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A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature by John W. Cousin

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MANNING, ANNE (1807-1879).--Miscellaneous writer. Her best known works
are _Mistress Mary Powell_, which first appeared in _Sharpe's Magazine_
in 1849, and _The Household of Sir Thomas More_, a delightful picture of
More's home life told in the form of a diary written by his daughter
Margaret. Her writings have much literary charm, and show a delicate
historical imagination.

MANNING, HENRY EDWARD (1808-1892).--Cardinal and theologian. _B._ at
Totteridge, Herts, and _ed._ at Harrow and Oxf., where he became notable
as an eloquent preacher, and as one of the ablest of the Tractarian
party. He was rector of Woollavington-cum-Graffham 1833, and Archdeacon
of Chichester 1840. In 1851 he entered the Church of Rome, in which he
attached himself to the Ultramontane party. More even than Newman he was
the leading spirit of the Roman Church in England. His writings consist
of sermons, of which he _pub._ several vols. before his secession from
the Church of England, and controversial works, including _Petri
Privilegium_ (1871), _The Vatican Decrees_ (1875), in answer to
Gladstone's _Vaticanism_, and _The Eternal Priesthood_ (1883). He became
Roman Catholic Archbishop of Westminster 1865, and Cardinal 1875.

MANNYNG, ROBERT, or ROBERT DE BRUNNE (_fl._ 1288-1338).--Was a Canon of
the Gilbertine Order. His work, _Handlynge Sinne_ (_c._ 1300), translated
with original additions from the _Manuel des Peches_, a book written in
French verse by William of Waddington, is practically a collection of
tales and short stories on the Commandments, Seven Deadly Sins,
Sacraments, etc., and is of value as giving a contemporary picture of the
time. He also made (_c._ 1335) a translation in verse of the French
_Chronicle_ of Peter Langtoft, the second and more interesting part of
which covers the period from the death of Cadwallader to the end of the
reign of Edward I.

MANSEL, HENRY LONGUEVILLE (1820-1871).--Metaphysician, _s._ of a
clergyman, was _b._ at Cosgrave, Northamptonshire, and _ed._ at Merchant
Taylors' School and Oxf. He took orders, was Reader in Theology at
Magdalen Coll. 1855, Bampton Lecturer 1858, Prof. of Ecclesiastical
History 1867, and Dean of St. Paul's 1869. Among his writings are
_Prolegomena Logica_ (1851), _The Limits of Demonstrative Science_
(1853), _Man's Conception of Eternity_ (1854), _Limits of Religious
Thought_ (1858), _Philosophy of the Conditioned_ (1866). He was also
joint ed. of Sir. W. Hamilton's _Lectures_.

MAP, or MAPES, WALTER DE (_fl._ 1200).--Ecclesiastical statesman and
romancist. Most of the facts about him are gleaned from his _De Nugis
Curialium_ (Of the Trifles of the Courtiers), a miscellany of
contemporary notes and anecdotes, throwing much light on the manners and
opinions of the Court of Henry II. He was _b._ probably in Herefordshire,
and had Celtic blood in his veins, his _f._ had rendered service to the
King, and he had studied at Paris, and on his return attended the Court,
where he found favour, and obtained preferment both in Church and State,
and in 1173 was a travelling justice. Thereafter he attended the King,
probably as chaplain, on his foreign wars, represented him at the French
Court, and went to Rome to the Lateran Council of 1179. After the death
of Henry II. he seems to have continued in favour under Richard I. and
John, and was Archdeacon of Oxf. in 1196. M. is the reputed author of
some at least of the _Golias_ poems, rough satires on the vices of the
clergy, but his great work, which has influenced the future of English
literature, was his systematising and spiritualising the Arthurian
legends with additions of his own, including the legends of _Launcelot_,
of the _Quest of the Holy Grail_, and of the _Morte d' Arthur_.

MARKHAM, GERVASE (1568?-1637).--Translator and miscellaneous writer,
served as a soldier in the Low Countries and Ireland. Retiring into civil
life about 1593 he displayed extraordinary industry as a translator,
compiler, and original writer. Among his original writings are a poem on
the _Revenge_ (1595) (Sir R. Grenville's ship), a continuation of
Sidney's _Arcadia_, _The Discourse of Horsemanshippe_ (1593), _The Young
Sportsman's Instructor_, _Country Contentments_ (1611), and various books
on agriculture; also plays and poems, some of the latter of which are
religious.

MARLOWE, CHRISTOPHER (1564-1593).--Dramatist, _s._ of a shoemaker at
Canterbury, where he was _b._, was _ed._ at the King's School there, and
in 1581 went to Benet's (now Corpus Christi) Coll., Camb., where he
graduated B.A. 1583, and M.A. in 1587. Of his life after he left the
Univ. almost nothing is known. It has, however, been conjectured, partly
on account of his familiarity with military matters, that he saw service,
probably in the Low Countries. His first play, _Tamburlaine_, was acted
in 1587 or 1588. The story is drawn from the Spanish Life of Timur by
Pedro Mexia. Its resounding splendour, not seldom passing into bombast,
won for it immediate popularity, and it long held the stage. It was
followed in 1604 by _Faustus_, a great advance upon _Tamburlaine_ in a
dramatic sense. The absence of "material horror" in the treatment, so
different in this respect from the original legend, has often been
remarked upon. M.'s handling of the subject was greatly admired by
Goethe, who, however, in his own version, makes the motive knowledge,
while M. has power, and the mediaeval legend pleasure. In his next play,
_The Jew of Malta_, M. continues to show an advance in technical skill,
but the work is unequal, and the Jew Barabas is to Shylock as a monster
to a man. In _Edward II._, M. rises to his highest display of power. The
rhodomontade of _Tamburlaine_ and the piled-up horror of _The Jew_ are
replaced by a mature self-restraint, and in the whole workmanship he
approaches more nearly to Shakespeare than any one else has ever done.
Speaking of it Lamb says, "The death scene of Marlowe's King moves pity
and terror beyond any scene, ancient or modern, with which I am
acquainted." M. is now almost certainly believed to have had a large
share in the three parts of _Henry VI._, and perhaps also he may have
collaborated in _Titus Andronicus_. His next plays, _The Massacre of
Paris_ and _The Tragedy of Dido_ (written with Nash, _q.v._), both show a
marked falling off; and it seems likely that in his last years, perhaps,
breaking down under the effects of a wild life, he became careless of
fame as of all else. Greene, in his _Groat's Worth of Wit_, written on
his deathbed, reproaches him with his evil life and atheistic opinions,
and a few days before his hapless death an information was laid against
him for blasphemy. The informer was next year hanged for an outrageous
offence, and his witness alone might not be conclusive, but M.'s life and
opinions, which he made no secret of, were notorious. On the other hand,
his friends, Shakespeare, Nash, Drayton, and Chapman, all make kindly
reference to him. To escape the plague which was raging in London in
1593, he was living at Deptford, then a country village, and there in a
tavern brawl he received a wound in the head, his own knife being turned
against him by a serving man, upon whom he had drawn it. The quarrel was
about a girl of the town. The parish record bears the entry, "Christopher
Marlowe, slain by ffrancis Archer, the 1 of June 1593." M. is the father
of the modern English drama, and the introducer of the modern form of
blank verse. In imagination, richness of expression, originality, and
general poetic and dramatic power he is inferior to Shakespeare alone
among the Elizabethans. In addition to his plays he wrote some short
poems (of which the best known is _Come live with me and be my love_),
translations from Ovid's _Amores_ and Lucan's _Pharsalia_, and a glowing
paraphrase of Musaeus' _Hero and Leander_, a poem completed by Chapman.

Ed. of _Works_ by Dyce, Cunningham, and Bullen; Ingram's _C. Marlowe and
his Associates_, etc.

MARMION, SHACKERLEY (1603-1639).--Dramatist, _s._ of a country gentleman
of Northamptonshire, was _ed._ at Oxford. After a youth of extravagance,
he fought in the Low Countries. His writings consist of an epic, _Cupid
and Psyche_, and three comedies, _Holland's Leaguer_, _A Fair Companion_,
and _The Antiquary_. His plays show some power of satire, and were
popular, but he had little of the dramatist.

MARRYAT, FREDERICK (1792-1848).--Novelist, _s._ of a West India merchant,
was _b._ in London. In 1806 he entered the navy as a midshipman under
Lord Cochrane (afterwards Earl of Dundonald), and saw much service in the
Mediterranean, at Walcheren, and in the Burmese War of 1824. He returned
in 1830 as a Captain and C.B. The scenes and experiences through which
he had passed were the preparation for and the foundation of his numerous
novels, of which the first, _Frank Mildmay_, was _pub._ in 1829. It was
followed by over 30 others, of which perhaps the best are _Peter Simple_,
_Jacob Faithful_ (1834), _Mr. Midshipman Easy_ (1836), _The Dog Fiend_
(1837), and _The Phantom Ship_ (1839). M. is the prince of sea
story-tellers; his knowledge of the sea, vigorous definition of
character, and hearty and honest, if somewhat broad, humour never failing
to please.

MARSH, HERBERT (1757-1839).--Theologian and controversialist, _s._ of a
clergyman, _ed._ at Canterbury, Cambridge, and Leipsic, was the first to
introduce the German methods of Biblical criticism into England, and gave
lectures on the subject at Camb., which excited great interest and
controversy. In 1816 he was made Bishop of Llandaff, and was translated
to Peterborough in 1819. His critical views and his opposition to the
evangelical party in the Church, to the Bible Society, to hymns in Divine
service, and to Catholic emancipation, involved him in controversy with
high, low, and broad churchmen alike. He was the author of a _History of
the Politics of Great Britain and France_ (1799), _Comparative View of
the Churches of England and Rome_, and _Horae Pelasgicae_.

MARSTON, JOHN (1575?-1634).--Dramatist and satirist, _b._ at Coventry,
was _ed._ at Oxf. In later life he gave up writing for the stage, took
orders, and was incumbent of Christchurch, Hants, 1616-31. He began his
literary career in 1598 with satire, _The Scourge of Villanie_ and _The
Metamorphosis of Pygmalion's Image_ (1598), the latter of which was
burned by order of Archbishop Whitgift. In 1602 appeared _The History of
Antonio and Mellida_, and its sequel, _Antonio's Revenge_, ridiculed by
Ben Jonson. In repayment of this M. co-operated with Dekker in attacking
Jonson in _Satiromastix_ (a Whip for the Satirist). A reconciliation,
however, took place, and his comedy, _The Malcontent_ (1604), was
dedicated to J., another, _Eastward Ho_ (1605), was written in
collaboration with him and Chapman. Other plays of his are _Sophonisba_,
_What You Will_ (1607), and possibly _The Insatiate Countess_ (1613).
Amid much bombast and verbiage there are many fine passages in M.'s
dramas, especially where scorn and indignation are the motives. Sombre
and caustic, he has been called "a screech-owl among the singing birds."

MARSTON, PHILIP BOURKE (1850-1887).--Poet, was _b._ in London, and lost
his sight at the age of 3. His poems, _Song-tide_, _All in All_, and
_Wind Voices_ bear, in their sadness, the impress of this affliction, and
of a long series of bereavements. He was the friend of Rossetti and of
Swinburne, the latter of whom has written a sonnet to his memory.

MARTIN, SIR THEODORE (1816-1909).--Poet, biographer, and translator, _s._
of James M., solicitor in Edin., where he was _b._ and _ed._ at the High
School and Univ. He practised as a solicitor in Edin. 1840-45, after
which he went to London and became head of the firm of Martin and Leslie,
parliamentary agents. His first contribution to literature was _The Bon
Gaultier Ballads_, written along with W.E. Aytoun (_q.v._), full of wit
and humour, which still retain their popularity; originally contributed
to a magazine, they appeared in book form in 1855. His translations
include _Dante's Vila Nuova_, Oehlenschlaeger's _Correggio_ and _Aladdin_,
Heine's _Poems and Ballads_, Schiller's _Song of the Bell_, and Hertz's
_King Rene's Daughter_. He also _pub._ a complete translation of Horace
with a Life, and one of Catullus. He is, however, perhaps best known for
his _Life of the Prince Consort_ (1874-80), the writing of which was
committed to him by Queen Victoria, a work which he executed with such
ability and tact as to win for him her lifelong friendship. He also wrote
Lives of Prof. Aytoun and Lord Lyndhurst. He _m._ in 1851 Miss Helen
Faucit (_d._ 1898), the well-known actress, and authoress of studies on
_Shakespeare's Female Characters_, whose Life he _pub._ in 1901. M. kept
up his intellectual activity into old age, _pub._ in 1905 a translation
of Leopardi's poems, and _Monographs_ (1906). He was Lord Rector of St.
Andrews 1881, LL.D. of Edin. 1875, and K.C.B. 1880.

MARTINEAU, HARRIET (1802-1876).--Novelist and economist, _b._ at Norwich,
where her _f._, descended from a French family, was a manufacturer. From
her earliest years she was delicate and very deaf, and took to literary
pursuits as an amusement. Afterwards, when her _f._ had fallen into
difficulties, they became her means of support. Her first publication was
_Devotional Exercises for Young Persons_ (1823). Becoming interested in
political economy, she endeavoured to illustrate the subject by tales, of
which two were _The Rioters_ and _The Turn-out_. Later she _pub._ a more
serious treatment of it in _Illustrations of Political Economy_ (1832-4),
_Poor Law and Paupers_ (1833), and _Illustrations of Taxation_ (1834).
About this time she went to London, and was regarded as an authority on
economic questions, being occasionally consulted by Cabinet Ministers.
Among her books of travel are _Society in America_ (1837), and _Eastern
Life, Present and Past_ (1848), which she considered her best book: in it
she declared herself no longer a believer in revelation. She also wrote
two novels, _Deerbrook_ (1839), and _The Hour and the Man_ (1840), also a
number of books for children. Perhaps her most important work is her
_History of England during the Thirty Years' Peace_, 1816-46, which
appeared in 1849. She translated Comte's _Philosophy_ (1853), and _pub._
a collection of letters between herself and Mr. H.G. Atkinson _On the
Laws of Man's Nature and Development_, which encountered severe
criticism. In addition to her separate publications she wrote innumerable
articles for newspapers, specially the _Daily News_, and for periodicals.
In 1845 she settled in the Lake District, where she died.

