogri away." ... He [_the Blue Centaur_] used to
appear on the top of a rock, with his club in one hand ... and with a
terrible voice cry out to the shepherds, "Leave me my prey, and be off
with you!"--Comtesse d'Aunoy, _Fairy Tales_ ("Princess Carpillona,"
CEN'TURY WHITE, John White, the nonconformist lawyer. So called from
his chief work, entitled _The First Century of Scandalous, Malignant
Priests, etc._ (1590-1645).
CE'PHAL (Greek, _Kephale_), the Head personified, the "acropolis" of
_The Purple Island_, fully described in canto v. of that poem, by
Phineas Fletcher (1633).
CEPH'ALUS (in Greek, _Kephalos_). One day, overcome with heat,
Cephalus threw himself on the grass, and cried aloud, "Come, gentle
Aura, and this heat allay!" The words were told to his young wife
Procris, who, supposing Aura to be some rival, became furiously
jealous. Resolved to discover her rival, she stole next day to a
covert, and soon saw her husband come and throw himself on the bank,
crying aloud, "Come, gentle Zephyr; come, Aura, come, this heat
allay!" Her mistake was evident, and she was abont to throw herself
into the arms of her husband, when the young man, aroused by the
rustling, shot an arrow into the covert, supposing some wild beast
was about to spring on him. Procris was shot, told her tale, and
died.--Ovid, _Art of Love_, iii.
(Cephalus loves Procris, _i.e._ "the sun kisses the dew." Procris is
killed by Cephalus, _i.e._ "the dew is destroyed by the rays of the
CERAS'TES (3 _syl_.), the horned snake. (Greek, _keras_, "a horn.")
Milton uses the word in _Paradise Lost_, x. 525 (1665).
CERBERUS, a dog with three heads, which keeps guard in hell. Dante
places it in the third circle.
Cerberus, cruel monster, fierce and strange,
Through his wide threefold throat barks as a dog ...
His eyes glare crimson, black his unctuous beard,
His belly large, and clawed the hands with which
He tears the spirits, flays them, and their limbs
Dante, _Hell_, vi. (1300, Cary's translation).
CER'DON, the boldest of the rabble leaders in the encounter with
Hu'dibras at the bear-baiting. The original of this character was
Hewson, a one-eyed cobbler and preacher, who was also a colonel in the
Rump army.--S. Butler, _Hudibras_, i. 2 (1663).
CERES (2 _syl._), the Fruits of Harvest personified. In classic
mythology Ceres means "Mother Earth," the protectress of fruits.
_Ceres_, the planet, is so called because it was discovered from the
observatory of Palermo, and Ceres is the tutelar goddess of Sicily.
CER'IMON, a physician of Ephesus, who restored to animation
Thaisa, the wife of Per'icles, prince of Tyre, supposed to be
dead.--Shakespeare, _Pericles Prince of Tyre_ (1608).
CHAB'OT (_Philippe de_), admiral of France, governor of Bourgoyne and
Normandy under Francois I. Montmorency and the cardinal de Lorraine,
out of jealousy, accused him of malversation. His faithful servant
Allegre was put to the rack to force evidence against the accused, and
Chabot was sent to prison because he was unable to pay the fine levied
upon him. His innocence, however, was established by the confession
of his enemies, and he was released; but disgrace had made so deep an
impression on his mind that he sickened and died. This is the subject
of a tragedy entitled _The Tragedy of Philip Chabot, etc._, by George
Chapman and James Shirley.
CHAD'BAND (_The Rev. Mr._), type of a canting hypocrite "in the
ministry." He calls himself "a vessel," is much admired by his dupes,
and pretends to despise the "carnal world," but nevertheless loves
dearly its "good things," and is most self-indulgent.--C. Dickens,
_Bleak House_ (1853).
CHAFFINGTON (_Mr. Percy_), M.P., a stockbroker.--T. M. Morton, _If I
had a Thousand a Year_.
CHALBROTH, the giant, the root of the race of giants, including
Polypheme (3 _syl._), Goliath, the Titans, Fierabras, Gargantua, and
closing with Pantag'ruel. He was born in the year known for its "week
of three Thursdays."--Rabelais, _Pantagruel_, ii. (1533).
CHAL'YBES (3 _syl._), a people on the south shore of the Black Sea,
who occupied themselves in the working of iron.
On the left hand dwell
The iron-workers called the Chalybes,
Of whom beware.
E. B. Browning, _Prometheus Bound_ (1850).
CHAM, the pseudonym of comte Amedee de Noe, a peer of France, a
great wit, and the political caricaturist of _Charivari_ (the French
_Punch_). The count was one of the founders of the French Republic in
1875. As Cham or Ham was the second son and scapegrace of Noah, so
Amedee was the second son and scapegrace of the comte de Noe _[Noah]._
CHAM OF LITERATURE, _(The Great_), a nickname given to Dr. Samuel
Johnson by Smollett in a letter to John Wilkes (1709-1784).
CHAM OF TARTARY, a corruption of Chan or Khan, _i.e._ "lord or
prince," as Hoccota Chan. "Ulu Chan" means "great lord," "ulu" being
equal to the Latin _magnus_, and "chan" to _dominus_ or _imperator_.
Sometimes the word is joined to the name, as Chan-balu, Cara-chan,
etc. The Turks have also had their "Sultan Murad chan bin Sultan
Selim chan," _i.e. Sultan Murad prince, son of Sultan Selim
prince_.--Selden, _Titles of Honor_, vi. 66 (1672).
