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A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature by John W. Cousin

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War and the independence of the Colonies. In 1776 he was U.S. Minister to
France, and in 1782 was a signatory of the treaty which confirmed the
independence of the States. He returned home in 1785, and, after holding
various political offices, retired in 1788, and _d._ in 1790. His
autobiography is his chief contribution to literature, and is of the
highest interest.

Works (10 vols., Bigelow, 1887-9), Autobiography (1868), Lives by
M'Master (1887), and Morse (1889).

FREEMAN, EDWARD AUGUSTUS (1823-1892).--Historian, _s._ of John F., was
_b._ at Harborne, Staffordshire. He lost both his parents in childhood,
and was brought up by his paternal grandmother. He was _ed._ at private
schools, and as a private pupil of the Rev. R. Gutch, whose _dau._ he
afterwards _m._ In 1841 he was elected to a scholarship at Oxf. He had
inherited an income sufficient to make him independent of a profession,
and a prepossession in favour of the celibacy of the clergy disinclined
him to enter the Church, of which he had at one time thought. He settled
ultimately at Somerleaze, near Wells, where he occupied himself in study,
writing for periodicals, and with the duties of a magistrate. He was a
strong Liberal, and on one occasion stood unsuccessfully as a candidate
for Parliament. He was also twice unsuccessful as an applicant for
professional chairs, but ultimately, in 1884, succeeded Stubbs as Prof.
of Modern History at Oxf. He had always been an enthusiastic traveller,
and it was when on a tour in Spain that he took ill and _d._ on May 16,
1892. F. was a voluminous author, and a keen controversialist. His first
book was a _History of Architecture_ (1849), and among the very numerous
publications which he issued the most important were _History of Federal
Government_ (1863), _The History of the Norman Conquest_ (6 vols.,
1867-79), _The Historical Geography of Europe_ (1881-2), _The Reign of
William Rufus_ (1882), and an unfinished _History of Sicily_. Besides
these he wrote innumerable articles in periodicals, many of which were
separately _pub._ and contain much of his best work. He was laborious and
honest, but the controversial cast of his mind sometimes coloured his
work. His short books, such as his _William I._, and his _General Sketch
of European History_, are marvels of condensation, and show him at his
best. His knowledge of history was singularly wide, and he sometimes
showed a great power of vivid presentation.

FRENEAU, PHILIP (1752-1832).--Poet, _b._ in New York, produced two vols.
of verse (1786-8), the most considerable contribution to poetry made up
to that date in America. He fought in the Revolutionary War, was taken
prisoner, and confined in a British prison-ship, the arrangements of
which he bitterly satirised in _The British Prison Ship_ (1781). He also
wrote vigorous prose, of which _Advice to Authors_ is an example. Amid
much commonplace and doggerel, F. produced a small amount of genuine
poetry in his short pieces, such as _The Indian Burying Ground_, and _The
Wild Honeysuckle_.

FRERE, JOHN HOOKHAM (1769-1846).--Diplomatist, translator, and author,
eldest _s._ of John F., a distinguished antiquary, was _b._ in London,
and _ed._ at Eton and Camb. He became a clerk in the Foreign Office, and
subsequently entering Parliament was appointed Under Foreign Sec. In 1800
he was Envoy to Portugal, and was Ambassador to Spain 1802-4, and again
1808-9. In 1818 he retired to Malta, where he _d._ He was a contributor
to the _Anti-Jacobin_, to Ellis's _Specimens of the Early English Poets_
(1801), and to Southey's _Chronicle of the Cid_. He also made some
masterly translations from _Aristophanes_; but his chief original
contribution to literature was a burlesque poem on _Arthur and the Round
Table_, purporting to be by William and Robert Whistlecraft. All F.'s
writings are characterised no less by scholarship than by wit.

FROUDE, JAMES ANTHONY (1818-1894).--Historian and essayist, 3rd _s._ of
the Archdeacon of Totnes, Devonshire, near which he was _b._, and
brother of Richard Hurrell. F., one of the leaders of the Tractarian
party, was _ed._ at Westminster School and Oxf., where for a short time
he came under the influence of Newman, and contributed to his _Lives of
the English Saints_, and in 1844 he took Deacon's orders. The connection
with Newman was, however, short-lived; and the publication in 1848 of
_The Nemesis of Faith_ showed that in the severe mental and spiritual
conflict through which he had passed, the writer had not only escaped
from all Tractarian influences, but was in revolt against many of the
fundamental doctrines of Christianity. One result of the book was his
resignation of his Fellowship at Oxf.: another was his loss of an
appointment as Head Master of the Grammar School of Hobart Town,
Tasmania. In the same year began his friendship with Carlyle, and about
the same time he became a contributor to the _Westminster Review_ and to
_Fraser's Magazine_, of which he was ed. from 1860-74. These papers were
afterwards _coll._ and _pub._ in the 4 vols. of _Short Studies on Great
Subjects_. In 1856 he _pub._ the first 2 vols. of the great work of his
life, _The History of England from the Fall of Cardinal Wolsey to the
Spanish Armada_, which extended to 12 vols., the last of which appeared
in 1870. As literature this work has a place among the greatest
productions of the century; but in its treatment it is much more
dramatic, ethical, and polemical than historical in the strict sense; and
indeed the inaccuracy in matters of fact to which F. was liable, combined
with his tendency to idealise and to colour with his own prejudices the
characters who figure in his narrative, are serious deductions from the
value of his work considered as history. _The English in Ireland in the
Eighteenth Century_ appeared in 1872-4. On the death of Carlyle in 1881,
F. found himself in the position of his sole literary executor, and in
that capacity _pub._ successively the _Reminiscences_ (1881), _History of
the First Forty Years of Carlyle's Life_ (1882), _Letters and Memorials
of Jane Welsh Carlyle_ (1883), _History of Carlyle's Life in London_
(1884). The opinion is held by many that in the discharge of the duties
entrusted to him by his old friend and master he showed neither
discretion nor loyalty; and his indiscreet revelations and gross
inaccuracies evoked a storm of controversy and protest. F. did not
confine his labours to purely literary effort. In 1874-5 he travelled as
a Government Commissioner in South Africa with the view of fostering a
movement in favour of federating the various colonies there; in 1876 he
served on the Scottish Univ. Commission; in 1884-5 he visited Australia,
and gave the fruit of his observations to the world in _Oceana_ (1886),
and in 1886-7 he was in the West Indies, and _pub._ _The English in the
West Indies_ (1888). The year 1892 saw his appointment as Prof. of Modern
History at Oxf., and his lectures there were _pub._ in his last books,
_Life and Letters of Erasmus_ (1894), _English Seamen in the Sixteenth
Century_ (1895), and _The Council of Trent_ (1896). F. was elected in
1869 Lord Rector of the Univ. of St. Andrews, and received the degree of
LL.D. from Edinburgh in 1884. By his instructions no Biography was to be
written.

FULLER, SARAH MARGARET (1810-1850).--Was _b._ in Massachusetts, _dau._ of
a lawyer, who encouraged her in over-working herself in the acquisition
of knowledge with life-long evil results to her health. On his death she
supported a large family of brothers and sisters by teaching. Her early
studies had made her familiar with the literature not only of England but
of France, Spain, and Italy; she had become imbued with German philosophy
and mysticism, and she co-operated with Theodore Parker in his revolt
against the Puritan theology till then prevalent in New England, and
became the conductor of the Transcendentalist organ, _The Dial_, from
1840-2. She made various translations from the German, and _pub._ _Summer
on the Lakes_ (1844), and _Papers on Literature and Art_ (1846). In the
same year she went to Europe, and at Rome met the Marquis Ossoli, an
Italian patriot, whom she _m._ in 1847. She and her husband were in the
thick of the Revolution of 1848-9, and in the latter year she was in
charge of a hospital at Rome. After the suppression of the Revolution she
escaped with her husband from Italy, and took ship for America. The
voyage proved most disastrous: small-pox broke out on the vessel, and
their infant child _d._, the ship was wrecked on Fire Island, near New
York, and she and her husband were lost. Destitute of personal
attractions, she was possessed of a singular power of conciliating
sympathy. She was the intimate friend of Emerson, Hawthorn, Channing, and
other eminent men.

FULLER, THOMAS (1608-1661).--Divine and antiquary, _s._ of a clergyman of
the same name, was _b._ at Aldwinkle, Northamptonshire. Possessed of
exceptional intelligence and a wonderful memory, he became a good
scholar, and distinguished himself at Camb., where he was sent. Entering
the Church, he obtained rapid preferment, including the lectureship at
the Savoy, and a chaplaincy to Charles II. He was a voluminous author,
his works dealing with theology, morals, history, and antiquities. Among
the chief are _History of the Holy War_, _i.e._ the Crusades (1643), _The
Holy State and the Profane State_ (1642), _A Pisgah Sight of Palestine_
(1650), _Church History of Britain_, _History of Cambridge University_
(1655), _Worthies of England_ (1662), and _Good Thoughts in Bad Times_.
The outstanding characteristic of F.'s writings is shrewd observation
conveyed in a style of quaint humour. Lamb says, "His conceits are
oftentimes deeply steeped in human feeling and passion." But in addition
there is much wisdom and a remarkable power of casting his observations
into a compact, aphoristic form. The _Worthies_, though far from being a
systematic work, is full of interesting biographical and antiquarian
matter which, but for the pains of the author, would have been lost.
Coleridge says of him, "He was incomparably the most sensible, the least
prejudiced great man in an age that boasted a galaxy of great men." F.,
who was of a singularly amiable character, was a strong Royalist, and
suffered the loss of his preferments during the Commonwealth. They were,
however, given back to him at the Restoration.

Lives by Russell (1844), J.E. Bailey (1874), and M. Fuller (1886).

FULLERTON, LADY GEORGIANA (LEVESON-GOWER) (1812-1885).--Novelist, _dau._
of the 1st Earl Granville, and sister of the eminent statesman. She wrote
a number of novels, some of which had considerable success. They include
_Ellen Middleton_ (1844), _Grantley Manor_ (1847), and _Too Strange not
to be True_ (1864). She also _pub._ two vols. of verse. She joined the
Church of Rome in 1846.

GAIMAR, GEOFFREY (_fl._ 1140?).--Chronicler, translated the chronicle of
Geoffrey of Monmouth into French verse for the wife of his patron, Ralph
Fitz-Gilbert, and added a continuation dealing with the Saxon Kings. His
work is entitled _L'Estoire des Engles_.

GALT, JOHN (1779-1839).--Novelist and miscellaneous writer, _s._ of the
captain of a West Indiaman, was _b._ at Irvine, Ayrshire, but while still
a young man he went to London and formed a commercial partnership, which
proved unfortunate, and he then entered Lincoln's Inn to study law. A
little before this he had produced his first book, a poem on the Battle
of Largs, which, however, he soon suppressed. He then went to various
parts of the Continent in connection with certain commercial schemes, and
met Lord Byron, with whom he travelled for some time. Returning home he
_pub._ _Letters from the Levant_, which had a favourable reception, and
some dramas, which were less successful. He soon, however, found his true
vocation in the novel of Scottish country life, and his fame rests upon
the _Ayrshire Legatees_ (1820), _The Annals of the Parish_ (1821), _Sir
Andrew Wylie_ (1822), _The Entail_ (1824), and _The Provost_. He was not
so successful in the domain of historical romance, which he tried in
_Ringan Gilbaize_, _The Spae-wife_, _The Omen_, etc., although these
contain many striking passages. In addition to his novels G. produced
many historical and biographical works, including a _Life of Wolsey_
(1812), _Life and Studies of Benjamin West_ (1816), _Tour of Asia_, _Life
of Byron_ (1830), _Lives of the Players_, and an Autobiography (1834). In
addition to this copious literary output, G. was constantly forming and
carrying out commercial schemes, the most important of which was the
Canada Company, which, like most of his other enterprises, though
conducted with great energy and ability on his part, ended in
disappointment and trouble for himself. In 1834 he returned from Canada
to Greenock, broken in health and spirits, and _d._ there in 1839 of
paralysis. G. was a man of immense talent and energy, but would have held
a higher place in literature had he concentrated these qualities upon
fewer objects. Most of his 60 books are forgotten, but some of his
novels, especially perhaps _The Annals of the Parish_, have deservedly a
secure place. The town of Galt in Canada is named after him.

GARDINER, SAMUEL RAWSON (1829-1902).--Historian, _b._ at Alresford,
Hants, was _ed._ at Winchester and Oxf. In 1855 he _m._ Isabella, _dau._
of Edward Irving (_q.v._), the founder of the Catholic Apostolic Church,
which he joined, and in which he ultimately held high office. About the
time of his leaving Oxf. he had planned his great work, _The History of
England from the Accession of James I. to the Restoration_, and the
accomplishment of this task he made the great object of his life for more
than 40 years. The first two vols. appeared in 1863 as _The History of
England from the Accession of James I. to the Disgrace of Chief Justice
Cooke_, and subsequent instalments appeared under the following titles:
_Prince Charles and The Spanish Marriage_ (1867), _England under
Buckingham and Charles I._ (1875), _Personal Government of Charles I._
(1877), _The Fall of the Government of Charles I._ (1881); these were in
1883-4 re-issued in a consolidated form entitled _History of England from
the Accession of James I. to the Outbreak of the Civil War_. The second
section of the work, _History of the Great Civil War_, followed in three
vols. _pub._ in 1886, 1889, and 1891 respectively, and three more vols.,
_History of the Commonwealth and Protectorate_ in 1894, 1897, and 1901,
brought the story down to 1656, when the health of the indefatigable
writer gave way, and he _d._ in 1902. In addition to this monumental work
G. wrote many school and college historical text-books, and contributed
to the Epochs of Modern History Series, _The Thirty Years' War_ (1874),
and _The First Two Stuarts_ (1876); he also wrote _Outlines of English
History_, three parts (1881-3), and _Students' History of England_, three
parts (1891). From 1871-85 he was Prof. of History at King's Coll.,
London, and lecturer on history for the London Society for the Extension
of Univ. Teaching. He also ed. many of the historical documents which he
unearthed in his investigations, and many of those issued by the
"Camden," "Clarendon," and other societies. He was ed. of _The English
Historical Review_, and contributed largely to the _Dictionary of
National Biography_. The sober and unadorned style of G.'s works did
little to commend them to the general reader, but their eminent learning,
accuracy, impartiality, and the laborious pursuit of truth which they
exhibited earned for him, from the first, the respect and admiration of
scholars and serious students of history; and as his great work advanced
it was recognised as a permanent contribution to historical literature.
In 1882 he received a civil list pension, and was elected to Research
Fellowships, first by All Souls' Coll., and subsequently by Merton. He
held honorary degrees from the Univ. of Oxford, Gottingen, and Edinburgh.