MARTINEAU, JAMES (1805-1900).--Unitarian theologian, younger brother of
the above, was _b._ at Norwich. Possessed of considerable inventive and
mathematical talents, he was originally intended for engineering, but
studied for the Unitarian ministry, to which he was ordained in 1828.
After serving as pastor in various places he became in 1840 Prof. of
Mental and Moral Philosophy in the Manchester New Coll. (subsequently
removed to London), and Principal 1869-85. Among his writings, which were
very influential, are _Rationale of Religious Inquiry_ (1836), _Ideal
Substitutes for God_ (1879), _Study of Spinoza_ (1882), _Types of Ethical
Theory_ (1885), _Study of Religion_ (1888), _Seat of Authority in
Religion_ (1890), and religious poems and hymns. M. was a man of very
elevated character and powerful intellect; of great acuteness, candour,
and openness to new ideas. He was D.D. of Edin. 1884, and D.C.L. of Oxf.
1888.

MARVELL, ANDREW (1621-1678).--Poet and satirist, _s._ of the Rector of
Winestead, Yorkshire, where he was _b._, _ed._ Camb., and thereafter
travelled in various Continental countries. He sat in Parliament for
Hull, proving himself an assiduous and incorruptible member, with strong
republican leanings. In spite of this he was a favourite of Charles II.,
who took pleasure in his society, and offered him a place at Court, and a
present of L1000, which were both declined. In his own day he was best
known as a powerful and fearless political writer, and for some time from
1657 was assistant to Milton as Latin Sec. After the Restoration he wrote
against the Government, his chief work in this kind being on the _Growth
of Popery and Arbitrary Government in England_ (1677). He was also the
author of an _Historical Essay regarding General Councils_. His
controversial style was lively and vigorous, but sometimes coarse and
vituperative. His fame now rests on his poems which, though few, have
many of the highest poetical qualities. Among the best known are _The
Emigrants in the Bermudas_, _The Nymph complaining for the Death of her
Fawn_, and _Thoughts in a Garden_. Of the last Palgrave says that "it may
be regarded as a test of any reader's insight into the most poetical
aspects of poetry," and his _Horatian Ode on Cromwell's Return from
Ireland_. The town of Hull voted him a monument, which was, however,
forbidden by the Court. His appearance is thus described, "He was of
middling stature, pretty strong-set, roundish-faced, cherry-cheeked,
hazel-eyed, brown-haired."

_Life and Works_ by Cooke, 1726, reprinted 1772; Thomson, 1726; Dove,
1832; and specially Grosart (4 vols., 1872-74).

MASON, WILLIAM (1724-1797).--Poet, _s._ of a clergyman, was _b._ at Hull,
and _ed._ at Camb. He took orders and rose to be a Canon of York. His
first poem was _Musaeus_, a monody on the death of Pope, and his other
works include _Elfrida_ (1752), and _Caractacus_ (1759), dramas--an
_Heroic Epistle_ to Sir William Chambers, the architect, in which he
satirised some modern fashions in gardening, _The English Garden_, his
largest work, and some odes. He was a close friend of Gray, whose Life he
wrote. His language was too magnificent for his powers of thought, but he
has passages where the rich diction has a pleasing effect.

MASSEY, GERALD (1828-1907).--Poet, _b._ near Tring, Herts. As a boy he
worked in a silk-factory, and as a straw-plaiter and errand boy. When he
was 15 he came to London, where he was taken up by Maurice and Kingsley.
His first book was _pub._ in 1851, but he first attracted attention by
_Babe Christabel_ (1854). This was followed by _War Waits_, _Craigcrook
Castle_, and _Havelock's March_. A selection from these was _pub._ 1889,
under the title of _My Lyrical Life_. Later he wrote and lectured on
spiritualism, and produced prose works on the origin of myths and
mysteries in _The Book of Beginnings_ (1881), _The Natural Genesis_
(1883), and _Ancient Egypt: the Light of the World_ (1907). He also wrote
a book on the sonnets of Shakespeare. M. had a true lyrical vein, but
though often musical, he was at times harsh and rugged, and did not give
sufficient attention to form and finish.

MASSINGER, PHILIP (1583-1640).--Dramatist, was probably _b._ at
Salisbury. His _f._ appears to have been a retainer of the Earl of
Pembroke, by whom and by Queen Elizabeth he was employed in a
confidential capacity. M. was at Oxf., but quitted the Univ. suddenly
without graduating. He is next found in London writing for the stage,
frequently in collaboration with others. Few details of his life have
come down, but it seems that he was on the whole unfortunate. He was
found dead in bed on March 16, 1640, and was buried in St. Saviour's,
Southwark, by some of the actors. The burial register has the entry,
"buried Philip Massinger, a stranger." Of the many plays which he wrote
or had a hand in, 15 believed to be entirely his are extant, other 8 were
burned by a servant in the 18th century. He, however, collaborated so
much with others--Fletcher, Dekker, etc., that much fine work probably
his can only be identified by internal evidence. Among his plays may be
mentioned _The Unnatural Combat_ (_pr._ 1639), _The Virgin Martyr_ (1622)
(partly by Dekker), which contains perhaps his finest writing. His best
plays on the whole, however, are _The City Madam_ (1632), and _A New Way
to pay Old Debts_ (_pr._ 1633), which latter kept the stage until the
19th century. He is believed to have joined with Fletcher and Shakespeare
in _Henry VIII._ and _The Two Noble Kinsmen_. Other plays which he wrote
or had a hand in are _The Duke of Milan_, _The Bondman_, _The Renegado_,
_The Roman Actor_, _The Great Duke of Florence_, _The Maid of Honour_,
_The Picture_, and _The Fatal Dowry_. His verse is fluent and sweet, and
in his grave and reflective passages he rises to a rich and stately
music. He often repeats himself, has little humour, and is not seldom
coarse. He has, however, much skill in the construction and working out
of a story.

MASSON, DAVID (1822-1907).--Biographer and historian, _b._ at Aberdeen,
and _ed._ at Marischal Coll. there and at Edin., where he studied
theology under Chalmers. He did not, however, enter the Church, but began
a literary career by ed. a newspaper in Aberdeen. He then returned to
Edin., where he worked for the brothers Chambers, the eminent publishers,
and where he became acquainted with Wilson, Sir William Hamilton, and
Chalmers, for the last of whom he cherished an extraordinary veneration.
Going to London in 1847 he wrote extensively in reviews, magazines, and
encyclopaedias. In 1852 he became Prof. of English Literature in Univ.
Coll., and in 1858 ed. of _Macmillan's Magazine_. He was appointed in
1865 Prof. of English Literature in Edin., where he exercised a profound
influence on his students, many of whom have risen to high positions in
literature. Though a most laborious student and man of letters, M. took a
warm interest in various public questions, including Italian
emancipation, and the higher education of women. He was the author of
many important works, including _Essays Biographical and Critical_
(1856), _British Novelists_ (1859), and _Recent British Philosophy_
(1865). His _magnum opus_ is his monumental _Life of John Milton_ (6
vols., 1859-80) the most complete biography of any Englishman, dealing as
it does not only with the personal life of the poet, but with the
history, political, social, and religious of his time. Other books are
_Drummond of Hawthornden_ (1873), _De Quincey_ (in English Men of Letters
Series) (1878), _Edinburgh Sketches and Memories_ (1892), and _Carlyle
Personally and in his Writings_. He also ed. the standard ed. of De
Quincey's works, and the Register of the Privy Council of Scotland, his
introductions in connection with which are of great historical value. He
was appointed Historiographer for Scotland in 1893. M. was full of
learning guided by sagacity, genial, broad-minded, and sane in his
judgments of men and things, and thoroughly honest and sincere.

MATHER, COTTON (1663-1728).--Divine, _s._ of Increase M., a leading
American divine, was _ed._ at Harvard, became a minister, and was
colleague to his _f._ He was laborious, able, and learned, but extremely
bigoted and self-sufficient. He carried on a persecution of so-called
"witches," which led to the shedding of much innocent blood; on the other
hand he was so much of a reformer as to advocate inoculation for
small-pox. He was a copious author, his chief work being _Magnalia
Christi Americana_ (1702), an ecclesiastical history of New England.
Others were _Late Memorable Providences relating to Witchcraft and
Possession_ (1689), and _The Wonders of the Invisible World_ (1693). In
his later years he admitted that "he had gone too far" in his crusade
against witches.

MATHIAS, THOMAS JAMES (1754?-1835).--Satirist, _ed._ at Camb., and held
some minor appointments in the Royal household. He was an accomplished
Italian scholar, and made various translations from the English into
Italian, and _vice versa_. He also produced a fine ed. of Gray, on which
he lost heavily. His chief work, however, was _The Pursuits of
Literature_ (1794), an undiscriminating satire on his literary
contemporaries which went through 16 ed., but is now almost forgotten.

MATURIN, CHARLES ROBERT (1782-1824).--Novelist, _b._ in Dublin of
Huguenot ancestry, was _ed._ at Trinity Coll. there, and taking orders
held various benefices. He was the author of a few dramas, one of which,
_Bertram_, had some success. He is, perhaps, better known for his
romances in the style of Mrs. Radcliffe and "Monk" Lewis. The first of
these, _The Fatal Revenge_ appeared in 1807, and was followed by, among
others, _The Milesian Chief_ (1812), _Women_, which was the most
successful, and lastly by _Melmoth_, in which he outdoes his models in
the mysterious, the horrible, and indeed the revolting, without, except
very occasionally, reaching their power. His last work, _The Albigenses_,
in a somewhat different style, was _pub._ in the year of his death.

MAURICE, FREDERICK DENISON (1805-1872).--Divine, _s._ of a Unitarian
minister, was _b._ at Normanston, near Lowestoft, and studied at Camb.,
but being then a Dissenter, could not graduate. He went to London, and
engaged in literary work, writing for the _Westminster Review_ and other
periodicals, and for a short time ed. the _Athenaeum_. His theological
views having changed, he joined the Church of England, went to Oxf.,
graduated, and was ordained 1834. He became Chaplain to Guy's Hospital,
and held other clerical positions in London. In 1840 he was appointed
Prof. of English Literature and History at King's Coll., and
subsequently Prof. of Theology. He became a leader among the Christian
socialists, and for a short time ed. their paper. On the publication of
his _Theological Essays_ in 1853 he was asked to resign his professorship
at King's Coll. In 1854 he was one of the founders of the Working Men's
Coll., of which he became Principal, and in 1866 he was made Prof. of
Moral Philosophy at Camb. Among his writings are _The Religions of the
World and their Relation to Christianity_, _Moral and Metaphysical
Philosophy_, _The Prophets and Kings of the Old Testament_ (1853), _The
Doctrine of Sacrifice_, and _Theological Essays_. M.'s style was copious,
and was often blamed as obscure; nevertheless, he exercised an
extraordinary influence over some of the best minds of his time by the
originality of his views, and the purity and elevation of his character.

MAXWELL, WILLIAM HAMILTON (1792-1850).--Novelist, a Scoto-Irishman, _b._
at Newry, and _ed._ at Trinity Coll., Dublin, entered the army, and saw
service in the Peninsula, and at Waterloo. Afterwards he took orders, but
was deprived of his living for non-residence. His novels, _O'Hara_, and
_Stories from Waterloo_, started the school of rollicking military
fiction, which culminated in the novels of Lever. M. also wrote a Life of
the Duke of Wellington, and a _History of the Irish Rebellion_.

MAX-MUeLLER, FRIEDRICH (1823-1900).--Philologist, _s._ of the German poet,
Wilhelm M., was _b._ at Dessau, and _ed._ at Leipzig, Berlin, and Paris.
In 1846 he was requested by the East India Company to ed. the _Rig Veda_.
He settled at Oxf. in 1848, and in 1850 was appointed deputy Taylorian
Prof. of Modern European languages, becoming Prof. 4 years later, and
Curator of the Bodleian Library in 1856. In 1868 he was elected first
Prof. of Comparative Philology. He ed. _Sacred Books of the East_, and
wrote in English _Chips from a German Workshop_ (1867-75). He did much to
stimulate the study of comparative religion and philology. He was made a
Privy Councillor in 1896.

MAY, THOMAS (1595-1650).--Poet and historian, _b._ in Sussex, _s._ of Sir
Thomas M., of Mayfield, went to Camb., and thence to Gray's Inn, but
discarded law for literature. In 1622 he produced his first comedy, _The
Heir_, and also a translation of Virgil's _Georgics_. Six years later,
1627, appeared his translation of _Lucan_, which gained him the favour of
Charles I. at whose command he wrote two poems, _The Reigne of King Henry
II._, and _The Victorious Reigne of King Edward III._, each in 7 books.
When the Civil War broke out M., to the disappointment of his friends,
took the side of the Parliament, and was made Sec. to the Long
Parliament, the historian of which he became, _pub._ 1647, _The History
of the Parliament of England, which began Nov. 3, 1640_. This work he
prefaced with a short review of the preceding reigns from that of
Elizabeth. The narrative closes with the Battle of Newbury, 1643, and is
characterised by fulness of information and candour. M. was also the
author of several tragedies, including _Antigone_, of no great merit.

MAY, SIR THOMAS ERSKINE, 1ST BARON FARNBOROUGH (1815-1886).--Jurist and
historian, _ed._ at Bedford School, and after holding various minor
offices became in 1871 clerk to the House of Commons, retiring in 1886,
when he was raised to the peerage. He had previously, 1866, been made
K.C.B. He was the author of a treatise on the laws, privileges, etc., of
Parliament, which, first _pub._ in 1844, reached in 1901 its tenth ed.,
and was translated into various languages. His _Constitutional History of
England_, 1760-1860 is practically a continuation of Hallam's great work.
He also wrote _Democracy in Europe_. As an historical writer M. was
learned, painstaking, and impartial.

MAYNE, JASPER (1604-1672).--Dramatist, was at Oxf., entered the Church,
and became Archdeacon of Chichester. He wrote two dramas, _The City
Match_ (1639), and _The Amorous War_ (1648), in neither of which did he
sustain the clerical character. He had, however, some humour.