CHAM'BERLAIN _(Matthew)_, a tapster, the successor of Old Roger Raine
(1 _syl_.).--Sir W. Scott, _Peveril of the Peak_ (time, Charles II.).
CHAMONT, brother of Monimia "the orphan," and the troth-plight husband
of Seri'na (daughter of lord Acasto). He is a soldier, so proud and
susceptible that he is forever taking offence, and setting himself up
as censor or champion. He fancies his sister Monim'ia has lost her
honor, and calls her to task, but finds he is mistaken. He fancies her
guardian, old Acasto, has not been sufficiently watchful over her,
and draws upon him in his anger, but sees his folly just in time to
prevent mischief. He fancies Castalio, his sister's husband, has
ill-treated her, and threatens to kill him, but his suspicions are
again altogether erroneous. In fact, his presence in the house was
like that of a madman with fire-brands in a stack-yard.--Otway, _The
There are characters in which he _[C. M. Young_] is unrivalled and
almost perfect. His "Pierre" [_Venice Preserved_, Otway] is more
soldierly than Kemble's; his "Chamont" is full of brotherly pride,
noble impetuosity, and heroic scorn.--_New Monthly Magazine_ (1822).
CHAMPAGNE _(Henry earl of_), a crusader.--Sir W. Scott, _The Talisman_
(time, Richard I.).
CHAM'PERNEL', a lame old gentleman, the husband of Lami'ra, and
son-in-law of judge Vertaigne (2 _sy_).--Beaumont and Fletcher, _The
Little French Lawyer_ (1647).
CHAMPION OF THE VIRGIN. St. Cyril of Alexandria is so called from his
defence of the "Incarnation" or doctrine of the "hypostatic union," in
the long and stormy dispute with Nesto'rius bishop of Constantinople.
CHAMPNEYS _(Sir Geoffry_), a fossilized old country gentleman, who
believes in "blue blood" and the "British peerage." Father of Talbot,
and neighbor of Perkyn Middlewick, a retired butterman. The sons of
these two magnates are fast friends, but are turned adrift by their
fathers for marrying in opposition to their wishes. When reduced to
abject poverty, the old men go to visit their sons, relent, and all
_Miss Champneys_, sir Geoffry's sister, proud and aristocratic, but
quite willing to sacrifice both on the altar of Mr. Perkyn Middlewick,
the butterman, if the wealthy plebeian would make her his wife and
allow her to spend his money.--H. J. Byron, _Our Boys_ (1875).
_Talbot Champneys_, a swell with few brains and no energy. His name,
which is his passport into society, will not find him salt in the
battle of life. He marries Mary Melrose, a girl without a penny, but
his father wants him to marry Violet the heiress.
CHAN'TICLEER (3 _syl_.), the cock, in the beast-epic of _Reynard the
Fox_ (1498), and also in "The Nonne Preste's Tale," told in _The
Canterbury Tales_, by Chaucer (1388).
CHAON'IAN BIRD _(The)_, the dove; so called because doves delivered
the oracles of Dodona or Chaon'ia.
But the mild swallow none with, toils infest,
And none the soft Chaonian bird molest.
Ovid, _Art of Love_, ii.
CHAONIAN FOOD, acorns, so called from the oak trees of Dodona, which
gave out the oracles by means of bells hung among the branches. Beech
mast is so called also, because beech trees abounded in the forest of
CHARALOIS, son of the marshal of Burgundy. When he was twenty-eight
years old his father died in prison at Dijon, for debts contracted by
him for the service of the State in the wars. According to the law
which then prevailed in France, the body of the marshal was seized by
his creditors, and refused burial. The son of Charalois redeemed his
father's body by his own, which was shut up in prison in lieu of the
marshal's.--Philip Massinger, _The Fatal Dowry_ (1632).
(It will be remembered that Milti'ades, the Athenian general, died in
prison for debt, and the creditors claimed the body, which they would
not suffer to be buried till his son Cimon gave up himself as a
CHAR'EGITE (3 _syl_.). The Charegite assassin, in the disguise of a
Turkish marabout or enthusiast, comes and dances before the tent of
Richard Coeur de Lion, and suddenly darting forward, is about to
stab the king, when a Nubian seizes his arm, and the king kills the
assassin on the spot.--Sir W. Scott, _The Talisman_ (time, Richard
CHARICLE'IA, the _fiancee_ of Theag'enes, in the Greek romance called
_The Loves of Theagenes and Charicleia_, by Heliodo'ros bishop of
Trikka (fourth century).
CHARI'NO, father of Angelina. Charino wishes Angelina to marry Clodio,
a young coxcomb; but the lady prefers his elder brother Carlos, a
young bookworm. Love changes the character of the diffident Carlos,
and Charino at last accepts him for his son-in-law. Charino is a
testy, obstinate old man, who wants to rule the whole world in his own
way.--C. Cibber, _Love Makes the Man_ (1694).
CHAR'LEMAGNE AND HIS PALADINS. This series of romances is of French
origin, as the Arthurion is Welsh or British. It began with the
legendary chronicle in verse, called _Historia de Vita Carola Magni
et Rolandi_, erroneously attributed to Turpin archbishop of Rheims
(a contemporary of Charlemagne), but probably written two or three
hundred years later. The chief of the series are _Huon of Bordeaux,
Guerin de Monglave, Gaylen Rhetore_ (in which Charlemagne and his
paladins proceed in mufti to the Holy Land), _Miles and Ames_,
_Jairdain de Blaves, Doolin de Mayence, Ogier le Danais_, and _Maugis
_Charlemagne and the Ring_. Pasquier says that Charles le Grand fell
in love with a peasant girl [Agatha], in whose society he seemed
bewitched, insomuch that all matters of state were neglected by him;
but the girl died, to the great joy of all. What, however, was the
astonishment of the court to find that the king seemed no less
bewitched with the dead body than he had been with the living, and
spent all day and night with it, even when its smell was quite
offensive. Archbishop Turpin felt convinced there was sorcery in this
strange infatuation, and on examining the body, found a ring under the
tongue, which he removed. Charlemagne now lost all regard for the
dead body; but followed Turpin, with whom, he seemed infatuated. The
archbishop now bethought him of the ring, which he threw into a pool
at Aix, where Charlemagne built a palace and monastery, and no spot in
the world had such attractions for him as Aix-la-Chapelle, where "the
ring" was buried.--_Recherches de la France_, vi. 33.
