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A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature by John W. Cousin

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travelled on foot. There he read voraciously, his chief study being
mathematics. After completing his "Arts" course, he went on to divinity
with the view of entering the Church, but about the middle of his course
found that he could not proceed. He became a schoolmaster first at Annan
and then at Kirkcaldy, where he formed a profound friendship with Edward
Irving (_q.v._), and met Margaret Gordon, afterwards Lady Bannerman,
believed by some to be the prototype of _Blumine_ in _Sartor_. Returning
in 1819 to Edin. he for a time studied law and took pupils; but his
health was bad, he suffered from insomnia and dyspepsia, and he tired of
law. He was also sorely bestead by mental and spiritual conflicts, which
came to a crisis in Leith Walk in June 1821 in a sudden uprising of
defiance to the devil and all his works, upon which the clouds lifted.
For the next two years, 1822-24, he acted as tutor to Charles Buller
(whose promising political career was cut short by his premature death)
and his brother. On the termination of this engagement he decided upon a
literary career, which he began by contributing articles to the
_Edinburgh Encyclopaedia_. In 1824 he translated Legendre's _Geometry_ (to
which he prefixed an essay on Proportion), and Goethe's _Wilhelm
Meister_; he also wrote for the _London Magazine_ a _Life of Schiller_.
About this time he visited Paris and London, where he met Hazlitt,
Campbell, Coleridge, and others. Thereafter he returned to Dumfriesshire.
In the following year (1826) he _m._ Jane Baillie Welsh, and settled in
Edin. Here his first work was _Specimens of German Romance_ (4 vols.) A
much more important matter was his friendship with Jeffrey and his
connection with the _Edinburgh Review_, in which appeared, among others,
his essays on _Richter_, _Burns_, _Characteristics_, and _German Poetry_.
In 1828 C. applied unsuccessfully for the Chair of Moral Philosophy in
St. Andrews, and the same year he went to Craigenputtock, a small
property in Dumfriesshire belonging to Mrs. C., where they remained for
several years, and where many of his best essays and _Sartor Resartus_
were written, and where his correspondence with Goethe began. In 1831 he
went to London to find a publisher for _Sartor_, but was unsuccessful,
and it did not appear in book form until 1838, after having come out in
_Fraser's Magazine_ in 1833-34. The year last mentioned found him finally
in London, settled in Cheyne Row, Chelsea, his abode for the rest of his
life. He immediately set to work on his _French Revolution_. While it was
in progress he in 1835 lent the MS. to J.S. Mill, by whose servant nearly
the whole of the first vol. was burned, in spite of which misfortune the
work was ready for publication in 1837. Its originality, brilliance, and
vividness took the world by storm, and his reputation as one of the
foremost men of letters in the country was at once and finally
established. In the same year he appeared as a public lecturer, and
delivered four courses on _German Literature_, _Periods of European
Culture_, _Revolutions of Modern Europe_, and _Heroes and Hero-Worship_,
the last of which was _pub._ as a book in 1841. Although his writings
did not yet produce a large income, his circumstances had become
comfortable, owing to Mrs. C. having succeeded to her patrimony in 1840.
Books now followed each other rapidly, _Chartism_ had appeared in 1839,
_Past and Present_ came out in 1843, and _Letters and Speeches of Oliver
Cromwell_ in 1845, the last named being perhaps the most successful of
his writings, inasmuch as it fully attained the object aimed at in
clearing Cromwell from the ignorant or malevolent aspersions under which
he had long lain, and giving him his just place among the greatest of the
nation. In 1850 he _pub._ his fiercest blast, _Latter Day Pamphlets_,
which was followed next year by his biography of his friend John Sterling
(_q.v._). It was about this time, as is shown by the _Letters and
Memoirs_ of Mrs. C., that a temporary estrangement arose between his wife
and himself, based apparently on Mrs. C.'s part upon his friendship with
Lady Ashburton, a cause of which C. seems to have been unconscious. In
1851 he began his largest, if not his greatest work, _Frederick the
Great_, which occupied him from that year until 1865, and in connection
with which he made two visits to Germany in 1852 and 1858. It is a work
of astonishing research and abounds in brilliant passages, but lacks the
concentrated intensity of _The French Revolution_. It is, however, the
one of his works which enjoys the highest reputation in Germany. In 1865
he was elected Lord Rector of the Univ. of Edin., and delivered a
remarkable address to the students by whom he was received with
enthusiasm. Almost immediately afterwards a heavy blow fell upon him in
the death of Mrs. C., and in the discovery, from her diary, of how
greatly she had suffered, unknown to him, from the neglect and want of
consideration which, owing to absorption in his work and other causes, he
had perhaps unconsciously shown. Whatever his faults, of which the most
was made in some quarters, there can be no doubt that C. and his wife
were sincerely attached to each other, and that he deeply mourned her. In
1866 his _Reminiscences_ (_pub._ 1881) were written. The Franco-German
War of 1870-71 profoundly interested him, and evoked a plea for Germany.
From this time his health began to give way more and more. In 1872 his
right hand became paralysed. In 1874 he received the distinction of the
Prussian Order of Merit, as the biographer of its founder, and in the
same year, Mr. Disraeli offered him the choice of the Grand Cross of the
Bath or a baronetcy and a pension, all of which he declined. The
completion of his 80th year in 1875 was made the occasion of many
tributes of respect and veneration, including a gold medal from some of
his Scottish admirers. He _d._ on February 5, 1881. Burial in Westminster
Abbey was offered, but he had left instructions that he should lie with
his kindred. He bequeathed the property of Craigenputtock to the Univ. of
Edin.

C. exercised a very powerful influence upon the thought of his age, not
only by his own writings and personality, but through the many men of
distinction both in literature and active life whom he imbued with his
doctrines; and perhaps no better proof of this exists than the fact that
much that was new and original when first propounded by him has passed
into the texture of the national ideas. His style is perhaps the most
remarkable and individual in our literature, intensely strong, vivid,
and picturesque, but utterly unconventional, and often whimsical or
explosive. He had in a high degree the poetic and imaginative faculty,
and also irresistible humour, pungent sarcasm, insight, tenderness, and
fierce indignation.

All the works of C. shed light on his personality, but _Sartor Resartus_
especially may be regarded as autobiographical. Froude's _Thomas Carlyle
... First 40 Years of his Life_ (1882), _Thomas Carlyle ... His Life in
London_, by the same (1884), _Letters and Memories of Jane Welsh Carlyle_
(1883), various _Lives_ and _Reminiscences_ by Prof. Masson and Nichol,
etc.

SUMMARY.--_B._ 1795, _ed._ Edin., studies for Church but gives it up,
tries law, then tutor, takes to literature and writes for encyclopaedias
and magazines, and translates, _m._ 1826 Jane Welsh, settles in Edin.,
writes essays in _Edinburgh Review_, goes to Craigenputtock 1828, writes
_Sartor_ and corresponds with Goethe, _Sartor_ appears in _Fraser's
Magazine_ 1833-4, settles in London 1834, _pub._ _French Revolution_
1837, lectures, _pub._ _Heroes_, and _Chartism_ and _Sartor_ as a book
1839, _Past and Present_ 1843, _Oliver Cromwell_ 1845, _Latter Day
Pamphlets_ 1850, writes _Frederick the Great_ 1851-65, Lord Rector of
Edin. Univ. 1865, Mrs. C. _d._ 1865, writes _Reminiscences_ 1866 (_pub._
1881), _d._ 1881.

CARRUTHERS, ROBERT (1799-1878).--Journalist and miscellaneous writer,
_b._ in Dumfriesshire, was for a time a teacher in Huntingdon, and wrote
a _History of Huntingdon_ (1824). In 1828 he became ed. of the _Inverness
Courier_, which he conducted with great ability. He ed. Pope's works with
a memoir (1853), and along with Robert Chambers (_q.v._) ed. the first
ed. of _Chambers's Cyclopedia of English Literature_ (1842-44). He
received the degree of LL.D. from Edin.

CARTE, THOMAS (1686-1754).--Historian, _b._ near Rugby, and _ed._ at
Oxf., took orders, but resigned his benefice at Bath when required to
take the oath of allegiance to George I. He was sec. to Francis Atterbury
(_q.v._), and was involved in the consequences of his conspiracy, but
escaped to France, where he remained until 1728. After his return he
_pub._ a life of the Duke of Ormonde (1736), and a _History of England to
1654_ in 4 vols. (1747-54), the latter a work of great research, though
dry and unattractive in style.

CARTER, ELIZABETH (1717-1806).--Miscellaneous writer, _b._ at Deal,
_dau._ of a clergyman. Originally backward, she applied herself to study
with such perseverance that she became perhaps the most learned
Englishwoman of her time, being mistress of Latin, Greek, Hebrew, and
Arabic, besides several modern European languages. She was also well read
in science. She translated Epictetus 1758, and wrote a small vol. of
poems. She was the friend of Dr. Johnson and many other eminent men. She
was of agreeable and unassuming manners.

CARTWRIGHT, WILLIAM (1611-1643).--Dramatist, _s._ of a gentleman of
Gloucestershire, who had run through his fortune and kept an inn at
Cirencester, _ed._ at Westminster School and Oxf., entered the Church,
was a zealous Royalist, and an eloquent preacher, and lecturer in
metaphysics. He also wrote spirited lyrics and four plays. He was the
friend of Ben Jonson, H. Vaughan, and Izaak Walton. He _d._ at Oxf. of
camp fever. Among his plays are _The Royal Slave_, _The Siege_, and _The
Lady Errant_. His virtues, learning, and charming manners made him highly
popular in his day.

CARY, ALICE (1820-1871), and PHOEBE (1824-1871).--Were the _dau._ of a
farmer near Cincinnati. The former wrote _Clovernook Papers_ and
_Clovernook Children_, and other tales, and some poems. The latter wrote
poems and hymns. Both sisters attained considerable popularity.

CARY, HENRY FRANCIS (1772-1844).--Translator, was _b._ at Gibraltar, and
_ed._ at Oxf., where he was distinguished for his classical attainments.
His great work is his translation of the _Divina Commedia_ of Dante
(1805-1814), which is not only faithful to the original, but full of
poetic fire, and rendered into such fine English as to be itself
literature apart from its merits as a translation. He also translated
from the Greek. C., who was a clergyman, received a pension in 1841.

CATLIN, GEORGE (1796-1872).--Painter and writer, _b._ at Wilkesbarre,
Pennsylvania, practised for some time as a lawyer, but yielding to his
artistic instincts he took to painting. He spent the 7 years, 1832-39,
among the Indians of North America, of whom he painted about 500
portraits. He became thoroughly acquainted with their life, and _pub._ an
interesting work, _Illustrations of the Manners, etc., of the North
American Indians_ (1857). His later years were spent chiefly in Europe.

CAVE, EDWARD (1691-1754).--Publisher, _b._ near Rugby, started in 1731
_The Gentleman's Magazine_, for which Dr. Johnson was parliamentary
reporter from 1740. He _pub._ many of Johnson's works.

CAVENDISH, GEORGE (1500-1561).--Biographer, was Gentleman Usher to
Cardinal Wolsey, to whom he was so much attached that he followed him in
his disgrace, and continued to serve him until his death. He left in MS.
a life of his patron, which is the first separate biography in English,
and is the main original authority of the period. Admitting Wolsey's
faults, it nevertheless presents him in an attractive light. The simple
yet eloquent style gives it a high place as a biography.

CAXTON, WILLIAM (1422-1491).--Printer and translator, _b._ in the Weald
of Kent, was apprenticed to a London mercer. On his master's death in
1441 he went to Bruges, and lived there and in various other places in
the Low Countries for over 30 years, engaged apparently as head of an
association of English merchants trading in foreign parts, and in
negotiating commercial treaties between England and the Dukes of
Burgundy. His first literary labour was a translation of a French
romance, which he entitled _The Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye_, and
which he finished in 1471. About this time he learned the art of
printing, and, after being in the service of Margaret Duchess of
Burgundy, an English princess, returned to his native country and set up
at Westminster in 1476 his printing press, the first in England. His
_Recuyell_ and _The Game and Playe of Chesse_ had already been
printed--the first books in English--on the Continent. Here was produced
the first book printed in England, _The Dictes and Sayings of the
Philosophers_ (1477). C. obtained Royal favour, printed from 80 to 100
separate works--many of them translations of his own--and _d._ almost
with pen in hand in 1491. His style is clear and idiomatic.

CENTLIVRE, MRS. SUSANNA (1667-1723).--Dramatist and actress, was the
_dau._ of a gentleman of the name of either Rawkins or Freeman, who
appears to have belonged either to Lincolnshire or Ireland, or was
perhaps connected with both, and who suffered at the hands of the
Stuarts. She _m._ at 16, lost her husband in a year, then _m._ an
officer, who fell in a duel in 18 months, and finally, in 1706, _m._
Joseph C., cook to Queen Anne, with whom she lived happily for the rest
of her days. She wrote 18 or 19 plays, well constructed and amusing,
among which may be mentioned _The Perjured Husband_ (1700), _The
Busybody_ (1709), _The Warder_ (1714), and _A Bold Stroke for a Wife_
(1717). She was a strong Whig, and sometimes made her plays the medium of
expressing her political opinions.

CHALKHILL, JOHN (_fl._ 1600).--Poet, mentioned by Izaak Walton as having
written a pastoral poem, _Thealma and Clearchus_. As nothing else is
known of him it has been held by some that the name was a _nom-de-plume_
of W. himself. It has been shown, however, that a gentleman of the name
existed during the reign of Elizabeth. W. says he was a friend of
Spenser, and that his life was "useful, quiet, and virtuous."

CHALMERS, GEORGE (1742-1825).--Antiquary, _b._ at Fochabers, Elginshire,
emigrated to America and practised law in Baltimore; but on the outbreak
of the Revolutionary War returned to Britain, and settled in London as a
clerk in the Board of Trade. He _pub._ in 1780 a _History of the United
Colonies_, and wrote lives of Sir David Lyndsay, De Foe, and Mary Queen
of Scots. His great work, however, is his _Caledonia_, of which 3 vols.
had been _pub._ at his death. It was to have been a complete _coll._ of
the topography and antiquities of Scotland; and, as it stands, is a
monument of industry and research, though not always trustworthy in
disputed points. Besides those mentioned, C. was the author of many other
works on political, historical, and literary subjects, and had projected
several which he was unable to carry out.