MAYNE, JOHN (1759-1836).--Poet, was _b._ in Dumfries. In 1780 he _pub._
the _Siller Gun_ in its original form in _Ruddiman's Magazine_. It is a
humorous poem descriptive of an ancient custom in Dumfries of shooting
for the "Siller Gun." He was continually adding to it, until it grew to 5
cantos. He also wrote a poem on _Hallowe'en_, and a version of the
ballad, _Helen of Kirkconnel_. His verses were admired by Scott.

MELVILLE, HERMAN (1819-1891).--Novelist, _b._ in New York, and took to
the sea, which led to strange adventures, including an imprisonment of
some months in the hands of cannibals in the Marquesas Islands. His first
novel, _Typee_ (1846), is based upon this experience. _Omoo_ followed in
1847, _Moby Dick, or the White Whale_, a powerful sea story, in 1852, and
_Israel Potter_ in 1855. He was a very unequal writer, but occasionally
showed considerable power and originality.

MELVILLE, JAMES (1556-1614).--Scottish divine and reformer, _s._ of the
laird of Baldovie, in Forfarshire, and nephew of the great reformer and
scholar, Andrew M., by whom, when Principal of the Univ. of Glasgow, he
was chosen to assist him as a regent or professor. When, in 1580, Andrew
became Principal of St. Mary's Coll., St. Andrews, James accompanied him,
and acted as Prof. of Hebrew and Oriental Languages. He wrote many poems,
but his chief work was his _Diary_, an original authority for the period,
written with much naivete, and revealing a singularly attractive
personality. M., who for his part in Church matters, had been banished to
England, _d._ at Berwick on his way back to Scotland.

MELVILLE, SIR JAMES (1535-1617).--Historian, _s._ of Sir John M., of
Hallhill, was a page to Mary Queen of Scots at the French Court, and
afterwards one of her Privy Council. He also acted as her envoy to Queen
Elizabeth and the Elector Palatine. He was the author of an autobiography
which is one of the original authorities for the period. The MS., which
lay for long hidden in Edin. Castle, was discovered in 1660, and _pub._
1683. A later ed. was brought out in 1827 by the Bannatyne Club. The work
is written in a lively style, but is not always to be implicitly relied
upon in regard either to facts or the characters attributed to
individuals.

MEREDITH, GEORGE (1828-1909).--Novelist and poet, _b._ at Portsmouth,
_s._ of Augustus M., a naval outfitter, who afterwards went to Cape Town,
and _ed._ at Portsmouth and Neuwied in Germany. Owing to the neglect of a
trustee, what means he had inherited were lost, and he was in his early
days very poor. Articled to a lawyer in London, he had no taste for law,
which he soon exchanged for journalism, and at 21 he was writing poetry
for magazines, his first printed work, a poem on the Battle of
Chillianwallah, appearing in _Chambers's Journal_. Two years later he
_pub._ _Poems_ (1851), containing _Love in the Valley_. Meantime he had
been ed. a small provincial newspaper, and in 1866 he was war
correspondent in Italy for the _Morning Post_, and he also acted for many
years as literary adviser to Chapman and Hall. By this time, however, he
had produced several of his novels. _The Shaving of Shagpat_ had appeared
in 1856, _Farina_ in 1857, _The Ordeal of Richard Feverel_ in 1859, _Evan
Harrington_ in 1861, _Emilia in England_ (also known as _Sandra Belloni_)
in 1864, its sequel, _Vittoria_, in 1866, and _Rhoda Fleming_ in 1865. In
poetry he had produced _Modern Love and Poems of the English Roadside_
(1862), generally regarded as his best poetical work. These were followed
by _The Adventures of Harry Richmond_ (1871), _Beauchamp's Career_
(1875), said to be the author's favourite, _The Egoist_ (1879), which
marks the beginning of a change in style characterised by an even greater
fastidiousness in the choice of words, phrases, and condensation of
thought than its predecessors, _The Tragic Comedians_ (1880), and _Diana
of the Crossways_, the first of the author's novels to attain anything
approaching general popularity. The same period yielded in poetry, _Poems
and Lyrics of the Joy of Earth_ (1883), _Ballads and Poems of Tragic
Life_ (1887), and _A Reading of Earth_ (1888). His later novels, _One of
our Conquerors_ (1891), _Lord Ormont and his Aminta_ (1894), and _The
Amazing Marriage_ (1895), exhibit a tendency to accentuate those
qualities of style which denied general popularity to all of M.'s works,
and they did little to add to his reputation. The contemporary poems
include _The Empty Purse_ and _Jump to Glory Jane_ (1892). In 1905 he
received the Order of Merit, and he _d._ on May 19, 1909. He was twice
_m._, his first wife, who _d._ 1860, being a _dau._ of Thomas Love
Peacock (_q.v._). This union did not prove in all respects happy. His
second wife was Miss Vulliamy, who _d._ 1885. In his earlier life he was
vigorous and athletic, and a great walker; latterly he lost all power of
locomotion.

Though the writings of M. never were and probably never will be generally
popular, his genius was, from the very first, recognised by the best
judges. All through he wrote for the reader who brought something of
mind, thought, and attention, not for him who read merely to be amused
without trouble; and it is therefore futile to attribute failure to him
because he did not achieve what he did not aim at. Nevertheless, the long
delay in receiving even the kind of recognition which he sought was a
disappointment to him. Few writers have striven to charge sentences and
even words so heavily with meaning, or to attain so great a degree of
condensation, with the result that links in the chain of thought are not
seldom omitted and left for the careful reader to supply. There is also a
tendency to adopt unusual words and forms of expression where plainness
and simplicity would have served as well, and these features taken
together give reason for the charges of obscurity and affectation so
often made. Moreover, the discussion of motive and feeling is often out
of proportion to the narrative of the events and circumstances to which
they stand related. But to compensate us for these defects he offers
humour, often, indeed, whimsical, but keen and sparkling, close
observation of and exquisite feeling for nature, a marvellous power of
word-painting, the most delicate and penetrating analysis of character,
and an invincible optimism which, while not blind to the darker aspects
of life, triumphs over the depression which they might induce in a weaker
nature. In matters of faith and dogma his standpoint was distinctly
negative.

MERES, FRANCIS (1565-1647).--Miscellaneous author, was of a Lincolnshire
family, studied at Camb. and Oxf., and became Rector of Wing in Rutland.
He _pub._ in 1598 _Palladis Tamia: Wit's Treasury_, containing a
comparison of English poets with Greek, Latin, and Italian.

MERIVALE, CHARLES (1808-1893).--Historian, _s._ of John Herman M., a
translator and minor poet, _b._ in London, _ed._ at Harrow, Haileybury,
and Camb., he took orders, and among other preferments held those of
chaplain to the Speaker of the House of Commons, 1863-69, and Dean of
Ely. From his college days he was a keen student of Roman history, and
between 1850 and 1864 he _pub._ his _History of the Romans under the
Empire_, an able and scholarly work, though considered by some critics to
be too favourable to the Emperors, and the imperial idea. An earlier work
was _The Fall of the Roman Republic_ (1853).

MERRIMAN, H. SETON, (_see_ SCOTT, H.S.).

MESTON, WILLIAM (1688?-1745).--_S._ of a blacksmith, was _ed._ at
Marischal Coll., Aberdeen, took part in the '15, and had to go into
hiding. His _Knight of the Kirk_ (1723) is an imitation of _Hudibras_. It
has little merit.

MICKLE, WILLIAM JULIUS (1735-1788).--Poet, _s._ of the minister of
Langholm, Dumfriesshire, was for some time a brewer in Edin., but failed.
He went to Oxf., where he was corrector for the Clarendon Press. After
various literary failures and minor successes he produced his translation
of the _Lusiad_, from the Portuguese of Camoens, which brought him both
fame and money. In 1777 he went to Portugal, where he was received with
distinction. In 1784 he _pub._ the ballad of _Cumnor Hall_, which
suggested to Scott the writing of _Kenilworth_. He is perhaps best
remembered, however, by the beautiful lyric, _There's nae luck aboot the
Hoose_, which, although claimed by others, is almost certainly his.

MIDDLETON, CONYERS (1683-1750).--Divine and scholar, _b._ at Richmond,
Yorkshire, and _ed._ at Camb. He was the author of several latitudinarian
treatises on miracles, etc., which brought him into controversy with
Waterland (_q.v._) and others, and of a _Life of Cicero_ (1741), largely
plagiarised from William Bellenden, a Scottish writer of the 17th
century. Another of his controversies was with Bentley on college
administration. He was master of a very fine literary style.

MIDDLETON, THOMAS (1570-1627).--Dramatist, was a Londoner and city
chronologer, in which capacity he composed a chronicle of the city, now
lost. He wrote over 20 plays, chiefly comedies, besides masques and
pageants, and collaborated with Dekker, Webster, and other playwrights.
His best plays are _The Changeling_, _The Spanish Gipsy_ (both with
Rowley), and _Women beware Women_. Another, _The Game of Chess_ (1624),
got the author and the players alike into trouble on account of its
having brought the King of Spain and other public characters upon the
stage. They, however, got off with a severe reprimand. M. was a keen
observer of London life, and shone most in scenes of strong passion. He
is, however, unequal and repeats himself. Other plays are: _The Phoenix_,
_Michaelmas Term_ (1607), _A Trick to Catch the old One_ (1608), _The
Familie of Love_ (1608), _A Mad World, My Masters_ (1608), _The Roaring
Girl_ (1611) (with Dekker), _The Old Law_ (1656) (with Massinger and
Rowley), _A Faire Quarrel_ (1617); and among his pageants and masques are
_The Triumphs of Truth_ (1613), _The Triumphs of Honour and Industry_
(1617), _The Inner Temple Masque_ (1619), etc.

MILL, JAMES (1773-1836).--Philosopher and historian, _s._ of a shoemaker,
was _b._ at Montrose, and showing signs of superior ability, was sent to
the Univ. of Edin. with a view to the ministry. He was licensed as a
preacher in 1798, but gave up the idea of the Church, and going to London
in 1802 engaged in literary work, ed. the _St. James's Chronicle_, and
wrote for the _Edinburgh Review_. In 1806 he began his _History of
British India_ (1817-18), and in 1819 received the appointment of
Assistant Examiner to the India Office, and in 1834 became head of the
department. M. had meanwhile become the intimate friend of Jeremy
Bentham, was perhaps the chief exponent of the utilitarian philosophy,
and was also one of the founders of the London Univ. His philosophical
writings include _Elements of Political Economy_ (1821), and _Analysis of
the Human Mind_ (1824). M.'s intellect was powerful, though rigid and
somewhat narrow; his style was clear and precise, and his conversational
powers very remarkable, and influential in moulding the opinions of those
who came into contact with him, especially his distinguished son, John
Stuart (_q.v._).

MILL, JOHN STUART (1806-1873).--Philosopher, _s._ of the above, _b._ in
London, was _ed._ by his _f._ with the view of making him the successor
of Bentham and himself, as the exponent of the Utilitarian philosophy. In
all respects he proved an apt pupil, and by his 15th year had studied
classical literature, logic, political economy, and mathematics. In that
year he went to France, where he was under the charge of Sir S. Bentham,
a brother of Jeremy. His studies had led him to the adoption of the
utilitarian philosophy, and after his return he became acquainted with
Grote, the Austins, and other Benthamites. In 1823 he entered the India
House as a clerk, and, like his _f._, rose to be examiner of Indian
correspondence; and, on the dissolution of the Company, retired on a
liberal pension. In 1825 he ed. Bentham's _Rationale of Judicial
Evidence_. During the following years he was a frequent contributor to
Radical journals, and ed. the _London Review_. His _Logic_ appeared in
1843, and produced a profound impression; and in 1848 he _pub._
_Principles of Political Economy_. The years between 1858 and 1865 were
very productive, his treatises on _Liberty_, _Utilitarianism_,
_Representative Government_, and his _Examination of Sir W. Hamilton's
Philosophy_ being _pub._ during this period. In 1865 he entered the House
of Commons as one of the members for Westminster, where, though highly
respected, he made no great mark. After this political parenthesis he
returned to his literary pursuits, and wrote _The Subjection of Women_
(1869), _The Irish Land Question_ (1870), and an _Autobiography_. M. had
_m._ in 1851 Mrs. Taylor, for whom he showed an extraordinary devotion,
and whom he survived for 15 years. He _d._ at Avignon. His
_Autobiography_ gives a singular, and in some respects painful account of
the methods and views of his _f._ in his education. Though remaining all
his life an adherent of the utilitarian philosophy, M. did not transmit
it to his disciples altogether unmodified, but, finding it too narrow and
rigid for his own intellectual and moral requirements, devoted himself to
widening it, and infusing into it a certain element of idealism.

Bain's _Criticism with Personal Recollections_ (1882), L. Courtney's
_John Stuart Mill_ (1889), _Autobiography_, Stephens's _Utilitarians_, J.
Grote's _Examination of the Utilitarian Philosophy of Mill_, etc.

MILLER, HUGH (1802-1856).--Geologist, and man of letters, _b._ at
Cromarty, had the ordinary parish school education, and early showed a
remarkable love of reading and power of story-telling. At 17 he was
apprenticed to a stonemason, and his work in quarries, together with
rambles among the rocks of his native shore, led him to the study of
geology. In 1829 he _pub._ a vol. of poems, and soon afterwards threw
himself as an ardent and effective combatant into the controversies,
first of the Reform Bill, and thereafter of the Scottish Church question.
In 1834 he became accountant in one of the local banks, and in the next
year brought out his _Scenes and Legends in the North of Scotland_. In
1840 the popular party in the Church, with which he had been associated,
started a newspaper, _The Witness_, and M. was called to be ed., a
position which he retained till the end of his life, and in which he
showed conspicuous ability. Among his geological works are _The Old Red
Sandstone_ (1841), _Footprints of the Creator_ (1850), _The Testimony of
the Rocks_ (1856), and _Sketch-book of Popular Geology_. Other books are:
_My Schools and Schoolmasters_, an autobiography of remarkable interest,
_First Impressions of England and its People_ (1847), and _The Cruise of
the Betsy_. Of the geological books, perhaps that on the old red
sandstone, a department in which M. was a discoverer, is the best: but
all his writings are distinguished by great literary excellence, and
especially by a marvellous power of vivid description. The end of his
life was most tragic. He had for long been overworking his brain, which
at last gave way, and in a temporary loss of reason, he shot himself
during the night.