_Charlemagne and Years of Plenty_. According to German legend,
Charlemagne appears in seasons of plenty. He crosses the Rhine on a
golden bridge, and blesses both corn-fields and vineyards.
Thou standest, like imperial Charlemagne,
Upon thy bridge of gold.
_Charlemagne not dead_. According to legend, Charlemagne was crowned
and armed in Odenberg _(Hesse)_ or Untersberg, near Saltzburg, till
the time of antichrist, when he will wake up and deliver Christendom.
_Charlemagne's Nine Wives_: (1) Hamiltrude, a poor Frenchwoman, who
bore him several children. (2) Desidera'ta, who was divorced. (3)
Hildegarde. (4) Fastrade, daughter of count Rodolph the Saxon. (5)
Luitgarde the German. The last three died before him. (6) Maltegarde.
(7) Gersuinde the Saxon. (8) Regina. (9) Adalinda.
_Charlemagne's Stature_. We are told that Charlemagne was "eight feet
high," and so strong that he could "straighten with his hands alone
three horseshoes at once." His diet and his dress were both as simple
_Charlemagne's Sword_, La Joyeuse.
CHARLEMAGNE OF SERVIA, Stephen Dushan.
CHARLES "the Bold," duke of Burgundy, introduced by sir W. Scott in
two novels, viz., _Quentin Durward_ and _Anne of Geierstein._ The
latter novel contains an account of the battle of Nancy, where Charles
_Charles_ prince of Wales (called "Babie Charles"), son of James I.,
introduced by sir W. Scott in _The Fortunes of Nigel_.
_Charles_ "the Good," earl of Flanders. In 1127 he passed a law that
whoever married a serf should become a serf: thus if a prince married
a serf, the prince would become a serf. This absurd law caused his
death, and the death of the best blood in Bruges.--S. Knowles, _The
Provost of Bruges_ (1836).
CHARLES II. of England, introduced by sir W. Scott in two novels,
viz., _Peveril of the Peak_ and _Woodstock_. In this latter he appears
first as a gipsy woman, and afterwards under the name of Louis
Kerneguy (Albert Lee's page).
CHARLES IX. of France. Instigated by his mother, Catherine de Medici,
he set on foot the massacre of St. Bartholomew (1550-1574).
CHARLES XII. of Sweden. "Determined to brave the seasons, as he had
done his enemies, Charles XII. ventured to make long marches during
the cold of the memorable winter of 1709. In one of these marches two
thousand of his men died from the cold."
(Planche has an historical drama, in two acts, called _Charles XII_.;
and the _Life of Charles XII_., by Voltaire, is considered to be one
of the best written historical works in the French language.)
CHARLES EDWARD [STUART], called "The Chevalier Prince Charles Edward,
the Young Pretender," introduced by sir W. Scott in _Redgauntlet_
(time, George III.), first as "father Bonaventure," and afterwards as
"Pretender to the British crown." He is again introduced in _Waverley_
(time, George II.).
CHARLES EMMANUEL, son of Victor Amade'us (4 _syl_.) king of Sardinia.
In 1730 his father abdicated, but somewhat later wanted his son to
restore the crown again. This he refused to do; and when Victor
plotted against him, D'Orme'a was sent to arrest the old man, and he
died. Charles was brave, patient, single-minded, and truthful.--R.
Browning, _King Victor and King Charles, etc_.
CHARLES KNOLLYS, an English bridegroom, who falls into a crevasse on
his wedding-trip, and is found by his wife in the ice, still young and
beautiful in his icy shroud, forty-five years later.--J. S. of Dale
(Frederic Jesup Stimson), _Mrs. Knollys_ (1888).
CHARLEY, plu. _Charlies_, an old watchman or "night guardian," before
the introduction of the police force by sir Robert Peel, in 1829. So
called from Charles I., who extended and improved the police system.
CHARLEY KEENE, merry little doctor in _The Grandissimes_, in love with
the beautiful Creole girl Clotilde (1880).
CHARLIE, _alias_ "Injin Charlie," _alias_ "Old Charlie," a "dark white
man" in _Belles Demoiselles' Plantation_, by George W. Cable. "Sunk in
the bliss of deep ignorance, shrewd, deaf, and by repute, at least,
CHARIOT, a messenger from Liege to Louis XI--Sir W. Scott, _Quentin
Durward_ (time, Edward IV.).
CHARLOTTE, the faithful sweetheart of young Wilmot, supposed to have
perished at sea.--Geo. Lillo, _Fatal Curiosity_ (1736).
_Charlotte_, the dumb girl, in love with Leander; but her father, sir
Jasper, wants her to marry Mr. Dapper. In order to avoid this hateful
alliance, Charlotte pretends to be dumb, and only answers, "Han, hi,
han, hon." The "mock doctor" employs Leander as his apothecary, and
the young lady is soon cured by "pills matrimoniac." In Moliere's _Le
Medecin Malgre Lui_ Charlotte is called "Lucinde." The jokes in act
ii. 6 are verbally copied from the French.--H. Fielding, _The Mock
_Charlotte_, daughter of sir John Lambert, in _The Hypocrite_, by Is.