GARNETT, RICHARD (1835-1906).--Biographer and writer on literature, _s._
of Richard G., an assistant keeper of Printed Books in the British
Museum. _B._ at Lichfield, and _ed._ at a school in, Bloomsbury, he
entered the British Museum in 1851 as an assistant librarian. There he
remained for nearly 50 years, and rose to be Keeper of Printed Books. He
acquired a marvellous knowledge of books, and of everything connected
with pure literature. He made numerous translations from the Greek,
German, Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese, and wrote books of graceful
verse, _The Twilight of the Gods and other Tales_ (1888), various
biographical works on Carlyle, Milton, Blake, and others, _The Age of
Dryden_, a _History of Italian Literature_, and contributed many articles
to encyclopaedias, and to the _Dictionary of National Biography_.

GARRICK, DAVID (1717-1779).--Actor and dramatist, _b._ at Hereford, but
got most of his education at Lichfield, to which his _f._ belonged. He
was also one of the three pupils who attended Johnson's School at Edial.
With his great preceptor, whom he accompanied to London, he always
remained on friendly terms. He took to the stage, and became the greatest
of English actors. He also wrote various plays, and adaptations, and did
not scruple to undertake "improved" versions of some of Shakespeare's
greatest plays including _Cymbeline_, _The Taming of the Shrew_, and
_The Winter s Tale_, performing the same service for Jonson and
Wycherley, in the last case with much more excuse. Of his original plays
_The Lying Valet_ and _Miss in her Teens_ are perhaps the best.

GARRISON, WILLIAM LLOYD (1805-1879).--Orator, was _b._ at Newburyport,
Mass. Though chiefly known for his eloquent advocacy of negro
emancipation, he is also remembered for his _Sonnets and other Poems_
(1847).

GARTH, SIR SAMUEL (1661-1719).--Physician and poet, _b._ at Bolam in the
county of Durham, and _ed._ at Camb., he settled as a physician in
London, where he soon acquired a large practice. He was a zealous Whig,
the friend of Addison and, though of different political views, of Pope,
and he ended his career as physician to George I., by whom he was
knighted in 1714. He is remembered as the author of _The Dispensary_, a
satire, which had great popularity in its day, and of _Claremont_, a
descriptive poem. He also ed. a translation of Ovid's _Metamorphoses_, to
which Addison, Pope, and others contributed. Perhaps, however, the
circumstance most honourable to him is his intervention to procure an
honourable burial for Dryden, over whose remains he pronounced a eulogy.

GASCOIGNE, GEORGE (1525 or 1535-1577).--Poet and dramatist, _s._ of Sir
John G., and descended from Sir William G., the famous Chief Justice to
Henry IV., he was _ed._ at Camb., and entered Gray's Inn 1555. While
there he produced two plays, both translations, _The Supposes_ (1566)
from Ariosto, and _Jocasta_ (1566) from Euripides. Disinherited on
account of his prodigality, he _m._ in order to rehabilitate his
finances, a widow, the mother of Nicholas Breton (_q.v._). He had,
nevertheless, to go to Holland to escape from the importunities of his
creditors. While there he saw service under the Prince of Orange, and was
taken prisoner by the Spaniards. Released after a few months, he returned
to England, and found that some of his poems had been surreptitiously
_pub._ He thereupon issued an authoritative ed. under the title of _An
Hundred Sundrie Floures bound up in one Poesie_ (1572). Other works are
_Notes of Instruction_, for making English verse, _The Glasse of
Government_ (1575), and _The Steele Glasse_ (1576), a satire. He also
contributed to the entertainments in honour of Queen Elizabeth at
Kenilworth and appears to have had a share of Court favour. G. was a man
of originality, and did much to popularise the use of blank verse in
England.

GASKELL, ELIZABETH CLEGHORN (STEVENSON) (1810-1865).--Novelist, _dau._ of
William Stevenson, a Unitarian minister, and for some time Keeper of the
Treasury Records. She _m._ William G., a Unitarian minister, at
Manchester, and in 1848 _pub._ anonymously her first book, _Mary Barton_,
in which the life and feelings of the manufacturing working classes are
depicted with much power and sympathy. Other novels followed, _Lizzie
Leigh_ (1855), _Mr. Harrison's Confessions_ (1865), _Ruth_ (1853),
_Cranford_ (1851-3), _North and South_ (1855), _Sylvia's Lovers_ (1863),
etc. Her last work was _Wives and Daughters_ (1865), which appeared in
the _Cornhill Magazine_, and was left unfinished. Mrs. G. had some of
the characteristics of Miss Austen, and if her style and delineation of
character are less minutely perfect, they are, on the other hand, imbued
with a deeper vein of feeling. She was the friend of Charlotte Bronte
(_q.v._), to whom her sympathy brought much comfort, and whose _Life_ she
wrote. Of _Cranford_ Lord Houghton wrote, "It is the finest piece of
humoristic description that has been added to British literature since
Charles Lamb."

GATTY, MRS. ALFRED (MARGARET SCOTT) (1809-1873).--_Dau._ of Rev. A.J.
Scott, D.D., a navy chaplain, who served under, and was the trusted
friend of, Nelson. She _m._ the Rev. Alfred Gatty, D.D., Ecclesfield,
Yorkshire, and became a highly useful and popular writer of tales for
young people. Among her books may be mentioned _Parables from Nature_,
_Worlds not Realised_, _Proverbs Illustrated_, and _Aunt Judy's Tales_.
She also conducted _Aunt Judy's Magazine_, and wrote a book on British
sea-weeds. Juliana Ewing (_q.v._) was her daughter.

GAUDEN, JOHN (1605-1662).--Theologian, _b._ at Mayfield in Essex, and
_ed._ at Camb. His claim to remembrance rests on his being the reputed
author of _Eikon Basilike_ (the Royal Image), a book purporting to be
written by Charles I. during his imprisonment, and containing religious
meditations and defences of his political acts. _Pub._ immediately after
the King's execution, it produced an extraordinary effect, so much so
that Charles II. is reported to have said that, had it been _pub._ a week
earlier, it would have saved his father's life. There seems now to be
little doubt that Gauden was the author. At all events he claimed to be
recompensed for his services, and was made Bishop successively of Exeter
and Worcester, apparently on the strength of these claims. The work
passed through 50 ed. within a year, and was answered by Milton in his
_Iconoclastes_ (the Image-breaker).

GAY, JOHN (1685-1732).--Poet and dramatist, _b._ near Barnstaple of a
good but decayed family. His parents dying while he was a child he was
apprenticed to a silk-mercer in London, but not liking the trade, was
released by his master. In 1708 he _pub._ a poem, _Wine_, and in 1713
_Rural Sports_, which he dedicated to Pope, whose friendship he obtained.
A little before this he had received an appointment as sec. in the
household of the Duchess of Monmouth. His next attempts were in the
drama, in which he was not at first successful; but about 1714 he made
his first decided hit in _The Shepherd's Week_, a set of six pastorals
designed to satirise Ambrose Philips, which, however, secured public
approval on their own merits. These were followed by _Trivia_ (1716), in
which he was aided by Swift, an account in mock heroic verse of the
dangers of the London streets, and by _The Fan_. G. had always been
ambitious of public employment, and his aspirations were gratified by his
receiving the appointment of sec. to an embassy to Hanover, which,
however, he appears to have resigned in a few months. He then returned to
the drama in _What d'ye call It_, and _Three Hours after Marriage_,
neither of which, however, took the public fancy. In 1720 he _pub._ a
collection of his poems, which brought him L1000, but soon after lost
all his means in the collapse of the South Sea Company. After producing
another drama, _The Captive_, he _pub._ his _Fables_ (1727), which added
to his reputation, and soon after, in 1728, achieved the great success of
his life in _The Beggar's Opera_, a Newgate pastoral, suggested by Swift,
in which the graces and fantasticalities of the Italian Opera were
satirised. A sequel, _Polly_, was suppressed by the Lord Chamberlain as
reflecting upon the Court, but was _pub._ and had an enormous sale. The
last few years of his life were passed in the household of the Duke of
Queensberry, who had always been his friend and patron. He _d._ after
three days' illness, aged 47. G. was an amiable, easy-going man, who
appears to have had the power of attracting the strong attachments of his
friends, among whom were Pope and Swift. He seems to have been one of the
very few for whom the latter had a sincere affection. He is buried in
Westminster Abbey. Of all he has written he is best remembered by one or
two songs, of which the finest is _Black-eyed Susan_.

GEDDES, ALEXANDER (1737-1802).--Theologian and scholar, of Roman Catholic
parentage, was _b._ at Ruthven, Banffshire, and _ed._ for the priesthood
at the local seminary of Scalan, and at Paris, and became a priest in his
native county. His translation of the _Satires_ of Horace made him known
as a scholar, but his liberality of view led to his suspension. He then
went to London, where he became known to Lord Petre, who enabled him to
proceed with a new translation of the Bible for English Roman Catholics,
which he carried on as far as Ruth, with some of the Psalms, and which
was _pub._ in 3 vols. (1792-6). This was followed by _Critical Remarks on
the Hebrew Scriptures_, in which he largely anticipated the German school
of criticism. The result of this publication was his suspension from all
ecclesiastical functions. G. was also a poet, and wrote _Linton: a
Tweedside Pastoral_, _Carmen Seculare pro Gallica Gente_ (1790), in
praise of the French Revolution. He _d._ without recanting, but received
absolution at the hands of a French priest, though public mass for his
soul was forbidden by the ecclesiastical powers.

GEOFFREY of MONMOUTH (1100?-1154).--Chronicler, was probably a
Benedictine monk, and became Bishop of St. Asaph. He wrote a Latin
_History of British Kings_. _Merlin's Prophecies_, long attributed to
him, is now held to be not genuine. The history is rather a historical
romance than a sober history, and gave scandal to some of the more
prosaic chroniclers who followed him. It was subsequently translated into
Anglo-Norman by Gaimar and Wace, and into English by Layamon.

GERARD, ALEXANDER (1728-1795).--Philosophical writer, _s._ of Rev.
Gilbert G., was _ed._ at Aberdeen, where he became Prof., first of
Natural Philosophy, and afterwards of Divinity, and one of the ministers
of the city. As a prof. he introduced various reforms. In 1756 he gained
the prize for an _Essay on Taste_ which, together with an _Essay on
Genius_, he subsequently _pub._ These treatises, though now superseded,
gained for him considerable reputation.

GIBBON, EDWARD (1737-1794).--Historian, was _b._ at Putney of an ancient
Kentish family. His _f._ was Edward G., and his mother Judith Porten. He
was the only one of a family of seven who survived infancy, and was
himself a delicate child with a precocious love of study. After receiving
his early education at home he was sent to Westminster School, and when
15 was entered at Magdalen Coll., Oxf., where, according to his own
account, he spent 14 months idly and unprofitably. Oxf. was then at its
lowest ebb, and earnest study or effort of any kind had little
encouragement. G., however, appears to have maintained his wide reading
in some degree, and his study of Bossuet and other controversialists led
to his becoming in 1753 a Romanist. To counteract this his _f._ placed
him under the charge of David Mallet (_q.v._), the poet, deist, and ed.
of Bolingbroke's works, whose influence, not unnaturally, failed of the
desired effect, and G. was next sent to Lausanne, and placed under the
care of a Protestant pastor, M. Pavilliard. Various circumstances appear
to have made G. not unwilling to be re-converted to Protestantism; at all
events he soon returned to the reformed doctrines. At Lausanne he
remained for over four years, and devoted himself assiduously to study,
especially of French literature and the Latin classics. At this time also
he became engaged to Mademoiselle Suzanne Curchod; but on the match being
peremptorily opposed by his _f._ it was broken off. With the lady, who
eventually became the wife of Necker, and the mother of Madame de Stael,
he remained on terms of friendship. In 1758 G. returned to England, and
in 1761 _pub._ _Essai sur l'Etude de la Litterature_, translated into
English in 1764. About this time he made a tour on the Continent,
visiting Paris, where he stayed for three months, and thence proceeding
to Switzerland and Italy. There it was that, musing amid the ruins of the
Capitol at Rome on October 15, 1764, he formed the plan of writing the
history of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. He returned to
England in 1765, and in 1770 his _f._ _d._, leaving him the embarrassed
estate of Buriton, which had been his usual home when in England. With a
view to recovering his affairs, he left his estate and lived in London
where, in 1772, he seriously set himself to realise the great plan which,
since its conception, had never been out of his thoughts. The first
chapter was written three times, and the second twice before he could
satisfy himself that he had found the style suited to his subject. The
progress of the work was delayed by the fact that G. had meanwhile (1774)
entered the House of Commons, where, as member for Liskeard, he was a
steady, though silent, supporter of Lord North in his American policy. He
subsequently sat for Lymington, and held office as a Commissioner of
Trade and Plantations 1779-82. The first vol. of the _Decline and Fall_
appeared in 1776, and was received with acclamation, and it was not until
some time had elapsed that the author's treatment of the rise of
Christianity excited the attention and alarm of the religious and
ecclesiastical world. When, however, the far-reaching nature of his views
was at length realised, a fierce and prolonged controversy arose, into
which G. himself did not enter except in one case where his fidelity as
an historian was impugned. The second and third vols. appeared in 1781,
and thereafter (1783) G. returned to Lausanne, where he lived tranquilly
with an early friend, M. Deyverdun, devoting his mornings to the
completion of his history, and his evenings to society. At length, on
the night of June 27, 1787, in the summer-house of his garden, the last
words were penned, and the great work of his life completed. Of the
circumstances, and of his feelings at the moment, he has himself given an
impressive account. The last three vols. were issued in 1788, G. having
gone to London to see them through the press. This being done he returned
to Lausanne where, within a year, his beloved friend Deyverdun _d._ His
last years were clouded by ill-health, and by anxieties with regard to
the French Revolution. In 1793, though travelling was a serious matter
for him, he came to England to comfort his friend Lord Sheffield on the
death of his wife, took ill, and _d._ suddenly in London on January 16,
1794.