_Life and Letters_, P. Bayne (1871), etc.

MILLER, THOMAS (1807-1874).--Poet and novelist, of humble parentage,
worked in early life as a basket-maker. He _pub._ _Songs of the Sea
Nymphs_ (1832). Going to London he was befriended by Lady Blessington
(_q.v._) and S. Rogers (_q.v._), and for a time engaged in business as a
bookseller, but was unsuccessful and devoted himself exclusively to
literature, producing over 40 vols., including several novels, _e.g._,
_Royston Gower_ (1838), _Gideon Giles the Roper_, and _Rural Sketches_.
In his stories he successfully delineated rural characters and scenes.

MILMAN, HENRY HART (1791-1868).--Poet and historian, _s._ of Sir Francis
M., a distinguished physician, _ed._ at Eton and Oxf. Taking orders he
became in 1835 Rector of St. Margaret's, Westminster, and in 1849 Dean of
St. Paul's. He also held the professorship of Poetry at Oxf. 1821-31.
Among his poetical works may be mentioned _Fazio_ (drama) (1815), _Samor_
(epic) (1818), _The Fall of Jerusalem_ (1820), _The Martyr of Antioch_
(1822), and _Anne Boleyn_ (1826). It is, however, on his work as an
historian that his literary fame chiefly rests, his chief works in this
department being his _History of the Jews_ (1830), _History of
Christianity_ (1840), and especially _The History of Latin Christianity_
(6 vols. 1854-56), which is one of the most important historical works of
the century, characterised alike by literary distinction and by learning
and research. M. also brought out a valuable ed. of Gibbon's _Decline and
Fall_, and wrote a _History of St. Paul's Cathedral_.

MILNES, R. MONCKTON, (_see_ HOUGHTON).

MILTON, JOHN (1608-1674).--Poet, was _b._ 9th December 1608 in Bread
Street, London. His _f._, also John, was the _s._ of a yeoman of
Oxfordshire, who cast him off on his becoming a Protestant. He had then
become a scrivener in London, and grew to be a man of good estate. From
him his illustrious _s._ inherited his lofty integrity, and his love of,
and proficiency in, music. M. received his first education from a Scotch
friend of his father's, Thomas Young, a Puritan of some note, one of the
writers of _Smectymnuus_. Thereafter he was at St. Paul's School, and in
1625 went to Christ's Coll., Camb., where for his beauty and his delicacy
of mind he was nicknamed "the lady." His sister Anne had _m._ Edward
Phillips, and the death of her first child in infancy gave to him the
subject of his earliest poem, _On the death of a Fair Infant_ (1626). It
was followed during his 7 years' life at the Univ., along with others, by
the poems, _On the Morning of Christ's Nativity_ (1629), _On the
Circumcision_, _The Passion_, _Time_, _At a Solemn Music_, _On May
Morning_, and _On Shakespeare_, all in 1630; and two sonnets, _To the
Nightingale_ and _On arriving at the Age of Twenty-three_, in 1631. In
1632, having given up the idea of entering the Church, for which his _f._
had intended him, he lived for 6 years at Horton, near Windsor, to which
the latter had retired, devoted to further study. Here he wrote
_L'Allegro_ and _Il Penseroso_ in 1632, _Arcades_ (1633), _Comus_ in
1634, and _Lycidas_ in 1637. The first celebrates the pleasures of a life
of cheerful innocence, and the second of contemplative, though not
gloomy, retirement, and the last is a lament for a lost friend, Edward
King, who perished at sea. _Arcades_ and _Comus_ are masques set to music
by Henry Lawes, having for their motives respectively family affection
and maiden purity. Had he written nothing else these would have given him
a place among the immortals. In 1638 he completed his education by a
period of travel in France and Italy, where he visited Grotius at Paris,
and Galileo at Florence. The news of impending troubles in Church and
State brought him home the following year, and with his return may be
said to close the first of three well-marked divisions into which his
life falls. These may be called (1) the period of preparation and of the
early poems; (2) the period of controversy, and of the prose writings;
and (3) the period of retirement and of the later poems. Soon after his
return M. settled in London, and employed himself in teaching his
nephews, Edward and John Phillips, turning over in his mind at the same
time various subjects as the possible theme for the great poem which, as
the chief object of his life, he looked forward to writing. But he was
soon to be called away to far other matters, and to be plunged into the
controversies and practical business which were to absorb his energies
for the next 20 years. The works of this period fall into three
classes--(1) those directed against Episcopacy, including _Reformation of
Church Discipline in England_ (1641), and his answers to the writings of
Bishop Hall (_q.v._), and in defence of _Smectymnuus_ (_see_ under
Calamy); (2) those relating to divorce, including _The Doctrine and
Discipline of Divorce_ (1643), and _The Four Chief Places of Scripture
which treat of Marriage_ (1645); and (3) those on political and
miscellaneous questions, including the _Tractate on Education_ (1644),
_Areopagitica_ (1644), _A Speech for the Liberty of Unlicensed Printing_
(his greatest prose work), _Eikonoklastes_, an answer to the _Eikon
Basilike_ of Dr. Gauden (_q.v._), _The Tenure of Kings and Magistrates_
(1649), in defence of the execution of Charles I., which led to the
furious controversy with Salmasius, the writing of _Pro Populo Anglicano
Defensio_ (1650), the second _Defensio_ (1654), which carried his name
over Europe, and _The Ready and Easy Way to establish a Free
Commonwealth_, written on the eve of the Restoration. In 1643 M. had _m._
Mary Powell, the _dau._ of an Oxfordshire cavalier, a girl of 17, who
soon found her new life as the companion of an austere poet, absorbed in
severe study, too abrupt a change from the gay society to which she had
been accustomed, and in a month returned to her father's house on a
visit. When the time fixed for rejoining her husband arrived, she showed
no disposition to do so, upon which he began to aim at a divorce, and to
advocate in the works above mentioned "unfitness and contrariety of mind"
as a valid ground for it, views which incurred for him much notoriety and
unpopularity. A reconciliation, however, followed in 1645, and three
_dau._ were born of the marriage. In 1649 the reputation of M. as a
Latinist led to his appointment as Latin or Foreign Sec. to the Council
of State, in the duties of which he was, after his sight began to fail,
assisted by A. Marvell (_q.v._) and others, and which he retained until
the Restoration. In 1652 his wife _d._, and four years later he entered
into a second marriage with Katharine Woodcock, who _d._ in child-birth
in the following year. To her memory he dedicated one of the most
touching of his sonnets. At the Restoration he was, of course, deprived
of his office, and had to go into hiding; but on the intercession of
Marvell (_q.v._), and perhaps Davenant (_q.v._), his name was included in
the amnesty. In 1663, being now totally blind and somewhat helpless, he
asked his friend Dr. Paget to recommend a wife for him. The lady chosen
was Elizabeth Minshull, aged 25, who appears to have given him domestic
happiness in his last years. She survived him for 53 years. The
Restoration closed his second, and introduced his third, and for his
fame, most productive period. He was now free to devote his whole powers
to the great work which he had so long contemplated. For some time he had
been in doubt as to the subject, had considered the Arthurian legends,
but had decided upon the Fall of Man. The result was _Paradise Lost_,
which was begun in 1658, finished in 1664, and _pub._ in 1667. A remark
of his friend, Thomas Ellwood (_q.v._), suggested to him the writing of
_Paradise Regained_, which, along with _Samson Agonistes_, was _pub._ in
1671. Two years before he had printed a _History of Britain_, written
long before, which, however, is of little value. The work of M. was now
done. In addition to his blindness he suffered from gout, to which it was
partly attributable, and, his strength gradually failing, but with mind
unimpaired and serene, he _d._ peacefully on November 8, 1674. In M. the
influences of the Renaissance and of Puritanism met. To the former he
owed his wide culture and his profound love of everything noble and
beautiful, to the latter his lofty and austere character, and both these
elements meet in his writings. Leaving Shakespeare out of account, he
holds an indisputable place at the head of English poets. For strength of
imagination, delicate accuracy and suggestiveness of language, and
harmony of versification, he is unrivalled, and almost unapproached; and
when the difficulties inherent in the subject of his great masterpiece
are considered, the power he shows in dealing with them appears almost
miraculous, and we feel that in those parts where he has failed, success
was impossible for a mortal. In his use of blank verse he has, for
majesty, variety, and music, never been approached by any of his
successors. He had no dramatic power and no humour. In everything he
wrote, a proud and commanding genius manifests itself, and he is one of
those writers who inspire reverence rather than affection. His personal
appearance in early life has been thus described, "He was a little under
middle height, slender, but erect, vigorous, and agile, with light brown
hair clustering about his fair and oval face, with dark grey eyes."

SUMMARY.--_B._ 1608, _ed._ at St. Paul's School and Camb., and while at
the latter wrote earlier poems including _The Nativity_ and Sonnets,
lived for 6 years at Horton and wrote _L'Allegro_, _Il Penseroso_,
_Arcades_, _Comus_, and _Lycidas_, travelled in France and Italy 1638,
settled in London, entered on his political and controversial labours,
and wrote _inter alia_ on _Reform of Discipline_ 1641, _Divorce_ 1643-45,
_Education_ 1644, _Areopagitica_ 1644, and the two _Defences_ 1650 and
1654, appointed Latin Sec. 1649, this period closed by Restoration 1660,
_Paradise Lost_ written 1658-64, _pub._ 1667, _Paradise Regained_ and
_Samson Agonistes_ 1671, _d._ 1674, _m._ first 1643 Mary Powell, second
1652 Katharine Woodcock, third 1663 Eliz. Minshull, who survived till
1727.

_Life_ by Prof. Masson (_6_ vols. 1859-80), also short Lives by M.
Patteson (1880), Garnett (1889). Ed. of _Works_ by Boydell, Sir E.
Brydges, and Prof. Masson.

MINOT, LAURENCE (1300?-1352?).--Poet. Nothing is certainly known of him.
He may have been a soldier. He celebrates in northern English and with a
somewhat ferocious patriotism the victories of Edward III. over the Scots
and the French.

MINTO, WILLIAM (1845-1893).--Critic and biographer, _b._ at Alford,
Aberdeenshire, and _ed._ at Aberdeen and Oxf., went to London, and became
ed. of the _Examiner_, and also wrote for the _Daily News_ and the _Pall
Mall Gazette_. In 1880 he was appointed Prof. of Logic and Literature at
Aberdeen. He wrote a _Manual of English Prose Literature_ (1873),
_Characteristics of the English Poets_ (1874), and a _Life of Defoe_ for
the Men of Letters Series.

MITCHELL, JOHN (1815-1875).--Journalist and political writer, _s._ of a
Presbyterian minister, was _b._ in Ulster. For some time he practised as
a solicitor, but becoming acquainted with Thomas Davis (_q.v._), he
associated himself with the Young Ireland party, and was a leading
contributor to the _Nation_ newspaper. His political sympathies and acts
were carried so far as to bring about in 1848 his trial for
treason-felony, and his transportation for 14 years. After his release he
resided chiefly at New York, and ed. various papers, and opposed the
abolition of slavery; but in 1874 he was elected M.P. for Tipperary, for
which, however, he was declared incapable of sitting. On a new election
he was again returned, but _d._ before the resulting petition could be
heard. He wrote a _Jail Journal_, a work of great power, _The Last
Conquest of Ireland_ (_perhaps_) (1860), and a _History of Ireland_ of
little value.

MITFORD, MARY RUSSELL (1787-1855).--Poetess and novelist, _b._ at
Alresford, Hants, _dau._ of a physician, without practice, selfish and
extravagant, who ran through three fortunes, his own, his wife's, and his
daughter's, and then lived on the industry of the last. After a vol. of
poems which attracted little notice, she produced her powerful tragedy,
_Julian_. In 1812, what ultimately became the first vol. of _Our Village_
appeared in the _Lady's Magazine_. To this four additional vols. were
added, the last in 1832. In this work Miss M. may be said to have created
a new branch of literature. Her novel, _Belford Regis_ (1835), is
somewhat on the same lines. She added two dramas, _Rienzi_ (1828), and
_Foscari_, _Atherton and other Tales_ (1852), and _Recollections of a
Literary Life_, and _d._ at her cottage at Swallowfield, much beloved for
her benevolent and simple character, as well as valued for her
intellectual powers.

MITFORD, WILLIAM (1744-1827).--Historian, _e.s._ of John M. of Exbury,
Hants, descended from an old Northumbrian family, was _b._ in London, and
_ed._ at Cheam School and Oxf. He studied law, but on succeeding to the
family estates devoted himself to study and literature, and to his duties
as an officer of the militia. His first _pub._ was an _Essay on the
Harmony of Language_ (1774). His great work, _The History of Greece_, is
said to have been undertaken at the suggestion of Gibbon, who was a
fellow-officer in the South Hants Militia. This work, the successive
vols. of which appeared at considerable intervals between 1784 and 1810,
was long a standard one, though it is now largely superseded by the
histories of Thirwall and Grote. M. wrote with strong prejudices against
democracy, and in defence of tyrants, but his style is forcible and
agreeable, and he brought learning and research to bear on his subject.
He sat for many years in Parliament.

MOIR, DAVID MACBETH (1798-1851).--Poet and miscellaneous writer, was a
doctor at Musselburgh, near Edin., and a frequent contributor, under the
signature of [Greek: D], to _Blackwood's Magazine_ in which appeared
_Mansie Waugh_, a humorous Scottish tale. He also wrote _The Legend of
Genevieve_ (1824), _Domestic Verses_ (1843), and sketches of the poetry
of the earlier half of the 19th century. His poetry was generally grave
and tender, but occasionally humorous.

MONBODDO, JAMES BURNETT, LORD (1714-1799).--Philosopher and philologist,
_b._ at the family seat in Kincardineshire, was _ed._ at the Univ. of
Aberdeen, Edin., and Groningen, and called to the Scottish Bar in 1737.
Thirty years later he became a judge with the title of Lord Monboddo. He
was a man of great learning and acuteness, but eccentric and fond of
paradox. He was the author of two large works alike learned and
whimsical, _An Essay on the Origin and Progress of Language_ (6 vols.
1773-92), and _Ancient Metaphysics_ (6 vols. 1779-99). He mooted and
supported the theory that men were originally monkeys, and gradually
attained to reason, language, and civilisation by the pressure of
necessity. His doctrines do not sound so absurd now as they did in his
own day. He was visited by Dr. Johnson at Monboddo.