Bickerstaff (1768); in love with Darnley. She is a giddy girl, fond of
tormenting Darnley; but being promised in marriage to Dr. Cantwell,
who is fifty-nine, and whom she utterly detests, she becomes somewhat
sobered down, and promises Darnley to become his loving wife. Her
constant exclamation is "Lud!"
In Moliere's comedy of _Tartuffe_ Charlotte is called "Mariane," and
Darnley is "Valere."
_Charlotte_, the pert maid-servant of the countess Wintersen. Her
father was "state coachman." Charlotte is jealous of Mrs. Haller,
and behaves rudely to her (see act ii. 3).--Benjamin Thompson, _The
_Charlotte_, servant to Sowerberry. A dishonest, rough servant-girl,
who ill-treats Oliver Twist, and robs her master.--C. Dickens, _Oliver
_Charlotte_, a fugitive slave whose hairbreadth escapes are narrated
in J. T. Trowbridge's story of _Neighbor Jackwood_ (1857).
_Charlotte (Lady)_, the servant of a lady so called. She assumes the
airs with the name and address of her mistress. The servants of her
own and other households address her as "Your ladyship," or "lady
Charlotte;" but though so mighty grand, she is "noted for a plaguy
pair of thick legs."--Rev. James Townley, _High Life Below Stairs_
CHARLOTTE CORDAY, devoted patriot of the French Revolution. Believing
Marat to be the worst enemy of France, she stabbed him in the bath;
was arrested and guillotined.
CHARLOTTE ELIZABETH, whose surname was Phelan, afterwards Tonna,
author of numerous books for children, tales, etc. (1825-1862).
CHARLOTTE GOODCHILD, a merchant's orphan daughter of large fortune.
She is pestered by many lovers, and her guardian gives out that she
has lost all her money by the bankruptcy of his house. On this all her
suitors but one depart, and that one is sir Callaghan O'Brallaghan,
who declares he loves her now as an equal, and one whom he can serve,
but before he loved her "with fear and trembling, like a man that
loves to be a soldier, yet is afraid of a gun."--C. Macklin,
CHARLOTTE TEMPLE, the daughter of an English gentleman, whose
seduction by an officer in the British army, her sad life and lonely
death, are the elements of a novel bearing her name, written by "Mrs.
Rowson." Charlotte Temple is buried in Trinity church-yard, New York.
CHAR'MIAN, a kind-hearted, simple-minded attendant on Cleopatra. After
the queen's death, she applied one of the asps to her own arm,
and when the, Roman soldiers entered the room, fell down
dead.--Shakespeare, _Antony and Cleopatra_ (1608).
CHAR'TERIS _(Sir Patrick_), of Kinfauns, provost of Perth.--Sir W.
Scott, _Fair Maid of Perth_ (time, Henry IV.).
CHARTIST CLERGYMAN _(The)_, Rev. Charles Kingsley (1809-1877).
CHARYLLIS, in Spenser's pastoral _Colin Clout's Come Home Again_, is
lady Compton. Her name was Anne, and she was the fifth of the six
daughters of sir John Spenser of Althorpe, Lancaster, of the noble
houses of Spenser and Marlborough. Edmund Spenser dedicated to her his
satirical fable called _Mother Hubbard's Tale_ (1591). She was thrice
married; her first husband was lord Monteagle, and her third was
Robert lord Buckhurst (son of the poet Sackville), who succeeded his
father in 1608 as earl of Dorset.
No less praiseworthy are the sisters three,
The honor of the noble family
Of which I meanest boast myself to be,...
Phyllis, Charyllis, and sweet Amaryllis:
Phyllis the fair is eldest of the three,
The next to her is bountiful Charyllis.
_Colin Clout's Come Home Again_ (1594).
CHASTE _(The)_, Alfonso II. of Asturias and Leon (758, 791-835
abdicated, died 842).
CHATOOKEE, an Indian bird, that never drinks at a stream, but catches
the raindrops in falling.--_Account of the Baptist Missionaries_, ii.
Less pure than these is that strange Indian bird,
Who never dips in earthly streams her bill,
But, when the sound of coming showers is heard,
Looks up, and from the clouds receives her fill.
Southey, _Curse of Kehama_, xxi. 6 (1809).
CHAT'TANACH _(M'Gillie)_, chief of the clan Chattan.--Sir W. Scott,
_Fair Maid of Perth_ (time, Henry IV.).
CHAT'TERLEY _(Rev. Simon_), "the man of religion" at the Spa, one
of the managing committee.--Sir W. Scott, _St. Ronan's Well_ (time,
CHAUBERT _(Mons.)_, Master Chaffinch's cook.--Sir W. Scott, _Peveril
of the Peak_ (time, George II.).
CHAUCER OF FRANCE, Clement Marot (1484-1544).
CHAU'NUS, Arrogance personified in _The Purple Island_, by Phineas
Fletcher (1633). "Fondly himself with praising he dispraised." Fully
described in canto viii. (Greek, _chaunos_, "vain".)
CHEAT'LY (2 _syl_.), a lewd, impudent debauchee of Alsatia
(Whitefriars). He dares not leave the "refuge" by reason of debt;
but in the precincts he fleeces young heirs of entail, helps them to
money, and becomes bound for them.--Shadwell, _Squire of Alsatia_
CHE'BAR, the tutelar angel of Mary, sister of Martha and Lazarus of
Bethany.--Klopstock, _The Messiah_, xii. (1771).
