Part 12 out of 13
known work was his translation of _Josephus_. He was a kindly and honest,
but eccentric and impracticable man, and an insatiable controversialist.
WHITE, GILBERT (1720-1793).--Naturalist, _b._ at Selborne, Hants, and
_ed._ along with the Wartons (_q.v._) at their father's school at
Basingstoke, and thereafter at Oxf., entered the Church, and after
holding various curacies settled, in 1755, at Selborne. He became the
friend and correspondent of Pennant the naturalist (_q.v._), and other
men of science, and _pub._ in the form of letters the work which has made
him immortal, _The Natural History and Antiquities of Selborne_ (1789).
He was never _m._, but was in love with the well-known bluestocking
Hester Mulso, afterwards Mrs. Chapone, who rejected him. He had four
brothers, all more or less addicted to the study of natural history.
WHITE, HENRY KIRKE (1785-1806).--Poet, _s._ of a butcher at Nottingham.
At first assisting his _f._, next a stocking weaver, he was afterwards
placed in the office of an attorney. Some contributions to a newspaper
introduced him to the notice of Capel Lofft, a patron of promising
youths, by whose help he brought out a vol. of poems, which fell into the
hands of Southey, who wrote to him. Thereafter friends raised a fund to
send him to Camb., where he gave brilliant promise. Overwork, however,
undermined a constitution originally delicate, and he _d._ at 21. Southey
wrote a short memoir of him with some additional poems. His chief poem
was the _Christiad_, a fragment. His best known production is the hymn,
"Much in sorrow, oft in Woe."
WHITE, JOSEPH BLANCO (1775-1841).--Poet, _s._ of a merchant, an Irish
Roman Catholic resident at Seville, where he was _b._, became a priest,
but lost his religious faith and came to England, where he conducted a
Spanish newspaper having for its main object the fanning of the flame of
Spanish patriotism against the French invasion, which was subsidised by
the English Government. He again embraced Christianity, and entered the
Church of England, but latterly became a Unitarian. He wrote, among other
works, _Internal Evidences against Catholicism_ (1825), and _Second
Travels of an Irish Gentleman in search of a Religion_, in answer to T.
Moore's work, _Travels, etc._ His most permanent contribution to
literature, however, is his single sonnet on "Night", which Coleridge
considered "the finest and most grandly conceived" in our language.
WHITE, RICHARD GRANT (1822-1885).--Shakespearian scholar, _b._ in New
York State, was long Chief of the Revenue Marine Bureau, and was one of
the most acute students and critics of Shakespeare, of whose works he
_pub._ two ed., the first in 1865, and the second (the Riverside) in
1883. He also wrote _Words and their Uses_, _Memoirs of Shakespeare_,
_Studies in Shakespeare_, _The New Gospel of Peace_ (a satire), _The Fate
of Mansfield Humphreys_ (novel), etc.
WHITEHEAD, CHARLES (1804-1862).--Poet, novelist, and dramatist; is
specially remembered for three works, all of which met with popular
favour: _The Solitary_ (1831), a poem, _The Autobiography of Jack Ketch_
(1834), a novel, and _The Cavalier_ (1836), a play in blank verse. He
recommended Dickens for the writing of the letterpress for R. Seymour's
drawings, which ultimately developed into _The Pickwick Papers_.
WHITEHEAD, WILLIAM (1715-1785).--Poet, _s._ of a baker at Camb., and
_ed._ at Winchester School and Camb., became tutor in the family of the
Earl of Jersey, and retained the favour of the family through life. In
1757 he succeeded Colley Cibber as Poet Laureate. He wrote plays of only
moderate quality, including _The Roman Father_ and _Creusa_, tragedies,
and _The School for Lovers_, a comedy; also poems, _The Enthusiast_ and
_Variety_. His official productions as Laureate were severely attacked,
which drew from him in reply _A Charge to the Poets_.