CHALMERS, THOMAS (1780-1847).--Divine, economist, and philanthropist,
_b._ at Anstruther, Fife, _s._ of a shipowner and merchant, studied at
St. Andrews and, entering the ministry of the Church of Scotland, was
first settled in the small parish of Kilmeny, Fife, but, his talents and
eloquence becoming known, he was, in 1815, translated to Glasgow, where
he was soon recognised as the most eloquent preacher in Scotland, and
where also he initiated his schemes for the management of the poor. In
1823, he became Prof. of Moral Philosophy at St. Andrews, and in 1828 of
Divinity in Edin. In 1834 he began his great scheme of Church extension,
the result of which was that in seven years L300,000 had been raised, and
220 churches built. In the same year, 1834, began the troubles and
controversies in regard to patronage and the relations of Church and
State, which in 1843 ended in the disruption of the Church, when 470
ministers with C. at their head, resigned their benefices, and founded
the Free Church of Scotland. C. was chosen its first Moderator and
Principal of its Theological Coll. in Edin. The remaining four years of
his life were spent in organising the new Church, and in works of
philanthropy. He was found dead in bed on the morning of May 30, 1847.
His chief works, which were _coll._ and _pub._ in 34 vols., relate to
natural theology, evidences of Christianity, political economy, and
general theology and science. Those which perhaps attracted most
attention were his _Astronomical Discourses_ and his _Lectures on Church
Establishments_, the latter delivered in London to audiences containing
all that was most distinguished in rank and intellect in the country. The
style of C. is cumbrous, and often turgid, but the moral earnestness,
imagination, and force of intellect of the writer shine through it and
irradiate his subjects. And yet the written is described by
contemporaries to have been immeasurably surpassed by the spoken word,
which carried away the hearer as in a whirlwind. And the man was even
greater than his achievements. His character was one of singular
simplicity, nobility, and lovableness, and produced a profound impression
on all who came under his influence. The character of his intellect was
notably practical, as is evidenced by the success of his parochial
administration and the "Sustentation Fund," devised by him for the
support of the ministry of the Free Church. He was D.D., LL.D., D.C.L.
(Oxon.), and a Corresponding Member of the Institute of France.

_Memoirs_ (Hanna, 4 vols.). Smaller works by Prof. Blaikie (1897), Mrs.
Oliphant (1893), and many others.

CHAMBERLAYNE, WILLIAM (1619-1689).--Poet, practised medicine at
Shaftesbury. On the outbreak of the Civil War he joined the Royalists and
fought at the second battle of Newbury. He wrote a play, _Loves Victory_
(1658), and an epic _Pharonnida_ (1659). With occasional beauties he is,
in the main, heavy and stiff, and is almost forgotten. He influenced
Keats.

CHAMBERS, ROBERT (1802-1871).--Historical and scientific writer, was _b._
at Peebles. Early dependent on his own exertions, he started business as
a bookseller in Edin. at the age of 16, devoting all his spare time to
study, to such purpose that in 1824 he _pub._ _Traditions of Edinburgh_,
a work in which he had the assistance of Sir W. Scott. Thereafter he
poured forth a continuous stream of books and essays on historical,
social, antiquarian, and scientific subjects. He joined his brother
William (_q.v._) in establishing the publishing firm of W. and R.
Chambers, and in starting _Chambers's Journal_, to which he was a
constant contributor. Later ventures were _The Cyclopedia of English
Literature_ (1842-44), of which several ed. have appeared (last 1903-6).
and _Chambers's Cyclopaedia_ (10 vols. 1859-68; new 1888-92). Among his
own works may be mentioned _Vestiges of Creation_, _pub._ anonymously
(1844), a precursor of Darwinism, _A Life of Burns_ (1851), _Popular
Rhymes of Scotland_ (1847), _History of the Rebellions in Scotland_,
_Domestic Annals of Scotland_ (1859-61), _Ancient Sea Margins_ (1848),
_Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen_ and _The Book of Days_ (1863). He was
LL.D. of St. Andrews.

CHAMBERS, WILLIAM (1800-1883).--Publisher and miscellaneous author, _b._
at Peebles, started in 1832 with his brother Robert (_q.v._) _Chambers's
Journal_, and soon after joined him in the firm of W. and R. Chambers.
Besides contributions to the _Journal_ he wrote several books, including
a _History of Peeblesshire_ (1864), and an autobiography of himself and
his brother. C. was a man of great business capacity, and, though of less
literary distinction than his brother, did much for the dissemination of
cheap and useful literature. He was Lord Provost of Edin. 1865-69, and
was an LL.D. of the Univ. of that city. He restored the ancient church of
St. Giles there.

CHAMIER, FREDERICK (1796-1870).--Novelist, was in the navy, in which he
rose to the rank of Captain. Retiring in 1827, he wrote several sea
novels somewhat in the style of Marryat, including _Life of a Sailor_
(1832), _Ben Brace_, _Jack Adams_, and _Tom Bowling_ (1841). He also
continued James's _Naval History_, and wrote books of travel.

CHANNING, WILLIAM ELLERY (1780-1842).--American Divine, _b._ at Newport,
Rhode Island, was for a time a minister in the Congregationalist Church,
but became the leader of the Unitarians in New England. He had a powerful
influence on the thought and literature of his time in America, and was
the author of books on Milton and Fenelon, and on social subjects. The
elevation and amiability of his character caused him to be held in high
esteem. He did not class himself with Unitarians of the school of
Priestley, but claimed to "stand aloof from all but those who strive and
pray for clearer light."

CHAPMAN, GEORGE (1559-1634).--Dramatist and translator, was _b._ near
Hitchin, and probably _ed._ at Oxf. and Camb. He wrote many plays,
including _The Blind Beggar of Alexandria_ (1596), _All Fools_ (1599), _A
Humerous Daye's Myrthe_ (1599), _Eastward Hoe_ (with Jonson), _The
Gentleman Usher_, _Monsieur d'Olive_, etc. As a dramatist he has humour,
and vigour, and occasional poetic fire, but is very unequal. His great
work by which he lives in literature is his translation of Homer. The
_Iliad_ was _pub._ in 1611, the _Odyssey_ in 1616, and the _Hymns_, etc.,
in 1624. The work is full of energy and spirit, and well maintains its
place among the many later translations by men of such high poetic powers
as Pope and Cowper, and others: and it had the merit of suggesting
Keats's immortal Sonnet, in which its name and memory are embalmed for
many who know it in no other way. C. also translated from Petrarch, and
completed Marlowe's unfinished _Hero and Leander_.

CHAPONE, HESTER (MULSO) (1727-1801).--Miscellaneous writer, _dau._ of a
gentleman of Northamptonshire, was _m._ to a solicitor, who _d._ a few
months afterwards. She was one of the learned ladies who gathered round
Mrs. Montague (_q.v._), and was the author of _Letters on the Improvement
of the Mind_ and _Miscellanies_.

CHARLETON, WALTER (1619-1707).--Miscellaneous writer, _ed._ at Oxf., was
titular physician to Charles I. He was a copious writer on theology,
natural history, and antiquities, and _pub._ _Chorea Gigantum_ (1663) to
prove that Stonehenge was built by the Danes. He was also one of the
"character" writers, and in this kind of literature wrote _A Brief
Discourse concerning the Different Wits of Men_ (1675).

CHATTERTON, THOMAS (1752-1770).--Poet, _b._ at Bristol, posthumous _s._
of a schoolmaster, who had been a man of some reading and antiquarian
tastes, after whose death his mother maintained herself and her boy and
girl by teaching and needlework. A black-letter Bible and an illuminated
music-book belonging to her were the first things to give his mind the
impulse which led to such mingled glory and disaster. Living under the
shadow of the great church of St. Mary Redcliffe, his mind was impressed
from infancy with the beauty of antiquity, he obtained access to the
charters deposited there, and he read every scrap of ancient literature
that came in his way. At 14 he was apprenticed to a solicitor named
Lambert, with whom he lived in sordid circumstances, eating in the
kitchen and sleeping with the foot-boy, but continuing his favourite
studies in every spare moment. In 1768 a new bridge was opened, and C.
contributed to a local newspaper what purported to be a contemporary
account of the old one which it superseded. This attracted a good deal of
attention. Previously to this he had been writing verses and imitating
ancient poems under the name of Thomas Rowley, whom he feigned to be a
monk of the 15th century. Hearing of H. Walpole's collections for his
_Anecdotes of Painting in England_, he sent him an "ancient manuscript"
containing biographies of certain painters, not hitherto known, who had
flourished in England centuries before. W. fell into the trap, and wrote
asking for all the MS. he could furnish, and C. in response forwarded
accounts of more painters, adding some particulars as to himself on which
W., becoming suspicious, submitted the whole to T. Gray and Mason
(_q.v._), who pronounced the MS. to be forgeries. Some correspondence,
angry on C.'s part, ensued, and the whole budget of papers was returned.
C. thereafter, having been dismissed by Lambert, went to London, and for
a short time his prospects seemed to be bright. He worked with feverish
energy, threw off poems, satires, and political papers, and meditated a
history of England; but funds and spirits failed, he was starving, and
the failure to obtain an appointment as ship's surgeon, for which he had
applied, drove him to desperation, and on the morning of August 25, 1770,
he was found dead from a dose of arsenic, surrounded by his writings torn
into small pieces. From childhood C. had shown a morbid familiarity with
the idea of suicide, and had written a last will and testament, "executed
in the presence of Omniscience," and full of wild and profane wit. The
magnitude of his tragedy is only realised when it is considered not only
that the poetry he left was of a high order of originality and
imaginative power, but that it was produced at an age at which our
greatest poets, had they died, would have remained unknown. Precocious
not only in genius but in dissipation, proud and morose as he was, an
unsympathetic age confined itself mainly to awarding blame to his
literary and moral delinquencies. Posterity has weighed him in a juster
balance, and laments the early quenching of so brilliant a light. His
_coll._ works appeared in 1803, and another ed. by Prof. Street in 1875.
Among these are _Elinoure and Juga_, _Balade of Charitie_, _Bristowe
Tragedie_, _AElla_, and _Tragedy of Godwin_.

The best account of his life is the Essay by Prof. Masson.

CHAUCER, GEOFFREY (1340?-1400).--Poet, was _b._ in London, the _s._ of
John C., a vintner of Thames Street, who had also a small estate at
Ipswich, and was occasionally employed on service for the King (Edward
III.), which doubtless was the means of his son's introduction to the
Court. The acquaintance which C. displays with all branches of the
learning of his time shows that he must have received an ample education;
but there is no evidence that he was at either of the Univ. In 1357 he
appears as a page to the Lady Elizabeth, wife of Lionel Duke of Clarence,
and in 1359 he first saw military service in France, when he was made a
prisoner. He was, however, ransomed in 1360. About 1366 he was married to
Philippa, _dau._ of Sir Payne Roet, one of the ladies of the Duchess of
Lancaster, whose sister Katharine, widow of Sir Hugh Swynford, became the
third wife of John of Gaunt. Previous to this he had apparently been
deeply in love with another lady, whose rank probably placed her beyond
his reach; his disappointment finding expression in his _Compleynt to
Pite_. In 1367 he was one of the valets of the King's Chamber, a post
always held by gentlemen, and received a pension of 20 marks, and he was
soon afterwards one of the King's esquires. In 1369 Blanche, the wife of
John of Gaunt, died, which gave occasion for a poem by C. in honour of
her memory, _The Dethe of Blaunche the Duchesse_. In the same year he
again bore arms in France, and during the next ten years he was
frequently employed on diplomatic missions. In 1370 he was sent to Genoa
to arrange a commercial treaty, on which occasion he may have met
Petrarch, and was rewarded by a grant in 1374 of a pitcher of wine daily.
In the same year he got from the corporation of London a lease for life
of a house at Aldgate, on condition of keeping it in repair; and soon
after he was appointed Comptroller of the Customs and Subsidy of Wool,
Skins, and Leather in the port of London; he also received from the Duke
of Lancaster a pension of L10. In 1375 he obtained the guardianship of a
rich ward, which he held for three years, and the next year he was
employed on a secret service. In 1377 he was sent on a mission to
Flanders to treat of peace with the French King. After the accession of
Richard II. in that year, he was sent to France to treat for the marriage
of the King with the French Princess Mary, and thereafter to Lombardy, on
which occasion he appointed John Gower (_q.v._) to act for him in his
absence in any legal proceedings which might arise. In 1382 he became
Comptroller of the Petty Customs of the port of London, and in 1385 was
allowed to appoint a deputy, which, enabled him to devote more time to
writing. He had in 1373 begun his _Canterbury Tales_, on which he was
occupied at intervals for the rest of his life. In 1386 C. was elected
Knight of the Shire for Kent, a county with which he appears to have had
some connection, and where he may have had property. His fortunes now
suffered some eclipse. His patron, John of Gaunt, was abroad, and the
government was presided over by his brother Gloucester, who was at feud
with him. Owing probably to this cause, C. was in December, 1386,
dismissed from his employments, leaving him with no income beyond his
pensions, on which he was obliged to raise money. His wife also died at
the same time. In 1389, however, Richard took the government into his own
hands, and prosperity returned to C., whose friends were now in power,
and he was appointed Clerk of the King's works. This office, however, he
held for two years only, and again fell into poverty, from which he was
rescued in 1394 by a pension from the King of L20. On the accession of
Henry IV. (1399) an additional pension of 40 marks was given him. In the
same year he took a lease of a house at Westminster, where he probably
_d._, October 25, 1400. He is buried in Poets' Corner, Westminster Abbey,
where a monument to him was erected by Nicholas Brigham, a minor poet of
the 16th century. According to some authorities he left two sons, Thomas,
who became a man of wealth and importance, and Lewis, who died young, the
little ten-year-old boy to whom he addressed the treatise on the
_Astrolabe_. Others see no evidence that Thomas was any relation of the
poet. An Elizabeth C., placed in the Abbey of Barking by John of Gaunt,
was probably his _dau._ In person C. was inclined to corpulence, "no
poppet to embrace," of fair complexion with "a beard the colour of ripe
wheat," an "elvish" expression, and an eye downcast and meditative.