Ched'eraza'de (5 _syl_.), mother of Hem'junah and wife of Zebene'zer,
sultan of Cassimir. Her daughter having run away to prevent a forced
marriage with the prince of Georgia, whom she had never seen, the
sultana pined away and died.--Sir C. Morell [J. Ridley], _Tales of the
Genii_ ("Princess of Cassimir," tale vii., 1751).
CHEDER'LES (3 _syl_.), a Moslem hero, who, like St. George, saved a
virgin exposed to the tender mercies of a huge dragon. He also drank
of the waters of immortality, and lives to render aid in war to any
who invoke it.
When Chederles conies
To aid the Moslem on his deathless horse,
... as _[if]_ he had newly quaffed
The hidden waters of eternal youth.
Southey, _Joan of Arc_, vi. 302, etc. (1837).
CHEENEY _(Frank)_, an outspoken bachelor. He marries Kate
Tyson.--Wybert Reeve, _Parted_.
CHEERLY' _(Mrs.)_, daughter of colonel Woodley. After being married
three years, she was left a widow, young, handsome, rich, lively, and
gay. She came to London, and was seen in the opera by Frank Heartall,
an open-hearted, impulsive young merchant, who fell in love with her,
and followed her to her lodging. Ferret, the villain of the story,
misinterpreted all the kind actions of Frank, attributing his gifts to
hush-money; but his character was amply vindicated, and "the soldier's
daughter" became his blooming wife.--Cherry, _The Soldier's Daughter_
Miss O'Neill, at the age of nineteen, made her _debut_ at the Theatre
Royal, Crow Street, in 1811, as "The Widow Cheerly."--W. Donaldson.
CHEERYBLE BROTHERS _(The)_, brother Ned and brother Charles, the
incarnations of all that is warm-hearted, generous, benevolent,
and kind. They were once homeless boys running about the streets
barefooted, and when they grew to be wealthy London merchants were
ever ready to stretch forth a helping hand to those struggling against
the buffets of fortune.
_Frank Cheeryble_, nephew of the brothers Cheeryble. He married Kate
Nickleby.--C. Dickens, _Nicholas Nickleby_ (1838).
CHEESE _(Dr.)_, an English translation of the Latin _Dr. Caseus_,
that is, Dr. John Chase, a noted quack, who was born in the reign of
Charles II., and died in that of queen Anne.
CHEMISTRY _(The Father of_, Arnaud do Villeneuve (1238-1314)).
CHE'MOS _(ch = k)_, god of the Moabites; also called Baal-Pe'oer; the
Pria'pus or idol of turpitude and obscenity. Solomon built a temple to
this obscene idol "in the hill that is before Jerusalem" (1 _Kings_
xi. 7). In the hierarchy of hell Milton gives Chemos the fourth rank:
(1) Satan, (2) Beelzebub, (3) Moloch, (4) Chemos.
Next Chemos, the obscene dread of Moab's sons, Peoer his other name.
_Paradise Lost_, 406, 412 (1665).
CHENEY, a mighty hunter in the northern woods, whose story is told in
_The Adirondack_, by Joel Tyler Headley (1849).
CHERONE'AN _(The)_ or THE CHERONE'AN SAGE _(ch = k)_, Plutarch, who
was born at Chaerone'a, in Boeo'tia (A.D. 46-120).
This praise, O Cheronean sage, is thine.
Beattie, _Minstrel_ (1773).
CHER'RY, the lively daughter of Boniface, landlord of the inn at
Farquhar, _The Beaux' Stratagem_ (1705). (See CHERY.)
_Cherry (Andrew)_, comic actor and dramatist (1762-1812), author of
_The Soldier's Daughter. All for Fame, Two Strings to Your Bow.
The Village, Spanish Dollars_, etc. He was specially noted for his
Shall sapient managers new scenes produce
From Cherry, Skeffington, and _Mother Goose?_
Byron, _English Bards and Scotch Reviewers_
[Illustration] _Mother Goose_ is a pantomime by C. Dibdin.
CHER'UBIM (_Don_), the "bachelor of Salamanca," who is placed in a
vast number of different situations of life, and made to associate
with all classes of society, that the author may sprinkle his satire
and wit in every direction.--Lesage, _The Bachelor of Salamanca_
CHER'Y, the son of Brunetta (who was the wife of a king's brother),
married his cousin Fairstar, daughter of the king. He obtained for his
cousin the three wonderful things: _The dancing water_, which had the
power of imparting beauty; _the singing apple_, which had the power
of imparting wit; and _the little green bird_, which had the power
of telling secrets.--Comtesse D'Aunoy, _Fairy Tales_ ("The Princess
CHES'TER (_Sir John_), a plausible, foppish villain, the sworn enemy
of Geoffrey Haredale, by whom he is killed in a duel. Sir John is the
father of Hugh, the gigantic servant at the Maypole inn.
_Edward Chester_, son of sir John, and the lover of Emma Haredale.--C.
Dickens, _Barnaby Rudge_ (1841).
CHESTERFIELD (_Charles_), a young man of genius, the hero and title
of a novel by Mrs. Trollope (1841). The object of this novel is to
satirize the state of literature in England, and to hold up to censure
authors, editors, and publishers as profligate, selfish, and corrupt.
CHESTERTON (_Paul_), nephew to Mr. Percy Chaffington, stock-broker and
M.P.--T.M. Morton, _If I had a Thousand a Year_ (1764-1838).