WHITMAN, WALTER or WALT (1819-1892).--Poet, was _b._ at Huntingdon, Long
Island, New York. His mother was of Dutch descent, and the farm on which
he was _b._ had been in the possession of his father's family since the
early settlement. His first education was received at Brooklyn, to which
his _f._ had removed while W. was a young child. At 13 he was in a
printing office, at 17 he was teaching and writing for the newspapers,
and at 21 was editing one. The next dozen years were passed in desultory
work as a printer with occasional literary excursions, but apparently
mainly in "loafing" and observing his fellow-creatures. It was not till
1855 that his first really characteristic work, _Leaves of Grass_,
appeared. This first ed. contained only 12 poems. Notwithstanding its
startling departures from conventionality both in form and substance it
was well received by the leading literary reviews and, with certain
reserves to be expected, it was welcomed by Emerson. It did not, however,
achieve general acceptance, and was received with strong and not
unnatural protest in many quarters. When a later ed. was called for
Emerson unsuccessfully endeavoured to persuade the author to suppress the
more objectionable parts. On the outbreak of the Civil War W. volunteered
as a nurse for the wounded, and rendered much useful service. The results
of his experiences and observations were given in verse in _Drum Taps_
and _The Wound Dresser_, and in prose in _Specimen Days_. From these
scenes he was removed by his appointment to a Government clerkship, from
which, however, he was soon dismissed on the ground of having written
books of an immoral tendency. This action of the authorities led to a
somewhat warm controversy, and after a short interval W. received another
Government appointment, which he held until 1873, when he had a paralytic
seizure, which rendered his retirement necessary. Other works besides
those mentioned are _Two Rivulets_ and _Democratic Vistas_. In his later
years he retired to Camden, New Jersey, where he _d._ W. is the most
unconventional of writers. Revolt against all convention was in fact his
self-proclaimed mission. In his versification he discards rhyme almost
entirely, and metre as generally understood. And in his treatment of
certain passions and appetites, and of unadulterated human nature, he is
at war with what he considered the conventions of an effeminate society,
in which, however, he adopts a mode of utterance which many people
consider equally objectionable, overlooking, as he does, the existence
through all the processes of nature of a principle of reserve and
concealment. Amid much that is prosaic and rhetorical, however, it
remains true that there is real poetic insight and an intense and
singularly fresh sense of nature in the best of his writings.
_Works_, 12 vols., with _Life_. _See_ Stedman's _Poets of America_.
Monographs by Symonds, Clarke, and Salter.
WHITNEY, WILLIAM DWIGHT (1827-1894).--Philologist, _b._ at Northampton,
Mass., was Prof. of Sanskrit, etc., at Yale, and chief ed. of the
_Century Dictionary_. Among his books are _Darwinism and Language_ and
_The Life and Growth of Language_.
WHITTIER, JOHN GREENLEAF (1807-1892).--Poet, was _b._ at Haverhill,
Massachusetts, of a Quaker family. In early life he worked on a farm. His
later years were occupied partly in journalism, partly in farming, and he
seems also to have done a good deal of local political work. He began to
write verse at a very early age, and continued to do so until almost his
latest days. He was always a champion of the anti-slavery cause, and by
his writings both as journalist and poet, did much to stimulate national
feeling in the direction of freedom. Among his poetical works are _Voices
of Freedom_ (1836), _Songs of Labour_ (1851), _Home Ballads_ (1859), _In
War Time_ (1863), _Snow Bound_ (1866), _The Tent on the Beach_ (1867),
_Ballads of New England_ (1870), _The Pennsylvania Pilgrim_ (1874). W.
had true feeling and was animated by high ideals. Influenced in early
life by the poems of Burns, he became a poet of nature, with which his
early upbringing brought him into close and sympathetic contact; he was
also a poet of faith and the ideal life and of liberty. He, however,
lacked concentration and intensity, and his want of early education made
him often loose in expression and faulty in form; and probably a
comparatively small portion of what he wrote will live.