The place of G. among historians is in the first rank, and if the vast
scale of his work and the enormous mass of detail involved in it are
considered along with the learning and research employed in accumulating
the material, and the breadth of view, lucidity of arrangement, and sense
of proportion which have fused them into a distinct and splendid picture,
his claims to the first place cannot be lightly dismissed. His style,
though not pure, being tinged with Gallicisms, is one of the most noble
in our literature, rich, harmonious, and stately; and though sources of
information not accessible to him have added to our knowledge, and have
shown some of his conclusions to be mistaken, his historical accuracy has
been comparatively little shaken, and his work is sure of permanence. As
a man G. seems to have been somewhat calm and cool in his feelings,
though capable of steady and affectionate friendships, such as those with
Deyverdun and the Sheffields, which were warmly reciprocated, and he
appears to have been liked in society, where his brilliant conversational
powers made him shine. He was vain, and affected the manners of the fine
gentleman, which his unattractive countenance and awkward figure, and
latterly his extreme corpulence, rendered somewhat ridiculous. He left an
interesting _Autobiography_.

SUMMARY.--_B._ 1737, _ed._ Westminster and Oxf., became Romanist and sent
to Lausanne 1753, where he returned to Protestantism, _pub._ _Essay on
Study of Literature_ 1761, visited Rome 1764 and resolved to write his
_Decline and Fall of Roman Empire_, began to write it 1772, _pub._
1776-87, _d._ 1794.

_Decline and Fall_ (Sir W. Smith, 8 vols., 1854-55), another (J.B. Bury,
7 vols., 1896-1900). _Autobiography_ (Lord Sheffield, 1796), often
reprinted.

GIFFORD, RICHARD (1725-1807).--Poet, was _ed._ at Oxford and took orders.
He was the author of a poem, _Contemplation_. He also wrote theological
and controversial works.

GIFFORD, WILLIAM (1756-1826).--Critic and poet, was _b._ of humble
parentage at Ashburton, Devonshire, and after being for a short time at
sea, was apprenticed to a cobbler. Having, however, shown signs of
superior ability, and a desire for learning, he was befriended and _ed._,
ultimately at Oxf., where he _grad._ Becoming known to Lord Grosvenor, he
was patronised by him, and in course of time produced his first poem,
_The Baviad_ (1794), a satire directed against the Delia Cruscans, a
clique of very small and sentimental poets, which at once quenched their
little tapers. This was followed by another satire, _The Maeviad_,
against some minor dramatists. His last effort in this line was his
_Epistle to Peter Pindar_ (Dr. Walcot), inspired by personal enmity,
which evoked a reply, _A Cut at a Cobbler_. These writings had
established the reputation of G. as a keen, and even ferocious critic,
and he was appointed in 1797 ed. of the _Anti-Jacobin_, which Canning and
his friends had just started, and of the _Quarterly Review_ (1809-24). He
also brought out ed. of Massinger, Ben Jonson, and Ford. As a critic he
had acuteness; but he was one-sided, prejudiced, and savagely bitter, and
much more influenced in his judgments by the political opinions than by
the literary merits of his victims. In his whole career, however, he
displayed independence and spirit in overcoming the disadvantages of his
early life, as well as gratitude to those who had served him. He held
various appointments which placed him above financial anxiety.

GILDAS (516?-570?).--British historian, was a monk who is believed to
have gone to Brittany about 550, and founded a monastery. He wrote a
history, _De Excidio Britanniae_ (concerning the overthrow of Britain). It
consists of two parts, the first from the Roman invasion until the end of
the 4th century, and the second a continuation to the writer's own time.
It is obscure and wordy, and not of much value.

GILDER, RICHARD WATSON (1844-1909).--Poet, _b._ at Borderstown, New
Jersey, was successively a lawyer, a soldier, and a journalist, in which
last capacity he ed. _Scribner's_ (afterwards the _Century_) _Magazine_.
He holds a high place among American poets as the author of _The New Day_
(1875), _The Celestial Passion_, _The Great Remembrance_, _Five Books of
Song_ (1894), _In Palestine_ (1898), _In the Heights_ (1905), _A Book of
Music_ (collection) (1906), etc.

GILDON, CHARLES (1665-1724).--Critic and dramatist, belonged to a Roman
Catholic family, and was an unsuccessful playwright, a literary hack, and
a critic of little acumen or discrimination. He attacked Pope as "Sawny
Dapper," and was in return embalmed in _The Dunciad_. He also wrote a
Life of Defoe.

GILFILLAN, GEORGE (1813-1878).--Poet and critic, _s._ of a dissenting
minister at Comrie, Perthshire, studied at Glasgow Univ., and was
ordained minister of a church in Dundee. He was a voluminous author.
Among his writings are _Gallery of Literary Portraits_, and a Series of
British Poets with introductions and notes in 48 vols. He also wrote
Lives of Burns, Scott, and others, and _Night_ (1867), a poem in nine
books. His style was somewhat turgid, and his criticism rather
sympathetic than profound.

GILFILLAN, ROBERT (1798-1850).--Poet, _b._ at Dunfermline, was latterly
Collector of Police Rates in Leith. He wrote a number of Scottish songs,
and was favourably mentioned in _Noctes Ambrosianae_ (see Wilson, J.). He
was the author of the beautiful song, _Oh, why left I my Hame?_

GILLESPIE, GEORGE (1613-1648).--Scottish Theologian, was _b._ at
Kirkcaldy, and studied at St. Andrews. He became one of the ministers of
Edin., and was a member of the Westminster Assembly, in which he took a
prominent part. A man of notable intellectual power, he exercised an
influence remarkable in view of the fact that he _d._ in his 36th year.
He was one of the most formidable controversialists of a highly
controversial age. His best known work is _Aaron's Rod Blossoming_, a
defence of the ecclesiastical claims of the high Presbyterian party.

GILLIES, JOHN (1747-1836).--Historian, _b._ at Brechin and _ed._ there
and at Glasgow, wrote a _History of Greece_ (1786) from a strongly
anti-democratic standpoint, a _History of the World from Alexander to
Augustus_ (1807), and a _View of the Reign of Frederick II. of Prussia_.
He also made various translations from the Greek. He succeeded Principal
Robertson as Historiographer Royal for Scotland.

GIRALDUS CAMBRENSIS (literary name of GERALD DE BARRI)
(1146?-1220?).--Geographer and historian, was _b._ of a Norman family
settled in Wales, which intermarried with the Royal family of that
country. He was an eminent scholar and Churchman, whose object of
ambition was the Bishopric of St. David's, to which he was twice elected
by the chapter, but from which he was kept out by the opposition of the
King. When travelling in Ireland with Prince John (1185) he wrote
_Topographia Hibernica_, a valuable descriptive account of the country,
and in 1188 he wrote _Itinerarium Cambriae_, a similar work on Wales. He
left several other works, including an autobiography, _De Rebus a se
Gestis_ (concerning his own doings).

GISSING, GEORGE (1857-1903).--Novelist, _b._ at Wakefield. In his novels
he depicted the environment and struggles of the lower and lower middle
classes with a somewhat pessimistic and depressing realism, although his
last work, _The Private Papers of Henry Ryecroft_, seemed to usher in the
dawn of a somewhat brighter outlook. His other novels include _Demos_
(1886), _Thyrza_ (1887), _The Nether World_ (1889), _New Grub Street_
(1891), _Born in Exile_ (1892), _In the Year of Jubilee_ (1894), and _The
Town Traveller_ (1898). He _d._ at St. Jean de Luz in the Pyrenees.

GLADSTONE, WILLIAM EWART (1809-1898).--Statesman, scholar, and man of
letters, fourth _s._ of Sir John G., a merchant in Liverpool, was of
Scottish ancestry. He was _ed._ at Eton and Christ Church, Oxf. From his
youth he was deeply interested in religious and ecclesiastical questions,
and at one time thought of entering the Church. In 1832 he entered
Parliament as a Tory, and from the first gave evidence of the splendid
talents for debate and statesmanship, especially in the department of
finance, which raised him to the position of power and influence which he
afterwards attained. After holding the offices of Pres. of the Board of
Trade, Colonial Sec., and Chancellor of the Exchequer, he attained the
position of Prime Minister, which he held four times 1868-74, 1880-85,
1885-86, and 1892-93. His political career was one of intense energy and
activity in every department of government, especially after he became
Prime Minister, and while it gained him the enthusiastic applause and
devotion of a large portion of the nation, it exposed him to a
correspondingly intense opposition on the part of another. The questions
which involved him in the greatest conflicts of his life and evoked his
chief efforts of intellect were the disestablishment of the Irish Church,
the foreign policy of his great rival Disraeli, and Home Rule for
Ireland, on the last of which the old Liberal party was finally broken
up. In the midst of political labours which might have been sufficient to
absorb even his tireless energy, he found time to follow out and write
upon various subjects which possessed a life-long interest for him. His
first book was _The State in its Relations with the Church_ (1839), which
formed the subject of one of Macaulay's essays. _Studies on Homer and the
Homeric Age_ (1858), _Juventus Mundi_ (1869), and _Homeric Synchronism_
(1876), _The Impregnable Rock of Holy Scripture_ (1890), _The Vatican
Decrees and Vaticanism_ (1874-75), and _Gleanings of Past Years_ (1897),
8 vols., were his other principal contributions to literature. G.'s
scholarship, though sound and even brilliant, was of an old-fashioned
kind, and his conclusions on Homeric questions have not received much
support from contemporary scholars. In his controversies with Huxley and
others his want of scientific knowledge and of sympathy with modern
scientific tendencies placed him at a disadvantage. His character was a
singularly complex one, and his intellect possessed a plasticity which
made it possible to say of him that he never _was_ anything, but was
always _becoming_ something. His life was a singularly noble and
stainless one, and he must probably ever remain one of the great figures
in the history of his country.

_Life_ by J. Morley (3 vols.), others by J. M'Carthy, Sir Wemyss Reid,
and many others.

GLANVILL, JOSEPH (1636-1680).--Controversialist and moral writer, _b._ at
Plymouth, and _ed._ at Oxf., took orders, and held various benefices,
including the Rectory of Bath Abbey and a prebend at Worcester. He came
under the influence of the Camb. Platonists, especially of Henry More
(_q.v._). His contendings were chiefly with the English Nonconformists,
against whom (with the exception of Baxter whom he held in great esteem)
he exhibited great bitterness. His chief work is the _Vanity of
Dogmatizing_ (1661) which contains the story of "The Scholar Gipsy," in
later days turned to such fine account by Matthew Arnold. G. wrote a fine
literary style, at its best recalling that of Sir Thomas Browne.

GLAPTHORNE, HENRY (_fl._ 1640).--Dramatist, had a high reputation among
his contemporaries, though now almost forgotten. He wrote two comedies,
three tragedies, and a book of poems, which were all reprinted in two
vols. in 1874. His best work, is _Argalus and Parthenia_ (1639), based
upon Sidney's _Arcadia_. Others were _The Hollander_, _Wit is a
Constable_, and _The Ladies' Privilege_ (all 1640).

GLASCOCK, WILLIAM NUGENT (1787-1847).--Novelist. He saw a good deal of
service in the navy with credit, and from this drew the inspiration of
his vigorous and breezy sea-stories, which include _Sailors and Saints_
(1829), _Tales of a Tar_ (1836), and _Land Sharks and Sea Gulls_ (1838).

GLEIG, GEORGE ROBERT (1796-1888).--_S._ of George G., Bishop of Brechin,
entered the army, and served in the Peninsula and America. In 1820 he
took orders, and after serving various cures _bec._, in 1834, Chaplain of
Chelsea Hospital, and in 1844 Chaplain-General of the Forces, which
office he held until 1875. He was a frequent contributor to reviews and
magazines, especially _Blackwood's_, in which his best known novel, _The
Subaltern_, appeared, and he was also the author of Lives of Warren
Hastings, Clive, and Wellington, _Military Commanders_, _Chelsea
Pensioners_, and other works.

GLEN, WILLIAM (1789-1826).--Poet, _b._ in Glasgow, was for some years in
the West Indies. He _d._ in poverty. He wrote several poems, but the only
one which has survived is his Jacobite ballad, _Wae's me for Prince
Charlie_.

GLOVER, RICHARD (1712-1785).--Poet and dramatist, was a London merchant,
and M.P. for Weymouth. A scholarly man with a taste for literature, he
wrote two poems in blank verse, _Leonidas_ (1737), and _The Athenaid_
(1787). Though not without a degree of dignity, they want energy and
interest, and are now forgotten. He also produced a few dramas, which had
little success. He is best remembered by his beautiful ballad, _Hosier's
Ghost_, beginning "As near Portobello lying." G. had the reputation of a
useful and public-spirited citizen.