CHEVALIER D'INDUSTRIE, a man who lives by his wits and calls himself a
Denicheur de fauvettes, chevalier de l'ordre de
l'industrie, qui va chercher quelque bon nid,
quelque femme qui lui fasse sa fortune.--_Gongam_
ou _L'Homme Prodigieux_ (1713).
CHEVALIER MALFET (_Le_), so sir Launcelot calls himself after he was
cured of his madness. The meaning of the phrase is "The knight who
has done ill," or "The knight who has trespassed."--Sir T. Malory,
_History of Prince Arthur_, iii. 20 (1470).
CHEVERIL (_Hans_), the ward of Mordent, just come of age. Impulsive,
generous, hot-blooded. He resolves to be a rake, but scorns to be a
villain. However, he accidentally meets with Joanna "the deserted
daughter," and falls in love with her. He rescues her from the
clutches of Mrs. Enfield the crimp, and marries her.--Holcroft, _The
Deserted Daughter_ (altered into _The Steward_).
The part that placed me [_Walter Lacy_] in the
position of a light comedian was "Cheveril," in
_The Steward_, altered from Holcroft's _Deserted
Daughter._--W. Lacy, _Letter to W.C. Russell_.
CHIBIA'BOS, the Harmony of Nature personified; a musician, the friend
of Hiawatha, and ruler in the land of spirits. When he played on
his pipe, the "brooks ceased to murmur, the wood-birds to sing, the
squirrel to chatter, and the rabbit sat upright to look and listen."
He was drowned in Lake Superior by the breaking of the ice.
Most beloved by Hiawatha
Was the gentle Chibiabos;
He the best of all musicians,
He the sweetest of all singers.
Longfellow, _Hiawatha_, vi. and xv.
_Chibiabos_, venerable chief in _The Myth of Hiaiwatha and Other Oral
Legends of North American Indians_, by Henry Rowe Schoolcraft (1856).
CHICANEAU _(She'.ka.no')_, a litigious tradesman in _Les Plaideurs_,
by Racine, (1668).
CHICH'I-VACHE (3 _syl_.), a monster that fed only on good women. The
word means the "sorry cow." It was all skin and bone, because its food
was so extremely scarce. (See BYCORN.)
O noble wyves, full of heigh prudence,
Let noon humilitie your tonges nayle.,
Lest Chichi-Vache you swalwe in her entraile.
Chaucer, _Canterbury Tales_ ("Clerk's Tale," 1388).
CHICK _(Mr.)_, brother-in-law of Mr. Dombey; a stout gentleman, with a
tendency to whistle and hum airs at inopportune moments. Mr. Chick is
somewhat henpecked; but in the matrimonial squalls, though apparently
beaten, he not unfrequently rises up the superior and gets his own
_Louisa Chick_, Mr. Dombey's married sister. She is of a snappish
temper, but dresses in the most juvenile style, and is persuaded
that anything can be accomplished if persons will only "make an
effort."--C. Dickens, _Dombey and Son_ (1846).
CHICKEN _(The)_, Michael Angelo Taylor, barrister, so called because
in his maiden speech, 1785, he said, "I deliver this opinion with
great deference, being but a chicken in the profession of the law."
_Chicken_ (_The Game_), a low fellow, to be heard of at the bar of the
Black Badger. Mr. Toots selects this man as his instructor in fencing,
betting, and self-defence. The Chicken has short hair, a low forehead,
a broken nose, and "a considerable tract of bare and sterile country
behind each ear."--C. Dickens, _Dombey and Son_ (1846).
CHICKENS AND THE AUGURS. When the augurs told Publius Claudius
Pulcher, the Roman consul, who was about to engage the Carthaginian
fleet, that the sacred chickens would not eat, he replied, "Then toss
them into the sea, that they may drink."
CHICK'ENSTALKER (_Mrs_.), a stout, bonny, kind-hearted woman, who
keeps a general shop. Toby Veck, in his dream, imagines her married
to Tugby, the porter of sir Joseph Bowley.--C. Dickens, _The Chimes_
CHICK'WEED (_Conkey, i.e. Nosey_), the man who robbed himself. He was
a licensed victualler on the point of failing, and gave out that he
had been robbed of 327 guineas "by a tall man with a black patch over
his eye." He was much pitied, and numerous subscriptions were made on
his behalf. A detective was sent to examine into the "robbery,"
and Chickweed would cry out, "There he is!" and run after the
"hypothetical thief" for a considerable distance, and then lose sight
of him. This occurred over and over again, and at last the detective
said to him, "I've found out who done this here robbery." "Have you?"
said Chickweed. "Yes," said Spyers, "you done it yourself." And so he
had.--C. Dickens, _Oliver Twist_, xxxi. (1837).
CHIF'FINCH (_Master Thomas_), _alias_ Will Smith, a friend of Richard
Ganlesse (2 _syl_.). The private emissary of Charles II. He was
employed by the duke of Buckingham to carry off Alice Bridgenorth to
Whitehall, but the captive escaped and married Julian Peveril.
_Kate Chiffinch_, mistress of Thomas Chiffinch.--Sir W. Scott,
_Peveril of the Peak_ (time, Charles II.).
CHIGNON _[Shin.yong]_, the French valet of Miss Alscrip "the heiress."
A silly, affected, typical French valet-de-chambre.--General Burgoyne,
_The Heiress_ (1718).
CHI'LAX, a merry old soldier, lieutenant to general Memnon, in
Paphos.--Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Mad Lover_ (1617).
CHILD (_The_), Bettina, daughter of Maximiliane Brentano. So called
from the title of her book, _Goethe's Correspondence with a Child_.