MONTAGU, ELIZABETH (ROBINSON) (1720-1800).--Critic, _dau._ of a gentleman
of Yorkshire, _m._ a grandson of Lord Sandwich. She was one of the
original "blue-stockings," and her house was a literary centre. She wrote
an _Essay on the Writings and Genius of Shakespeare_ (1769), in which she
compared him with the classical and French dramatists, and defended him
against the strictures of Voltaire. It had great fame in its day, but has
long been superseded.

MONTAGU, LADY MARY WORTLEY (PIERREPONT) (1690-1762).--Letter-writer, was
the eldest _dau._ of the 1st Duke of Kingston. In her youth she combined
the attractions of a reigning beauty and a wit. Her early studies were
encouraged and assisted by Bishop Burnet, and she was the friend of Pope,
Addison, and Swift. In 1712 she _m._, against the wishes of her family,
Edward Wortley-Montagu, a cousin of the celebrated Charles Montagu,
afterwards Earl of Halifax. Her husband having been appointed Ambassador
to the Porte, she accompanied him, and wrote the sparkling _Letters from
the East_ which have given her a place high among the great
letter-writers of the world. While in Turkey she became acquainted with
the practice of inoculation against smallpox, which she did much to
introduce into western countries. After her return to England she settled
at Twickenham, and renewed her friendship with Pope, which, however,
ended in a violent quarrel, arising out of her publication of _Town
Eclogues_. She was furiously attacked by both Pope and Swift, and was not
slow to defend herself. In 1737, for reasons which have never been
explained, she left her husband and country, and settled in Italy. Mr.
M. having _d._ 1761, she returned at the request of her _dau._, the
Countess of Bute, but _d._ the following year.

MONTGOMERIE, ALEXANDER (1545?-1610?).--Poet, probably _b._ in Ayrshire,
was in the service of the Regent Morton and James VI., by whom he was
pensioned. He is sometimes styled "Captain," and was laureate of the
Court. He appears to have fallen on evil days, was imprisoned on the
Continent, and lost his pension. His chief work is _The Cherrie and the
Slae_ (1597), a somewhat poor allegory of Virtue and Vice, but with some
vivid description in it, and with a comparatively modern air. He also
wrote _Flyting_ (scolding) _betwixt Montgomerie and Polwart_, _pub._
1621, and other pieces.

MONTGOMERY, JAMES (1771-1854).--Poet, _s._ of a pastor and missionary of
the Moravian Brethren, was _b._ at Irvine, Ayrshire, and _ed._ at the
Moravian School at Fulneck, near Leeds. After various changes of
occupation and abode, he settled in Sheffield in 1792 as clerk to a
newspaper. In 1796 he had become ed. of the _Sheffield Iris_, and was
twice imprisoned for political articles for which he was held
responsible. In 1797 he _pub._ _Prison Amusements_; but his first work to
attract notice was _The Wanderer of Switzerland_ (1806). It was followed
by _The West Indies_ (1809), _The World before the Flood_ (1812),
_Greenland_ (1819), and _The Pelican Island_ (1828), all of which contain
passages of considerable imaginative and descriptive power, but are
lacking in strength and fire. He himself expected that his name would
live, if at all, in his hymns, and in this his judgment has proved true.
Some of these, such as _For ever with the Lord_, _Hail to the Lord's
Anointed_, and _Prayer is the Soul's sincere Desire_, are sung wherever
the English language is spoken. M. was a good and philanthropic man, the
opponent of every form of injustice and oppression, and the friend of
every movement for the welfare of the race. His virtues attained wide
recognition.

MONTGOMERY, ROBERT (1807-1855).--Poet, a minister of the Scottish
Episcopal Church, wrote some ambitious religious poems, including _The
Omnipresence of the Deity_ and _Satan_, which were at first outrageously
puffed, and had a wide circulation. Macaulay devoted an essay to the
demolition of the author's reputation, in which he completely succeeded.

MOORE, EDWARD (1712-1757).--Fabulist and dramatist, _s._ of a dissenting
minister, was _b._ at Abingdon. After being in business as a
linen-draper, in which he was unsuccessful, he took to literature, and
wrote a few plays, of which _The Gamester_ (1753) had a great vogue, and
was translated into various languages. He is best known by his _Fables
for the Female Sex_ (1744), which rank next to those of Gay (_q.v._).

MOORE, JOHN (1729 or 1730-1802).--Physician and miscellaneous writer,
_s._ of an Episcopal minister, was _b._ in Stirling. After studying
medicine at Glasgow, he acted as a surgeon in the navy and the army, and
ultimately settled in Glasgow as a physician. In 1779 he _pub._ _View of
Manners and Society in France, Switzerland, and Germany_, which was well
received. A similar work, relating to Italy, followed in 1781. He is,
however, chiefly remembered by his romance _Zeluco_ (1786?). One or two
other novels followed, and his last works are a _Journal during a
Residence in France_ (1792), and _Causes and Progress of the French
Revolution_ (1795), the latter of which was used both by Scott and
Carlyle. M. was one of the friends of Burns, and was the _f._ of Sir John
M., the hero of Corunna.

MOORE, THOMAS (1779-1852).--Poet, _b._ in Dublin, _s._ of a grocer and
wine-merchant in a small way, was _ed._ at Trinity Coll., after which he
went to London, and studied law at the Middle Temple, 1799. He took with
him a translation of _Anacreon_, which appeared, dedicated to the Prince
Regent, in 1800, was well received, and made a position for him. In the
following year appeared _Poems by Thomas Little_. In 1803 he received the
appointment of Admiralty Registrar at Bermuda, and after visiting the
island and travelling in America, he committed his official duties to a
deputy (an unfortunate step as it proved), and returned to England. The
literary fruit of this journey was _Epistles, Odes, and other Poems_
(1806). In 1807 M. found his true poetic vocation in his
_Irish-Melodies_--the music being furnished by Sir John Stevenson, who
adapted the national airs. The reception they met with was enthusiastic,
and M. was carried at once to the height of his reputation. They
continued to appear over a period of 25 years, and for each of the 130
songs he received 100 guineas. His charming singing of these airs, and
his fascinating conversational and social powers made him sought after in
the highest circles. In 1815 there appeared _National Airs_ which,
however, cannot be considered equal to the _Melodies_. After making
various unsuccessful attempts at serious satire, he hit upon a vein for
which his light and brilliant wit eminently qualified him--the satirical
and pungent verses on men and topics of the day, afterwards _coll._ in
_The Twopenny Post Bag_, in which the Prince Regent especially was
mercilessly ridiculed, and about the same time appeared _Fables for the
Holy Alliance_. In 1818 he produced the _Fudge Family in Paris_, written
in that city, which then swarmed with "groups of ridiculous English."
_Lalla Rookh_, with its gorgeous descriptions of Eastern scenes and
manners, had appeared in the previous year with great applause. In 1818
the great misfortune of his life occurred through the dishonesty of his
deputy in Bermuda, which involved him in a loss of L6000, and
necessitated his going abroad. He travelled in Italy with Lord John
Russell, and visited Byron. Thereafter he settled for a year or two in
Paris, where he wrote _The Loves of the Angels_ (1823). On the death of
Byron his memoirs came into the hands of Moore, who, in the exercise of a
discretion committed to him, destroyed them. He afterwards wrote a _Life
of Byron_ (1830), which gave rise to much criticism and controversy, and
he also ed. his works. His last imaginative work was _The Epicurean_
(1827). Thereafter he confined himself almost entirely to prose, and
_pub._ Lives of Sheridan (1827), and Lord Edward Fitzgerald (1831). His
last work, written in failing health, was a _History of Ireland_ for
Lardner's _Cabinet Cyclopaedia_, which had little merit. Few poets have
ever enjoyed greater popularity with the public, or the friendship of
more men distinguished in all departments of life. This latter was
largely owing to his brilliant social qualities, but his genuine and
independent character had also a large share in it. He left behind him a
mass of correspondence and autobiographical matter which he committed to
his friend Lord John (afterwards Earl) Russell for publication. They
appeared in 8 vols. (1852-56).

_Memoir, Journal, and Correspondence_, by Lord John Russell (1856).

MORE, HANNAH (1745-1833).--Miscellaneous and religious writer, was one of
the five daughters of a schoolmaster at Stapleton, Gloucestershire. The
family removed to Bristol, where Hannah began her literary efforts. Some
early dramas, including _The Search after Happiness_ and the _Inflexible
Captive_ brought her before the public, and she went to London in 1774,
where, through her friend, Garrick, she was introduced to Johnson, Burke,
and the rest of that circle, by whom she was highly esteemed. After
publishing some poems, now forgotten, and some dramas, she resolved to
devote herself to efforts on behalf of social and religious amelioration,
in which she was eminently successful, and exercised a wide and salutary
influence. Her works written in pursuance of these objects are too
numerous to mention. They included _Hints towards forming the Character
of a young Princess_ (1805), written at the request of the Queen for the
benefit of the Princess Charlotte, _Coelebs in search of a Wife_ (1809),
and a series of short tales, the _Cheap Repository_, among which was the
well-known _Shepherd of Salisbury Plain_. This enterprise, which had
great success, led to the formation of the Religious Tract Society. The
success of Miss M.'s literary labours enabled her to pass her later years
in ease, and her sisters having also retired on a competency made by
conducting a boarding-school in Bristol, the whole family resided on a
property called Barley Grove, which they had purchased, where they
carried on with much success philanthropic and educational work among the
people of the neighbouring district of Cheddar. Few persons have devoted
their talents more assiduously to the well-being of their
fellow-creatures, or with a greater measure of success.

MORE, HENRY (1614-1687).--Philosopher, _b._ at Grantham, and _ed._ at
Camb., took orders, but declined all preferment, including two deaneries
and a bishopric; and also various appointments in his Univ., choosing
rather a quiet life devoted to scholarship and philosophy, especially the
study of writings of Plato and his followers. He led a life of singular
purity and religious devotion, tinged with mysticism, and his writings
had much popularity and influence in their day. Among them may be
mentioned _Psychozoia Platonica_ (1642), _repub._ (1647) as
_Philosophicall Poems_, _Divine Dialogues_ (prose) (1668), _The Mystery
of Godliness_, and _The Mystery of Iniquity_. His life was written by his
friend Richard Ward.

MORE, SIR THOMAS (1478-1535).--Historical and political writer, _s._ of
Sir John M., a Justice of the King's Bench, was _b._ in London. In his
16th year he was placed in the household of Morton, Archbishop of
Canterbury, who was wont to say, "This child here waiting at the table
... will prove a marvellous man." In 1497 he went to Oxf., where he
became the friend of Erasmus and others, and came in contact with the new
learning. He studied law at New Inn and Lincoln's Inn, and for some time
thought of entering the Church. He was, however, in 1504 sent up to
Parliament, where his powerful speaking gained for him a high place.
Meanwhile, he had brilliant success in the Law Courts, and was introduced
by Wolsey to Henry VIII., with whom he soon rose into high favour. He
became Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, Speaker of the House of
Commons, 1523, and was sent on missions to Charles V. and Francis I. At
length, on the fall of Wolsey, M. was, much against his will, appointed
Lord Chancellor, an office which he filled with singular purity and
success, though he was harsh in his dealings with persons accused of
heresy. But differences with the King soon arose. M. disapproved of
Henry's ecclesiastical policy, as well as of his proceedings in regard to
the Queen, and in 1532 he resigned his office. In 1534 he refused the
oath which pledged him to approval of the King's marriage to Anne Boleyn,
and for this he was imprisoned in the Tower, and on July 7, 1535,
beheaded. His body was buried in St. Peter's in the Tower, and his head
exhibited on London Bridge, whence it was taken down and preserved by his
_dau._, the noble Margaret Roper. All Catholic Europe was shocked at the
news of what was truly a judicial murder. Among his works are a Life of
_Picus, Earl of Mirandula_ (1510), and a _History of Richard III._,
written about 1513. His great work, _Utopia_, was written in Latin in two
books--the second 1515, and the first 1516. It had immediate popularity,
and was translated into French 1530, English 1551, German 1524, Italian
1548, and Spanish 1790. It gives an account of an imaginary island and
people, under cover of which it describes the social and political
condition of England, with suggested remedies for abuses. The opinions on
religion and politics expressed in it are not, however, always those by
which he was himself guided. M. wrote many works of controversy, among
which are _Dyaloge concerning Heresies_, also epigrams and dialogues in
Latin. His pure and religious character, his sweet temper, his wit, his
constancy and fortitude under misfortune combine to render him one of the
most attractive and admirable figures in English history.

_Life_ by W. Roper (son-in-law), Lord Campbell, _Lives of Chancellors,
Utopia_ was translated by Robinson (1551, etc.), Bishop Burnet (1684,
etc.), and ed. by Lupton (1895), and Michelis (1896).

MORGAN, LADY (SYDNEY OWENSON) (1780?-1859).--Novelist, _dau._ of Robert
Owenson, an actor, was the author of several vivacious Irish tales,
including _The Wild Irish Girl_ (1806), _O'Donnel_ (1814), and _The
O'Briens and the O'Flaherties_ (1827); also two books on society in
France and in Italy characterised by "more vivacity and point than
delicacy," and a Life of Salvator Rosa.

MORIER, JAMES JUSTINIAN (1780?-1849).--Traveller and novelist, _s._ of
Isaac M., descended from a Huguenot family resident at Smyrna, where he
was _b._, was _ed._ at Harrow. Returning to the East he became in 1809
Sec. of Legation in Persia. He wrote accounts of travels in Persia,
Armenia, and Asia Minor; also novels, in which he exhibits a marvellous
familiarity with Oriental manners and modes of thought. The chief of
these are _The Adventures of Hajji Baba_ (1824), and _Hajji Baba in
England_ (1828), _Zohrab the Hostage_ (1832), _Ayesha_ (1834), and _The
Mirza_ (1841). All these works are full of brilliant description,
character-painting, and delicate satire.