Of the works ascribed to C. several are, for various reasons, of greater
or less strength, considered doubtful. These include _The Romaunt of the
Rose_, _Chaucer's Dream_, and _The Flower and the Leaf_. After his return
from Italy about 1380 he entered upon his period of greatest
productiveness: _Troilus and Criseyde_ (1382?), _The Parlement of Foules_
(1382?), _The House of Fame_ (1384?), and _The Legende of Goode Women_
(1385), belong to this time. The first of them still remains one of the
finest poems of its kind in the language. But the glory of C. is, of
course, the _Canterbury Tales_, a work which places him in the front rank
of the narrative poets of the world. It contains about 18,000 lines of
verse, besides some passages in prose, and was left incomplete. In it his
power of story-telling, his humour, sometimes broad, sometimes sly, his
vivid picture-drawing, his tenderness, and lightness of touch, reach
their highest development. He is our first artist in poetry, and with him
begins modern English literature. His character--genial, sympathetic, and
pleasure-loving, yet honest, diligent, and studious--is reflected in his
writings.

SUMMARY.--_B._ 1340, fought in France 1359, by his marriage in 1366
became connected with John of Gaunt, employed on diplomatic missions
1369-79, Controller of Customs, etc., _c._ 1374, began _Canterbury Tales_
1373, elected to Parliament 1386, loses his appointments 1386, Clerk of
King's Works 1389-91, pensioned by Richard II. and Henry IV., _d._ _c._
1400.

The best ed. of C. is _The Complete Works of Geoffrey Chaucer_ (6 vols.
1894), ed. by Prof. Skeat. Others are Thos. Wright's for the Percy
Society (1842), and Richard Morris's in Bell's Aldine Classics (1866).

CHERRY, ANDREW (1762-1812).--Dramatist, _s._ of a bookseller at Limerick,
was a successful actor, and managed theatres in the provinces. He also
wrote some plays, of which _The Soldier's Daughter_ is the best. His
chief claim to remembrance rests on his three songs, _The Bay of Biscay_,
_The Green Little Shamrock_, and _Tom Moody_.

CHESTERFIELD, PHILIP DORMER STANHOPE, 4TH EARL OF (1694-1773).--Statesman
and letter-writer, was the eldest _s._ of the 3rd Earl. After being at
Trinity Coll., Camb., he sat in the House of Commons until his accession
to the peerage in 1726. He filled many high offices, including those of
Ambassador to Holland, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, and Sec. of State. He
was distinguished for his wit, conversational powers, and grace of
manner. His place in literature is fixed by his well-known _Letters_
addressed to his natural son, Philip Dormer Stanhope. Though brilliant,
and full of shrewdness and knowledge of the world, they reflect the low
tone of morals prevalent in the age when they were written. He was the
recipient of Johnson's famous letter as to his "patronage."

CHETTLE, HENRY (1565-1607?).--Dramatist. Very little is known of him. He
ed. R. Greene's _Groat's-worth of Wit_ (1592), is believed to have
written 13 and collaborated in 35 plays. He also wrote two satires, _Kind
Harts Dreame_ (1593), and _Pierre Plainnes Prentship_ (1595). He was
imprisoned for debt 1599.

Among his own plays, which have considerable merit, is _Hoffmann_, which
has been reprinted, and he had a hand in _Patient Grissill_ (1603) (which
may have influenced Shakespeare in the _Merry Wives of Windsor_), _The
Blind Beggar of Bethnal Green_, and _Jane Shore_.

CHILD, FRANCIS J. (1825-1896).--English scholar, _b._ at Boston, Mass.,
was a prof. at Harvard, one of the foremost students of early English,
and especially of ancient ballads in America. He ed. the American ed. of
English Poets in 130 vols., and English and Scottish Ballads. He was also
a profound student of Chaucer, and _pub._ _Observations on the Language
of Chaucer_, and _Observations on the Language of Gower's Confessio
Amantis_.

CHILD, MRS. LYDIA MARIA (FRANCIS) (1802-1880).--Was the author of many
once popular tales, _Hobomok_, _The Rebels_, _Philothes_, etc.

CHILLINGWORTH, WILLIAM (1602-1644).--Theologian and controversialist,
_b._ and _ed._ at Oxf., was godson of Archbishop Laud. Falling into
theological doubts he subsequently became a convert to Roman Catholicism,
and studied at the Jesuit Coll. at Douay, 1630. In the following year he
returned to Oxf., and after further consideration of the points at issue,
he rejoined the Church of England, 1634. This exposed him to violent
attacks on the part of the Romanists, in reply to which he _pub._ in 1637
his famous polemic, _The Religion of the Protestants a Safe Way to
Salvation_, characterised by clear style and logical reasoning. For a
time he refused ecclesiastical preferment, but ultimately his scruples
were overcome, and he became Prebendary and Chancellor of Salisbury. C.
is regarded as one of the ablest controversialists of the Anglican
Church.

CHURCH, RICHARD WILLIAM (1815-1890).--Divine, historian, and biographer,
was _b._ at Lisbon, and _ed._ at Oxf., where he became a friend of J.H.
Newman (_q.v._). He took orders, and became Rector of Whatley, Somerset,
and in 1871 Dean of St. Paul's. He was a leading member of the High
Church party, but was held in reverence by many who did not sympathise
with his ecclesiastical views. Among his writings are _The Beginning of
the Middle Ages_ (1877), and a memoir on _The Oxford Movement_ (1891),
_pub._ posthumously. He also wrote Lives of Anselm, Dante, Spenser, and
Bacon.

CHURCHILL, CHARLES (1731-1764).--Satirist, _s._ of a clergyman, was _ed._
at Westminster School, and while still a schoolboy made a clandestine
marriage. He entered the Church, and on the death of his _f._ in 1758
succeeded him in the curacy and lectureship of St. John's, Westminster.
In 1761 he _pub._ the _Rosciad_, in which he severely satirised the
players and managers of the day. It at once brought him both fame and
money; but he fell into dissipated habits, separated from his wife, and
outraged the proprieties of his profession to such an extent that he was
compelled to resign his preferments. He also incurred the enmity of those
whom he had attacked, which led to the publication of two other satirical
pieces, _The Apology_ and _Night_. He also attacked Dr. Johnson and his
circle in _The Ghost_, and the Scotch in _The Prophecy of Famine_. He
attached himself to John Wilkes, on a visit to whom, at Boulogne, he _d._
of fever.

CHURCHYARD, THOMAS (1520?-1604).--Poet and miscellaneous writer, began
life as a page to the Earl of Surrey, and subsequently passed through
many vicissitudes as a soldier in Scotland, Ireland, France, and the Low
Countries. He was latterly a hanger-on at Court, and had a pension of
eighteenpence a day from Queen Elizabeth, which was not, however,
regularly paid. He wrote innumerable pamphlets and broadsides, and some
poems, of which the best are _Shore's Wife_ (1563), _The Worthiness of
Wales_ (1587) _repub._ by the Spenser Society (1871), and _Churchyard's
Chips_ (1575), an autobiographical piece.

CIBBER, COLLEY (1671-1757).--Actor and dramatist, _b._ in London, _s._ of
a Danish sculptor, and _ed._ at Grantham School. Soon after his return to
London he took to the stage. Beginning with tragedy, in which he failed,
he turned to comedy, and became popular in eccentric _roles_. In 1696 he
brought out his first play, _Love's Last Shift_, and produced in all
about 30 plays, some of which were very successful. In 1730 he was made
Poet Laureate, and wrote some forgotten odes of no merit, also an
entertaining autobiography. Pope made him the hero of the _Dunciad_.

Among other plays are _The Nonjuror_ (1717), _Woman's Wit_, _She Would
and She Would Not_, _The Provoked Husband_ (1728) (with Vanbrugh).

CLARE, JOHN (1793-1864).--Poet, _s._ of a cripple pauper, was _b._ at
Helpstone near Peterborough. His youth is the record of a noble struggle
against adverse circumstances. With great difficulty he managed to save
one pound, with which he was able to have a prospectus of his first book
of poems printed, which led to an acquaintance with Mr. Drury, a
bookseller in Stamford, by whose help the poems were _pub._, and brought
him L20. The book, _Poems descriptive of Rural Life_ (1820), immediately
attracted attention. Various noblemen befriended him and stocked a farm
for him. But unfortunately C. had no turn for practical affairs, and got
into difficulties. He, however, continued to produce poetry, and in
addition to _The Village Minstrel_, which had appeared in 1821, _pub._
_The Shepherd's Calendar_ (1827), and _Rural Muse_ (1835). Things,
however, went on from bad to worse; his mind gave way, and he _d._ in an
asylum. C. excels in description of rural scenes and the feelings and
ideas of humble country life.

CLARENDON, EDWARD HYDE, EARL of (1608-1674).--Lawyer, statesman, and
historian, _s._ of a country gentleman of good estate in Wiltshire, was
_b._ at Dinton in that county, and _ed._ at Oxf. Destined originally for
the Church, circumstances led to his being sent to London to study law,
which he did under his uncle, Sir Nicholas H., Chief Justice of the
King's Bench. In early life he was the friend of all the leading men of
the day. Entering Parliament in 1640 he at first supported popular
measures, but, on the outbreak of the Civil War, attached himself to the
King, and was the author of many of his state papers. From 1648 until the
Restoration C. was engaged in various embassies and as a counsellor of
Charles II., who made him in 1658 his Lord Chancellor, an office in which
he was confirmed at the Restoration, when he also became Chancellor of
the Univ. of Oxf., and was likewise raised to the peerage. His power and
influence came to an end, however, in 1667, when he was dismissed from
all his offices, was impeached, and had to fly to France. The causes of
his fall were partly the miscarriage of the war with Holland, and the
sale of Dunkirk, and partly the jealousy of rivals and the intrigues of
place hunters, whose claims he had withstood. In his enforced retirement
he engaged himself in completing his great historic work, _The History of
the Rebellion and Civil Wars in England_, which he had begun in 1641, and
which was not _pub._ until 1702-4. C.'s style is easy, flowing, diffuse,
and remarkably modern, with an occasional want of clearness owing to his
long and involved sentences. His great strength is in character-painting,
in which he is almost unrivalled. The _History_ was followed by a
supplementary _History of the Civil War in Ireland_ (1721). C. also wrote
an autobiography, _The Life of Edward Earl of Clarendon_ (1759), a reply
to the _Leviathan_ of Hobbes, and _An Essay on the Active and
Contemplative Life_, in which the superiority of the former is
maintained. C. _d._ at Rouen. He was a man of high personal character,
and great intellect and sagacity, but lacking in the firmness and energy
necessary for the troublous times in which he lived. His _dau._ Anne
married the Duke of York, afterwards James II., a connection which
involved him in much trouble and humiliation.

Agar Ellis's _Historical Enquiry respecting the Character of Clarendon_
(1827), _Life_ by T.H. Lister (1838), _History_ (Macray, 6 vols., 1888).

CLARKE, CHARLES COWDEN (1787-1877).--Writer on Shakespeare, was a
publisher in London. He lectured on Shakespeare and on European
literature. Latterly he lived in France and Italy. His wife, MARY C.-C.
(1809-1898), _dau._ of V. Novello, musician, compiled a complete
_Concordance to Shakespeare_ (1844-45), and wrote _The Shakespeare Key_
(1879) and, with her husband, _Recollections of Writers_ (1878).

CLARKE, MARCUS (1846-1881).--Novelist, _b._ in London, the _s._ of a
barrister. After a somewhat wild youth he went to Australia where, after
more than one failure to achieve success in business, he took to
journalism on the staff of the _Melbourne Argus_, with brilliant results.
He wrote two novels, _Long Odds_ and _For the Term of his Natural Life_
(1874), the latter, which is generally considered his masterpiece,
dealing in a powerful and realistic manner with transportation and
convict labour. He also wrote many short tales and dramatic pieces. After
a turbulent and improvident life he _d._ at 35. In addition to the works
above mentioned, he wrote _Lower Bohemia in Melbourne_, _The Humbug
Papers_, _The Future Australian Race_. As a writer he was keen,
brilliant, and bitter.

CLARKE, SAMUEL (1675-1729).--Divine and metaphysician, _b._ at Norwich,
was _ed._ at Camb., where he became the friend and disciple of Newton,
whose System of the Universe he afterwards defended against Leibnitz. In
1704-5 he delivered the Boyle lectures, taking for his subject, _The
Being and Attributes of God_, and assuming an intermediate position
between orthodoxy and Deism. In 1712 he _pub._ views on the doctrine of
the Trinity which involved him in trouble, from which he escaped by a
somewhat unsatisfactory explanation. He was, however, one of the most
powerful opponents of the freethinkers of the time. In addition to his
theological writings C. _pub._ an ed. of the _Iliad_, a Latin translation
of the _Optics_ of Newton, on whose death he was offered the Mastership
of the Mint, an office worth L1500 a year, which, however, he declined.
The talents, learning, and amiable disposition of C. gave him a high
place in the esteem of his contemporaries. In the Church he held various
preferments, the last being that of Rector of St. James's, Westminster.
He was also Chaplain to Queen Anne. His style is cold, dry, and precise.

CLEVELAND, JOHN (1613-1658).--Poet, _s._ of an usher in a charity school,
was _b._ at Loughborough, and _ed._ at Camb., where he became coll. tutor
and lecturer on rhetoric at St. John's, and was much sought after. A
staunch Royalist, he opposed the election of Oliver Cromwell as member
for Camb. in the Long Parliament, and was in consequence ejected from his
coll. in 1645. Joining the King, by whom he was welcomed, he was
appointed to the office of Judge Advocate at Newark. In 1646, however,
he was deprived of this, and wandered about the country dependent on the
bounty of the Royalists. In 1655 he was imprisoned at Yarmouth, but
released by Cromwell, to whom he appealed, and went to London, where he
lived in much consideration till his death. His best work is satirical,
giving a faint adumbration of _Hudibras_; his other poems, with
occasional passages of great beauty, being affected and artificial. The
_Poems_ were _pub._ in 1656.