CHILD OF NATURE (_The_), a play by Mrs. Inchbald. Amantis was the
"child of Nature." She was the daughter of Alberto, banished "by an
unjust sentence," and during his exile he left his daughter under
the charge of the marquis Almanza. Amantis was brought up in total
ignorance of the world and the passion-principles which sway it, but
felt grateful to her guardian, and soon discovered that what she
called "gratitude" the world calls "love." Her father returned home
rich, his sentence cancelled and his innocence allowed, just in time
to give his daughter in marriage to his friend Almanza.
CHILDE HAROLD, a man sated with the world, who roams from place to
place, to kill time and escape from himself. The "childe" is, in fact,
lord Byron himself, who was only twenty-two when he began the poem,
which was completed in seven years. In canto i. the "childe" visits
Portugal and Spain (1809); in canto ii. Turkey in Europe (1810); in
canto iii. Belgium and Switzerland (1816); and in canto iv. Venice,
Rome, and Florence (1817).
("Childe" is a title of honor, about tantamount to "lord," as childe
Waters, childe Rolande, childe Tristram, childe Arthur, childe
CHIL'DERS (_E.W.B._), one of the riders in Sleary's circus, noted
for his vaulting and reckless riding in the character of the "Wild
Huntsman of the Prairies." This compound of groom and actor marries
Josephine, Sleary's daughter.
_Kidderminster Childers_, son of the above, known in the profession as
"Cupid." He is a diminutive boy, with an old face and facetious manner
wholly beyond his years.--C. Dickens, _Hard Times_ (1854).
CHILDREN (_The Henneberg_). It is said that the countess of Henneberg
railed at a beggar for having twins, and the beggar, turning on the
countess, who was forty-two years old, said, "May you have as many
children as there are days in a year," and sure enough, on Good
Friday, 1276, the countess brought forth 365 at one birth; all the
males were christened _John_, and all the females _Elizabeth_. They
were buried at a village near La Hague, and the jug is still shown in
which they were baptized.
CHILDREN IN THE WOOD, the little son (three years old) and younger
daughter (Jane) left by a Norfolk gentleman on his death-bed to the
care of his deceased wife's brother. The boy was to have L300 a year
on coming of age, and the girl L500 as a wedding portion; but if the
children died in their minority the money was to go to the uncle. The
uncle, in order to secure the property, hired two ruffians to murder
the children, but one of them relented and killed his companion; then,
instead of murdering the babes, he left them in Wayland Wood, where
they gathered blackberries, but died at night with cold and terror.
All things went ill with the uncle, who perished in gaol, and
the ruffian, after a lapse of seven years, confessed the whole
villainy.--Percy, _Reliques_, III. ii. 18.
CHILDREN OF THE MIST, one of the branches of the MacGregors, a wild
race of Scotch Highlanders, who had a skirmish with the soldiers in
pursuit of Dalgetty and M'Eagh among the rocks (ch. 14).--Sir W.
Scott, _Legend of Montrose_ (time, Charles I.).
CHILLIP (_Dr_.), a physician who attended Mrs. Copperfield at the
birth of David.
He was the meekest of his set, the mildest of little men.--C. Dickens,
_David Copperfield_, i. (1849).
CHILLON' (_Prisoner of_) Francois de Bonnivard, of Lunes, the Genevese
patriot (1496-1571) who opposed the enterprises of Charles III. (the
duke-bishop of Savoy) against the independence of Geneva, and was
cast by him into the prison of Chillon, where he was confined for six
years. Lord Byron makes him one of six brothers, two of whom died
on the battle-field; one was burnt at the stake, and three were
imprisoned at Chillon. Two of the prisoners died, but Francois was
set at liberty by the people of Berne.--Byron, _Prisoner of Chillon_
CHIMENE (_La Belle_) or Xime'na, daughter of count Lozano de Gormaz,
wife of the Cid. After the Cid's death she defended Valentia from the
Moors with great bravery, but without success. Corneille and Guihem
de Cantro have introduced her in their tragedies, but the _role_ they
represent her to have taken is wholly imaginary.
CHINAMAN (_John_), a man of China.
CHINDASUIN'THO (4 _syl_.), king of Spain, father of Theod'ofred, and
grandfather of Roderick last of the Gothic kings.--Southey, _Roderick,
CHINESE PHILOSOPHER (_A_). Oliver Goldsmith, in the _Citizen of the
World_, calls his book "Letters from a Chinese Philosopher residing in
London to his Friends in the East" (1759).
CHINGACHGOOK, the Indian chief, called in French _Le Gros Serpent_.
Fenimore Cooper has introduced this chief into four of his novels,
_The Last of the Mohicans. The Pathfinder. The Deerslayer_, and _The
CHINTZ (_Mary_), Miss Bloomfield's maid, the bespoken of Jem
Miller.--C. Selby, _The Unfinished Gentleman_.
CHI'OS (_The Man of_), Homer, who lived at Chios [_Ki'.os_]. At least
Chios was one of the seven cities which laid claim to the bard,
according to the Latin hexameter verse:
Smyrna, Rhodes, Colophon, Salamis, Chios,
CHIRN'SIDE (_Luckie_), poulterer at Wolf's Hope village.--Sir W.
Scott, _Bride of Lammermoor_ (time, William III.).
CHI'RON, a centaur, renowned for his skill in hunting, medicine,
music, gymnastics, and prophecy. He numbered among his pupils
Achilles, Peleus, Diomede, and indeed all the most noted heroes
of Grecian story. Jupiter took him to heaven, and made him the
... as Chiron erst had done
To that proud bane of Troy, her god-resembling
Drayton, _Polyolbion_, v. (1612).