GODWIN, MRS. MARY (WOLLSTONECRAFT) (1759-1797).--Miscellaneous writer,
was of Irish extraction. Her _f._ was a spend-thrift of bad habits, and
at 19 Mary left home to make her way in the world. Her next ten years
were spent as companion to a lady, in teaching a school at Newington
Green, and as governess in the family of Lord Kingsborough. In 1784 she
assisted her sister to escape from a husband who ill-treated her. In 1788
she took to translating, and became literary adviser to Johnson the
publisher, through whom she became known to many of the literary people
of the day, as well as to certain Radicals, including Godwin, Paine,
Priestly, and Fuseli, the painter. She then, 1792, went to Paris, where
she met Captain Imlay, with whom she formed a connection, the fruit of
which was her daughter Fanny. Captain Imlay having deserted her, she
tried to commit suicide at Putney Bridge, but was rescued. Thereafter she
resumed her literary labours, and lived with W. Godwin, who married her
in 1797. Their _dau._, Mary, whose birth she did not survive, became the
second wife of Shelley. Her chief original writings are a _Reply_ to
Burke's _Reflections on the French Revolution_ (1791), _Vindication of
the Rights of Women_ (1792), and _Original Stories for Children_,
illustrated by W. Blake. Her _Vindication_ received much adverse
criticism on account of its extreme positions and over-plainness of
speech.

GODWIN, WILLIAM (1756-1836).--Philosopher and novelist, _b._ at Wisbeach,
and _ed._ at a school in Norwich, to which city his _f._, a Presbyterian
minister, had removed, and subsequently at a Presbyterian coll. at
Hoxton, with a view to the ministry. From 1778 to 1783 he acted as
minister of various congregations near London; but his theological views
having undergone important changes, he resigned his pastorate, and
devoted himself to a literary career. His first work, a series of
historical sketches in the form of sermons, failed. He then found
employment as one of the principal writers in the _New Annual Register_,
and became otherwise prominent as an advocate of political and social
reform. Many of his views were peculiar and extreme, and even tended, if
fully carried out in practice, to subvert morality; but they were
propounded and supported by their author with a whole-hearted belief in
their efficacy for the regeneration of society: and the singular
circumstances of his connection with and ultimate marriage to Mary
Wollstonecraft showed at least that he had the courage of his opinions.
His _Enquiry concerning Political Justice_ (1793) made him famous. A year
later he _pub._ his masterpiece, _Caleb Williams_, a novel exhibiting a
sombre strength rarely equalled. The next few years were occupied in
political controversy, for which G. was, by his sincerity and his
masculine style, well fitted; and it was in the midst of these--in
1797--that his first marriage, already alluded to, and the death of his
wife, of whom he _pub._ a singular but interesting Life, occurred. In
1799 his second great novel, _St. Leon_, based upon the philosopher's
stone and the elixir of life, appeared. His other novels, _Fleetwood_
(1804), _Mandeville_ (1817), and _Cloudesley_ (1830), are much inferior.
In addition to these works G. brought out an elaborate _Life of Chaucer_
in 2 vols. (1803), _An Essay on Sepulchres_ (1808), containing much fine
thought finely expressed, _A History of the Commonwealth_, an Essay
against the theories of Malthus (_q.v._), and his last work, _Lives of
the Necromancers_. For some time he engaged in the publishing business,
in which, however, he ultimately proved unsuccessful. In his later years
he had the office of Yeoman Usher of the Exchequer conferred upon him. G.
entered in 1801 into a second marriage with a widow, Mrs. Clairmont, by
whom he had a _dau._ This lady had already a _s._ and _dau._, the latter
of whom had an irregular connection with Byron. His _dau._ by his first
marriage--Mary Wollstonecraft G.,--became in 1816 the wife of Shelley. G.
was a man of simple manners and imperturbable temper.

GOLDING, ARTHUR (1535?-1605?).--Translator, _s._ of a gentleman of Essex,
was perhaps at Camb., and was diligent in the translation of theological
works by Calvin, Beza, and others, but is chiefly remembered for his
versions of Caesar's _Commentaries_ (1565), and specially of Ovid's
_Metamorphoses_ (1565-67), the latter in ballad metre. He also translated
Justin's _History_, and part of Seneca.

GOLDSMITH, OLIVER (1728-1774).--Poet, dramatist, and essayist, _s._ of an
Irish clergyman, was _b._ at Pallasmore in Co. Longford. His early
education was received at various schools at Elphin, Athlone, and
Edgeworthstown. At the age of 8 he had a severe attack of smallpox which
disfigured him for life. In 1744 he went to Trinity Coll., Dublin,
whence, having come into collision with one of the coll. tutors, he ran
away in 1746. He was, however, induced to return, and _grad._ in 1749.
The Church was chosen for him as a profession--against his will be it
said in justice to him. He presented himself before the Bishop of Elphin
for examination--perhaps as a type of deeper and more inward
incongruencies--in scarlet breeches, and was rejected. He next figured as
a tutor; but had no sooner accumulated L30 than he quitted his employment
and forthwith dissipated his little savings. A long-suffering uncle named
Contarine, who had already more than once interposed on his behalf, now
provided means to send him to London to study law. He, however, got no
farther than Dublin, where he was fleeced to his last guinea, and
returned to the house of his mother, now a widow with a large family.
After an interval spent in idleness, a medical career was perceived to be
the likeliest opening, and in 1752 he steered for Edin., where he
remained on the usual happy-go-lucky terms until 1754, when he proceeded
to Leyden. After a year there he started on a walking tour, which led him
through France, Germany, Switzerland, and Italy. How he lived it is hard
to say, for he left Leyden penniless. It is said that he disputed at
Univ., and played the flute, and thus kept himself in existence. All this
time, however, he was gaining the experiences and knowledge of foreign
countries which he was afterwards to turn to such excellent account. At
one of the Univ. visited at this time, he is believed to have secured the
medical degree, of which he subsequently made use. Louvain and Padua have
both been named as the source of it. He reached London almost literally
penniless in 1756, and appears to have been occupied successively as an
apothecary's journeyman, a doctor of the poor, and an usher in a school
at Peckham. In 1757 he was writing for the _Monthly Review_. The next
year he applied unsuccessfully for a medical appointment in India; and
the year following, 1759, saw his first important literary venture, _An
Enquiry into the State of Polite Learning in Europe_. It was _pub._
anonymously, but attracted some attention, and brought him other work. At
the same time he became known to Bishop Percy, the collector of the
_Reliques of Ancient Poetry_, and he had written _The Bee_, a collection
of essays, and was employed upon various periodicals. In 1761 began his
friendship with Johnson, which led to that of the other great men of that
circle. His _Chinese Letters_, afterwards republished as _The Citizen of
the World_, appeared in _The Public Ledger_ in 1762. _The Traveller_, the
first of his longer poems, came out in 1764, and was followed in 1766 by
_The Vicar of Wakefield_. In 1768 he essayed the drama, with _The
Good-natured Man_, which had considerable success. The next few years saw
him busily occupied with work for the publishers, including _The History
of Rome_ (1769), Lives of Parnell the poet, and Lord Bolingbroke (1770),
and in the same year _The Deserted Village_ appeared; _The History of
England_ was _pub._ in 1771. In 1773 he produced with great success his
other drama, _She Stoops to Conquer_. His last works were _The
Retaliation_, _The History of Greece_, and _Animated Nature_, all _pub._
in 1774. In that year, worn out with overwork and anxiety, he caught a
fever, of which he _d._ April 4. With all his serious and very obvious
faults--his reckless improvidence, his vanity, and, in his earlier years
at any rate, his dissipated habits--G. is one of the most lovable
characters in English literature, and one whose writings show most of
himself--his humanity, his bright and spontaneous humour, and "the
kindest heart in the world." His friends included some of the best and
greatest men in England, among them Johnson, Burke, and Reynolds. They
all, doubtless, laughed at and made a butt of him, but they all admired
and loved him. At the news of his death Burke burst into tears, Reynolds
laid down his brush and painted no more that day, and Johnson wrote an
imperishable epitaph on him. The poor, the old, and the outcast crowded
the stair leading to his lodgings, and wept for the benefactor who had
never refused to share what he had (often little enough) with them. Much
of his work--written at high pressure for the means of existence, or to
satisfy the urgency of duns--his histories, his _Animated Nature_, and
such like, have, apart from a certain charm of style which no work of his
could be without, little permanent value; but _The Traveller_ and _The
Deserted Village_, _She Stoops to Conquer_, and, above all, _The Vicar of
Wakefield_, will keep his memory dear to all future readers of English.

SUMMARY.--_B._ 1728, _ed._ Trinity Coll., Dublin, went to Edin. 1752, and
to Leyden 1754, travelled on foot over large part of Continent, reached
London 1756, and wrote for magazines, etc., and after publishing various
other works produced _The Citizen of the World_ in 1762, _pub._ _Vicar of
Wakefield_ 1766, _Deserted Village_ 1770, and _She Stoops to Conquer_
1773, _d._ 1774.

There are many ed. of G.'s works by Prior, 1837, Cunningham, 1854, Prof.
Masson (Globe), 1869, Gibb (Bohn's Standard Library), 1885. Biographies
by Prior, 1837, Foster, 1848-71, Washington Irving, and others. _See_
also Boswell's _Johnson_, and Thackeray's _English Humorists_.

GOODALL, WALTER (1706?-1766).--Historical writer, _b._ in Banffshire, and
_ed._ King's Coll., Aberdeen, became assistant librarian to the
Advocates' Library in Edin. In 1754 he _pub._ an _Examination of the
Letters said to have been written by Mary Queen of Scots_, in which he
combats the genuineness of the "Casket Letters." He also ed., among other
works, Fordun's _Scotichronicon_ (1759).

GOODWIN, THOMAS (1600-1680).--Divine, was _b._ in Norfolk, and _ed._ at
Camb., where he was Vicar of Trinity Church. Becoming an Independent, he
ministered to a church in London, and thereafter at Arnheim in Holland.
Returning to England he was made Chaplain to Cromwell's Council of State,
and Pres. of Magdalen Coll., Oxf. At the Restoration he was deprived, but
continued to preach in London. He was the author of various commentaries
and controversial pamphlets, was a member of the Westminster Assembly,
and assisted in drawing up the amended Confession, 1658. He attended
Oliver Cromwell on his deathbed.

GOOGE, BARNABE (1540-1594).--Poet and translator, _b._ at Lincoln,
studied at both Camb. and Oxf. He was a kinsman of Cecil, who gave him
employment in Ireland. He translated from the Latin of Manzolli _The
Zodiac of Life_, a satire against the Papacy, and _The Popish Kingdome_
by T. Kirchmayer, a similar work; also _The Foure Bookes of Husbandrie_
of Conrad Heresbach. In 1563 he _pub._ a vol. of original poems, _Eglogs,
Epytaphes_, and _Sonnettes_.

GORDON, ADAM LINDSAY (1833-1870).--Poet, was _b._ in the Azores, the _s._
of an officer in the army. He went to Australia, where he had a varied
career in connection with horses and riding, for which he had a passion.
He betook himself to the Bush, got into financial trouble, and _d._ by
his own hand. In the main he derives his inspiration (as in the _Rhyme of
Joyous Garde_, and _Britomarte_) from mediaeval and English sources, not
from his Australian surroundings. Among his books are _Sea-spray and
Smoke-drift_ (1867), _Bush Ballads_ (containing _The Sick Stock-rider_)
(1870), _Ashtaroth_ (1867). In many of his poems, _e.g._ _An Exile's
Farewell_, and _Whispering in the Wattle Boughs_, there is a strong vein
of sadness and pathos.

GORE, MRS. CATHERINE GRACE FRANCES (MOODY) (1799-1861).--Novelist, _dau._
of a wine merchant at Retford, where she was _b._ She _m._ a Captain
Gore, with whom she resided mainly on the Continent, supporting her
family by her voluminous writings. Between 1824 and 1862 she produced
about 70 works, the most successful of which were novels of fashionable
English life. Among these may be mentioned _Manners of the Day_ (1830),
_Cecil, or the Adventures of a Coxcomb_ (1841), and _The Banker's Wife_
(1843). She also wrote for the stage, and composed music for songs.

GOSSON, STEPHEN (1554-1624).--Poet, actor, and satirist, _b._ in Kent,
and _ed._ at Oxf., he went to London, and wrote plays, which are now
lost, and pastorals; but, moved by a sermon preached at Paul's Cross in
1577 during a plague, he deserted the theatre, and became one of its
severest critics in his prose satire, _The School of Abrose_ (1579),
directed against "poets, pipers, players, jesters, and such-like
Caterpillars of a Commonwealth." Dedicated to Sir P. Sidney, it was not
well received by him, and is believed to have evoked his _Apologie for
Poetrie_ (1595). G. entered the Church, and _d._ Rector of St. Botolph's,
London.

GOUGH, RICHARD (1735-1809).--Antiquary, was _b._ in London, and studied
at Camb. For many years he made journeys over England in pursuit of his
antiquarian studies. He _pub._ about 20 works, among which are _British
Topography_ (1768), _Sepulchral Monuments of Great Britain_ (1786-99), an
ed. of Camden's _Britannia_, a translation of _The Arabian Nights_
(1798), and various other treatises on archaeology, topography, and
numismatics.

GOWER, JOHN (1325?-1408).--Poet. Although few details of his life have
come down to us, he appears to have been a man of wealth and importance,
connected with Kent, well known at Court, and in possession of more than
one estate. He was the friend of Chaucer, who gives him the title of "the
moral Gower," which has clung to him ever since. His first principal work
was _Speculum Meditantis_ (the Mirror of one meditating) written in
French on the subject of married life. It was long believed to have been
lost. It was followed by _Vox Clamantis_ (the Voice of one crying)
written in Latin, giving an account of the peasants' revolt of 1381, and
attacking the misgovernment and social evils which had led to it. His
third, and only English poem, was _Confessio Amantis_ (Lover's
Confession), a work of 30,000 lines, consisting of tales and meditations
on love, written at the request of Richard II. It is the earliest large
collection of tales in the English tongue. In his old age G. became
blind. He had, when about 70, retired to the Priory of St. Mary Overies,
the chapel of which is now the Church of St. Saviour, Southwark, where he
spent his last years, and to which he was a liberal benefactor. G.
represented the serious and cultivated man of his time, in which he was
reckoned the equal of Chaucer, but as a poet he is heavy and prolix.

GRAFTON, RICHARD (_d._ 1572).--Printer and chronicler, printed various
ed. of the Bible and Prayer-book; also the Proclamation of the Accession
of Lady Jane Grey, for which he was cast into prison, where he compiled
an _Abridgement of the Chronicles of England_ (1563). To this he added in
1568 _A Chronicle at Large_. Neither holds a high place as authorities.