CLINTON, HENRY FYNES (1781-1852).--Chronologist, _b._ at Gamston, Notts,
_ed._ at Southwell, Westminster, and Oxf., where he devoted himself
chiefly to the study of Greek. Brought into Parliament by the Duke of
Newcastle in 1806, he took no active part in political life, and retired
in 1826. He bought in 1810 the estate of Welwyn, and there he entered
upon wide and profound studies bearing upon classical chronology, and
wrote various important treatises on the subject, viz., _Fasti Hellenici,
Civil and Literary Chronology of Greece_, part i. (1824), part ii.
(1827), part iii. (1830), part iv. (1841), _Fasti Romani, Civil and
Literary Chronology of Rome and Constantinople_, vol. i. (1850), vol. ii.
(1851), _An Epitome of the Civil and Literary Chronology of Greece_
(1851), the same for Rome (1853). He also wrote a tragedy, _Solyman_,
which was a failure.

CLOUGH, ARTHUR HUGH (1819-1861).--Poet, _s._ of a cotton merchant in
Liverpool, he spent his childhood in America, but was sent back to
England for his education, which he received at Rugby and Oxf. While at
the Univ., where he was tutor and Fellow of Oriel, he fell under the
influence of Newman, but afterwards became a sceptic and resigned his
Fellowship in 1848. In the same year he _pub._ his poem, _The Bothie of
Tober-na-Vuolich_, written in hexameters. After travelling on the
Continent for a year, he was in 1849 appointed Warden of Univ. Hall,
London. In 1849 appeared _Amours de Voyage_, a rhymed novelette, and the
more serious work, _Dipsychus_. In 1854 he was appointed an examiner in
the Education Office, and married. His last appointment was as Sec. of a
Commission on Military Schools, in connection with which he visited
various countries, but was seized with illness, and _d._ at Florence. C.
was a man of singularly sincere character, with a passion for truth. His
poems, though full of fine and subtle thought, are, with the exception of
some short lyrics, deficient in form, and the hexameters which he
employed in _The Bothie_ are often rough, though perhaps used as
effectively as by any English verse-writer. M. Arnold's _Thyrsis_ was
written in memory of C.

COBBE, FRANCES POWER (1822-1904).--Theological and social writer, was
_b._ near Dublin. Coming under the influence of Theodore Parker, she
became a Unitarian. Her first work, _pub._ anonymously, was on _The
Intuitive Theory of Morals_ (1855). She travelled in the East, and _pub._
_Cities of the Past_ (1864). Later she became interested in social
questions and philanthropic work, and wrote many books on these and
kindred subjects, including _Criminals_, _Idiots_, _Women_ and _Minors_
(1869), _Darwinism in Morals_ (1872), and _Scientific Spirit of the Age_
(1888). She was a strong opponent of vivisection.

COBBETT, WILLIAM (1762-1835).--Essayist and political writer, _b._ at
Farnham, Surrey, _s._ of a small farmer, his youth was spent as a farm
labourer, a clerk, and in the army, in which his good conduct and
intelligence led to his promotion to the rank of sergeant-major. After
moving about between England and America, and alternating between
journalism and agriculture, in the former of which his daring opposition
to men in power got him into frequent trouble and subjected him to heavy
fines in both countries, he settled down in England in 1800, and
continued his career as a political writer, first as a Tory and then as a
Radical. His violent changes of opinion, and the force and severity with
which he expressed himself naturally raised up enemies in both camps. In
1817 he went back to America, where he remained for two years. Returning
he stood, in 1821, for a seat in Parliament, but was unsuccessful. In
1832, however, he was returned for Oldham, but made no mark as a speaker.
C. was one of the best known men of his day. His intellect was narrow,
but intensely clear, and he was master of a nervous and idiomatic English
style which enabled him to project his ideas into the minds of his
readers. His chief writings are _English Grammar_, _Rural Rides_, _Advice
to Young Men and Women_. His _Weekly Political Register_ was continued
from 1802 until his death.

COCKBURN, HENRY (1779-1854).--Scottish judge and biographer, _b._
(probably) and _ed._ in Edin., became a distinguished member of the
Scottish Bar, and ultimately a judge. He was also one of the leaders of
the Whig party in Scotland in its days of darkness prior to the Reform
Act of 1832. The life-long friend of Francis Jeffrey, he wrote his life,
_pub._ in 1852. His chief literary work, however, is his _Memorials of
his Time_ (1856), continued in his _Journal_ (1874). These constitute an
autobiography of the writer interspersed with notices of manners, public
events, and sketches of his contemporaries, of great interest and value.

COCKTON, HENRY (1807-1852).--Novelist, _b._ in London, is only remembered
as an author for his novel of _Valentine Vox_ (1840), the adventures of a
ventriloquist.

COLENSO, JOHN WILLIAM (1814-1883).--Mathematician and Biblical critic,
_b._ at St. Austell, Cornwall, and _ed._ at St. John's Coll., Camb.,
where he was a tutor, entered the Church, and _pub._ various mathematical
treatises and _Village Sermons_. In 1853 he was appointed first Bishop of
Natal. He mastered the Zulu language, introduced printing, wrote a Zulu
grammar and dictionary, and many useful reading-books for the natives.
His _Commentary on the Romans_ (1861) excited great opposition from the
High Church party, and his _Critical Examination of the Pentateuch_
(1862-1879), by its then extreme views, created great alarm and
excitement. He was in 1863 deposed and excommunicated by Bishop Gray of
Cape Town, but confirmed in his see by the Courts of Law. His theological
writings are now largely superseded; but his mathematical text-books, for
the writing of which he was much better equipped, hold their place.

COLERIDGE, HARTLEY (1796-1849).--Poet, eldest _s._ of Samuel T.C.
(_q.v._), _b._ at Clevedon, spent his youth at Keswick among the "Lake
poets." His early education was desultory, but he was sent by Southey to
Oxf. in 1815. His talents enabled him to win a Fellowship, but the
weakness of his character led to his being deprived of it. He then went
to London and wrote for magazines. From 1823 to 1828 he tried keeping a
school at Ambleside, which failed, and he then led the life of a recluse
at Grasmere until his death. Here he wrote _Essays_, _Biographia
Borealis_ (lives of worthies of the northern counties) (1832), and a
_Life of Massinger_ (1839). He is remembered chiefly for his _Sonnets_.
He also left unfinished a drama, _Prometheus_.

COLERIDGE, SAMUEL TAYLOR (1772-1834).--Poet, philosopher, and critic,
_s._ of the Rev. John C., vicar and schoolmaster of Ottery St. Mary,
Devonshire, was _b._ there in 1772, the youngest of 13 children. He was
at Christ's Hospital from 1782 to 1790, and had Charles Lamb for a
schoolfellow, and the famous scholar and disciplinarian, James Boyer, for
his master. Thence he proceeded to Jesus Coll., Camb., in 1791, where he
read much, but desultorily, and got into debt. The troubles arising
thence and also, apparently, a disappointment in love, led to his going
to London and enlisting in the 15th Dragoons under the name of Silas
Tomkyn Comberbacke. He could not, however, be taught to ride, and through
some Latin lines written by him on a stable door, his real condition was
discovered, his friends communicated with, and his release accomplished,
his brothers buying him off. After this escapade he returned (1794) to
Camb. He had by this time imbibed extreme democratic or, as he termed
them, pantisocratic principles, and on leaving Camb. in the same year he
visited Oxf., where he made the acquaintance of Southey, and discussed
with him a project of founding a "pantisocracy" on the banks of the
Susquehanna, a scheme which speedily fell through, owing firstly to want
of funds, and secondly to the circumstance of the two projectors falling
in love simultaneously with two sisters, Sarah and Edith Fricker, of whom
the former became, in 1795, the wife of C., and the latter of Southey. C.
had spent one more term at Camb., and there in Sept. 1794 his first work,
_The Fall of Robespierre_, a drama, to which Southey contributed two
acts, the second and third, was _pub._ After his marriage he settled
first at Clevedon, and thereafter at Nether Stowey, Somerset, where he
had Wordsworth for a neighbour, with whom he formed an intimate
association. About 1796 he fell into the fatal habit of taking laudanum,
which had such disastrous effects upon his character and powers of will.
In the same year _Poems on various Subjects_ appeared, and a little later
_Ode to the Departing Year_. While at Nether Stowey he was practically
supported by Thomas Poole, a tanner, with whom he had formed a
friendship. Here he wrote _The Ancient Mariner_, the first part of
_Christabel_ and _Kubla Khan_, and here he joined with Wordsworth in
producing the _Lyrical Ballads_. Some time previously he had become a
Unitarian, and was much engaged as a preacher in that body, and for a
short time acted as a minister at Shrewsbury. Influenced by Josiah and
Thomas Wedgwood, who each in 1798 gave him an annuity of L75 on
condition of his devoting himself to literature, he resigned this
position, and soon afterwards went to Germany, where he remained for over
a year, an experience which profoundly influenced the future development
of his intellect. On his return he made excursions with Southey and
Wordsworth, and at the end of 1799 went to London, where he wrote and
reported for the _Morning Post_. His great translation of Schiller's
_Wallenstein_ appeared in 1800. In the same year he migrated to Greta
Hall, near Keswick, where he wrote the second part of _Christabel_. Soon
after this his health gave way, and he suffered much; and, whether as the
cause or the consequence of this, he had become a slave to opium. In 1804
he went to Malta in search of health, and there became the friend of the
governor, Sir Alexander Ball, who appointed him his sec., in which
position he showed remarkable capacity for affairs. Resigning this
occupation, of which he had become tired, he travelled in Italy, and in
the beginning of 1806 reached Rome, where he enjoyed the friendship of
Tieck, Humboldt, and Bunsen. He returned to England in the end of 1806,
and in 1808 delivered his first course of lectures on Shakespeare at the
Royal Institution, and thereafter (1809), leaving his family at Keswick,
he went to live with Wordsworth at Grasmere. Here he started _The
Friend_, a philosophical and theological periodical, which lasted for 9
months. That part of his annuity contributed by T. Wedgwood had been
confirmed to him by will in 1805, and this he allowed to his wife, but in
1811 the remaining half was stopped. He delivered a second course of
lectures in London, and in 1813 his drama, _Remorse_, was acted at Drury
Lane with success. Leaving his family dependent upon Southey, he lived
with various friends, first, from 1816 to 1819, with John Morgan at
Calne. While there he _pub._ _Christabel_ and _Kubla Khan_ in 1816, and
in 1817 _Biographia Literaria_, _Sybilline Leaves_, and an autobiography.
In 1818 he appeared for the last time as a lecturer. He found in 1819 a
final resting-place in the household of James Gillman, a surgeon, at
Highgate. His life thenceforth was a splendid wreck. His nervous system
was shattered, and he was a constant sufferer. Yet these last years were,
in some respects, his best. He maintained a struggle against opium which
lasted with his life, and though he ceased to write much, he became the
revered centre of a group of disciples, including such men as Sterling,
Maurice, and Hare, and thus indirectly continued and increased his
influence in the philosophic and theological thought of his time. He
returned to Trinitarianism, and a singular and childlike humility became
one of his most marked characteristics. In 1824 he was elected an
Associate of the Royal Society of Literature, which brought him a pension
of 100 guineas. His latest publications were _Aids to Reflection_ (1825)
and _The Constitution of Church and State_. After his death there were
_pub._, among other works, _Table Talk_ (1835), _Confessions of an
Enquiring Spirit_ (1840), _Letters_ and _Anima Poetae_ (1895).

Endowed with an intellect of the first order, and an imagination at once
delicate and splendid, C., from a weakness of moral constitution, and the
lamentable habit already referred to, fell far short of the performance
which he had planned, and which included various epic poems, and a
complete system of philosophy, in which all knowledge was to be
co-ordinated. He has, however, left enough poetry of such excellence as
to place him in the first rank of English poets, and enough philosophic,
critical, and theological matter to constitute him one of the principal
intellectually formative forces of his time. His knowledge of philosophy,
science, theology, and literature was alike wide and deep, and his powers
of conversation, or rather monologue, were almost unique. A description
of him in later life tells of "the clerical-looking dress, the thick,
waving, silver hair, the youthful coloured cheek, the indefinable mouth
and lips, the quick, yet steady and penetrating greenish-grey eye, the
slow and continuous enunciation, and the everlasting music of his tones."

SUMMARY.--_B._ 1772, _ed._ Christ's Hospital and Camb., enlists 1794 but
bought off, became intimate with Southey, and proposes to found
pantisocracy, settles at Clevedon and Nether Stowey 1795, and became
friend of Wordsworth, began to take opium 1796, writes _Ancient Mariner_,
and joins W. in _Lyrical Ballads_, became Unitarian preacher, visits
Germany 1798, _pub._ translation of _Wallenstein_ 1800, settles at Greta
Hall and finishes _Christabel_, goes to Malta 1804, lectures on
Shakespeare 1808, leaves his family and lives with W. 1809, and
thereafter with various friends, latterly with Gillman at Highgate,
returned to Trinitarianism, _pub._ various works 1808-1825, _d._ 1834.

_S.T. Coleridge, a Narrative_, J.D. Campbell (1893), also H.D. Traill
(Men of Letters Series, 1884), also Pater's _Appreciations_, De Quincey's
Works, Principal Shairp's _Studies in Poetry and Philosophy_ (1868).

COLERIDGE, SARA (1802-1852).--Miscellaneous writer, the only _dau._ of
the above, _m._ her cousin, Henry Nelson C. She translated Dobrizhoeffer's
_Account of the Abipones_, and _The Joyous and Pleasant History ... of
the Chevalier Bayard_. Her original works are _Pretty Lessons in Verse_,
etc. (1834), which was very popular, and a fairy tale, _Phantasmion_. She
also ed. her father's works, to which she added an essay on Rationalism.