CHIRRUP (_Betsey_), the housekeeper of Mr. Sowerberry, the
misanthrope.--W. Brough, _A Phenomenon in a Smock Frock_.
CHITA, the child orphaned by the fearful tragedy detailed in Lufcadio
Hearn's _Chita: A Memory of Last Island_. The little one is dragged
from her dead mother's neck while she has still the strength to cry
out "_Maman! maman_!" and borne through the surf by the fisherman
Felix, to the arms of his wife. Brought up as the child of the humble
pair, she never suspects that the stranger who, years after, dies of
yellow fever brought from New Orleans to Felix's hut is her father
CHITLING (_Tom_), one of the associates of Fagin the Jew. Tom Chitling
was always most deferential to the "Artful Dodger."--C. Dickens,
_Oliver Twist_ (1837).
CHIVALRY (_The Flower of_), William Douglas, lord of Liddesdale
CHLO'E [_Klo'.e_], the shepherdess beloved by Daphnis, in the pastoral
romance called _Daphnis and Chloe_, by Longus. St. Pierre's tale of
_Paul and Virginia_ is based on this pastoral.
_Chloe_ or rather _Cloe_. So Prior calls Mrs. Centlivre (1661-1723).
_Chloe (Aunt)_, the faithful wife of Uncle Tom in Harriet Beecher
Stowe's famous book _Uncle Tom's Cabin_. She hires herself out to a
pastry-cook to help redeem her husband after he is "sold South." Her
exhortation, "Think o' your marcies, chillen! think o' your marcies!"
is sincere, yet when Tom quotes, "Pray for them that despitefully use
you," she sobs out, "Lor'! it's too tough! I _can't_ pray for 'em!"
_Chloe_ (_Aunt_), "a homeless widow, of excellent Vermont intentions
and high ideals in cup-cake, summoned to that most difficult of human
tasks, the training of another woman's child.... She held it to be the
first business of any woman who undertook the management of a
literary family like her brother's to attend properly to its
digestion."--Elizabeth Stuart Phelps, _The Story of Avis_ (1877).
CHLO'RIS, the ancient Greek name of Flora.
Around your haunts
The laughing Chloris with profusest hand
Throws wide her blooms and odors.
Akenside, _Hymn to the Naiads_.
CHOE'REAS (_ch = k_), the lover of Callirrhoe, in the Greek romance
called _The Loves of Choereas and Callirrhoe_, by Char'iton (eighth
CHOKE (_General_), a lank North American gentleman, "one of the most
remarkable men in the country." He was editor of _The Watertoast
Gazette_, and a member of "The Eden Land Corporation." It was general
Choke who induced Martin Chuzzlewit to stake his all in the egregious
Eden swindle.--C. Dickens, _Martin Chuzzlewit_ (1844).
CHOLMONDELEY [_Chum'.ly_], of Vale Royal, a friend of sir Geoffrey
Peveril.--Sir W. Scott, _Peveril of the Peak_ (time, Charles II.).
CHOPPARD (_Pierre_), one of the gang of thieves, called "The Ugly
Mug." When asked a disagreeable question, he always answered, "I'll
ask my wife, my memory's so slippery."--Edward Stirling, _The Courier
of Lyons_ (1852).
CHRIEMHIL'DA. (See under K.)
CHRISOM CHILD (_A_), a child that dies within a month of its birth. So
called because it is buried in the white cloth anointed with _chrism_
(oil and balm) worn at its baptism.
"He's in Arthur's [_Abraham's_] bosom, if ever man went to Arthur's
bosom. 'A made a finer end, and went away, an it had been any christom
[_chrisom_] child. 'A parted just ... at turning o' the tide."
(Quickly's description of the death of Falstaff.)--Shakespeare, _Henry
V_. act ii. sc. 3 (1599).
Why, Mike's a child to him ... a chrism child.
Jean Ingelow, _Brothers and a Sermon_.
CHRIS'TABEL (_ch = k_), the heroine of a fragmentary poem of the same
title by Coleridge.
_Christabel_, the heroine of an ancient romance entitled _Sir Eglamour
CHRISTABELLE [_Kris.'ta.bel_], daughter of "a bonnie king of Ireland,"
beloved by sir Cauline (2 _syl_.). When the king knew of their loves
he banished sir Cauline from the kingdom. Then as Christabelle drooped
the king held a tournament for her amusement, every prize of which
was carried off by an unknown knight in black. On the last day came a
giant with two "goggling eyes, and mouthe from ear to ear," called the
Soldain, and defied all comers. No one would accept his challenge save
the knight in black, who succeeded in killing his adversary, but died
himself of the wounds he had received. When it was discovered that the
knight was sir Cauline, the lady "fette a sighe, that burst her gentle
hearte in twayne."--Percy, _Reliques_ ("Sir Cauline," I. i. 4).
CHRISTIAN, the hero of Bunyan's allegory called _The Pilgrim's
Progress_. He flees from the City of Destruction and journeys to the
Celestial City. At starting he has a heavy pack upon his shoulders,
which falls off immediately he reaches the foot of the cross. (The
pack, of course, is the bundle of sin, which is removed by the blood
of the cross. 1678.)
_Christian_, a follower of Christ. So called first at Antioch.--_Acts_
_Christian_, captain of the patrol in a small German town in which
Mathis is burgomaster. He marries Annette, the burgomaster's
daughter.--J. R. Ware, _The Polish Jew_.
_Christian_, synonym of "_Peasant_" in Russia. This has arisen from
the abundant legislation under czar Alexis and czar Peter the Great,
to prevent Christian serfs from entering the service of Mohammedan