MORISON, JAMES COTTER (1832-1888).--Was _ed._ at Oxf. He wrote _Lives of
Gibbon_ (1878), and _Macaulay_ (1882); but his best work was his _Life of
St. Bernard_ (1863). _The Service of Man_ (1887) is written from a
Positivist point of view.

MORLEY, HENRY (1822-1894).--Writer on English literature, _s._ of an
apothecary, was _b._ in London, _ed._ at a Moravian school in Germany,
and at King's Coll., London, and after practising medicine and keeping
schools at various places, went in 1850 to London, and adopted literature
as his profession. He wrote in periodicals, and from 1859-64 ed. the
_Examiner_. From 1865-89 he was Prof. of English Literature at Univ.
Coll. He was the author of various biographies, including Lives of
_Palissy_, _Cornelius Agrippa_, and _Clement Marot_. His principal work,
however, was _English Writers_ (10 vols. 1864-94), coming down to
Shakespeare. His _First Sketch of English Literature_--the study for the
larger work--had reached at his death a circulation of 34,000 copies.

MORRIS, SIR LEWIS (1833-1907).--Poet, _b._ at Penrhyn, Carnarvonshire,
and _ed._ at Sherborne and Oxf., was called to the Bar, and practised as
a conveyancer until 1880, after which he devoted himself to the promotion
of higher education in Wales, and became honorary sec. and treasurer of
the New Welsh Univ. In 1871 he _pub._ _Songs of Two Worlds_, which showed
the influence of Tennyson, and was well received, though rather by the
wider public than by more critical circles. It was followed in 1876-77 by
_The Epic of Hades_, which had extraordinary popularity, and which,
though exhibiting undeniable talent both in versification and narrative
power, lacked the qualities of the higher kinds of poetry. It deals in a
modern spirit with the Greek myths and legends. Other works are _A Vision
of Saints_, _Gwen_, _The Ode of Life_, and _Gycia_, a tragedy.

MORRIS, WILLIAM (1834-1896).--Poet, artist, and socialist, _b._ at
Walthamstow, and _ed._ at Marlborough School and Oxf. After being
articled as an architect he was for some years a painter, and then joined
in founding the manufacturing and decorating firm of Morris, Marshall,
Faulkner and Co., in which Rossetti, Burne-Jones, and other artists were
partners. By this and other means he did much to influence the public
taste in furnishing and decoration. He was one of the originators of the
_Oxford and Cambridge Magazine_, to which he contributed poems, tales,
and essays, and in 1858 he _pub._ _Defence of Guenevere and other Poems_.
_The Life and Death of Jason_ followed in 1867, _The Earthly Paradise_ in
1868-70, and _Love is Enough_ in 1875. In the last mentioned year he made
a translation in verse of Virgil's _AEneid_. Travels in Iceland led to the
writing of _Three Northern Love Stories_, and the epic of _Sigurd the
Volsung_ (1876). His translation of the _Odyssey_ in verse appeared 1887.
A series of prose romances began with _The House of the Wolfings_ (1889),
and included _The Roots of the Mountains_, _Story of the Glittering
Plain_, _The Wood beyond the World_, _The Well at the World's End_
(1896), and posthumously _The Water of the Wondrous Isles_, and _Story of
the Sundering Flood_. In addition to poems and tales M. produced various
illuminated manuscripts, including two of Fitzgerald's _Omar Khayyam_,
and many controversial writings, among which are tales and tracts in
advocacy of Socialism. To this class belong the _Dream of John Ball_
(1888), and _News from Nowhere_ (1891). In 1890 M. started the Kelmscott
Press, for which he designed type and decorations. For his subjects as a
writer he drew upon classic and Gothic models alike. He may perhaps be
regarded as the chief of the modern romantic school, inspired by the love
of beauty for its own sake; his poetry is rich and musical, and he has a
power of description which makes his pictures live and glow, but his
narratives sometimes suffer from length and slowness of movement.

_Life_ by J.W. Mackail (2 vols., 1899), _The Books of W. Morris_, Forman,
etc.

MORTON, THOMAS (1764-1838).--Dramatist, _b._ in Durham, came to London to
study law, which he discarded in favour of play-writing. He wrote about
25 plays, of which several had great popularity. In one of them, _Speed
the Plough_, he introduced Mrs. Grundy to the British public.

MOTHERWELL, WILLIAM (1797-1835).--Poet, _b._ and _ed._ in Glasgow, he
held the office of depute sheriff-clerk at Paisley, at the same time
contributing poetry to various periodicals. He had also antiquarian
tastes, and a deep knowledge of the early history of Scottish ballad
literature, which he turned to account in _Minstrelsy, Ancient and
Modern_ (1827), a collection of Scottish ballads with an historical
introduction. In 1830 he became ed. of the _Glasgow Courier_, and in 1832
he _coll._ and _pub._ his poems. He also joined Hogg in ed. the Works of
Burns.

MOTLEY, JOHN LOTHROP (1814-1877).--Historian, _b._ at Dorchester, a
suburb of Boston, Massachusetts, was _ed._ at Harvard, where O.W. Holmes
(_q.v._), afterwards his biographer, was a fellow-student. After
graduating he went to Europe, studied at Goettingen and Berlin, and
visited Italy. On his return he studied law, and was admitted to the Bar
in 1837. He did not, however, practise, and was in 1840 sent to St.
Petersburg as Sec. of Legation. Meanwhile, having _pub._ two novels,
_Morton's Hope_ and _Merry Mount_, which had little success, he turned to
history, and attracted attention by some essays in various reviews.
Having decided to write an historical work on Holland, he proceeded in
1851 to Europe to collect materials, and in 1856 _pub._ _The Rise of the
Dutch Republic_. It was received with the highest approval by such
critics as Froude and Prescott, and at once took its place as a standard
work. It was followed in 1860 by the first two vols. of _The United
Netherlands_. The following year M. was appointed Minister at Vienna, and
in 1869 at London. His latest works were a _Life of Barneveldt_, the
Dutch statesman, and _A View of ... the Thirty Years' War_. M. holds a
high place among historical writers both on account of his research and
accuracy, and his vivid and dramatic style, which shows the influence of
Carlyle.

MOULTRIE, JOHN (1799-1874).--Poet, _ed._ at Eton and Camb., took orders
and was Rector of Rugby. He wrote several books of poetry, his best known
pieces are _My Brother's Grave_, and _Godiva_.

MULOCK, DINAH MARIA (MRS. CRAIK) (1826-1887).--Novelist, _dau._ of a
Nonconformist minister of Irish descent. Beginning with stories for
children, she developed into a prolific and popular novelist. Her best
and most widely known book is _John Halifax, Gentleman_ (1857), which had
a wide popularity, and was translated into several languages. Others are
_The Head of the Family_, _Agatha's Husband_, _A Life for a Life_, and
_Mistress and Maid_. She also wrote one or two vols. of essays.

MUNDAY, ANTHONY (1553-1633).--Dramatist, poet, and pamphleteer, _s._ of a
draper in London, appears to have had a somewhat chequered career. He
went to Rome in 1578, and _pub._ _The Englyshe Romayne Life_, in which he
gives descriptions of rites and other matters fitted to excite Protestant
feeling; and he appears to have acted practically as a spy upon Roman
Catholics. He had a hand in 18 plays, of which four only are extant,
including two on _Robert, Earl of Huntingdon_ (_Robin Hood_) (1598), and
one on the _Life of Sir John Oldcastle_. He was ridiculed by Ben Jonson
in _The Case is Altered_. He was also a ballad-writer, but nothing of his
in this kind survives, unless _Beauty sat bathing in a Spring_ be
correctly attributed to him. He also wrote city pageants, and translated
popular romances, including _Palladino of England_, and _Amadis of
Gaule_. He was made by Stow the antiquary (_q.v._) his literary executor,
and _pub._ his _Survey of London_ (1618).

MURE, WILLIAM (1799-1860).--Scholar, laird of Caldwell, Ayrshire, _ed._
at Westminster, Edin., and Bonn, sat in Parliament for Renfrewshire
1846-55. He was a sound classical scholar, and _pub._ _A Critical History
of the Language and Literature of Ancient Greece_ (5 vols., 1850-57). He
held the view that the _Iliad_ and _Odyssey_ are now substantially as
they were originally composed. M. was Lord Rector of Glasgow Univ.
1847-48.

MURPHY, ARTHUR (1727-1805).--Actor and dramatist, _b._ in Ireland, and
_ed._ at St. Omer, went on the stage, then studied for the Bar, to which
he was ultimately admitted after some demur on account of his connection
with the stage. His plays were nearly all adaptations. They include _The
Apprentice_ (1756), _The Spouter_, and _The Upholsterer_. He also wrote
an essay on Dr. Johnson, and a Life of Garrick.

MURRAY, LINDLEY (1745-1826).--Grammarian, was _b._ in Pennsylvania, and
practised as a lawyer. From 1785 he lived in England, near York, and was
for his last 16 years confined to the house. His _English Grammar_ (1795)
was long a standard work, and his main claim to a place in literature.
His other writings were chiefly religious.

MYERS, FREDERIC WILLIAM HENRY (1843-1901).--Poet and essayist, _s._ of a
clergyman, was _b._ at Keswick, and _ed._ at Cheltenham and Camb. He
became an inspector of schools, and was the author of several vols. of
poetry, including _St. Paul_ (1867). He also wrote _Essays Classical and
Modern_, and Lives of Wordsworth and Shelley. Becoming interested in
mesmerism and spiritualism he aided in founding the Society for Psychical
Research, and was joint author of _Phantasms of the Living_. His last
work was _Human Personality and its Survival of Bodily Death_ (1903).

NABBES, THOMAS (_fl._ 1638).--Dramatist, was at Oxf. in 1621. He lived in
London, and wrote comedies, satirising bourgeois society. He was most
successful in writing masques, among which are _Spring's Glory_ and
_Microcosmus_. He also wrote a continuation of Richard Knolles' _History
of the Turks_.

NAIRNE, CAROLINA (OLIPHANT), BARONESS (1766-1845).--_B._ at the House of
Gask ("the auld house"), _m._ in 1806 her second cousin, Major Nairne,
who on reversal of attainder became 5th Lord Nairne. On his death, after
residing in various places in England, Ireland, and on the Continent, she
settled at the new house of Gask (the old one having been pulled down in
1801). Of her songs--87 in number--many first appeared anonymously in
_The Scottish Minstrel_ (1821-24); a collected ed. with her name, under
the title of _Lays' from Strathearn_, was _pub._ after her death.
Although the songs, some of which were founded on older compositions, had
from the first an extraordinary popularity, the authoress maintained a
strict anonymity during her life. For direct simplicity and poetic
feeling Lady N. perhaps comes nearer than any other Scottish song-writer
to Burns, and many of her lyrics are enshrined in the hearts of her
fellow-countrymen. Among the best of them are _The Land of the Leal_
(1798), _Caller Herrin'_, _The Laird o' Cockpen_, _The Auld House_, _The
Rowan Tree_, _The Hundred Pipers_, and _Will ye no come back Again?_ The
Jacobitism of some of these and many others was, of course, purely
sentimental and poetical, like that of Scott. She was a truly religious
and benevolent character, and the same modesty which concealed her
authorship withdrew from public knowledge her many deeds of charity.

NAPIER, MARK (1798-1879).--Historian, _s._ of a lawyer in Edinburgh, was
called to the Bar, practised as an advocate, and was made Sheriff of
Dumfries and Galloway. He _pub._ Memoirs of the Napiers, of Montrose, and
of Graham of Claverhouse, the last of which gave rise to much
controversy. N. wrote from a strongly Cavalier and Jacobite standpoint,
and had remarkably little of the judicial spirit in his methods. His
writings, however, have some historical value.

NAPIER, SIR WILLIAM FRANCIS PATRICK (1785-1860).--was one of the sons of
Col. the Hon. George N. and Lady Sarah Lennox, _dau._ of the 2nd Duke of
Richmond, and the object of a romantic attachment on the part of George
III. One of his brothers was Sir Charles N., the conqueror of Scinde.
Entering the army at 15, he served with great distinction in the
Peninsula under Moore and Wellington. His experiences as a witness and
participator in the stupendous events of the war combined with the
possession of remarkable acumen and a brilliant style to qualify him for
the great work of his life as its historian. _The History of the War in
the Peninsula and in the South of France from 1807-14_ (1828-40) at once
took rank as a classic, and superseded all existing works on the subject.
Though not free from prejudice and consequent bias, it remains a
masterpiece of historical writing, especially in the description of
military operations. It was translated into French, German, Spanish,
Italian, and Persian. N. also _pub._ _The Conquest of Scinde_ (1844-46),
mainly a defence of his brother Charles, whose life he subsequently
wrote. He became K.C.B. in 1848, and General 1859.

NASH, THOMAS (1567-1601).--Satirist, etc., _b._ at Lowestoft, _ed._ at
Camb. A reckless life kept him in perpetual poverty, and a bitter and
sarcastic tongue lost him friends and patrons. He cherished an undying
hatred for the Puritans, and specially for Gabriel Hervey, with whom he
maintained a lifelong controversy, and against whose attacks he defended
Robert Greene (_q.v._). Among his writings are _Anatomy of Absurdities_
(1589), _Have with you to Saffron Walden_, and _Pierce Pennilesse, his
Supplication to the Divell_ (1592), all against the Puritans. In
_Summer's_ (a jester of Henry VIII.) _Last Will and Testament_ occurs the
well-known song, "Spring, the sweet Spring, is the year's pleasant King."
_Christ's Tears over Jerusalem_ (1593) may have indicated some movement
towards repentance. Another work in a totally different style, _The
Unfortunate Traveller, or the Life of Jack Wilton_ (1594), a wild tale,
may be regarded as the pioneer of the novel of adventure. It had,
however, so little success that the author never returned to this kind of
fiction. A comedy, _The Isle of Dogs_ (now lost), adverted so pointedly
to abuses in the state that it led to his imprisonment. His last work was
_Lenten Stuffe_ (1599), a burlesque panegyric on Yarmouth and its red
herrings. N.'s verse is usually hard and monotonous, but he was a man of
varied culture and great ability.