GRAHAME, JAMES (1765-1811).--Poet, _s._ of a lawyer, was _b._ and _ed._
in Glasgow. After spending some time in a law office in Edin., he was
called to the Scottish Bar. His health being delicate, and his
circumstances easy, he early retired from practice, and taking orders in
the Church of England in 1809, was appointed curate successively of
Shipton, Gloucestershire, and Sedgefield, Durham. He wrote several
pleasing poems, of which the best is _The Sabbath_ (1804). He _d._ on a
visit to Glasgow in his 47th year. His poems are full of quiet
observation of country sights expressed in graceful verse.

GRAHAME, SIMON or SIMION (1570-1614).--_B._ in Edin., led a dissolute
life as a traveller, soldier, and courtier on the Continent. He appears
to have been a good scholar, and wrote the _Passionate Sparke of a
Relenting Minde_, and _Anatomy of Humours_, the latter of which is
believed to have suggested to Burton his _Anatomy of Melancholie_. He
became an austere Franciscan.

GRAINGER, JAMES (1721-1766).--Poet, of a Cumberland family, studied
medicine at Edin., was an army surgeon, and on the peace settled in
practice in London, where he became the friend of Dr. Johnson, Shenstone,
and other men of letters. His first poem, _Solitude_, appeared in 1755.
He subsequently went to the West Indies (St. Kit's), where he made a rich
marriage, and _pub._ his chief poem, _The Sugar-Cane_ (1764).

GRANGER, JAMES (1723-1776).--Biographer, was at Oxf. and, entering the
Church, became Vicar of Shiplake, Oxon. He _pub._ a _Biographical History
of England from Egbert the Great to the Revolution_ (1769). He insisted
on the importance of collecting engravings of portraits and himself
gathered 14,000, and gave a great impulse to the practice of making such
collections.

GRANT, MRS. ANNE (M'VICAR) (1755-1838).--Was _b._ in Glasgow, and in 1779
_m._ the Rev. James Grant, minister of Laggan, Inverness-shire. She
_pub._ in 1802 a vol. of poems. She also wrote _Letters from the
Mountains_, and _Essays on the Superstitions of the Highlands_. After
1810 she lived in Edin., where she was the friend of Sir W. Scott and
other eminent men, through whose influence a pension of L100 was bestowed
upon her.

GRANT, JAMES (1822-1887).--Novelist, was the _s._ of an officer in the
army, in which he himself served for a short time. He wrote upwards of 50
novels in a brisk, breezy style, of which the best known are perhaps _The
Romance of War_ (1845), _Adventures of an Aide-de-Camp_, _Frank Hilton_,
_Bothwell_, _Harry Ogilvie_, and _The Yellow Frigate_. He also wrote
biographies of _Kirkcaldy of Grange_, _Montrose_, and others which,
however, are not always trustworthy from an historical point of view.

GRANT, JAMES AUGUSTUS (1827-1892).--Traveller, was an officer in the
army, and was sent by the Royal Geographical Society along with Captain
JOHN HANNING SPEKE (1827-1864), to search for the equatorial lakes of
Africa. Grant wrote _A Walk across Africa_, _The Botany of the Speke and
Grant Expedition_, and _Khartoum as I saw it in_ 1863. Speke wrote
_Journal of the Discovery of the Source of the Nile_ (1863), and _What
led to the Discovery of the Source of the Nile_ (1864).

GRATTAN, THOMAS COLLEY (1792-1864).--Miscellaneous writer, _b._ in
Dublin, and _ed._ for the law, but did not practise. He wrote a few
novels, including _The Heiress of Bruges_ (4 vols., 1830); but his best
work was _Highways and Byways_, a description of his Continental
wanderings, of which he _pub._ three series. He also wrote a history of
the Netherlands and books on America. He was for some time British Consul
at Boston, U.S.

GRAY, DAVID (1838-1861).--Poet, _s._ of a hand-loom weaver at
Kirkintilloch, Dumbartonshire. He gave early promise at school, was
destined for the service of the Church, and was for 4 years at Glasgow
Univ. while he maintained himself by teaching. His first poems appeared
in the _Glasgow Citizen_. In 1860, however, he went with his friend
Robert Buchanan to London, where he soon fell into consumption. He was
befriended by Mr. Monckton Milnes, afterwards Lord Houghton, but after a
sojourn in the South of England, returned home to die. His chief poem,
_The Luggie_ (the river of his birthplace) contains much beautiful
description; but his genius reached its highest expression in a series of
30 sonnets written in full view of an early death and blighted hopes, and
bearing the title, _In the Shadow_. They breathe a spirit of the deepest
melancholy unrelieved by hope.

GRAY, THOMAS (1716-1771).--Poet, was _b._ in London, the _s._ of a
scrivener, who, though described as "a respectable citizen," was of so
cruel and violent a temper that his wife had to separate from him. To his
mother and her sister, who carried on a business, G. was indebted for his
liberal education at Eton (where he became a friend of Horace Walpole),
and Camb. After completing his Univ. course he accompanied Walpole to
France and Italy, where he spent over two years, when a difference
arising G. returned to England, and went back to Camb. to take his degree
in law without, however, any intention of practising. He remained at
Camb. for the rest of his life, passing his time in the study of the
classics, natural science, and antiquities, and in visits to his friends,
of whom Walpole was again one. It was in 1747 that his first poem, the
_Ode on a Distant Prospect of Eton College_, appeared, and it was
followed between 1750 and 1757 by his _Pindaric Odes_, including _The
Progress of Poesy_, and _The Bard_, which were, however, somewhat coldly
received. Nevertheless he had, on the death of Colley Cibber, the offer
of the laureateship, which he declined; but in 1768 he accepted the
Professorship of Modern History in his Univ., worth L400 a year. Having
been drawn to the study of Icelandic and Celtic poetry he produced _The
Fatal Sisters_, and _The Descent of Odin_, in which are apparent the
first streaks of the dawn of the Romantic Revival. G.'s poems occupy
little space, but what he wrote he brought to the highest perfection of
which he was capable, and although there is a tendency on the part of
some modern critics to depreciate him, it is probable that his place will
always remain high among all but the first order of poets. Probably no
poem has had a wider acceptance among all classes of readers than his
_Elegy in a Country Churchyard_. In addition to his fame as a poet, he
enjoys that of one of the greatest of English letter-writers, and of a
really great scholar. He _d._ at Camb. after a short illness following
upon a gradually declining state of health.

_Life_ by Gosse (Men of Letters Series, 1882).

GREELEY, HORACE (1811-1872).--Journalist and miscellaneous writer, was
the _s._ of a small farmer in New Hampshire. His early life was passed
first as a printer, and thereafter in editorial work. He started in 1841,
and conducted until his death, the _New York Tribune_. He was long a
leader in American politics, and in 1872 was an unsuccessful candidate
for the Presidency. His writings, which are chiefly political and
economical, include _Essays on Political Economy_ (1870), and
_Recollections of a Busy Life_ (1868).

GREEN, JOHN RICHARD (1837-1883).--Historian, was the _s._ of a tradesman
in Oxf., where he was _ed._, first at Magdalen Coll. School, and then at
Jesus Coll. He entered the Church, and served various cures in London,
under a constant strain caused by delicate health. Always an enthusiastic
student of history, his scanty leisure was devoted to research. In 1869
he finally gave up clerical work, and received the appointment of
librarian at Lambeth. He had been laying plans for various historical
works, including a History of the English Church as exhibited in a series
of Lives of the Archbishops of Canterbury, and, what he proposed as his
_magnum opus_, A History of England under the Angevin Kings. The
discovery, however, that his lungs were affected, necessitated the
abridgment of all his schemes, and he concentrated his energies on the
preparation of his _Short History of the English People_, which appeared
in 1874, and at once gave him an assured place in the first rank of
historical writers. In 1877 he _m._ Miss Alice Stopford, by whose talents
and devotion he was greatly assisted in carrying out and completing such
work as his broken health enabled him to undertake during his few
remaining years. Abandoning his proposed history of the Angevins, he
confined himself to expanding his _Short History_ into _A History of the
English People_ in 4 vols. (1878-80), and writing _The Making of
England_, of which one vol. only, coming down to 828, had appeared when
he _d._ at Mentone in March 1883. After his death appeared _The Conquest
of England_. The _Short History_ may be said to have begun a new epoch
in the writing of history, making the social, industrial, and moral
progress of the people its main theme. To infinite care in the gathering
and sifting of his material G. added a style of wonderful charm, and an
historical imagination which has hardly been equalled.

GREEN, MATTHEW (1696-1737).--Poet, is known as the author of _The
Spleen_, a lively and original poem in octosyllabic verse on the subject
of low spirits and the best means of prevention and cure. It has
life-like descriptions, sprightliness, and lightness of touch, and was
admired by Pope and Gray. The poem owes its name to the use of the term
in the author's day to denote depression. G., who held an appointment in
the Customs, appears to have been a quiet, inoffensive person, an
entertaining companion, and a Quaker.

GREEN, THOMAS HILL (1836-1882).--Philosopher, was _b._ at Birken Rectory,
Yorkshire, and _ed._ at Rugby and Balliol Coll., Oxf., where he became
Whyte Prof. of Moral Philosophy and, by his character, ability, and
enthusiasm on social questions, exercised a powerful influence. His chief
works are an _Introduction to Hume's Treatise on Human Nature_ (Clarendon
Press ed.), in which he criticised H.'s philosophy severely from the
idealist standpoint, and _Prolegomena to Ethics_, _pub._ posthumously.

GREENE, ROBERT (1560?-1592).--Poet, dramatist, and pamphleteer, was _b._
at Norwich, and studied at Camb., where he _grad._ A.B. He was also
incorporated at Oxf. in 1588. After travelling in Spain and Italy, he
returned to Camb. and took A.M. Settling in London he was one of the wild
and brilliant crew who passed their lives in fitful alternations of
literary production and dissipation, and were the creators of the English
drama. He has left an account of his career in which he calls himself
"the mirror of mischief." During his short life about town, in the course
of which he ran through his wife's fortune, and deserted her soon after
the birth of her first child, he poured forth tales, plays, and poems,
which had great popularity. In the tales, or pamphlets as they were then
called, he turns to account his wide knowledge of city vices. His plays,
including _The Scottish History of James IV._, and _Orlando Furioso_,
which are now little read, contain some fine poetry among a good deal of
bombast; but his fame rests, perhaps, chiefly on the poems scattered
through his writings, which are full of grace and tenderness. G. _d._
from the effects of a surfeit of pickled herrings and Rheinish wine. His
extant writings are much less gross than those of many of his
contemporaries, and he seems to have given signs of repentance on his
deathbed, as is evidenced by his last work, _A Groat's worth of Wit
bought with a Million of Repentance_. In this curious work occurs his
famous reference to Shakespeare as "an upstart crow beautified with our
feathers." Among his other works may be mentioned _Euphues' censure to
Philautus_, _Pandosto, the Triumph of Time_ (1588), from which
Shakespeare borrowed the plot of _The Winter's Tale_, _A Notable
Discovery of Coosnage_, _Arbasto, King of Denmark_, _Penelope's Web_,
_Menaphon_ (1589), and _Coney Catching_. His plays, all _pub._
posthumously, include _Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay_, _Alphonsus, King of
Aragon_, and _George-a-Greene, the Pinner of Wakefield_. His tales are
written under the influence of Lyly, whence he received from Gabriel
Harvey the nickname of "Euphues' Ape."

Plays ed. by Dyce (2 vols., 1831, new ed., 1861). His works are included
in Grosart's "Huth Library."

GREG, WILLIAM RATHBONE (1809-1881).--Essayist, _b._ in Manchester, and
_ed._ at Bristol and Edin., was for some years engaged in his father's
business as a millowner at Bury. Becoming deeply interested in political
and social questions he contributed to reviews and magazines many papers
and essays on these subjects, which were _repub._ in three collections,
viz., _Essays on Political and Social Science_ (1854), _Literary and
Social Judgments_ (1869), and _Miscellaneous Essays_ (1884). Other works
of his are _Enigmas of Life_ (1872), _Rocks Ahead_ (1874), and _Mistaken
Aims, etc._ (1876). In his writings he frequently manifested a distrust
of democracy and a pessimistic view of the future of his country. He held
successively the appointments of Commissioner of Customs and Controller
of H.M. Stationery Office.

GREVILLE, CHARLES CAVENDISH FULKE (1794-1865).--Political annalist, _ed._
at Eton and Oxf., was a page to George III., sec. to Earl Bathurst, and
afterwards held the sinecure office of Sec. of Jamaica. In 1821 he became
Clerk to the Privy Council, an office which brought him into close
contact with the leaders of both political parties, and gave him unusual
opportunities of becoming acquainted with all that was passing behind the
scenes. The information as to men and events thus acquired he fully
utilised in his _Journal of the Reigns of George IV., William IV., and
Queen Victoria_, which, ed. by Henry Reeve, of the _Edinburgh Review_,
was _pub._ in three series between 1874 and 1887. The _Journal_ covers
the period, from 1820-60, and constitutes an invaluable contribution to
the history of the time.

GRIFFIN, BARTHOLOMEW? (_fl._ 1596).--Poet, of whom almost nothing is
known, _pub._ in 1596 a collection of 62 sonnets under the title of
_Fidessa_, of which some are excellent.

GRIFFIN, GERALD (1803-1840).--Dramatist, novelist, and poet, _s._ of a
tradesman, _b._ and _ed._ in Limerick, he went in 1823 to London, where
most of his literary work was produced. In 1838 he returned to Ireland
and, dividing his property among his brothers, devoted himself to a
religious life by joining the Teaching Order of the Christian Brothers.
Two years thereafter he _d._, worn out by self-inflicted austerities. His
chief novel, _The Collegians_, was adapted by Boucicault as _The Colleen
Bawn_, and among his dramas is _Gisippus_. His novels depict southern
Irish life.