WHYTE-MELVILLE, GEORGE JOHN (1821-1878).--Novelist, _s._ of a country
gentleman of Fife, _ed._ at Eton, entered the army, and saw service in
the Crimea, retiring in 1859 as Major. Thereafter he devoted himself to
field sports, in which he was an acknowledged authority, and to
literature. He wrote a number of novels, mainly founded on sporting
subjects, though a few were historical. They include _Kate Coventry_,
_The Queen's Maries_, _The Gladiators_, and _Satanella_. He also wrote
_Songs and Verses_ and _The True Cross_, a religious poem. He _d._ from
an accident in the hunting-field.
WICLIF, or WYCLIF, JOHN (1320?-1384).--Theologian and translator of the
Bible, _b._ near Richmond, Yorkshire, studied at Balliol Coll., Oxf., of
which he became in 1361 master, and taking orders, became Vicar of
Fillingham, Lincolnshire, when he resigned his mastership, and in 1361
Prebendary of Westbury. By this time he had written a treatise on logic,
and had won some position as a man of learning. In 1372 he took the
degree of Doctor of Theology, and became Canon of Lincoln, and in 1374
was sent to Bruges as one of a commission to treat with Papal delegates
as to certain ecclesiastical matters in dispute, and in the same year he
became Rector of Lutterworth, where he remained until his death. His
liberal and patriotic views on the questions in dispute between England
and the Pope gained for him the favour of John of Gaunt and Lord Percy,
who accompanied him when, in 1377, he was summoned before the
ecclesiastical authorities at St. Paul's. The Court was broken up by an
inroad of the London mob, and no sentence was passed upon him. Another
trial at Lambeth in the next year was equally inconclusive. By this time
W. had taken up a position definitely antagonistic to the Papal system.
He organised his institution of poor preachers, and initiated his great
enterprise of translating the Scriptures into English. His own share of
the work was the Gospels, probably the whole of the New Testament and
possibly part of the Old. The whole work was ed. by John Purvey, an Oxf.
friend, who had joined him at Lutterworth, the work being completed by
1400. In 1380 W. openly rejected the doctrine of transubstantiation, and
was forbidden to teach at Oxf., where he had obtained great influence. In
1382 a Court was convened by the Archbishop of Canterbury, which passed
sentence of condemnation upon his views. It says much for the position
which he had attained, and for the power of his supporters, that he was
permitted to depart from Oxf. and retire to Lutterworth, where, worn out
by his labours and anxieties, he _d._ of a paralytic seizure on the last
day of 1384. His enemies, baffled in their designs against him while
living, consoled themselves by disinterring his bones in 1428 and
throwing them into the river Swift, of which Thomas Fuller (_q.v._) has
said, "Thus this brook has conveyed his ashes into Avon, Avon into
Severn, Severn into the Narrow Seas, they into the main ocean, and thus
the ashes of Wicliffe are the emblem of his doctrine, which now is
dispersed all the world over." The works of W. were chiefly controversial
or theological and, as literature, have no great importance, but his
translation of the Bible had indirectly a great influence not only by
tending to fix the language, but in a far greater degree by furthering
the moral and intellectual emancipation on which true literature is
WILBERFORCE, WILLIAM (1759-1833).--Philanthropist and religious writer,
_s._ of a merchant, was _b._ at Hull, _ed._ at Camb., entered Parliament
as member for his native town, became the intimate friend of Pitt, and
was the leader of the crusade against the slave-trade and slavery. His
chief literary work was his _Practical View of Christianity_, which had
remarkable popularity and influence, but he wrote continually and with
effect on the religious and philanthropic objects to which he had devoted
WILCOX, CARLES (1794-1827).--Poet, _b._ at Newport, N.H., was a
Congregationalist minister. He wrote a poem, _The Age of Benevolence_,
which was left unfinished, and which bears manifest traces of the
influence of Cowper.