NAYLER, JAMES (1617?-1660).--Quaker theologian, _s._ of a Yorkshire
yeoman, who, after serving in the Parliamentary army, joined the Quakers
in 1651, became one of Foxe's most trusted helpers, and exercised a
powerful influence. By some of the more enthusiastic devotees of the sect
he was honoured with such blasphemous titles as "the Lamb of God," which,
however, he did not arrogate to himself, but asserted that they were
ascribed to "Christ in him." He was found guilty of blasphemy, pilloried,
whipped, and branded, and cast into prison, from which he was not
released until after the death of Cromwell, when he made public
confession and resumed preaching. He was the author of a number of short
works both devotional and controversial. He ranks high among the Quakers
for eloquence, insight, and depth of thought.

NEAL, JOHN (1793-1876).--Novelist and poet, _b._ at Portland, Maine, was
self-educated, kept a dry goods store, and was afterwards a lawyer. He
wrote several novels, which show considerable native power, but little
art, and are now almost forgotten. Among those which show the influence
of Byron and Godwin are _Keep Cool_ (1818), _Logan_ (1822), and
_Seventy-six_ (1823). His poems have the same features of vigour and want
of finish. In 1823 he visited England, and became known to Jeremy
Bentham. He contributed some articles on American subjects to
_Blackwood's Magazine_.

NEAVES, CHARLES, LORD (1800-1876).--Miscellaneous author, _b._ and _ed._
in Edinburgh, was called to the Bar, and became a judge. He was a
frequent contributor to _Blackwood's Magazine_. His verses, witty and
satirical, were _coll._ as _Songs and Verses, Social and Scientific_. He
wrote also on philology, and _pub._ a book on the Greek Anthology.

NECKHAM, ALEXANDER (1157-1217).--Scholar, _b._ at St. Albans, was
foster-brother to Richard Coeur de Lion. He went to Paris in 1180, where
he became a distinguished teacher. Returning, to England in 1186 he
became an Augustinian Canon, and in 1213 Abbot of Cirencester. He is one
of our earliest men of learning, and wrote a scientific work in Latin
verse. _De Naturis Rerum_ (_c._ 1180-94) in 10 books. Other works are _De
Laudibus Divinae Sapientiae_ (in Praise of the Divine Wisdom), and _De
Contemptu Mundi_ (on Despising the World), and some grammatical
treatises.

NEWCASTLE, MARGARET, DUCHESS of (1624?-1674).--_Dau._ of Sir Thomas
Lucas, and a maid of honour to Queen Henrietta. Maria, _m._ in 1645 the
1st Duke of Newcastle (then Marquis), whom she regarded in adversity and
prosperity with a singular and almost fantastic devotion, which was fully
reciprocated. The noble pair collaborated (the Duchess contributing by
far the larger share) in their literary ventures, which filled 12 vols.,
and consisted chiefly of dramas (now almost unreadable), and
philosophical exercitations which, amid prevailing rubbish, contain some
weighty sayings. One of her poems, _The Pastimes and Recreations of the
Queen of Fairies in Fairyland_ has some good lines. Her Life of her
husband, in which she rates him above Julius Caesar, was said by Lamb to
be "a jewel for which no casket was good enough."

NEWMAN, FRANCIS WILLIAM (1805-1897).--Scholar and theological writer,
brother of Cardinal N., _b._ in London, and _ed._ at Oxf. After spending
three years in the East, he became successively classical tutor in
Bristol Coll., Professor of Classical Literature in Manchester New Coll.
(1840), and of Latin in Univ. Coll., London, 1846-63. Both brought up
under evangelical influences, the two brothers moved from that standpoint
in diametrically opposite directions, Francis through eclecticism towards
scepticism. His writings include a _History of the Hebrew Monarchy_
(1847), _The Soul_ (1849), and his most famous book, _Phases of Faith_
(1850), a theological autobiography corresponding to his brother's
_Apologia_, the publication of which led to much controversy, and to the
appearance of Henry Rogers' _Eclipse of Faith_. He also _pub._
_Miscellanea_ in 4 vols., a Dictionary of modern Arabic, and some
mathematical treatises. He was a vegetarian, a total abstainer, and enemy
of tobacco, vaccination, and vivisection. Memoir by I.G. Sieveking, 1909.

NEWMAN, JOHN HENRY (1801-1890).--Theologian, _s._ of a London banker, and
brother of the above, was _ed._ at Ealing and Trinity Coll., Oxf., where
he was the intimate friend of Pusey and Hurrell Froude. Taking orders he
was successively curate of St. Clement's 1824, and Vicar of St. Mary's,
Oxford, 1828. He was also Vice-principal of Alban Hall, where he assisted
Whately, the Principal, in his _Logic_. In 1830 he definitely broke with
the evangelicalism in which he had been brought up; and in 1832,
accompanied by H. Froude, went to the South of Europe, and visited Rome.
During this lengthened tour he wrote most of his short poems, including
"Lead Kindly Light," which were _pub._ 1834 as _Lyra Apostolica_. On his
return he joined with Pusey, Keble, and others in initiating the
Tractarian movement, and contributed some of the more important tracts,
including the fateful No. xc., the publication of which brought about a
crisis in the movement which, after two years of hesitation and mental
and spiritual conflict, led to the resignation by N. of his benefice. In
1842 he retired to Littlemore, and after a period of prayer, fasting, and
seclusion, was in 1845 received into the Roman Catholic Church. In the
following year he went to Rome, where he was ordained priest and made
D.D., and returning to England he established the oratory in Birmingham
in 1847, and that in London in 1850. A controversy with C. Kingsley, who
had written that N. "did not consider truth a necessary virtue," led to
the publication of his _Apologia pro Vita Sua_ (1864), one of the most
remarkable books of religious autobiography ever written. N.'s later
years were passed at the oratory at Birmingham. In 1879 he was summoned
to Rome and _cr._ Cardinal of St. George in Velabro. Besides the works
above mentioned he wrote, among others, _The Arians of the Fourth
Century_ (1833), _Twelve Lectures_ (1850), _Lectures on the Present
Position of Catholics_ (1851), _Idea of a University_, _Romanism and
Popular Protestantism_, _Disquisition on the Canon of Scripture_, and his
poem, _The Dream of Gerontius_. Possessed of one of the most keen and
subtle intellects of his age, N. was also master of a style of marvellous
beauty and power. To many minds, however, his subtlety not seldom
appeared to pass into sophistry; and his attitude to schools of thought
widely differing from his own was sometimes harsh and unsympathetic. On
the other hand he was able to exercise a remarkable influence over men
ecclesiastically, and in some respects religiously, most strongly opposed
to him. His sermons place him in the first rank of English preachers.

_Lives_ or books about him by R.H. Hutton, E.A. Abbott. _Works_ (36
vols., 1868-81), _Apologia pro Vita Sua_ (1864), etc.

NEWTON, SIR ISAAC (1642-1727).--Natural philosopher, _b._ at Woolsthorpe,
Lincolnshire, the _s._ of a small landed proprietor, and _ed._ at the
Grammar School of Grantham and at Trinity Coll., Camb. By propounding the
binomial theorem, the differential calculus, and the integral calculus,
he began in 1665 the wonderful series of discoveries in pure mathematics,
optics, and physics, which place him in the first rank of the
philosophers of all time. He was elected Lucasian Prof. of Mathematics at
Camb. in 1669, and a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1672, over which body
he presided for 25 years from 1703. In the same year his new theory of
flight was _pub._ in a paper before the society. His epoch-making
discovery of the law of universal gravitation was not promulgated until
1687, though the first glimpse of it had come to him so early as 1665.
The discovery of fluxions, which he claimed, was contested by Leibnitz,
and led to a long and bitter controversy between the two philosophers. He
twice sat in Parliament for his Univ., and was Master of the Mint from
1699, in which capacity he presented reports on the coinage. He was
knighted in 1705, and _d._ at Kensington in 1727. For a short time, after
an unfortunate accident by which a number of invaluable manuscripts were
burned, he suffered from some mental aberration. His writings fall into
two classes, scientific and theological. In the first are included his
famous treatises, _Light and Colours_ (1672), _Optics_ (1704), the
_Principia_ (1687), in Latin, its full title being _Philosophiae Naturalis
Principia Mathematica_. In the second are his _Observations upon the
Prophecies of Holy Writ_ and _An Historical Account of Two Notable
Corruptions of Scripture_. In character N. was remarkable for simplicity,
humility, and gentleness, with a great distaste for controversy, in
which, nevertheless, he was repeatedly involved. _Life_ by Sir D.
Brewster, second ed., 1855, etc.

NEWTON, JOHN (1725-1807).--Divine and hymn-writer, _s._ of a shipmaster,
was _b._ in London, and for many years led a varied and adventurous life
at sea, part of the time on board a man-of-war and part as captain of a
slaver. In 1748 he came under strong religious convictions, and after
acting as a tide-waiter at Liverpool for a few years, he applied for
orders in 1758, and was ordained curate of Olney in 1764. Here he became
the intimate and sympathetic friend of Cowper, in conjunction with whom
he produced the _Olney Hymns_. In 1779 he was translated to the Rectory
of St. Mary, Woolnoth, London, where he had great popularity and
influence, and wrote many religious works, including _Cardiphonia_, and
_Remarkable Passages in his Own Life_. He lives, however, in his hymns,
among which are some of the best and most widely known in the language,
such as _In evil long I took delight_, _Glorious things of Thee are
Spoken_, _How Sweet the Name of Jesus sounds_, and many others. In his
latter years N. was blind.

NICHOL, JOHN (1833-1894).--Poet and biographer, _s._ of John P.N., Prof.
of Astronomy in Glasgow, _ed._ at Glasgow and Oxf., and held the chair of
English Literature in Glasgow, 1862-1889. Among his writings are
_Hannibal_ (1873), a drama, _Death of Themistocles and other Poems_
(1881), _Fragments of Criticism_, and _American Literature_; also Lives
of Bacon, Burns, Carlyle, and Byron.

NOEL, HON. RODEN BERKELEY WRIOTHESLEY (1834-1894).--Poet, _s._, of the
1st Earl of Gainsborough, was _ed._ at Camb. He wrote _Behind the Veil_
(1863), _The Red Flag_ (1872), _Songs of the Heights and Deeps_ (1885),
and _Essays_ on various poets, also a Life of Byron.

NORRIS, JOHN (1657-1711).--Philosopher and poet, _ed._ at Oxf., took
orders, and lived a quiet and placid life as a country parson and
thinker. In philosophy he was a Platonist and mystic, and was an early
opponent of Locke. His poetry, with occasional fine thoughts, is full of
far-fetched metaphors and conceits, and is not seldom dull and prosaic.
From 1692 he held G. Herbert's benefice of Bemerton. Among his 23 works
are _An Idea of Happiness_ (1683), _Miscellanies_ (1687), _Theory and
Regulation of Love_ (1688), _Theory of the Ideal and Intelligible World_
(1701-4), and a _Discourse concerning the Immortality of the Soul_
(1708).

NORTH, SIR THOMAS (1535?-1601?).--Translator, 2nd _s._ of the 1st Lord
N., may have studied at Camb. He entered Lincoln's Inn 1557, but gave
more attention to literature than to law. He is best known by his
translation of _Plutarch_, from the French of Amyot, in fine, forcible,
idiomatic English, which was the repertory from which Shakespeare drew
his knowledge of ancient history: in _Antony and Cleopatra_ and
_Coriolanus_ North's language is often closely followed. Another
translation was from an Italian version of an Arabic book of fables, and
bore the title of _The Morale Philosophie of Doni_.

NORTON, CAROLINE ELIZABETH SARAH (SHERIDAN) (1808-1877).--Grand-daughter
of Richard Brinsley S. (_q.v._), _m._ in 1827 the Hon. G.C. Norton, a
union which turned out most unhappy, and ended in a separation. Her first
book, _The Sorrows of Rosalie_ (1829), was well received. _The Undying
One_ (1830), a romance founded upon the legend of the Wandering Jew,
followed, and other novels were _Stuart of Dunleath_ (1851), _Lost and
Saved_ (1863), and _Old Sir Douglas_ (1867). The unhappiness of her
married life led her to interest herself in the amelioration of the laws
regarding the social condition and the separate property of women and the
wrongs of children, and her poems, _A Voice from the Factories_ (1836),
and _The Child of the Islands_ (1845), had as an object the furtherance
of her views on these subjects. Her efforts were largely successful in
bringing about the needed legislation. In 1877 Mrs. N. _m._ Sir W.
Stirling Maxwell (_q.v._).

NORTON, CHARLES ELIOT, LL.D., D.C.L., etc. (1827-1909).--American
biographer and critic. _Church Building in the Middle Ages_ (1876),
translation of the _New Life_ (1867), and _The Divine Comedy_ of Dante
(1891); has ed. _Correspondence of Carlyle and Emerson_ (1883),
_Carlyle's Letters and Reminiscences_ (1887), etc.

OCCAM or OCKHAM, WILLIAM (1270?-1349?).--Schoolman, _b._ at Ockham,
Surrey, studied at Oxf. and Paris, and became a Franciscan. As a
schoolman he was a Nominalist and received the title of the Invincible
Doctor. He attacked the abuses of the Church, and was imprisoned at
Avignon, but escaped and spent the latter part of his life at Munich,
maintaining to the last his controversies with the Church, and with the
Realists. He was a man of solid understanding and sense, and a masterly
logician. His writings, which are of course all in Latin, deal with the
Aristotelean philosophy, theology, and specially under the latter with
the errors of Pope John XXII., who was his _bete-noir_.

OCCLEVE, (_see_ HOCCLEVE).

OCKLEY, SIMON (1678-1720).--Orientalist, _b._ at Exeter, and _ed._ at
Camb., became the greatest Orientalist of his day, and was made in 1711
Prof. of Arabic in his Univ. His chief work is the _Conquest of Syria,
Persia, and Egypt by the Saracens_ (3 vols., 1708-57), which was largely
used by Gibbon. The original documents upon which it is founded are now
regarded as of doubtful authority. O. was a clergyman of the Church of
England.

O'KEEFFE, JOHN (1747-1833).--Dramatist, wrote a number of farces and
amusing dramatic pieces, many of which had great success. Among these are
_Tony Lumpkin in Town_ (1778), _Wild Oats_, and _Love in a Camp_. Some of
his songs set to music by Arnold and Shield, such as _I am a Friar of
Orders Grey_, and _The Thorn_, are still popular. He was blind in his
later years.