GRIMOALD, NICHOLAS (1519-1562).--Poet, was at Camb. and Oxf., and was
chaplain to Bishop Ridley. He contributed to Tottel's _Songs and
Sonnettes_ (1557), wrote two dramas in Latin, _Archi-propheta_ and
_Christus Redivivus_, and made translations.

GROOME, FRANCIS HINDES (1851-1902).--Miscellaneous writer, _s._ of a
clergyman, wrote for various encyclopaedias, etc. He was a student of the
gipsies and their language, and _pub._ _In Gypsy Tents_ (1880), _Gypsy
Folk Tales_ (1899), and an ed. of Borrow's _Lavengro_ (1900). Other works
were _A Short Border History_ (1887), _Kriegspiel_ (1896), a novel, and
_Two Suffolk Friends_ (his _f._ and Edward Fitzgerald, _q.v._).

GROSART, ALEXANDER BALLOCH (1827-1899).--Was a minister of the English
Presbyterian Church. He wrote Lives of various Puritan divines, ed. their
works, and also issued ed., with Lives, of the poems of Michael Bruce
(_q.v._) and Robert Fergusson (_q.v._). But his chief service to
literature was his reprints, with notes, of rare Elizabethan and Jacobean
literature, including _Fuller's Worthies Library_, 39 vols. (1868-76),
_Occasional Issues of Unique and Very Rare Books_, 38 vols. 1875-81,
_Huth Library_, 33 vols. (1886), Spenser's _Works_, 10 vols., _Daniel's
Works_, etc.

GROSE, FRANCIS (1731-1791).--Antiquary and lexicographer, of Swiss
extraction, was Richmond Herald 1755-63. He _pub._ _Antiquities of
England and Wales_ (1773-87), which was well received, and thereafter,
1789, set out on an antiquarian tour through Scotland, the fruit of which
was _Antiquity of Scotland_ (1789-91). He afterwards undertook a similar
expedition to Ireland, but _d._ suddenly at Dublin. In addition to the
works above mentioned he wrote _A Classical Dictionary of the Vulgar
Tongue_ (1785), _A Provincial Glossary_ (1787), a _Treatise on Ancient
Armour and Weapons_, etc. He was an accomplished draughtsman, and
illustrated his works.

GROSSETESTE, ROBERT (_d._ 1253).--Theologian and scholar, was _b._ of
poor parents at Stradbrook, Suffolk, and studied at Oxf. and possibly
Paris. His abilities and learning procured him many preferments; but
after an illness he refused to be longer a pluralist, and resigned all
but a prebend at Lincoln. Later he was a strenuous and courageous
reformer, as is shown by his refusing in 1253 to induct a nephew of the
Pope to a canonry at Lincoln, of which he had been Bishop since 1235. He
was equally bold in resisting the demand of Henry III. for a tenth of the
Church revenues. Amid his absorbing labours as a Churchman, he found time
to be a copious writer on a great variety of subjects, including
husbandry, physical and moral philosophy, as also sermons, commentaries,
and an allegory, the _Chateau d'Amour_. Roger Bacon was a pupil of his,
and testifies to his amazing variety of knowledge.

GROTE, GEORGE (1794-1871).--Historian, _s._ of a wealthy banker in
London, was _b._ at Beckenham, and _ed._ at Charterhouse School. In 1810
he entered the bank, of which he became head in 1830. In 1832 he was
elected one of the members of Parliament for the City of London. In 1841
he retired from Parliament, and in 1843 from the bank, thenceforth
devoting his whole time to literature, which, along with politics, had
been his chief interest from his youth. He early came under the influence
of Bentham and the two Mills, and was one of the leaders of the group of
theorists known as "philosophical Radicals." In 1820 he _m._ Miss Harriet
Lewin who, from her intellectual powers, was fitted to be his helper in
his literary and political interests. In 1826 he contributed to the
_Westminster Review_ a severe criticism of Mitford's _History of Greece_,
and in 1845 _pub._ the first 2 vols. of his own, the remaining 6 vols.
appearing at intervals up to 1856. G. belongs to the school of
philosophical historians, and his _History_, which begins with the
legends, ends with the fall of the country under the successors of
Alexander the Great. It is one of the standard works on the subject,
which his learning enabled him to treat in a full and thorough manner;
the style is clear and strong. It has been repeatedly re-issued, and has
been translated into French and German. G. also _pub._, in 1865, _Plato
and other Companions of Socrates_, and left unfinished a work on
_Aristotle_. In political life G. was, as might be expected, a consistent
and somewhat rigid Radical, and he was a strong advocate of the ballot.
He was one of the founders of the first London Univ., a Trustee of the
British Museum, D.C.L. of Oxf., LL.D. of Camb., and a Foreign Associate
of the Academie des Sciences. He was offered, but declined, a peerage in
1869, and is buried in Westminster Abbey.

GRUB, GEORGE (1812-1892).--Historian, was _b._ in Old Aberdeen, and _ed._
at King's Coll. there. He studied law, and was admitted in 1836 to the
Society of Advocates, Aberdeen, of which he was librarian from 1841 until
his death. He was appointed Lecturer on Scots Law in Marischal Coll., and
was Prof. of Law in the Univ. (1881-91). He has a place in literature as
the author of an _Ecclesiastical History of Scotland_ (1861), written
from the standpoint of a Scottish Episcopalian, which, though dry, is
concise, clear, fair-minded, and trustworthy. G. also ed. (along with
Joseph Robertson) Gordon's _Scots Affairs_ for the Spalding Club, of
which he was one of the founders.

GUEST, LADY CHARLOTTE (BERTIE) (1812-1895).--_Dau._ of the 9th Earl of
Lindsey, _m._ in 1833 Sir Josiah J. Guest, a wealthy ironmaster, after
whose death in 1852 she managed the works. She was an enthusiastic
student of Welsh literature, and aided by native scholars translated with
consummate skill the _Mabinogion_, the manuscript of which in Jesus
Coll., Oxf., is known as the _Red Book of Hergest_, and which is now a
recognised classic of mediaeval romance. She also prepared a 'Boys'
_Mabinogion_ containing the earliest Welsh tales of Arthur. She was also
noted as a collector of china, fans, and playing cards, on which subjects
she wrote several volumes. She entered into a second marriage in 1855
with Dr. C. Schreiber, but in literature she is always referred to under
her first married name.

GUTHRIE, THOMAS (1803-1873).--Divine and philanthropist, _b._ at Brechin,
studied for the Church, and became a minister in Edin. Possessed of a
commanding presence and voice, and a remarkably effective and picturesque
style of oratory, he became perhaps the most popular preacher of his day
in Scotland, and was associated with many forms of philanthropy,
especially temperance and ragged schools, of the latter of which he was
the founder. He was one of the leaders of the Free Church, and raised
over L100,000 for manses for its ministers. Among his writings are _The
Gospel in Ezekiel_, _Plea for Ragged Schools_, and _The City, its Sins
and Sorrows_.

HABINGTON, WILLIAM (1605-1654).--Poet, _s._ of a Worcestershire Roman
Catholic gentleman, was _ed._ at St. Omer's, but refused to become a
Jesuit. He _m._ Lucia, _dau._ of Lord Powis, whom he celebrated in his
poem _Castara_ (1634), in which he sang the praises of chaste love. He
also wrote a tragi-comedy, _The Queen of Arragon_ (1640), and a _Historie
of Edward IV._ His verse is graceful and tender.

HAILES, DALRYMPLE DAVID, LORD (1726-1792).--Scottish judge and historical
writer, was _b._ at Edin. Belonging to a family famous as lawyers, he was
called to the Bar in 1748, and raised to the Bench in 1766. An excellent
judge, he was also untiring in the pursuit of his favourite studies, and
produced several works of permanent value on Scottish history and
antiquities, including _Annals of Scotland_ (1776), and _Canons of the
Church of Scotland_ (1769). He was a friend and correspondent of Dr.
Johnson.

HAKE, THOMAS GORDON (1809-1895).--Poet, _b._ at Leeds, _ed._ at Christ's
Hospital, was a physician, and practised at various places. His books
include _Madeline_ (1871), _Parables and Tales_ (1873), _The Serpent
Play_ (1883), _New Day Sonnets_ (1890), and _Memoirs of Eighty Years_
(1893).

HAKLUYT, RICHARD (1553?-1616).--Collector of voyages, belonged to a good
Herefordshire family of Dutch descent, was _b._ either at Eyton in that
county or in London, and _ed._ at Westminster School and Oxf. The sight
of a map of the world fired his imagination and implanted in his mind the
interest in geography and the lives and adventures of our great
navigators and discoverers, which became the ruling passion of his life;
and in order to increase his knowledge of these matters he studied
various foreign languages and the art of navigation. He took orders, and
was chaplain of the English Embassy in Paris, Rector of Witheringsett,
Suffolk, 1590, Archdeacon of Westminster, 1602, and Rector of Gedney,
Lincolnshire, 1612. After a first collection of voyages to America and
the West Indies he compiled, while at Paris, his great work, _The
Principal Navigations, Voyages ... and Discoveries of the English Nation
made by Sea or over Land to the Remote and Farthest Distant Quarters of
the Earth ... within the Compass of these 1500 Years_. It appeared in its
final form (three folio vols.) in 1599. Besides it he _pub._ _A Discourse
of Western Planting_, and he left a vast mass of MS. afterwards used (in
far inferior style) by S. Purchas (_q.v._). In all his work H. was
actuated not only by the love of knowledge, but by a noble patriotism: he
wished to see England the great sea-power of the world, and he lived to
see it so. His work, as has been said, is "our English epic." In addition
to his original writings he translated various works, among them being
_The Discoveries of the World_, from the Portuguese of Antonio Galvano.

HALE, SIR MATTHEW (1609-1676).--Jurist and miscellaneous writer, has left
a great reputation as a lawyer and judge. Steering a neutral course
during the political changes of his time, he served under the
Protectorate and after the Restoration, and rose to be Chief Justice of
the King's Bench. He is mentioned here as the author of several works on
science, divinity, and law. Among them are _The Primitive Origination of
Mankind_, and _Contemplations, Moral and Divine_. His legal works are
still of great authority. Though somewhat dissipated in early youth, he
has handed down a high reputation for wisdom and piety.

HALES, JOHN (1584-1656).--Theologian, _b._ at Bath, and _ed._ there and
at Oxf., became one of the best Greek scholars of his day, and lectured
on that language at Oxf. In 1616 he accompanied the English ambassador to
the Hague in the capacity of chaplain, and attended the Synod of Dort,
where he was converted from Calvinism to Arminianism. A lover of quiet
and learned leisure, he declined all high and responsible ecclesiastical
preferment, and chose and obtained scholarly retirement in a Fellowship
of Eton, of which his friends Sir Henry Savile and Sir Henry Wotton were
successively Provost. A treatise on _Schism and Schismatics_ (1636?) gave
offence to Laud, but H. defended himself so well that Laud made him a
Prebendary of Windsor. Refusing to acknowledge the Commonwealth, he was
deprived, fell into poverty, and had to sell his library. After his death
his writings were _pub._ in 1659 as _The Golden Remains of the
Ever-Memorable Mr. John Hales of Eton College_.

HALIBURTON, THOMAS CHANDLER (1796-1865).--_B._ at Windsor, Nova Scotia,
was a lawyer, and rose to be Judge of the Supreme Court of the Colony. He
was the author of _The Clock-maker, or Sayings and Doings of Samuel Slick
of Slickville_, and a continuation, _The Attache, or Sam Slick in
England_. In these he made a distinctly original contribution to English
fiction, full of shrewdness and humour. He may be regarded as the pioneer
of the American school of humorists. He wrote various other works,
including _The Old Judge_, _Nature and Human Nature_, _A Historical and
Statistical Account of Nova Scotia_, etc. In 1856 he settled in England,
and sat in the House of Commons for Launceston.

HALIFAX, CHARLES MONTAGU, 1ST EARL of (1661-1715).--A famous wit,
statesman, and patron of literature, was _ed._ at Westminster School and
Trinity Coll., Camb. Entering Parliament he became Chancellor of the
Exchequer in 1694, and First Lord of the Treasury 1697. Vain and
arrogant, he soon lost popularity and power. His chief literary effort
was his collaboration with Prior in _The Town and Country Mouse_ (1687),
a parody of and reply to Dryden's _Hind and Panther_. H. was the friend
and patron of Addison, Steele, Congreve, and many other of the classical
writers of his day. He became a peer in 1701.

HALL, MRS. ANNA MARIA (FIELDING) (1800-1881).--Novelist, was _b._ in
Dublin, but left Ireland at the age of 15. Nevertheless, that country
gave her the motive of several of her most successful books, such as
_Sketches of Irish Character_ (1829), _Lights and Shadows of Irish
Character_ (1838), _Marian_ (1839), and _The White Boy_ (1845). Other
works are _The Buccaneer_, and _Midsummer Eve_, a fairy tale, and many
sketches in the _Art Journal_, of which her husband, SAMUEL CARTER HALL
(1800-1889), was ed. With him she also collaborated in a work entitled
_Ireland, its Scenery, Character, etc._ Mrs. H. was a very voluminous
writer; her descriptive talents were considerable, as also was her power
of depicting character. Her husband was likewise a writer of some note,
chiefly on art.

HALL, BASIL (1788-1844).--Traveller, _s._ of Sir James H., an eminent man
of science, was in the navy, and rose to be captain. He was one of the
first to visit Corea, and wrote _Voyage of Discovery to Corea_ (1818),
also _Travels in North America in 1827-28_, a lively work which gave some
offence in the U.S., _Fragments of Voyages and Travels_ (1831-40), and
some tales and romances. He was latterly insane.

HALL, or HALLE, EDWARD (1499?-1547).--Chronicler, _b._ in London, studied
successively at Camb. and Oxf. He was a lawyer, and sat in Parliament for
Bridgnorth, and served on various Commissions. He wrote a history of _The
Union of the two Noble and Illustre Families of Lancastre and Yorke_,
commonly called _Hall's Chronicle_. It was _pub._ after the author's
death by Richard Grafton, and was prohibited by Queen Mary.