COLET, JOHN (1467-1519).--Scholar and theologian, was _b._ in London, the
_s._ of a wealthy citizen, who was twice Lord Mayor. The only survivor of
a family of 22, he went to Oxf. and Paris, and thence to Italy, where he
learned Greek. He entered the Church, and held many preferments,
including the Deanery of St. Paul's. He continued to follow out his
studies, devoting himself chiefly to St. Paul's epistles. He was
outspoken against the corruptions of the Church, and would have been
called to account but for the protection of Archbishop Warham. He devoted
his great fortune to founding and endowing St. Paul's School. Among his
works are a treatise on the Sacraments and various devotional writings.
It is rather for his learning and his attitude to the advancement of
knowledge than for his own writings that he has a place in the history of
English literature.

COLLIER, JEREMY (1650-1726).--Church historian and controversialist, _b._
at Stow, Cambridgeshire, _ed._ at Ipswich and Camb., entered the Church,
and became Rector of Ampton, Suffolk, lecturer of Gray's Inn, London,
and ultimately a nonjuring bishop. He was a man of war from his youth,
and was engaged in controversies almost until his death. His first
important one was with Gilbert Burnet, and led to his being imprisoned in
Newgate. He was, however, a man of real learning. His chief writings are
his _Ecclesiastical History of Great Britain_ (1708-1714), and especially
his _Short View of the Immorality and Profaneness of the English Stage_
(1699), on account of which he was attacked by Congreve and Farquhar, for
whom, however, he showed himself more than a match. The work materially
helped towards the subsequent purification of the stage.

COLLINS, JOHN (_d._ 1808).--Actor and writer, was a staymaker, but took
to the stage, on which he was fairly successful. He also gave humorous
entertainments and _pub._ _Scripscrapologia_, a book of verses. He is
worthy of mention for the little piece, _To-morrow_, beginning "In the
downhill of life when I find I'm declining," characterised by Palgrave as
"a truly noble poem."

COLLINS, JOHN CHURTON (1848-1908).--Writer on literature and critic, _b._
in Gloucestershire, and _ed._ at King Edward's School, Birmingham, and
Oxf., became in 1894 Prof. of English Literature at Birmingham. He wrote
books on _Sir J. Reynolds_ (1874), _Voltaire in England_ (1886),
_Illustrations of Tennyson_ (1891), and also on Swift and Shakespeare,
various collections of essays, _Essays and Studies_ (1895), and _Studies
in Poetry and Criticism_ (1905), etc., and he issued ed. of the works of
C. Tourneur, Greene, Dryden, Herbert of Cherbury, etc.

COLLINS, MORTIMER (1827-1876).--Novelist, _s._ of a solicitor at
Plymouth, was for a time a teacher of mathematics in Guernsey. Settling
in Berkshire he adopted a literary life, and was a prolific author,
writing largely for periodicals. He also wrote a good deal of occasional
and humorous verse, and several novels, including _Sweet Anne Page_
(1868), _Two Plunges for a Pearl_ (1872), _Mr. Carrington_ (1873), under
the name of "R.T. Cotton," and _A Fight with Fortune_ (1876).

COLLINS, WILLIAM (1721-1759).--Poet, _s._ of a respectable hatter at
Chichester, where he was _b._ He was _ed._ at Chichester, Winchester, and
Oxf. His is a melancholy career. Disappointed with the reception of his
poems, especially his Odes, he sank into despondency, fell into habits of
intemperance, and after fits of melancholy, deepening into insanity, _d._
a physical and mental wreck. Posterity has signally reversed the judgment
of his contemporaries, and has placed him at the head of the lyrists of
his age. He did not write much, but all that he wrote is precious. His
first publication was a small vol. of poems, including the _Persian_
(afterwards called _Oriental_) _Eclogues_ (1742); but his principal work
was his _Odes_ (1747), including those to _Evening_ and _The Passions_,
which will live as long as the language. When Thomson died in 1748 C.,
who had been his friend, commemorated him in a beautiful ode.
Another--left unfinished--that on the _Superstitions of the Scottish
Highlands_, was for many years lost sight of, but was discovered by Dr.
Alex. Carlyle (_q.v._). C.'s poetry is distinguished by its high
imaginative quality, and by exquisitely felicitous descriptive phrases.

_Memoirs_ prefixed to Dyce's ed. of Poems (1827), Aldine ed., Moy Thomas,
1892.

COLLINS, WILLIAM WILKIE (1824-1889).--Novelist, _s._ of William C., R.A.,
entered Lincoln's Inn, and was called to the Bar 1851, but soon
relinquished law for literature. His first novel was _Antonina_ (1850), a
historical romance. He found his true field, however, in the novel of
modern life, in which his power lies chiefly in the construction of a
skilful plot, which holds the attention of the reader and baffles his
curiosity to the last. In Count Fosco, however, he has contributed an
original character to English fiction. Among his numerous novels two,
_The Woman in White_ (1860), and _The Moonstone_ (1868), stand out
pre-eminent. Others are _The Dead Secret_ (1857), _Armadale_ (1866), _No
Name_ (1862), _After Dark, "I say No,"_ etc. He collaborated with Dickens
in _No Thoroughfare_.

COLMAN, GEORGE, THE ELDER (1732-1794).--Dramatist, _b._ at Florence,
where his _f._ was British Envoy, he was a friend of Garrick, and took to
writing for the stage with success. He wrote more than 30 dramatic
pieces, of which the best known are _The Jealous Wife_ (1761), and _The
Clandestine Marriage_ (1766). C. was also manager and part proprietor of
various theatres. He was a scholar and translated Terence and the _De
Arte Poetica_ of Horace, wrote essays, and ed. Beaumont and Fletcher and
B. Jonson.

COLMAN, GEORGE, THE YOUNGER (1762-1836).--Dramatist, _s._ of the
preceding, wrote or adapted numerous plays, including _The Heir at
Law_ and _John Bull_. He was Examiner of Plays (1824-1836). Many of his
plays are highly amusing, and keep their place on the stage. His wit made
him popular in society, and he was a favourite with George IV.

COLTON, CHARLES CALEB (1780-1832).--Miscellaneous writer, _ed._ at Eton
and Camb., took orders and held various livings. He was an eccentric man
of talent, with little or no principle, took to gaming, and had to leave
the country. He _d._ by his own hand. His books, mainly collections of
epigrammatic aphorisms and short essays on conduct, etc., though now
almost forgotten, had a phenomenal popularity in their day. Among them
are _Lacon, or Many Things in Few Words_, and a few poems.

COMBE, GEORGE (1788-1858).--Writer on phrenology and education, _b._ in
Edin., where for some time he practised as a lawyer. Latterly, however,
he devoted himself to the promotion of phrenology, and of his views on
education, for which he in 1848 founded a school. His chief work was _The
Constitution of Man_ (1828).

COMBE, WILLIAM (1741-1823).--Miscellaneous writer. His early life was
that of an adventurer, his later was passed chiefly within the "rules" of
the King's Bench prison. He is chiefly remembered as the author of _The
Three Tours of Dr. Syntax_, a comic poem (?). His cleverest piece of work
was a series of imaginary letters, supposed to have been written by the
second, or "wicked" Lord Lyttelton. Of a similar kind were his letters
between Swift and Stella. He also wrote the letterpress for various
illustrated books, and was a general hack.

CONGREVE, WILLIAM (1670-1729).--Dramatist, was _b._ in Yorkshire. In
boyhood he was taken to Ireland, and _ed._ at Kilkenny and at Trinity
Coll., Dublin. In 1688 he returned to England and entered the Middle
Temple, but does not appear to have practised, and took to writing for
the stage. His first comedy, _The Old Bachelor_, was produced with great
applause in 1693, and was followed by _The Double Dealer_ (1693), _Love
for Love_ (1695), and _The Way of the World_ (1700), and by a tragedy,
_The Mourning Bride_ (1697). His comedies are all remarkable for wit and
sparkling dialogue, but their profanity and licentiousness have driven
them from the stage. These latter qualities brought them under the lash
of Jeremy Collier (_q.v._) in his _Short View of the English Stage_.
Congreve rushed into controversy with his critic who, however, proved too
strong for him. C. was a favourite at Court, and had various lucrative
offices conferred upon him. In his latter years he was blind; otherwise
his life was prosperous, and he achieved his chief ambition of being
admired as a fine gentleman and gallant. _Life_, Gosse (1888). _Works_,
ed. by Henley (1895), also Mermaid Series (1888).

CONINGTON, JOHN (1825-1869).--Translator, _s._ of a clergyman at Boston,
Lincolnshire, where he was _b._, _ed._, at Rugby and Magdalen and Univ.
Coll., Oxf., and began the study of law, but soon relinquished it, and
devoting himself to scholarship, became Prof. of Latin at Oxf.
(1854-1869). His chief work is his translation of Virgil's _AEneid_ in the
octosyllabic metre of Scott (1861-68). He also translated the _Satires_
and _Epistles_ of Horace in Pope's couplets, and completed Worsley's
_Iliad_ in Spenserian stanza. He also brought out valuable ed. of Virgil
and Perseus. C. was one of the greatest translators whom England has
produced.

CONSTABLE, HENRY (1562-1613).--Poet, _s._ of Sir Robert C., _ed._ at
Camb., but becoming a Roman Catholic, went to Paris, and acted as an
agent for the Catholic powers. He _d._ at Liege. In 1592 he _pub._
_Diana_, a collection of sonnets, and contributed to _England's Helicon_
four poems, including _Diaphenia_ and _Venus and Adonis_. His style is
characterised by fervour and richness of colour.

COOKE, JOHN ESTEN (1830-1886).--Novelist, _b._ in Virginia, illustrated
the life and history of his native state in the novels, _The Virginia
Comedians_ (1854), and _The Wearing of the Gray_, a tale of the Civil
War, and more formally in an excellent History of the State. His style
was somewhat high-flown.

COOPER, JAMES FENIMORE (1789-1851).--Novelist, _b._ at Burlington, New
Jersey, and _ed._ at Yale Coll., he in 1808 entered the U.S. Navy, in
which he remained for 3 years, an experience which was of immense future
value to him as an author. It was not until 1821 that his first novel,
_Precaution_, appeared. Its want of success did not discourage him, and
in the next year (1822), he produced _The Spy_, which at once gained him
a high place as a story-teller. He wrote over 30 novels, of which may be
mentioned _The Pioneers_ (1823), _The Pilot_ (1823), _The Last of the
Mohicans_ (1826), _The Prairie_ (1826), _The Red Rover_ (1831), _The
Bravo_ (1840), _The Pathfinder_, _The Deerslayer_ (1841), _The Two
Admirals_ (1842), and _Satanstoe_ (1845). He also wrote a _Naval History
of the United States_ (1839). C. was possessed of remarkable narrative
and descriptive powers, and could occasionally delineate character. He
had the merit of opening up an entirely new field, and giving expression
to the spirit of the New World, but his true range was limited, and he
sometimes showed a lack of judgment in choosing subjects with which he
was not fitted to deal. He was a proud and combative but honest and
estimable man.

COOPER, THOMAS (1805-1892).--Chartist poet, was _b._ at Leicester, and
apprenticed to a shoemaker. In spite of hardships and difficulties, he
_ed._ himself, and at 23 was a schoolmaster. He became a leader and
lecturer among the Chartists, and in 1842 was imprisoned in Stafford gaol
for two years, where he wrote his _Purgatory of Suicides_, a political
epic. At the same time he adopted sceptical views, which he continued to
hold until 1855, when he became a Christian, joined the Baptists, and was
a preacher among them. In his latter years he settled down into an
old-fashioned Radical. His friends in 1867 raised an annuity for him, and
in the last year of his life he received a government pension. In
addition to his poems he wrote several novels. Somewhat impulsive, he was
an honest and sincere man.

CORBET, RICHARD (1582-1635).--Poet, _s._ of a gardener, was _ed._ at
Westminster School and Oxf., and entered the Church, in which he obtained
many preferments, and rose to be Bishop successively of Oxf. and Norwich.
He was celebrated for his wit, which not seldom passed into buffoonery.
His poems, which are often mere doggerel, were not _pub._ until after his
death. They include _Journey to France_, _Iter Boreale_, the account of a
tour from Oxf. to Newark, and the _Farewell to the Fairies_.

CORNWALL, BARRY, _see_ PROCTER, B.W.

CORY, WILLIAM JOHNSON (1823-1892).--Poet, _b._ at Torrington, and _ed._
at Eton, where he was afterwards a master. He was a brilliant writer of
Latin verse. His chief poetical work is _Ionica_, containing poems in
which he showed a true lyrical gift.

CORYATE, or CORYATT, THOMAS (1577-1617).--Poet, _b._ at Odcombe,
Somerset, and _ed._ at Westminster and Oxf., entered the household of
Prince Henry. In 1608 he made a walking tour in France, Italy, and
Germany, walking nearly 2000 miles in one pair of shoes, which were,
until 1702, hung up in Odcombe Church, and known as "the thousand mile
shoes." He gave an amusing account of this in his _Coryate's Crudities
hastily gobbled up_ (1611), prefixed to which were commendatory verses by
many contemporary poets. A sequel, _Coryate's Crambe_, or _Colewort twice
Sodden_ followed. Next year (1612) C. bade farewell to his
fellow-townsmen, and set out on another journey to Greece, Egypt, and
India, from which he never returned. He _d._ at Surat. Though odd and
conceited, C. was a close observer, and took real pains in collecting
information as to the places he visited.

COSTELLO, LOUISA STUART (1799-1877).--Poet and novelist, _b._ in Ireland,
lived chiefly in Paris, where she was a miniature-painter. In 1815 she
_pub._ _The Maid of the Cyprus Isle_, etc. (poems). She also wrote books
of travel, which were very popular, as were her novels, chiefly founded
on French history. Another work, _pub._ in 1835, is _Specimens of the
Early Poetry of France_.

COTTON, CHARLES (1630-1687).--Poet and translator, succeeded to an
embarrassed estate, which his happy-go-lucky methods did not improve,
wrote burlesques on _Virgil_ and _Lucian_, and made an excellent
translation of _Montaigne's Essays_, also a humorous _Journey to
Ireland_. C. was the friend of Izaak Walton, and wrote a second part of
_The Complete Angler_. He was apparently always in difficulties, always
happy, and always a favourite.