OLDHAM, JOHN (1653-1683).--Satirist and translator, _s._ of a
Nonconformist minister, was at Oxf., and was the friend of most of the
literary men of his time, by whom his early death from smallpox was
bewailed. He made clever adaptations of the classical satirists, wrote an
ironical _Satire against Virtue_, and four severe satires against the
Jesuits. He is cynical to the verge of misanthropy, but independent and
manly.

OLDMIXON, JOHN (1673-1742).--Historical and miscellaneous writer,
belonged to an old Somersetshire family, wrote some, now forgotten,
dramas and poems which, along with an essay on criticism, in which he
attacked Addison, Swift, and Pope, earned for him a place in _The
Dunciad_. He was also the author of _The British Empire in America_
(1708), _Secret History of Europe_ (against the Stuarts), and in his
_Critical History_ (1724-26) attacked Clarendon's _History of the
Rebellion_. All these works are partisan in their tone. O. was one of the
most prolific pamphleteers of his day.

OLDYS, WILLIAM (1696-1761).--Antiquary, wrote a Life of Sir W. Raleigh
prefixed to an ed. of his works (1736), a _Dissertation on Pamphlets_
(1731), and was joint ed. with Dr. Johnson of the _Harleian Miscellany_.
He amassed many interesting facts in literary history, the fruits of
diligent, though obscure, industry. The only poem of his that still lives
is the beautiful little anacreontic beginning "Busy, curious, thirsty
Fly." O. held the office of Norroy-King-at-Arms. He produced in 1737 _The
British Librarian_, a valuable work left unfinished.

OLIPHANT, LAURENCE (1829-1888).--Novelist and miscellaneous writer, _s._
of Sir Anthony O., Chief Justice of Ceylon. The first 38 years of his
life were spent in desultory study, travel, and adventure, varied by
occasional diplomatic employment. His travels included, besides
Continental countries, the shores of the Black Sea, Circassia, where he
was _Times_ correspondent, America, China, and Japan. He was in the
Crimean War, Indian Mutiny, Chinese War, the military operations of
Garibaldi, and the Polish insurrection, and served as private sec. to
Lord Elgin in Washington, Canada, and China, and as Sec. of Legation in
Japan. In 1865 he entered Parliament, and gave promise of political
eminence, when in 1867 he came under the influence of Thomas L. Harris,
an American mystic of questionable character, went with him to America,
and joined the Brotherhood of the New Life. In 1870-71 he was
correspondent for the _Times_ in the Franco-German War. Ultimately he
broke away from the influence of Harris and went to Palestine, where he
founded a community of Jewish immigrants at Haifa. After revisiting
America he returned to England, but immediately fell ill and _d._ at
Twickenham. O. was a voluminous and versatile author, publishing books
of travel, novels, and works on mysticism. The most important are as
follows: _The Russian Shores of the Black Sea_ (1853), _Minnesota and the
Far West_ (1855), _The Transcaucasian Campaign_ (1856), _Patriots and
Fillibusters_ (adventures in Southern States) (1860), _Narrative of a
Mission to China and Japan_ (1857-59), _The Land of Gilead_ (1880),
_Piccadilly_ (1870), and _Altiora Peto_ (1883) (novels), and _Scientific
Religion_.

OLIPHANT, MRS. MARGARET OLIPHANT (WILSON) (1828-1897).--Novelist and
miscellaneous writer, was _b._ near Musselburgh. Her literary output
began when she was little more than a girl, and was continued almost up
to the end of her life. Her first novel, _Mrs. Margaret Maitland_,
appeared in 1849, and its humour, pathos, and insight into character gave
the author an immediate position in literature. It was followed by an
endless succession, of which the best were the series of _The Chronicles
of Carlingford_ (1861-65), including _Salem Chapel_, _The Perpetual
Curate_, and _Miss Marjoribanks_, all of which, as well as much of her
other work, appeared in _Blackwood's Magazine_, with which she had a
lifelong connection. Others of some note were _The Primrose Path_,
_Madonna Mary_ (1866), _The Wizard's Son_, and _A Beleaguered City_. She
did not, however, confine herself to fiction, but wrote many books of
history and biography, including _Sketches of the Reign of George II._
(1869), _The Makers of Florence_ (1876), _Literary History of England_
1790-1825, _Royal Edinburgh_ (1890), and Lives of _St. Francis of
Assisi_, _Edward Irving_, and _Principal Tulloch_. Her generosity in
supporting and educating the family of a brother as well as her own two
sons rendered necessary a rate of production which was fatal to the
permanence of her work. She was negligent as to style, and often wrote on
subjects to which her intellectual equipment and knowledge did not enable
her to do proper justice. She had, however, considerable power of
painting character, and a vein of humour, and showed untiring industry in
getting up her subjects.

OPIE, MRS. AMELIA (ALDERSON) (1769-1853).--Novelist, _dau._ of a medical
man, was _b._ at Norwich. In 1798 she _m._ John Opie, the painter. Her
first acknowledged work was _Father and Daughter_ (1801), which had a
favourable reception, and was followed by _Adeline Mowbray_ (1804),
_Temper_ (1812), _Tales from Real Life_ (1813), and others, all having
the same aim of developing the virtuous affections, the same merit of
natural and vivid painting of character and passions, and the same fault
of a too great preponderance of the pathetic. They were soon superseded
by the more powerful genius of Scott and Miss Edgeworth. In 1825 she
became a Quaker. After this she wrote _Illustrations of Lying_ (1825),
and _Detraction Displayed_ (1828). Her later years, which were singularly
cheerful, were largely devoted to philanthropic interests.

ORDERICUS VITALIS (1075-1143?).--Chronicler, _b._ near Shrewsbury, was in
childhood put into the monastery of St. Evroult, in Normandy, where the
rest of his life was passed. He is the author of a chronicle,
_Ecclesiastical History of England and Normandy_ (_c._ 1142) in 13 books.
Those from the seventh to the thirteenth are invaluable as giving a
trustworthy, though not very clear, record of contemporary events in
England and Normandy. It was translated into English in 1853-55.

ORM, or ORMIN (_fl._ 1200).--Was an Augustinian canon of Mercia, who
wrote the _Ormulum_ in transition English. It is a kind of mediaeval
_Christian Year_, containing a metrical portion of the Gospel for each
day, followed by a metrical homily, largely borrowed from AElfric and
Bede. Its title is thus accounted for, "This boc iss nemmed the
_Ormulum_, forthi that Orm it wrohhte."

ORME, ROBERT (1728-1801).--Historian, _s._ of an Indian army doctor, _b._
at Travancore, and after being at Harrow, entered the service of the East
India Company. Owing to failure of health he had to return home in 1760,
and then wrote his _History of the Military Transactions of the British
Nation in Indostan from 1745_ (1763-78), a well-written and accurate
work, showing great research. He also _pub._ _Historical Fragments of the
Mogul Empire, the Morattoes and English Concerns in Indostan from 1659_
(1782). His collections relating to India are preserved at the India
Office.

ORRERY, ROGER BOYLE, 1ST EARL of (1621-1679).--Statesman and dramatist,
third _s._ of the Earl of Cork, was _ed._ at Trinity Coll., Dublin. After
having fought on the Royalist side he was, on the death of the King,
induced by Cromwell to support him in his Irish wars and otherwise. After
the death of the Protector he secured Ireland for Charles II., and at the
Restoration was raised to the peerage. He wrote a romance in 6 vols.,
entitled _Parthenissa_, some plays, and a treatise on the _Art of War_.
He has the distinction of being the first to introduce rhymed tragedies.

O'SHAUGHNESSY, ARTHUR WILLIAM EDGAR (1844-1881).--Poet, _b._ in London,
entered the library of the British Museum, afterwards being transferred
to the natural history department, where he became an authority on fishes
and reptiles. He _pub._ various books of poetry, including _Epic of
Women_ (1870), _Lays of France_ (1872), and _Music and Moonlight_ (1874).
Jointly with his wife he wrote _Toyland_, a book for children. He was
associated with D.G. Rossetti and the other pre-Raphaelites. There is a
certain remoteness in his poetry which will probably always prevent its
being widely popular. He has a wonderful mastery of metre, and a
"haunting music" all his own.

OTWAY, CAESAR (1780-1842).--Writer of Irish tales. His writings, which
display humour and sympathy with the poorer classes in Ireland, include
_Sketches in Ireland_ (1827), and _A Tour in Connaught_ (1839). He was
concerned in the establishment of various journals.

OTWAY, THOMAS (1651 or 1652-1685).--Dramatist, _s._ of a clergyman, was
_b._ near Midhurst, Sussex, and _ed._ at Oxf., which he left without
graduating. His short life, like those of many of his fellows, was marked
by poverty and misery, and he appears to have _d._ practically of
starvation. Having failed as an actor, he took to writing for the stage,
and produced various plays, among which _Don Carlos, Prince of Spain_
(1676), was a great success, and brought him some money. Those by which
he is best remembered, however, are _The Orphan_ (1680), and _Venice
Preserved_ (1682), both of which have been frequently revived. O. made
many adaptations from the French, and in his tragedy of _Caius Marius_
incorporated large parts of _Romeo and Juliet_. He has been called "the
most pathetic and tear-drawing of all our dramatists," and he excelled in
delineating the stronger passions. The grossness of his comedies has
banished them from the stage. Other plays are _The Cheats of Scapin_,
_Friendship in Fashion_, _Soldier's Fortune_ (1681), and _The Atheist_.

OUIDA, (_see_ RAMEE).

OUTRAM, GEORGE (1805-1856).--Humorous poet, was a Scottish advocate, a
friend of Prof. Wilson, and for some time ed. of the _Glasgow Herald_. He
printed privately in 1851 _Lyrics, Legal and Miscellaneous_, which were
_pub._ with a memoir in 1874. Many of his pieces are highly amusing, the
_Annuity_ being the best.

OVERBURY, SIR THOMAS (1581-1613).--Poet and miscellaneous writer, _ed._
at Oxf., became the friend of Carr, afterwards Earl of Rochester and
Somerset, and fell a victim to a Court intrigue connected with the
proposed marriage of Rochester and Lady Essex, being poisoned in the
Tower with the connivance of the latter. He wrote a poem, _A Wife, now a
Widowe_, and _Characters_ (1614), short, witty descriptions of types of
men. Some of those _pub._ along with his are by other hands.

OWEN, JOHN (1560-1622).--Epigrammatist, _b._ at Plas Dhu, Carnarvonshire,
_ed._ at Winchester and Oxf., and became head master of King Henry VIII.
School at Warwick. His Latin epigrams, which have both sense and wit in a
high degree, gained him much applause, and were translated into English,
French, German, and Spanish.

OWEN, JOHN (1616-1683).--Puritan divine, _b._ at Stadhampton,
Oxfordshire, and _ed._ at Oxf., from which he was driven by Laud's
statutes. Originally a Presbyterian, he passed over to Independency. In
1649 he accompanied Cromwell to Ireland, and in 1650 to Edinburgh. He was
Dean of Christ Church, Oxf. (1651-60), and one of the "triers" of
ministers appointed by Cromwell. After the Restoration he was ejected
from his deanery, but was favoured by Clarendon, who endeavoured to
induce him to conform to the Anglican Church by offers of high
preferment. Strange to say Charles II. also held him in regard, and gave
him money for the Nonconformists; and he was allowed to preach to a
congregation of Independents in London. His great learning and ability
rendered him a formidable controversialist, specially against Arminianism
and Romanism. His works fill 28 vols; among the best known being _The
Divine Original, etc., of the Scriptures_, _Indwelling Sin_,
_Christologia_, or ... The Person of Christ_, and a commentary
on Hebrews.

OWEN, ROBERT (1771-1858).--Socialist and philanthropist, _b._ at Newton,
Montgomeryshire, had for his object the regeneration of the world on the
principles of socialism. His sincerity was shown by the fact that he
spent most of the fortune, which his great capacity for business enabled
him to make, in endeavours to put his theories into practice at various
places both in Britain and America. He was sincerely philanthropic, and
incidentally did good on a considerable scale in the course of his more
or less impracticable schemes. He propounded his ideas in _New Views of
Society, or Essays on the Formation of the Human Character_ (1816).

OXFORD, EDWARD DE VERE, EARL of (1550-1604).--Was a courtier of Queen
Elizabeth, who lost his friends by his insolence and pride, and his
fortune by his extravagance. He _m._ a _dau._ of Lord Burghley, who had
to support his family after his death. He had some reputation as a writer
of short pieces, many of which are in the _Paradise of Dainty Devices_.

PAINE, THOMAS (1737-1809).--Political and anti-Christian writer, _s._ of
a stay-maker and small farmer of Quaker principles at Thetford, became
with large classes perhaps the most unpopular man in England. After
trying various occupations, including those of schoolmaster and
exciseman, and having separated from his wife, he went in 1774 to America
where, in 1776, he _pub._ his famous pamphlet, _Common Sense_, in favour
of American independence. He served in the American army, and also held
some political posts, including that of sec. to a mission to France in
1781. Returning to England in 1787 he _pub._ his _Rights of Man_
(1790-92), in reply to Burke's _Reflections on the French Revolution_. It
had an enormous circulation, 1,500,000 copies having been sold in England
alone; but it made it necessary for him to escape to France to avoid
prosecution. Arrived in that country he was elected to the National
Convention. He opposed the execution of Louis XVI., and was, in 1794,
imprisoned by Robespierre, whose fall saved his life. He had then just
completed the first part of his _Age of Reason_, of which the other two
appeared respectively in 1795 and 1807. It is directed alike against
Christianity and Atheism, and supports Deism. Becoming disgusted with the
course of French politics, he returned to America in 1802, but found
himself largely ostracised by society there, became embroiled in various
controversies, and is said to have become intemperate. He _d._ at New
York in 1809. Though apparently sincere in his views, and courageous in
the expression of them, P. was vain and prejudiced. The extraordinary
lucidity and force of his style did much to gain currency for his
writings.

PAINTER, WILLIAM (1540?-1594).--Translator, etc., _ed._ at Camb., was

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