WILDE, OSCAR O'FLAHERTY (1856-1900).--Poet and dramatist, _s._ of Sir
William W., the eminent surgeon, was _b._ at Dublin, and _ed._ there at
Trinity Coll. and at Oxf. He was one of the founders of the modern cult
of the aesthetic. Among his writings are _Poems_ (1881), _The Picture of
Dorian Gray_, a novel, and several plays, including _Lady Windermere's
Fan_, _A Woman of no Importance_, and _The Importance of being Earnest_.
He was convicted of a serious offence, and after his release from prison
went abroad and _d._ at Paris. _Coll._ ed. of his works, 12 vols., 1909.
WILKES, JOHN (1727-1797).--Politician, _s._ of a distiller in London, was
_ed._ at Leyden. Witty, resourceful, but unprincipled and profligate, he
became from circumstances the representative and champion of important
political principles, including that of free representation in
Parliament. His writings have nothing of the brilliance and point of his
social exhibitions, but his paper, _The North Briton_, and especially the
famous "No. 45," in which he charged George III. with uttering a
falsehood in his speech from the throne, caused so much excitement, and
led to such important results that they give him a place in literature.
He also wrote a highly offensive _Essay on Woman_. W. was expelled from
the House of Commons and outlawed, but such was the strength of the cause
which he championed that, notwithstanding the worthlessness of his
character, his right to sit in the House was ultimately admitted in 1774,
and he continued to sit until 1790. He was also Lord Mayor of London.
WILKIE, WILLIAM (1721-1772).--Poet, _b._. in Linlithgowshire, _s._ of a
farmer, and _ed._ at Edin., he entered the Church, and became minister of
Ratho, Midlothian, in 1756, and Prof. of Natural Philosophy at St.
Andrews in 1759. In 1757 he _pub._ the _Epigoniad_, dealing with the
Epigoni, sons of the seven heroes who fought against Thebes. He also
wrote _Moral Fables in Verse_.
WILKINS, JOHN (1614-1672).--Mathematician and divine, _s._ of a goldsmith
in Oxf., but _b._ at Daventry and _ed._ at Oxf., entered the Church, held
many preferments, and became Bishop of Chester. He _m._ a sister of
Oliver Cromwell, and being of an easy temper and somewhat accommodating
principles, he passed through troublous times and many changes with a
minimum of hardship. He was one of the band of learned men whom Charles
II. incorporated as the Royal Society. Among his writings are _The
Discovery of a World in the Moon_, _Mathematical Magic_, and _An Essay
towards ... a Philosophical Language_.
WILKINSON, SIR JOHN GARDNER (1797-1875).--Egyptologist, _s._ of a
Westmoreland clergyman, studied at Oxf. In 1821 he went to Egypt, and
remained there and in Nubia exploring, surveying, and studying the
hieroglyphical inscriptions, on which he made himself one of the great
authorities. He _pub._ two important works, of great literary as well as
scholarly merit, _Materia Hieroglyphica_ (1828) and _Manners and Customs
of the Ancient Egyptians_ (6 vols., 1837-41). He wrote various books of
travel, and was knighted in 1839.
WILLIAM of MALMESBURY (_fl._ 12th cent.).--Historian, was an inmate of
the great monastery at Malmesbury. His name is said to have been
Somerset, and he was Norman by one parent and English by the other. The
date of his birth is unknown, that of his death has sometimes been fixed
as 1142 on the ground that his latest work stops abruptly in that year.