HALL, JOSEPH (1574-1656).--Divine, _b._ at Ashby-de-la-Zouche, and _ed._
at Camb., he entered the Church, and became in 1627 Bishop of Exeter, and
in 1641 Bishop of Norwich. He had a chequered career. He accompanied
James I. to Scotland in 1617, and was a Deputy to the Synod of Dort.
Accused of Puritanism, and at enmity with Laud, he fell on troublous
days, and was, in 1641, imprisoned in the Tower for joining those bishops
who protested against the validity of laws passed during their exclusion
(owing to tumult in the streets) from Parliament. Returning to Norwich he
found that his revenues had been sequestrated, and his private property
seized. In 1647 he retired to a small farm near Norwich, where he passed
the remainder of his life. Among his works are _Contemplations_,
_Characters of Virtues and Vices_ (1614), and his _Virgidemiarum, or
Satires_ (1597-8), the last written before he was in orders, and
condemned by Archbishop Whitgift to be burned. Pope, however, thought
them "the best poetry and truest satire in the English language." H.'s
_Divine Right of Episcopacy_ gave rise to much controversy, in which
Archbishop Ussher, Milton, and the writers who called themselves
"Smectymnuus" (a combination of their initials) took part.

HALL, ROBERT (1764-1831).--Divine, _b._ at Arnsby, Leicestershire, the
_s._ of a Baptist minister of some note, was _ed._ at a Baptist Academy,
and at the Univ. of Aberdeen, from which he received the degree of D.D.
in 1817. He ministered to congregations at Bristol, Cambridge, Leicester,
and again at Bristol, and became one of the greatest pulpit orators of
his day. His most famous sermon was that on the _Death of the Princess
Charlotte_ (1817). Another which created a great impression was that on
_Modern Infidelity_. H. was a life-long sufferer, and was occasionally
insane, yet his intellectual activity was unceasing. After his death a
collection of 50 of his sermons was _pub._ (1843), and _Miscellaneous
Works and Remains_ (1846).

HALLAM, HENRY (1777-1859).--Historian, _s._ of a Dean of Wells, was _b._
at Windsor, and _ed._ at Eton and Oxf. He was called to the Bar at the
Inner Temple, and appointed a Commissioner of Stamps. Among his earliest
writings were papers in the _Edinburgh Review_; but in 1818 he leaped
into a foremost place among historical writers by the publication of his
_View of the State of Europe during the Middle Ages_. This was followed
in 1827 by _The Constitutional History of England from the Accession of
Henry VII. to the Death of George II._, and his third great work,
_Introduction to the Literature of Europe in the 15th, 16th, and 17th
Centuries_, in 4 vols., appeared in 1837-39. All these, which have gone
through several ed., and have been translated into the principal
languages of Europe, are characterised by wide and profound learning,
indefatigable research, and judicial impartiality. They opened a new
field of investigation in which their author has had few, if any,
superiors. In politics H. was a Whig; but he took no active share in
party warfare. He had two sons of great promise, both of whom predeceased
him. Of these the elder, ARTHUR HENRY, is the subject of Tennyson's _In
Memoriam_, and of him his _f._ wrote a touching memoir prefixed to his
literary remains.

HALLECK, FITZGREENE (1790-1867).--Poet, _b._ at Guilford, Conn., wrote,
with Rodman Drake, a young poet who _d._ at 25, _The Croaker Papers_, a
series of satirical and humorous verses, and _Fanny_, also a satire. In
1822 he visited Europe, and the traces of this are found in most of his
subsequent poetry, _e.g._ his lines on Burns, and on Alnwick Castle.

HALLIWELL-PHILLIPS, JAMES ORCHARD (1820-1889).--Archaeologist and
Shakespearian scholar, _ed._ at Camb., was the author of a _Life of
Shakespeare_ (1848), _New Boke about Shakespeare and Stratford upon Avon_
(1850), _Folio Edition of Shakespeare_ (1853-65), and various other works
relative to him, also _Dictionary of Old English Plays_ (1860). He also
ed. works for the Camden and Percy Societies, and compiled a _Dictionary
of Archaic and Provincial Words_. In 1872 he added his wife's name of
Phillips to his own.

HAMERTON, PHILIP GILBERT (1834-1894).--Artist and writer on aesthetics,
_s._ of a solicitor, was _b._ near Oldham. Originally intended for the
Church, he decided for art and literature. After working as an artist in
the Highlands with his wife, who was a Frenchwoman, he settled in France,
and devoted himself to writing on art. Among his works are _Etching and
Etchers, etc._ (1868), _Painting in France after the Decline of
Classicism_ (1869), _The Intellectual Life_ (1873), _Human Intercourse_
(1884), _The Graphic Arts_ (1882), _Landscape_ (1885), some of which were
magnificently illustrated. He also left an autobiography. His writings
had a great influence upon artists, and also in stimulating and diffusing
the love of art among the public.

HAMILTON, ALEXANDER (1757-1804).--Statesman and political writer, _b._ in
the West Indies, was one of the framers of the Constitution of the United
States, and was the first Sec. of the national Treasury. He was one of
the greatest of American statesmen, and has also a place in literature as
the principal writer in the _Federalist_, a periodical founded to expound
and defend the new Constitution, which was afterwards _pub._ as a
permanent work. He contributed 51 of its 85 articles.

HAMILTON, ELIZABETH (1758-1816).--Wrote _The Cottagers of Glenburnie_, a
tale which had much popularity in its day, and perhaps had some effect in
the improvement of certain aspects of humble domestic life in Scotland.
She also wrote _Letters on Education_, _Essays on the Human Mind_, and
_The Hindoo Rajah_.

HAMILTON, THOMAS (1789-1842).--Novelist, brother of Sir William Hamilton
(_q.v._), wrote a novel, _Cyril Thornton_ (1827), which was received with
great favour. He was an officer in the army, and, on his retirement,
settled in Edin., and became a contributor to _Blackwood_. He was also
the author of _Annals of the Peninsular Campaign_ (1829), and _Men and
Manners in America_ (1833).

HAMILTON, WILLIAM (OF BANGOUR) (1704-1754).--Poet, was _b._ at the family
seat in Linlithgowshire. Cultivated and brilliant, he was a favourite of
society, and began his literary career by contributing verses to Allan
Ramsay's _Tea Table Miscellany_. He joined the Pretender in 1745, and
celebrated the Battle of Prestonpans in _Gladsmuir_. After Culloden he
wandered in the Highlands, where he wrote his _Soliloquy_, and escaped to
France. His friends, however, succeeded in obtaining his pardon, and he
returned to his native country. In 1750, on the death of his brother, he
succeeded to the family estate, which, however, he did not long live to
enjoy. He is best remembered for his fine ballad of _The Braes of
Yarrow_. He also wrote _The Episode of the Thistle_. He _d._ at Lyons.

HAMILTON, WILLIAM (OF GILBERTFIELD) (1665?-1751).--Poet, served in the
army, from which he retired with the rank of Lieutenant. He wrote
poetical _Epistles_ to Allan Ramsay, and an abridgment in modern Scotch
of Blind Harry's _Life of Sir William Wallace_.

HAMILTON, SIR WILLIAM (1788-1856).--Metaphysician, _b._ in Glasgow, in
the Univ. of which his _f._ and grandfather successively filled the Chair
of Anatomy and Botany, _ed._ there and at Balliol Coll., Oxf., was called
to the Scottish Bar, at which he attained little practice, but was
appointed Solicitor of Teinds. In 1816 he established his claim to the
baronetcy of H. of Preston. On the death of Dr. Thomas Brown in 1820, he
was an unsuccessful candidate for the Chair of Moral Philosophy in Edin.,
but in the following year he was appointed Prof. of History. It was not
until 1829 that he gave full proof of his remarkable powers and
attainments as a philosopher in a famous article in the _Edinburgh
Review_, a critique of Victor Cousin's doctrine of the Infinite. This
paper carried his name over Europe, and won for him the homage of
continental philosophers, including Cousin himself. After this H.
continued to contribute to the _Review_, many of his papers being
translated into French, German, and Italian. In 1852 they were _coll._
with notes and additions, and _pub._ as _Discussions in Philosophy and
Literature_, _etc._ In 1836 H. was elected Professor of Logic and
Metaphysics at Edinburgh, which office he held with great reputation
until his death, after which the lectures he had delivered were edited
and _pub._ by Prof. Mansel and Veitch. His _magnum opus_ was his edition
of the _Works of Dr. Thomas Reid_, left unfinished, and completed by
Mansel. H. was the last, and certainly the most learned and accomplished,
of the Scottish school of philosophy, which he considered it his mission
to develop and correlate to the systems of other times and countries. He
also made various important contributions to the science of logic. During
his later years he suffered from paralysis of one side, which, though it
left his mind unaffected, impaired his powers of work. A Memoir of H. by
Prof. Veitch appeared in 1869.

HANNA, WILLIAM (1808-1882).--Divine and biographer, _s._ of Samuel H.,
Prof. of Divinity in the Presbyterian Coll., Belfast, was _b._ there,
became a distinguished minister of the Free Church of Scotland, and
colleague of Dr. T. Guthrie (_q.v._). He wrote an admirable _Life of Dr.
Chalmers_, whose son-in-law he was, and ed. his works. He also ed. the
_Letters of Thomas Erskine of Linlathen_ (_q.v._), and wrote various
theological works.

HANNAY, JAMES (1827-1873).--Novelist and journalist, was _b._ at
Dumfries, and after serving for some years in the navy took to
literature, and became ed. of the _Edinburgh Courant_. He wrote two
novels, _Singleton Fontenoy_ (1850), and _Eustace Conyers_ (1855); also
_Lectures on Satire and Satirists_, and _Studies on Thackeray_. For the
last five years of his life he was British Consul at Barcelona.

HARE, AUGUSTUS JOHN CUTHBERT (1834-1903).--Youngest _s._ of Francis H.,
and nephew of Aug. and Julius H. (_q.v._), _b._ at Rome, practically
adopted by his aunt, the widow of Aug. H., and _ed._ at Harrow. He was
the author of a large number of books, which fall into two classes:
biographies of members and connections of his family, and descriptive and
historical accounts of various countries and cities. To the first belong
_Memorials of a Quiet Life_ (his adoptive mother's), _Story of Two Noble
Lives_ (Lady Canning and Lady Waterford), _The Gurneys of Earlham_, and
an inordinately extended autobiography; to the second, _Walks in Rome_,
_Walks in London_, _Wanderings in Spain_, _Cities of Northern, Southern,
and Central Italy_ (separate works), and many others. His writings are
all interesting and informing, but in general suffer from his tendency to
diffuseness.

HARE, AUGUSTUS WILLIAM (1792-1834).--Was the _s._ of Francis Hare-Naylor,
who _m._ a cousin of the famous Duchess of Devonshire, and was the author
of a history of Germany. He was sent by the widow of Sir W. Jones, whose
godson he was, to Winchester, and New Coll., Oxf., in the latter of which
he was for some time a tutor. Entering the Church he became incumbent of
the rural parish of Alton Barnes where, leading an absolutely unselfish
life, he was the father and friend of his parishioners. In addition to
writing in conjunction with his brother Julius (_q.v._), _Guesses at
Truth_, a work containing short essays on multifarious subjects, which
attracted much attention, he left two vols. of sermons.

HARE, JULIUS CHARLES (1795-1855).--Essayist, etc., younger brother of the
above, was _b._ at Vicenza. When two years old his parents left him to
the care of Clotilda Tambroni, female Prof. of Greek at Bologna. _Ed._ at
Charterhouse and Camb., he took orders and, in 1832, was appointed to the
rich family living of Hurstmonceau, which Augustus had refused. Here he
had John Sterling (_q.v._) for curate, and Bunsen for a neighbour. He was
also Archdeacon of Lewes and a Chaplain to the Queen. His first work was
_Guesses at Truth_ (1827), jointly with his brother, and he also _pub._,
jointly with Thirlwall (_q.v._), a translation of Niebuhr's _History of
Rome_, wrote _The Victory of Faith_ and other theological books and
pamphlets on Church and other questions, _A Life of Sterling_, and a
_Vindication of Luther_. H., though a lovable, was an eccentric, man of
strong antipathies, unmethodical, and unpunctual.

HARINGTON, SIR JOHN (1561-1612).--Miscellaneous writer, and translator,
_b._ at Kelston Park near Bath, and _ed._ at Eton and Camb., became a
courtier of Queen Elizabeth, whose godson he was. In 1599 he served in
Ireland under Essex, by whom he was knighted on the field, a stretch of
authority which was much resented by the Queen. While there he wrote _A
Short View of the State of Ireland_, first _pub._ 1880. He was in repute
for his epigrams, of which some have wit, but others are only indelicate.
His translation of the _Orlando Furioso_ of Ariosto, in the metre of the
original, is a somewhat free paraphrase, and is now superseded. It first
appeared in the form of extracts, which were handed in MS. about the
Court until they reached the Queen, who reprimanded the translator for
corrupting the morals of her ladies by translating the most unedifying
passages, and banished him to his country seat until he should have
translated the whole poem. His most valuable work is one which was _pub._
in 1769 by a descendant, under the title of _Nugae Antiquae_ (Old-time
Trifles), a miscellaneous collection from his writings and papers,
containing many things of interest, _e.g._, a minute account of the
Queen's last illness, and letters and verses by her and other eminent
persons.

HARLAND, HENRY (1861-1905).--Novelist, _b._ of American parentage at St.
Petersburg, and _ed._ at Rome. Thereafter he went to Paris, and thence to
America, where he graduated at Harvard, and settled in New York. His
literary career falls into two distinctly marked sections, very diverse
in character. During the first of these he produced, under the pseudonym
of "Sidney Luska," a series of highly sensational novels, thrown off with
little regard to literary quality, and which it was his wish should be
forgotten; but about 1890 his aspirations underwent a complete change,
and he became an enthusiast in regard to style and the _mot propre_. The
first novels of this new era, _Mademoiselle Miss_ (1893), _Grey Roses_
(1895), and _Comedies and Errors_ (1898), though obtaining the approval
of the literary elect, had little general popularity; but the tide turned
with the appearance of _The Cardinal's Snuff-box_ (1900), which was
widely admired. It was followed by _The Lady Paramount_ (1901), and _My
Friend Prospero_ (1903). H. _d._ at San Remo after a prolonged illness.