COTTON, SIR ROBERT BRUCE (1571-1631).--Antiquary, _b._ at Denton, Hunts,
and _ed._ at Camb., was a great collector of charters and records
throwing light upon English history, and co-operated with Camden
(_q.v._). Among his works are a history of the _Raigne of Henry III._
(1627). He was the collector of the Cottonian library, now in the British
Museum, and was the author of various political tracts.

COUSIN, ANNE ROSS (CUNDELL) (1824-1906).--Poetess, only _dau._ of D.R.
Cundell, M.D., Leith, _m._ 1847 Rev. Wm. Cousin, minister of the Free
Church of Scotland, latterly at Melrose. Some of her hymns, especially
"The Sands of Time are sinking," are known and sung over the
English-speaking world. A collection of her poems, _Immanuel's Land and
Other Pieces_, was _pub._ in 1876 under her initials A.R.C., by which she
was most widely known.

COVERDALE, MILES (1488-1568).--Translator of the Bible, _b._ in
Yorkshire, and _ed._ at Camb. Originally an Augustinian monk, he became a
supporter of the Reformation. In 1535 his translation of the Bible was
_pub._, probably at Zurich. It bore the title, _Biblia, the Bible: that
is the Holy Scripture of the Olde and New Testament faithfully and newly
translated out of the Doutche and Latyn into English_. C. was made Bishop
of Exeter in 1551, but, on the accession of Mary, he was imprisoned for
two years, at the end of which he was released and went to Denmark and
afterwards to Geneva. On the death of Mary he returned to England, but
the views he had imbibed in Geneva were adverse to his preferment. He
ultimately, however, received a benefice in London, which he resigned
before his death. Besides the Bible he translated many treatises of the
Continental Reformers.

COWLEY, ABRAHAM (1618-1667).--Poet, _s._ of a grocer or stationer in
London, where he was _b._ In childhood he was greatly influenced by
reading Spenser, a copy of whose poems was in the possession of his
mother. This, he said, made him a poet. His first book, _Poetic
Blossoms_ (1633), was _pub._ when he was only 15. After being at
Westminster School he went to Camb., where he was distinguished for his
graceful translations. On the outbreak of the Civil War he joined the
Royalists, was turned out of his college, and in 1646 followed the Queen
to Paris, where he remained for 10 or 12 years, during which he rendered
unwearied service to the royal family. At the Restoration he wrote some
loyal odes, but was disappointed by being refused the Mastership of the
Savoy, and retired to the country. He received a lease of Crown lands,
but his life in the country did not yield him the happiness he expected.
He is said by Pope to have _d._ of a fever brought on by lying in the
fields after a drinking-bout. The drinking-bout, however, is perhaps an
ill-natured addition. C.'s fame among his contemporaries was much greater
than that which posterity has accorded to him. His poems are marred by
conceits and a forced and artificial brilliancy. In some of them,
however, he sings pleasantly of gardens and country scenes. They comprise
_Miscellanies_, _The Mistress, or Love Poems_ (1647), _Pindaric Odes_,
and _The Davideis_, an epic on David (unfinished). He is at his best in
such imitations of Anacreon as _The Grasshopper_. His prose, especially
in his Essays, though now almost unread, is better than his verse; simple
and manly, it sometimes rises to eloquence. C. is buried in Westminster
Abbey near Spenser.

Ed., Grosart (1881), Waller (1903).

COWPER, WILLIAM (1731-1800).--Poet, was the _s._ of the Rev. John C.,
Rector of Great Berkhampstead, Herts, and Chaplain to George II. His
grandfather was a judge, and he was the grand-nephew of the 1st Earl C.,
the eminent Lord Chancellor. A shy and timid child, the death of his
mother when he was 6 years old, and the sufferings inflicted upon him by
a bullying schoolfellow at his first school, wounded his tender and
shrinking spirit irrecoverably. He was sent to Westminster School, where
he had for schoolfellows Churchill, the poet (_q.v._), and Warren
Hastings. The powerful legal influence of his family naturally suggested
his being destined for the law, and at 18 he entered the chambers of a
solicitor, where he had for a companion Thurlow, the future Chancellor, a
truly incongruous conjunction; the pair, however, seem to have got on
well together, and employed their time chiefly in "giggling and making
giggle." He then entered the Middle Temple, and in 1754 was called to the
Bar. This was perhaps the happiest period of his life, being enlivened by
the society of two cousins, Theodora and Harriet C. With the former he
fell in love; but his proposal of marriage was opposed by her _f._, who
had observed symptoms of morbidity in him, and he never met her again.
The latter, as Lady Hesketh, was in later days one of his most intimate
friends. In 1759 he received a small sinecure appointment as Commissioner
of Bankrupts, which he held for 5 years, and in 1763, through the
influence of a relative, he received the offer of the desirable office of
Clerk of the Journals to the House of Lords. He accepted the appointment,
but the dread of having to make a formal appearance before the House so
preyed upon his mind as to induce a temporary loss of reason, and he was
sent to an asylum at St. Albans, where he remained for about a year. He
had now no income beyond a small sum inherited from his _f._, and no aims
in life; but friends supplemented his means sufficiently to enable him to
lead with a quiet mind the life of retirement which he had resolved to
follow. He went to Huntingdon, and there made the acquaintance of the
Unwins, with whom he went to live as a boarder. The acquaintance soon
ripened into a close friendship, and on the death, from an accident
(1767), of Mr. U., C. accompanied his widow (the "Mary" of his poems) to
Olney, where the Rev. John Newton (_q.v._) was curate. N. and C. became
intimate friends, and collaborated in producing the well-known _Olney
Hymns_, of which 67 were composed by C. He became engaged to Mary Unwin,
but a fresh attack of his mental malady in 1773 prevented their marriage.
On his recovery he took to gardening, and amused himself by keeping pets,
including the hares "Tiny" and "Puss," and the spaniel "Beau,"
immortalised in his works. The chief means, however, which he adopted for
keeping his mind occupied and free from distressing ideas was the
cultivation of his poetic gift. At the suggestion of Mrs. U., he wrote
_The Progress of Error_; _Truth, Table Talk, Expostulation, Hope, Charity,
Conversation_, and _Retirement_ were added, and the whole were _pub._ in
one vol. in 1782. Though not received with acclamation, its signal merits
of freshness, simplicity, graceful humour, and the pure idiomatic English
in which it was written gradually obtained recognition, and the fame of
the poet-recluse began to spread. His health had now become considerably
re-established, and he enjoyed an unwonted measure of cheerfulness, which
was fostered by the friendship of Lady Austin, who had become his
neighbour. From her he received the story of John Gilpin, which he
forthwith turned into his immortal ballad. Hers also was the suggestion
that he should write a poem in blank verse, which gave its origin to his
most famous poem, _The Task_. Before it was _pub._, however, the intimacy
had, apparently owing to some little feminine jealousies, been broken
off. _The Task_ was _pub._ in 1785, and met with immediate and
distinguished success. Although not formally or professedly, it was, in
fact, the beginning of an uprising against the classical school of
poetry, and the founding of a new school in which nature was the teacher.
As Dr. Stopford Brooke points out, "Cowper is the first of the poets who
loves Nature entirely for her own sake," and in him "the idea of Mankind
as a whole is fully formed." About this time he resumed his friendship
with his cousin, Lady Hesketh, and, encouraged by her, he began his
translation of _Homer_, which appeared in 1791. Before this he had
removed with Mrs. U. to the village of Weston Underwood. His health had
again given way; and in 1791 Mrs. U. became paralytic, and the object of
his assiduous and affectionate care. A settled gloom with occasional
brighter intervals was now falling upon him. He strove to fight it by
engaging in various translations, and in revising his _Homer_, and
undertaking a new ed. of Milton, which last was, however, left
unfinished. In 1794 a pension of L300 was conferred upon him, and in 1795
he removed with Mrs. U., now a helpless invalid, to East Dereham. Mrs. U.
_d._ in the following year, and three years later his own death released
him from his heavy burden of trouble and sorrow. His last poem was _The
Castaway_, which, with its darkness almost of despair, shows no loss of
intellectual or poetic power. In addition to his reputation as a poet C.
has that of being among the very best of English letter-writers, and in
this he shows, in an even easier and more unstudied manner, the same
command of pure idiomatic English, the same acute observation, and the
same mingling of gentle humour and melancholy. In literature C. is the
connecting link between the classical school of Pope and the natural
school of Burns, Crabbe, and Wordsworth, having, however, much more in
common with the latter.

SUMMARY.--_B._ 1731, _ed._ Westminster School, entered Middle Temple and
called to the Bar, 1754, appointed Clerk of Journals of House of Lords,
but mind gave way 1763, lives with the Unwins, became intimate with J.
Newton and with him writes _Olney Hymns_, _pub._ _Poems_ (_Progress of
Error_, etc.), 1782, _Task_ 1785, _Homer_ 1791, _d._ 1731.

The standard ed. of C.'s works is Southey's, with memoir (15 vols.
1834-37). Others are the Aldine (1865), the Globe (1870). There are
_Lives_ by Hayley (2 vols., 1805), Goldwin Smith (Men of Letters Series),
and T. Wright.

COXE, WILLIAM (1747-1828).--Historian, was _b._ in London, and _ed._ at
Eton and Camb. As tutor to various young men of family he travelled much
on the Continent, and _pub._ accounts of his journeys. His chief
historical work is his _Memoirs of the House of Austria_ (1807), and he
also wrote lives of Walpole, Marlborough, and others. He had access to
valuable original sources, and his books, though somewhat heavy, are on
the whole trustworthy, notwithstanding a decided Whig bias. He was a
clergyman, and _d._ Archdeacon of Wilts.

CRABBE, GEORGE (1754-1832).--Poet, _b._ at Aldborough, Suffolk, where his
_f._ was collector of salt dues, he was apprenticed to a surgeon, but,
having no liking for the work, went to London to try his fortune in
literature. Unsuccessful at first, he as a last resource wrote a letter
to Burke enclosing some of his writings, and was immediately befriended
by him, and taken into his own house, where he met Fox, Reynolds, and
others. His first important work, _The Library_, was _pub._ in 1781, and
received with favour. He took orders, and was appointed by the Duke of
Rutland his domestic chaplain, residing with him at Belvoir Castle. Here
in 1783 he _pub._ _The Village_, which established his reputation, and
about the same time he was presented by Lord Thurlow to two small
livings. He was now secured from want, made a happy marriage, and devoted
himself to literary and scientific pursuits. The _Newspaper_ appeared in
1785, and was followed by a period of silence until 1807, when he came
forward again with _The Parish Register_, followed by _The Borough_
(1810), _Tales in Verse_ (1812), and his last work, _Tales of the Hall_
(1817-18). In 1819 Murray the publisher gave him L3000 for the last named
work and the unexpired copyright of his other poems. In 1822 he visited
Sir Walter Scott at Edinburgh. Soon afterwards his health began to give
way, and he _d._ in 1832. C. has been called "the poet of the poor." He
describes in simple, but strong and vivid, verse their struggles,
sorrows, weaknesses, crimes, and pleasures, sometimes with racy humour,
oftener in sombre hues. His pathos, sparingly introduced, goes to the
heart; his pictures of crime and despair not seldom rise to the terrific,
and he has a marvellous power of painting natural scenery, and of
bringing out in detail the beauty and picturesqueness of scenes at first
sight uninteresting, or even uninviting. He is absolutely free from
affectation or sentimentality, and may be regarded as one of the greatest
masters of the realistic in our literature. With these merits he has
certain faults, too great minuteness in his pictures, too frequent
dwelling upon the sordid and depraved aspects of character, and some
degree of harshness both in matter and manner, and not unfrequently a
want of taste.

_Life_ prefixed to ed. of works by his son (1834), Ainger (Men of
Letters, 1903). Works (Ward, 3 vols., 1906-7).

CRAIGIE, MRS. PEARL MARY TERESA (RICHARDS) (1867-1906).--_Dau._ of John
Morgan, R. _b._ in Boston, Massachusetts. Most of her education was
received in London and Paris, and from childhood she was a great reader
and observer. At 19 she _m._ Mr. R.W. Craigie, but the union did not
prove happy and was, on her petition, dissolved. In 1902 she became a
Roman Catholic. She wrote, under the pseudonym of "John Oliver Hobbes," a
number of novels and dramas, distinguished by originality of subject and
treatment, brightness of humour, and finish of style, among which may be
mentioned _Some Emotions and a Moral_, _The Gods, Some Mortals and Lord
Wickenham_ (1895), _The Herb Moon_ and _The School for Saints_ (1897),
and _Robert Orange_ (1900), _The Dream and The Business_ (1907). Her
dramas include _The Ambassador_ and _The Bishop's Move_.

CRAIK, GEORGE LILLIE (1798-1866).--Writer on English literature, etc.,
_b._ at Kennoway, Fife, and _ed._ at St. Andrews, went to London in 1824,
where he wrote largely for the "Society for the Promotion of Useful
Knowledge." In 1849 he was appointed Prof. of English Literature and
History at Belfast. Among his books are _The Pursuit of Knowledge under
Difficulties_ (1831), _History of British Commerce_ (1844), and _History
of English Literature and the English Language_ (1861). He was also joint
author of _The Pictorial History of England_, and wrote books on Spenser
and Bacon.

CRANMER, THOMAS (1489-1556).--Theologian and Churchman, _b._ at Aslacton,
Notts, _ed._ at Camb., and became an eminent classical and biblical
scholar. He supported Henry VIII. in his divorce proceedings against
Queen Catherine, gained the King's favour, and obtained rapid preferment,
ending with the Primacy. He was one of the chief promoters of the
Reformation in England. On the accession of Mary, he was committed to the
Tower, and after a temporary failure of courage and constancy, suffered
martyrdom at the stake. It is largely to C. that we owe the stately forms
of the Book of Common Prayer. He also wrote over 40 works, and composed
several hymns; but the influence of the Prayer-book in fixing the
language is his great, though indirect, service to our literature.

Fox's _Book of Martyrs_, Strype's _Memorials of Cranmer_, Hook's _Lives
of Archbishops of Canterbury_, etc.