His history, written in Latin, falls into two parts, _Gesta Regum
Anglorum_ (Acts of the Kings of the English), in five books, bringing the
narrative down from the arrival of the Saxons to 1120, and _Historia
Novella_ (Modern History), carrying it on to 1142. The work is
characterised by a love of truth, much more critical faculty in sifting
evidence than was then common, and considerable attention to literary
form. It is dedicated to Robert, Earl of Gloucester, the champion of
Queen Matilda. Other works by W. are _De Gestis Pontificum Anglorum_,
Lives of the English Bishops, and a history of the Monastery of
WILLIAM of NEWBURGH, or NEWBURY (1136-1198?).--Historian, belonged to the
monastery of Newburgh in Yorkshire. His own name is said to have been
Little. His work, _Historia Rerum Anglicarum_ (History of English
affairs), is written in good Latin, and has some of the same qualities as
that of William of Malmesbury (_q.v._). He rejects the legend of the
Trojan descent of the early Britons, and animadverts severely on what he
calls "the impudent and impertinent lies" of Geoffrey of Monmouth
(_q.v._). His record of contemporary events is careful.
WILLIAMS, SIR CHARLES HANBURY (1708-1759).--Diplomatist and satirist,
_s._ of John Hanbury, a Welsh ironmaster, assumed the name of Williams on
succeeding to an estate, entered Parliament as a supporter of Walpole,
held many diplomatic posts, and was a brilliant wit with a great
contemporary reputation for lively and biting satires and lampoons.
WILLIS, BROWNE (1682-1760).--Antiquary, _ed._ at Westminster and Oxf.,
entered the Inner Temple 1700, sat in the House of Commons 1705-8. He
wrote _History of the Counties, Cities, and Boroughs of England and
Wales_ (1715), _Notitia Parliamentaria_, etc.
WILLIS, NATHANIEL PARKER (1806-1867).--Poet, _b._ at Portland, and _ed._
at Yale, was mainly a journalist, and conducted various magazines,
including the _American Monthly_; but he also wrote short poems, many of
which were popular, of which perhaps the best is "Unseen Spirits,"
stories, and works of a more or less fugitive character, with such titles
as _Pencillings by the Way_ (1835), _Inklings of Adventure_, _Letters
from under a Bridge_ (1839), _People I have Met_, _The Rag-Tag_, _The
Slingsby Papers_, etc., some of which were originally contributed to his
magazines. He travelled a good deal in Europe, and was attached for a
time to the American Embassy in Paris. He was a favourite in society, and
enjoyed a wide popularity in uncritical circles, but is now distinctly a
WILLS, JAMES (1790-1868).--Poet and miscellaneous writer, younger _s._ of
a Roscommon squire, was _ed._ at Trinity Coll., Dublin, and studied law
in the Middle Temple. Deprived, however, of the fortune destined for him
and the means of pursuing a legal career by the extravagance of his elder
brother, he entered the Church, and also wrote largely in _Blackwood's
Magazine_ and other periodicals. In 1831 he _pub._ _The Disembodied and
other Poems_; _The Philosophy of Unbelief_ (1835) attracted much
attention. His largest work was Lives of _Illustrious and Distinguished
Irishmen_, and his latest publication _The Idolatress_ (1868). In all his
writings W. gave evidence of a powerful personality. His poems are
spirited, and in some cases show considerable dramatic qualities.
WILLS, WILLIAM GORMAN (1828-1891).--Dramatist, _s._ of above, _b._ in
Dublin. After writing a novel, _Old Times_, in an Irish magazine, he went
to London, and for some time wrote for periodicals without any very
marked success. He found his true vein in the drama, and produced over 30
plays, many of which, including _Medea in Corinth_, _Eugene Aram_, _Jane
Shore_, _Buckingham_, and _Olivia_, had great success. Besides these he
wrote a poem, _Melchior_, in blank verse, and many songs. He was also an
WILSON, ALEXANDER (1766-1813).--Poet and ornithologist, _b._ at Paisley,
where he worked as a weaver, afterwards becoming a pedlar. He _pub._ some
poems, of which the best is _Watty and Maggie_, and in 1794 went to
America, where he worked as a pedlar and teacher. His skill in depicting
birds led to his becoming an enthusiastic ornithologist, and he induced
the publisher of _Rees's Cyclopaedia_, on which he had been employed, to
undertake an American ornithology to be written and illustrated by him.