HARRINGTON, JAMES (1611-1677).--Political theorist, _s._ of Sir Sapcotes
H., was _b._ at Upton, Northamptonshire, and _ed._ at Oxf., where he was
a pupil of Chillingworth. After leaving the university he travelled on
the Continent, visiting, among other places, The Hague and Venice, where
he imbibed republican principles. He was for some time a groom of the
bedchamber to Charles I. On the outbreak of the Civil War he sided with
the Parliament, but disapproved of the execution of the King, for whom he
appears, notwithstanding his political theories, to have cherished a
personal attachment. Thereafter he withdrew from active life, and devoted
himself to composing his political romance (as it may be called) of
_Oceana_, which he _pub._ in 1656, and in which Oceana represents
England, Marpesia Scotland, and Panopaea Ireland. In this work he
propounds the theory that the natural element of power in states is
property, of which land is the most important. He further endeavoured to
propagate his views by establishing a debating society called the Rota,
and by his conversations with his friends. After the Restoration he was
confined in the Tower, and subsequently at Plymouth. He issued several
defences of _Oceana_, and made translations from Virgil. In his later
years he laboured under mental delusions. Aubrey describes him as of
middle stature, strong, well-set, with quick, fiery hazel eyes, and thick
curly hair.

HARRIS, JAMES (1709-1780).--Grammarian, was a wealthy country gentleman
and member of Parliament, who held office in the Admiralty and the
Treasury. He was the author of a singular and learned work entitled
_Hermes, or a Philosophical Inquiry concerning Universal Grammar_. For
the purpose which it had in view it is useless; but it contains much
curious matter. His _s._ was the eminent diplomatist, James H., 1st Earl
of Malmesbury.

HARRIS, JOEL CHANDLER (1848-1908).--Writer of tales, etc., _b._ at
Eatonton, Georgia, was successively printer, lawyer, and journalist. He
struck out an original line in his stories of animal life as it presents
itself to the mind of the Southern negro, in whose dialect they are
written. These not only achieved and retain an exceptional popularity
among children, to whom they were in the first instance addressed, but
attracted the attention of students of folklore and anthology. Among his
writings are _Uncle Remus_ (1880), _Nights with Uncle Remus_ (1884), _Mr.
Rabbit at Home_ (1895), _Aaron in the Wild Woods_ (1897), _Chronicles of
Aunt Minervy Ann_ (1899), etc.

HARTE, FRANCIS BRET (1839-1902).--American humorist, _b._ in Albany,
N.Y., but when still a boy went to California. He had a somewhat varied
career as a teacher, miner, and journalist, and it is as a realistic
chronicler of the gold-field and an original humorist that his chief
literary triumphs were achieved. Among his best known writings are
_Condensed Novels_, in which he showed great skill as a parodist, _The
Luck of Roaring Camp_, _The Idyll of Red Gulch_, and _The Heathen
Chinee_. In 1880 he came to Glasgow as U.S. Consul, and from 1885 he
lived in London. His writings often show the tenderness and fine feeling
that are allied to the higher forms of humour, and he may be said to have
created a special form of short story in his Californian tales and prose
idylls.

HARTLEY, DAVID (1705-1757).--Philosopher, _b._ at Luddenden, Yorkshire,
and _ed._ at Camb., studied for the Church, but owing to theological
difficulties turned to medicine as a profession, and practised with
success at various places, including London and Bath. He also attained
eminence as a writer on philosophy, and indeed may be said to have
founded a school of thought based upon two theories, (1) the Doctrine of
Vibrations, and (2) that of Association of Ideas. These he developed in
an elaborate treatise, _Observations on Man, his Frame, his Duty, and his
Expectations_. Though his system has long been discarded, its main ideas
have continued to influence thought and investigation.

HARVEY, GABRIEL (1545?-1630).--Poet, _s._ of a ropemaker, was _b._ at
Saffron Walden, _ed._ at Camb., and became the friend of Spenser, being
the Hobbinol of _The Shepheard's Calendar_. He wrote various satirical
pieces, sonnets, and pamphlets. Vain and ill-tempered, he was a
remorseless critic of others, and was involved in perpetual controversy,
specially with Greene and Nash, the latter of whom was able to silence
him. He wrote treatises on rhetoric, claimed to have introduced
hexameters into English, was a foe to rhyme, and persuaded Spenser
temporarily to abandon it.

HAWES, STEPHEN (_d._ 1523?).--Poet; very little concerning him is known
with certainty. He is believed to have been _b._ in Suffolk, and may have
studied at Oxf. or Camb. He first comes clearly into view as a Groom of
the Chamber in 1502, in which year he dedicated to Henry VII. his
_Pastyme of Pleasure_, first printed in 1509 by Wynkyn de Worde. In the
same year appeared the _Convercyon of Swerers_ (1509), and _A Joyful
Meditacyon of all England_ (1509), on the coronation of Henry VIII. He
also wrote the _Exemple of Vertu_. H. was a scholar, and was familiar
with French and Italian poetry. No great poet, he yet had a considerable
share in regularising the language.

HAWKER, ROBERT STEPHEN (1804-1875).--Poet and antiquary, _ed._ at
Cheltenham and Oxf., became parson of Morwenstow, a smuggling and
wrecking community on the Cornish coast, where he exercised a reforming
and beneficent, though extremely unconventional, influence until his
death, shortly before which he was received into the Roman Catholic
Church. He wrote some poems of great originality and charm, _Records of
the Western Shore_ (1832-36), and _The Quest of the Sangraal_ (1863)
among them, besides short poems, of which perhaps the best known is
_Shall Trelawny Die?_ which, based as it is on an old rhyme, deceived
both Scott and Macaulay into thinking it an ancient fragment. He also
_pub._ a collection of papers, _Footprints of Former Men in Cornwall_
(1870).

HAWTHORNE, NATHANIEL (1804-1864).--Novelist, _b._ at Salem,
Massachusetts, _s._. of a sea captain, who _d._ in 1808, after which his
mother led the life of a recluse. An accident when at play conduced to an
early taste for reading, and from boyhood he cherished literary
aspirations. His education was completed at Bowdoin Coll., where he had
Longfellow for a fellow-student. After graduating, he obtained a post in
the Custom-House, which, however, he did not find congenial, and soon
gave up, betaking himself to literature, his earliest efforts, besides a
novel, _Fanshawe_, which had no success, being short tales and sketches,
which, after appearing in periodicals, were _coll._ and _pub._ as
_Twice-told Tales_ (1837), followed by a second series in 1842. In 1841
he joined for a few months the socialistic community at Brook Farm, but
soon tired of it, and in the next year he _m._ and set up house in
Concord in an old manse, formerly tenanted by Emerson, whence proceeded
_Mosses from an Old Manse_ (1846). It was followed by _The Snow Image_
(1851), _The Scarlet Letter_ (1850), his most powerful work, _The House
of Seven Gables_, and _The Blithedale Romance_ (1852), besides his
children's books, _The Wonder Book_, and _The Tanglewood Tales_. Such
business as he had occupied himself with had been in connection with
Custom-House appointments at different places; but in 1853 he received
from his friend Franklin Pierce, on his election to the Presidency, the
appointment of United States Consul at Liverpool, which he retained for
four years, when, in consequence of a threatened failure of health, he
went to Italy and began his story of _The Marble Faun_, _pub._ in England
in 1860 under the title of _The Transformation_. The last of his books
_pub._ during his lifetime was _Our Old Home_ (1863), notes on England
and the English. He had returned to America in 1860, where, with failing
health and powers, he passed his remaining four years. After his death
there were _pub._ _The Ancestral Footstep_, _Septimus Felton_, _Dr.
Grimshawe's Secret_, and _The Dolliver Romance_, all more or less
fragmentary. Most of H.'s work is pervaded by a strong element of
mysticism, and a tendency to dwell in the border-land between the seen
and the unseen. His style is characterised by a distinctive grace and
charm, rich, varied, suggestive, and imaginative. On the whole he is
undoubtedly the greatest imaginative writer yet produced by America.

There are several ed. of the _Works_, _e.g._ Little Classics, 25 vols.;
Riverside, 15 vols.; Standard Library, 15 vols.; the two last have
biographies. _Lives_ by his son Julian, H. James (English Men of Letters,
1850), M.D. Conway (Great Writers, 1890), etc.

HAY, JOHN (1838-1906).--Diplomatist and poet, _b._ at Salem, Indiana,
_ed._ at Brown Univ., and called to the Illinois Bar, served in the army,
and was one of President Lincoln's secs. He then held diplomatic posts at
Paris, Madrid, and Vienna, was Ambassador to Great Britain, and was in
1898 appointed Sec. of State. He has a place in literature by virtue of
his _Pike County Ballads_, and _Castilian Days_ (1871).

HAYLEY, WILLIAM (1745-1820).--Poet and biographer, was _b._ at
Chichester, and _ed._ at Eton and Camb. Though overstrained and romantic,
he had some literary ability, and was a good conversationalist. He was
the friend of Cowper, whose Life he wrote; and it was to his influence
with Pitt that the granting of a pension to the poet was due. He was the
author of numerous poems, including _The Triumph of Temper_, and of
_Essays_ on _History_ and _Epic Poetry_, and, in addition to his
biography of Cowper, wrote a _Life of Milton_. On the death of Thos.
Warton in 1790 he was offered, but declined, the Laureateship. Of him
Southey said, "Everything about that man is good except his poetry."

HAYNE, PAUL HAMILTON (1830-1886).--Poet, _b._ at Charleston, S. Carolina,
of an old family, contributed to various magazines, and _pub._ _Poems_
(1885), containing "Legends and Lyrics." His graceful verses show the
influence of Keats. His sonnets are some of his best work.

HAYWARD, ABRAHAM (1802-1884).--Miscellaneous writer, belonged to an old
Wiltshire family and was _ed._ at Tiverton School. He studied law at the
Inner Temple, and was called to the Bar 1832. He had a great reputation
as a _raconteur_ and sayer of good things, and he was a copious
contributor to periodicals, especially the _Quarterly Review_. Many of
his articles were reprinted as _Biographical and Critical Essays_, and
_Eminent Statesmen and Writers_; he also wrote Lives of George Selwyn and
Lord Chesterfield, and books on Whist, Junius, and _The Art of Dining_.
His _Select Correspondence_ appeared posthumously.

HAYWARD, SIR JOHN (1564?-1627).--Historian, _b._ at Felixstowe, was the
author of various historical works, the earliest of which, _The First
Part of the Life and Reign of King Henry IV._, was _pub._ in 1599, and
gave such offence to Queen Elizabeth that the author was imprisoned. He,
however, managed to ingratiate himself with James I. by supporting his
views of kingly prerogative. He also, at the request of Prince Henry,
wrote a _History of the three Norman Kings of England_ (William I.,
William II., and Henry I.) _The Life and Reign of Edward VI._ was _pub._
posthumously in 1630.

HAYWOOD, MRS. ELIZA (FOWLER) (1693-1756).--Dramatist and novelist, _b._
in London, was early _m._ to a Mr. H., but the union turning out
unhappily, she took to the stage, upon which she appeared in Dublin about
1715. She afterwards settled in London, and produced numerous plays and
novels, into which she introduced scandalous episodes regarding living
persons whose identity was very thinly veiled, a practice which, along
with her political satires, more than once involved her in trouble, and
together with certain attacks upon Pope, made in concert with Curll the
bookseller, procured for her a place in _The Dunciad_. Her enemies called
her reputation in question, but nothing very serious appears to have been
proved. She is repeatedly referred to by Steele, and has been doubtfully
identified with his "Sappho." Some of her works, such as _The History of
Jemmy and Jenny Jessamy_ had great popularity. Others were _The Fair
Captive_ (1721), _Idalia_ (1723), _Love in Excess_ (1724), _Memoirs of a
Certain Island adjacent to Utopia_ (anonymously) (1725), _Secret History
of Present Intrigues at the Court of Caramania_ (anonymously) (1727). She
also conducted _The Female Spectator_, and other papers.

HAZLITT, WILLIAM (1778-1830).--Essayist and critic, _b._ at Maidstone,
was the _s._ of a Unitarian minister. At his father's request he studied
for the ministry at a Unitarian Coll. at Hackney. His interests, however,
were much more philosophical and political than theological. The turning
point in his intellectual development was his meeting with Coleridge in
1798. Soon after this he studied art with the view of becoming a painter,
and devoted himself specially to portraiture, but though so good a judge
as his friend, J. Northcote, R.A., believed he had the talent requisite
for success, he could not satisfy himself, and gave up the idea, though
always retaining his love of art. He then definitely turned to
literature, and in 1805 _pub._ his first book, _Essay on the Principles
of Human Action_, which was followed by various other philosophical and
political essays. About 1812 he became parliamentary and dramatic
reporter to the _Morning Chronicle_; in 1814 a contributor to the
_Edinburgh Review_; and in 1817 he _pub._ a vol. of literary sketches,
_The Round Table_. In the last named year appeared his _Characters of
Shakespeare's Plays_, which was severely attacked in the _Quarterly
Review_ and _Blackwood's Magazine_, to which his democratic views made
him obnoxious. He defended himself in a cutting _Letter to William
Gifford_, the ed. of the former. The best of H.'s critical work--his
three courses of Lectures, _On the English Poets_, _On the English Comic
Writers_, and _On the Dramatic Literature of the Age of Queen
Elizabeth_--appeared successively in 1818, 1819, and 1820. His next works
were _Table Talk_, in which he attacked Shelley (1821-22), and _The
Spirit of the Age_ (1825), in which he criticised some of his
contemporaries. He then commenced what he intended to be his chief
literary undertaking, a life of _Napoleon Buonaparte_, in 4 vols.
(1828-30). Though written with great literary ability, its views and

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