CRASHAW, RICHARD (1613?-1649).--Poet, _s._ of William C., a Puritan
divine, was _b._ in London, and _ed._ at Charterhouse and Camb., where he
became a Fellow of Peterhouse, from which, however, he was, in 1643,
ejected for refusing to take the Solemn League and Covenant. Thereafter
he went to France, and joined the Roman communion. He suffered great
straits, being almost reduced to starvation, but was, through the
influence of Queen Henrietta Maria, appointed Sec. to Cardinal Palotta.
About 1649 he went to Italy, and in the following year became a canon of
the Church of Loretto. He _d._ the same year. C. is said to have been an
eloquent preacher, and was a scholar as well as a poet of a high order in
the ecstatic and transcendental style. His chief work is _Steps to the
Temple_ (1646), consisting mainly of religious poems somewhat in the
style of Herbert; his _Weeping of the Magdalen_ is full of the most
extravagant conceits, a fondness for which is, indeed, his besetting sin
as a poet. His friend Cowley commemorated him in a beautiful ode.

CRAWFORD, FRANCIS MARION (1854-1909).--Novelist and historian, _s._ of
Thomas C., an American sculptor, _b._ at Bagni di Lucca, Italy, and _ed._
in America, at Camb., and in Germany, he went to India and ed. _The
Indian Herald_ (1879-80). Thereafter he settled in Italy, living chiefly
at Sorrento, and becoming a Roman Catholic. His principal historical
works are _Ave Roma Immortalis_ (1898), _The Rulers of the South_
(reprinted as _Sicily, Calabria, and Malta_, 1904), and _Venetian
Gleanings_ (1905), but his reputation rests mainly on his novels, of
which he wrote between 30 and 40, the best known of which are perhaps
_Mr. Isaacs_ (1882), _Dr. Claudius_ (1883), _A Roman Singer_ (1884),
_Marzio's Crucifix_ (1887), _Saracinesca_ (1887), _A Cigarette-maker's
Romance_ (1890), generally considered his masterpiece, _Don Orsino_
(1892), _Pietro Ghisleri_ (1893), and _The Heart of Rome_ (1903). His one
play is _Francesca, da Rimini_. His novels are all interesting, and
written in a style of decided distinction. His historical works, though
full of information, lack spirit.

CREASY, SIR EDWARD SHEPHERD (1812-1878).--Historian, _ed._ at Eton and
Camb., and called to the Bar in 1837, he became in 1840 Prof. of History,
London Univ., and in 1860 Chief Justice of Ceylon, when he was knighted.
His best known contribution to literature is his _Fifteen Decisive
Battles of the World_ (1852). Other works are _Historical and Critical
Account of the Several Invasions of England_ (1852), _History of the
Ottoman Turks_, and _Imperial and Colonial Institutions of the British
Empire_ (1872).

CREECH, THOMAS (1659-1700).--Translator, _b._ near Sherborne, _ed._ at
Oxf., became Head Master of Sherborne School. He translated _Lucretius_
in verse (1682), for which he received a Fellowship at Oxf., also Horace,
Theocritus, and other classics. Owing to a disappointment in love and
pecuniary difficulties he hanged himself.

CREIGHTON, MANDELL (1843-1901).--Churchman and historian, _b._ at
Carlisle, and _ed._ at Durham Grammar School and Merton Coll., Oxf., he
took orders, and was presented to the living of Embleton, Northumberland,
in 1875, where, in addition to zealous discharge of pastoral duties, he
pursued the historical studies on the results of which his reputation
chiefly rests. In 1882 the first two vols. of his _History of the Papacy_
appeared, followed by two more in 1887, and a fifth in 1894. In 1884 he
was appointed first Dixie Prof. of Ecclesiastical History at Camb. He ed.
the _English Historical Review_ (1886-91). In 1891, after having held
canonries at Worcester and Windsor, he became Bishop of Peterborough,
from which he was in 1897 translated to London. His duties as Bishop of
London made the completion of his great historical work an impossibility.
He wrote in addition to it various text-books on history, a life of Queen
Elizabeth, a memoir of Sir George Grey, and many articles and reviews. He
was recognised as a leading authority on the department of history to
which he had specially devoted himself, and he made his mark as a
Churchman.

CROKER, JOHN WILSON (1780-1857).--Politician and miscellaneous writer.
_Ed._ at Trinity Coll., Dublin, he entered Parliament as a Tory, and was
appointed to various offices, including the Secretaryship of the
Admiralty, which he held for 20 years. He was one of the founders of the
_Quarterly Review_, and wrote some of its most violent political articles
and reviews. He _pub._ in 1831 an ed. of _Boswell's Life of Johnson_. He
also wrote some historical essays and satirical pieces.

CROKER, THOMAS CROFTON (1798-1854).--Irish Antiquary, _b._ at Cork, for
some years held a position in the Admiralty. He devoted himself largely
to the collection of ancient Irish poetry and folk-lore. Among his
publications are _Researches in the South of Ireland_ (1824), _Fairy
Legends and Traditions of the South of Ireland_ (1825-27), _Popular Songs
of Ireland_ (1837), _Daniel O'Rourke_ (1829), and _Barney Mahoney_
(1832). He assisted in founding the "Camden" and "Percy" Societies.

CROLY, GEORGE (1780-1860).--Poet, novelist, historian, and divine, _b._
at Dublin, and _ed._ at Trinity Coll. there, he took orders and became
Rector of St. Stephen's, Walbrook, and had a high reputation as a
preacher. He wrote poems, dramas, satires, novels, history, and
theological works, and attained some measure of success in all. Perhaps
his best known works are his novels, _Salathiel_ (1829), founded on the
legend of "the wandering Jew," and _Mareton_ (1846). His chief
contribution to theological literature is an exposition of the
Apocalypse.

CROWE, CATHERINE (STEVENS) (1800-1876).--Wrote dramas, children's books,
and one or two novels, including _Susan Hopley_ (1841), and _Lilly
Dawson_ (1847), but is chiefly remembered for her _Night-side of Nature_
(1848), a collection of stories of the supernatural. Though somewhat
morbid she had considerable talent.

CROWE, EYRE EVANS (1799-1868).--Historian and novelist, _s._ of an
officer in the army, _b._ near Southampton, and _ed._ at Trinity Coll.,
Dublin. He wrote several novels, including _Vittoria Colonna_, _To-day in
Ireland_ (1825), _The English in France_ (1828), and _Charles Dalmer_
(1853). Among his historical works are a _History of France_ in
_Lardner's Cabinet Encyclopaedia_, afterwards enlarged and separately
_pub._, and a _History of Louis XVIII. and Charles X._

CROWE, SIR JOSEPH ARCHER (1825-1896).--Writer on art, _s._ of the above,
was _b._ in London. Most of his childhood was spent in France, and on his
return to England in 1843 he became a journalist. He was then for some
years engaged in educational work in India, and was afterwards war
correspondent for the _Times_ on various occasions, and filled various
important consular posts, for which he was in 1890 made K.C.M.G. In
collaboration with G.B. Cavalcasselle, an Italian refugee, he was the
author of several authoritative works on art, including _The Early
Flemish Painters_ (1856), _A New History of Painting in Italy_ (1864-68),
_A History of Painting in North Italy_ (1871), _Titian, His Life and
Times_ (1877), and _Raphael, His Life and Works_ (1883-85). The actual
writing of all these was the work of C.

CROWE, WILLIAM (1745-1829).--Poet, _b._ at Midgham, Berks, the _s._ of a
carpenter, was _ed._ as a foundationer at Winchester, whence he proceeded
to Oxf., where he became Public Orator. He wrote a smooth, but somewhat
conventional poem, _Lewesdon Hill_ (1789), ed. Collins's Poems (1828),
and lectured on poetry at the Royal Institution. His poems were _coll._
in 1827. C. was a clergyman and Rector of Alton Barnes, Wilts.

CROWNE, JOHN (1640?-1703).--Dramatist, returned from Nova Scotia, to
which his _f._, a Nonconformist minister, had emigrated, and became
gentleman usher to a lady of quality. His first play, _Juliana_, appeared
in 1671. He wrote in all about 17 dramatic pieces, of which the best is
_Sir Courtly Nice_ (1685), adapted from the Spanish. It is amusing, and
enjoyed a long continued vogue. In general, however, C. is dull.

CUDWORTH, RALPH (1617-1688).--Divine and philosopher, _b._ at Aller,
Somerset, and _ed._ at Camb., where, after being a tutor, he became
Master of Clare Hall 1645, Prof. of Hebrew (1645-88), and Master of
Christ's Coll., 1654. His great work is _The True Intellectual System of
the Universe_ (1678). A work of vast learning and acuteness, it is
directed against the infidelity of the age. C.'s candour in his statement
of the opposing position was so remarkable that Dryden remarked "that he
raised such strong objections against the being of a God and Providence
that many thought he had not answered them." He also left in MS. a
_Treatise concerning Eternal and Immutable Morality_, _pub._ in 1731.

CUMBERLAND, RICHARD (1732-1811).--Novelist and dramatist, _ed._ at
Westminster and Camb., entered the diplomatic service, and filled several
government appointments. His best play is _The West Indian_. His novels
do not rise much above mediocrity. Along with Sir J.B. Burges he wrote an
epic entitled _The Exodiad_, and he also made some translations from the
Greek.

CUMMINS, MARIA SUSANNA (1827-1866).--_B._ at Salem, Mass., was well-known
as the authoress of _The Lamplighter_, a somewhat sentimental tale which
had very wide popularity. She wrote others, including _Mabel Vaughan_,
none of which had the same success.

CUNNINGHAM, ALLAN (1784-1842).--Poet and miscellaneous writer, _b._ near
Dalswinton, Dumfriesshire, in his youth knew Burns, who was a friend of
his father's. He was apprenticed to a stonemason, but gave his leisure to
reading and writing imitations of old Scottish ballads, which he
contributed to Cromek's _Remains of Nithsdale and Galloway Song_, _pub._
in 1810, and which gained for him the friendship of Scott and Hogg.
Thereafter he went to London, and became a parliamentary reporter, and
subsequently assistant to Chantrey, the sculptor, but continued his
literary labours, writing three novels, a life of Sir D. Wilkie, and
_Lives of Eminent British Painters, Sculptors, and Architects_, besides
many songs, of which the best is _A wet sheet and a flowing Sea_. He also
brought out an ed. of Burns's Works. He had four sons, all of whom rose
to important positions, and inherited in some degree his literary gifts.

CURTIS, GEORGE WILLIAM (1824-1892).--American essayist, editor, and
journalist, contributed to _New York Tribune_, and to _Putnam's_ and
_Harper's_ monthlies, in which most of his books first appeared. Among
these are _Trumps_, a story of New York life, _Prue and I_,
_Lotus-eating_, and the _Potiphar Papers_. C. was also one of the
finest American orators of his day.

CYNEWULF (_fl._ 750).--Anglo-Saxon poet. He was probably a Northumbrian,
though sometimes thought to have been a Mercian. His poems, and some
others, more or less doubtfully attributed to him, are contained in the
Exeter Book and the Vercelli Book. The poems which are considered to be
certainly his are the _Riddles_, from hints and allusions in which is
derived nearly all that is known of him, or at least of the earlier part
of his life, which appears to have been that of a joyous and poetical
nature, rejoicing in the beauty of the world. His next poem, _Juliana_,
the legend of a virgin-martyr, indicates a transition in his spiritual
life; sorrow and repentance are its predominant notes, and in these
respects another poem, _St. Guthlac_, resembles it. In the _Crist_
(Christ), C. has passed through the clouds to an assured faith and peace.
_The Phoenix_, and the second part of _Guthlac_, though not certainly
his, are generally attributed to him. _The Fates of the Apostles_ and
_Elene_ (the legend of St. Helena) are his; the _Andreas_ and _The Dream
of the Roode_ are still in some respects the subject of controversy. In
several of the poems the separate letters of C.'s name are introduced in
a peculiar manner, and are regarded as an attesting signature. _Juliana_,
_Crist_, _The Apostles_, and _Elene_ are thus said to be signed. The
Exeter and Vercelli Books are collections of ancient English poems, and
they are named from the places where they were found.

DALLING AND BULWER, WILLIAM HENRY LYTTON EARLE BULWER, 1ST LORD
(1801-1872).--Elder brother of Lord Lytton (_q.v._), and a distinguished
diplomatist. He represented England at Madrid, Washington (where he
concluded the Bulwer-Clayton Treaty), Florence, Bucharest, and
Constantinople, and was raised to the peerage in 1871. He was the author
of a number of books of travel and biography, including _An Autumn in
Greece_ (1826), a _Life of Byron_ (1835), _Historical Characters_
(1868-70), and an unfinished life of Lord Palmerston.

DAMPIER, WILLIAM (1652-1715).--Discoverer and buccaneer, _b._ near
Yeovil. After various seafaring adventures, and leading a semi-piratical
life, he was in 1688 marooned on Nicobar Island, but escaped to Acheen,
returned to England in 1691. He _pub._ his _Voyage Round the World_
(1697), and _A Discourse of Winds_ (1699). He was then employed by
government on a voyage of survey and discovery (1699-1700), in the course
of which he explored the north-west coast of Australia and the coasts of
New Guinea and New Britain. In 1701 he was wrecked upon Ascension Island,
from which he was rescued by an East Indiaman. He was afterwards
court-martialled for cruelty, and wrote an angry but unconvincing
vindication. His _Voyage_ is written in a style plain and homely, but is
perspicuous and interesting.

DANA, RICHARD HENRY (1787-1879).--Novelist and critic, _b._ at Camb.,
Mass., was called to the Bar in 1817. Among his novels are _Tom Thornton_
and _Paul Felton_, both somewhat violent and improbable tales, and his
poems, which are better, include _The Buccaneer_ (1827), and _The Dying
Raven_. He is, however, stronger as a critic than as a writer. He wrote
largely in _The North American Review_, and for a time conducted a paper,
_The Idle Man_, which contains some of his best work.

DANA, RICHARD HENRY, JR. (1815-1882).--Miscellaneous writer, _s._ of the
above, _ed._ at Harvard, but on his eyesight giving way shipped as a
common sailor, and gave his experiences in _Two Years before the Mast_
(1840). Called to the Bar in 1840, he became an authority on maritime
law. Other books by him are _The Seaman's Friend_ (1841), and _Vacation
Voyage to Cuba_ (1859).

DANIEL, SAMUEL (1562-1619).--Poet, _s._ of a music master, was _b._ near
Taunton, and _ed._ at Oxf., but did not graduate. He attached himself to
the Court as a kind of voluntary laureate, and in the reign of James I.
was appointed "Inspector of the children of the Queen's revels," and a
groom of the Queen's chamber. He is said to have enjoyed the friendship
of Shakespeare and Marlowe, but was "at jealousies" with Ben Jonson. In
his later years he retired to a farm which he owned in Somerset, where he
_d._ D. bears the title of the "well-languaged," his style is clear and
flowing, with a remarkably modern note, but is lacking in energy and
fire, and is thus apt to become tedious. His works include sonnets,
epistles, masques, and dramas. The most important of them is _The History
of the Civil Wars between York and Lancaster_ in 8 books, _pub._ in 1604.
His _Epistles_ are generally considered his best work, and his sonnets
have had some modern admirers. Among his poems may be mentioned the
_Complaynt of Rosamund_, _Tethys Festival_ (1610), and _Hymen's Triumph_
(1615), a masque, and _Musophilus_, a defence of learning, _Defence of
Rhyme_ (1602).

DARLEY, GEORGE (1795-1846).--Poet, novelist, and critic, _b._ at Dublin,
and _ed._ at Trinity Coll. there, he early decided to follow a literary
career, and went to London, where he brought out his first poem, _Errors
of Ecstasie_ (1822). He also wrote for the _London Magazine_, under the
pseudonym of John Lacy. In it appeared his best story, _Lilian of the
Vale_. Various other books followed, including _Sylvia, or The May
Queen_, a poem (1827). Thereafter he joined the _Athenaeum_, in which he
showed himself a severe critic. He was also a dramatist and a profound
student of old English plays, editing those of Beaumont and Fletcher in
1840. So deeply was he imbued with the spirit of the 17th century that
his poem, "It is not beauty I desire," was included by F.T. Palgrave in
the first ed. of his _Golden Treasury_ as an anonymous lyric of that age.
He was also a mathematician of considerable talent, and _pub._ some
treatises on the subject. D. fell into nervous depression and _d._ in
1846.

DARWIN, CHARLES ROBERT (1809-1882).--Naturalist, _s._ of a physician, and
grandson of Dr. Erasmus D. (_q.v._), and of Josiah Wedgwood, the famous
potter, was _b._ and was at school at Shrewsbury. In 1825 he went to
Edin. to study medicine, but was more taken up with marine zoology than
with the regular curriculum. After two years he proceeded to Camb., where
he _grad._ in 1831, continuing, however, his independent studies in
natural history. In the same year came the opportunity of his life, his
appointment to accompany the _Beagle_ as naturalist on a survey of South
America. To this voyage, which extended over nearly five years, he
attributed the first real training of his mind, and after his return
_pub._ an account of it, _Zoology of the Voyage of the Beagle_ (1840).
After spending a few years in London arranging his collections and
writing his _Journal_, he removed to Down, a retired village near the
Weald of Kent, where, in a house surrounded by a large garden, his whole
remaining life was passed in the patient building up, from accurate
observations, of his theory of Evolution, which created a new epoch in
science and in thought generally. His industry was marvellous, especially
when it is remembered that he suffered from chronic bad health. After
devoting some time to geology, specially to coral reefs, and exhausting
the subject of barnacles, he took up the development of his favourite
question, the transformation of species. In these earlier years of
residence at Down he _pub._ _The Structure and Distribution of Coral
Reefs_ (1842), and two works on the geology of volcanic islands, and of
South America. After he had given much time and profound thought to the
question of evolution by natural selection, and had written out his notes
on the subject, he received in 1858 from Mr. A.R. Wallace (_q.v._) a
manuscript showing that he also had reached independently a theory of the
origin of species similar to his own. This circumstance created a
situation of considerable delicacy and difficulty, which was ultimately
got over by the two discoverers presenting a joint paper, _On the
Tendency of Species to form Varieties_, and _On the Perpetuation of
Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection_. The publication in
1859 of _The Origin of Species_ gave D. an acknowledged place among the
greatest men of science, and the controversies which, along with other of
his works, it raised, helped to carry his name all over the civilised
world. Among his numerous subsequent writings may be mentioned _The
Fertilisation of Orchids_ (1862), _Variation of Plants and Animals under
Domestication_ (1868), _The Descent of Man, and Selection in relation to
Sex_ (1871), _The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals_ (1872),
_Insectivorous Plants_ (1875), _Climbing Plants_ (1875), _Different Forms
of Flowers_ (1877), _The Power of Movement in Plants_ (1880), and _The
Formation of Vegetable Mould through the Action of Worms_ (1881). D.,
with a modesty which was one of his chief characteristics, disclaimed for
himself the possession of any remarkable talents except "an unusual power
of noticing things which easily escape attention, and of observing them
carefully." In addition, however, to this peculiar insight, he had a
singular reverence for truth and fact, enormous industry, and great
self-abnegation: and his kindliness, modesty, and magnanimity attracted
the affection of all who knew him.

_Life and Letters_, by his son, F. Darwin, 3 vols., 1887; _C. Darwin and
the Theory of Natural Selection_. E.B. Poulton, 1896; various short Lives
by Grant Allen and others.

DARWIN, ERASMUS (1731-1802).--Poet, physician, and scientist, was _b._ at
Elston, Notts, and _ed._ at Camb. and at Edin., where he took his degree
of M.D. He ultimately settled in Lichfield as a physician, and attained a
high professional reputation, so much so that he was offered, but
declined, the appointment of physician to George III. In 1778 he formed a
botanical garden, and in 1789 _pub._ his first poem, _The Loves of the
Plants_, followed in 1792 by _The Economy of Vegetation_, which combined
form _The Botanic Garden_. Another poem, _The Temple of Nature_, was
_pub._ posthumously. He also wrote various scientific works in prose. The
poems of D., though popular in their day, are now little read. Written in
polished and sonorous verse, they glitter with startling similes and
ingenious, though often forced, analogies, but have little true poetry or
human interest.

DASENT, SIR GEORGE WEBBE (1817-1896).--Scandinavian scholar, _b._ in the
island of St. Vincent, of which his _f._ was Attorney-general, _ed._ at
Westminster School, King's Coll., London, and Oxf., he entered the
diplomatic service, and was for several years Sec. to the British Embassy
at Stockholm, where he became interested in Scandinavian literature and
mythology. Returning to England he was appointed Assistant Ed. of _The
Times_ (1845-1870). In 1852 he was called to the Bar, and in the
following year was appointed Prof. of English Literature and Modern
History at King's Coll., London, an office which he held for 13 years. He
was knighted in 1876. His principal writings have to do with Scandinavian
language, mythology, and folk-lore, and include an _Icelandic Grammar_,
_The Prose or Younger Edda_ (1842), _Popular Tales from the Norse_
(1859), _The Saga of Burnt Njal_ (1861), and _The Story of Gisli the
Outlaw_ (1866), mostly translated from the Norwegian of Asbjoernsen. He
also translated the Orkney and Hacon Sagas for the Rolls Series, and
wrote four novels, _Annals of an Eventful Life_, _Three to One_, _Half a
Life_, and _The Vikings of the Baltic_. His style is pointed and clear.

DAVENANT, or D'AVENANT, SIR WILLIAM (1606-1668).--Poet and dramatist, was
_b._ at Oxf., where his _f._ kept an inn, which Shakespeare was in the
habit of visiting. This had some influence on the future poet, who
claimed to be Shakespeare's natural son. D., _ed._ at Lincoln Coll., was
afterwards in the service of Lord Brooke, became involved in the troubles
of the Civil War, in which he took the Royalist side, and was imprisoned
in the Tower, escaped to France, and after returning was, in 1643,
knighted. Later D. was employed on various missions by the King and
Queen, was again in the Tower from 1650 to 1652, when he _pub._ his poem
_Gondibert_. He is said to have owed his release to the interposition of
Milton. In 1656 he practically founded the English Opera by his _Siege of
Rhodes_ (1656). In 1659 he was again imprisoned, but after the
Restoration he seems to have enjoyed prosperity and Royal favour, and
established a theatre, where he was the first habitually to introduce
female players and movable scenery. D. wrote 25 dramatic pieces, among
which are _Albovine, King of the Lombards_ (1629), _Platonick Lovers_
(1636), _The Wits_ (1633), _Unfortunate Lovers_ (1643), _Love and Honour_
(1649). None of them are now read; and the same may be said of
_Gondibert_, considered a masterpiece by contemporaries. D. succeeded Ben
Jonson as Poet Laureate, and collaborated with Dryden in altering (and
debasing) _The Tempest_. He _coll._ his miscellaneous verse under the
title of _Madagascar_. He is said to have had the satisfaction of
repaying in kind the good offices of Milton when the latter was in danger
in 1660. He joined with Waller and others in founding the classical
school of English poetry.

DAVIDSON, JOHN (1837-1909).--Poet and playwright, _b._ at Barrhead,
Renfrewshire, _s._ of a Dissenting minister, entered the chemical
department of a sugar refinery in Greenock in his 13th year, returning
after one year to school as a pupil teacher. He was afterwards engaged in
teaching at various places, and having taken to literature went in 1890
to London. He achieved a reputation as a writer of poems and plays of
marked individuality and vivid realism. His poems include _In a Music
Hall_ (1891), _Fleet Street Eclogues_ (1893), _Baptist Lake_ (1894), _New
Ballads_ (1896), _The Last Ballad_ (1898), _The Triumph of Mammon_
(1907), and among his plays are _Bruce_ (1886), _Smith: a Tragic Farce_
(1888), _Godfrida_ (1898). D. disappeared on March 27, 1909, under
circumstances which left little doubt that under the influence of mental
depression he had committed suicide. Among his papers was found the MS.
of a new work, _Fleet Street Poems_, with a letter containing the words,
"This will be my last book." His body was discovered a few months later.

DAVIES, JOHN (1565?-1618).--Called "the Welsh Poet," was a
writing-master, wrote very copiously and rather tediously on theological
and philosophical themes. His works include _Mirum in Modum_,
_Microcosmus_ (1602), and _The Picture of a Happy Man_ (1612). _Wit's
Bedlam_ (1617), and many epigrams on his contemporaries which have some
historical interest.

DAVIES, SIR JOHN (1569-1626).--Lawyer and poet, _s._ of a lawyer at
Westbury, Wiltshire, was _ed._ at Winchester and Oxf., and became a
barrister of the Middle Temple, 1595. He was a member successively of the
English and Irish Houses of Commons, and held various legal offices. In
literature he is known as the writer of two poems, _Orchestra: a Poem of
Dancing_ (1594), and _Nosce Teipsum_ (Know Thyself), in two elegies (1)
Of Humane Knowledge (2) Of the Immortality of the Soul. The poem consists
of quatrains, each containing a complete and compactly expressed thought.
It was _pub._ in 1599. D. was also the author of treatises on law and
politics.

DAVIS, or DAVYS, JOHN (1550?-1605).--Navigator, known as D. of Sandridge
to distinguish him from another of the same name. He was one of the most
enterprising of the Elizabethan sailors, who devoted themselves to the
discovery of the North-west Passage. Davis Strait was discovered by, and
named after, him. He made many voyages, in the last of which he met his
death at the hands of a Japanese pirate. He was the author of a book, now
very scarce, _The World's Hydrographical Description_, and he also wrote
a work on practical navigation, _The Seaman's Secrets_, which had great
repute.

DAVIS, THOMAS OSBORNE (1814-1845).--Poet, _b._ at Mallow, _ed._ at
Trinity Coll., Dublin, and called to the Irish Bar 1838. He was one of
the founders of _The Nation_ newspaper, and of the Young Ireland party.
He wrote some stirring patriotic ballads, originally contributed to _The
Nation_, and afterwards republished as _Spirit of the Nation_, also a
memoir of Curran the great Irish lawyer and orator, prefixed to an ed. of
his speeches; and he had formed many literary plans which were brought to
naught by his untimely death.

DAVY, SIR HUMPHREY (1778-1829).--Chemist and man of letters, _s._ of a
wood-carver, was _b._ at Penzance. He early showed an enthusiasm for
natural science, and continued to pursue his studies when apprenticed in
1795 to a surgeon. He became specially interested in chemistry, to which
in 1797 he began more exclusively to devote himself. Thereafter he
assisted Dr. Beddoes in his laboratory at Bristol, and entered upon his
brilliant course of chemical discovery. His _Researches, Chemical, and
Philosophical_ (1799), led to his appointment as Director of the Chemical
Laboratory at the Royal Institution, where he also delivered courses of
scientific lectures with extraordinary popularity. Thereafter his life
was a succession of scientific triumphs and honours. His great discovery
was that of the metallic bases of the earths and alkalis. He also
discovered various metals, including sodium, calcium, and magnesium. In
1812 he was knighted, and _m._ a wealthy widow. Thereafter he
investigated volcanic action and fire-damp, and invented the safety lamp.
In 1818 he was _cr._ a baronet, and in 1820 became Pres. of the Royal
Society, to which he communicated his discoveries in electro-magnetism.
In addition to his scientific writings, which include _Elements of
Agricultural Chemistry_ (1813), and _Chemical Agencies of Electricity_,
he wrote _Salmonia, or Days of Fly Fishing_ (1828), somewhat modelled
upon Walton, and _Consolations in Travel_ (1830), dialogues on ethical
and religious questions. D. sustained an apoplectic seizure in 1826,
after which his health was much impaired, and after twice wintering in
Italy, he _d._ at Geneva, where he received a public funeral. Though not
attached to any Church, D. was a sincerely religious man, strongly
opposed to materialism and scepticism. He holds a foremost place among
scientific discoverers.

DAY, JOHN (_b._ 1574).--Dramatist, _s._ of a Norfolk yeoman, was at
Camb., 1592-3. It is only since 1881 that his works have been identified.
He collaborated with Dekker and others in plays, and was the author of
_The Isle of Gulls_ (1606), _Law Trickes_ (1608), and _Humour out of

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