Some vols. of the work were completed when, worn out by the labour and
exposure entailed by his journeys in search of specimens, he succumbed
to a fever. Two additional vols. appeared posthumously. The work, both
from a literary and artistic point of view, is of high merit. He also
_pub._ in America another poem, _The Foresters_.
WILSON, SIR DANIEL (1816-1892).--Archaeologist and miscellaneous writer,
_b._ and _ed._ in Edin., and after acting as sec. of the Society of
Antiquaries there, went to Toronto as Prof. of History and English
Literature. He was the author of _Memorials of Edinburgh in the Olden
Time_, _The Archeology and Pre-historic Annals of Scotland_ (1851),
_Civilisation in the Old and the New World_, a study on "Chatterton," and
_Caliban, the Missing Link_, etc.
WILSON, JOHN ("CHRISTOPHER NORTH") (1785-1854).--Poet, essayist, and
miscellaneous writer, _s._ of a wealthy manufacturer in Paisley, where he
was _b._, was _ed._ at Glas. and Oxf. At the latter he not only displayed
great intellectual endowments, but distinguished himself as an athlete.
Having succeeded to a fortune of L50,000 he purchased the small estate of
Elleray in the Lake District, where he enjoyed the friendship of
Wordsworth, Southey, Coleridge, and De Quincey. In 1812 he _pub._ _The
Isle of Palms_, followed four years later by _The City of the Plague_,
which gained for him a recognised place in literature, though they did
not show his most characteristic gifts, and are now almost unread. About
this time he lost a large portion of his fortune, had to give up
continuous residence at Elleray, came to Edinburgh, and was called to the
Scottish Bar, but never practised. The starting of _Blackwood's Magazine_
brought him his opportunity, and to the end of his life his connection
with it gave him his main employment and chief fame. In 1820 he became
Prof. of Moral Philosophy in the Univ. of Edin. where, though not much of
a philosopher in the technical sense, he exercised a highly stimulating
influence upon his students by his eloquence and the general vigour of
his intellect. The peculiar powers of W., his wealth of ideas, felicity
of expression, humour, and animal spirits, found their full development
in the famous _Noctes Ambrosianae_, a medley of criticism on literature,
politics, philosophy, topics of the day and what not. _Lights and Shadows
of Scottish Life_ and _The Trials of Margaret Lyndsay_ are contributions
to fiction in which there is an occasional tendency to run pathos into
rather mawkish sentimentality. In 1851 W. received a Government pension
of L300. The following year a paralytic seizure led to his resignation of
his professorial chair, and he _d._ in 1854. He was a man of magnificent
physique, of shining rather than profound intellectual powers, and of
generous character, though as a critic his strong feelings and prejudices
occasionally made him unfair and even savage.
WILSON, JOHN (1804-1875).--Missionary and orientalist, _b._ at Lauder,
Berwickshire, and _ed._ at Edin. for the ministry of the Church of
Scotland, went in 1828 to India as a missionary, where, besides his
immediate duties, he became a leader in all social reform, such as the
abolition of the slave-trade and _suttee_, and also one of the greatest
authorities on the subject of caste, and a trusted adviser of successive
Governors-General in regard to all questions affecting the natives. He
was in addition a profound Oriental scholar as to languages, history, and
religion. He was D.D., F.R.S., and Vice-Chancellor of Bombay Univ. Among
his works are _The Parsi Religion_ (1812), _The Lands of the Bible_
(1847), _India Three Thousand Years Ago_, and _Memoirs of the Cave
Temples of India_.
WILSON, THOMAS (1525?-1581).--Scholar and statesman, _b._ in
Lincolnshire, was at Camb., and held various high positions under Queen
Elizabeth. He was the author of _The Rule of Reason containing the Arte
of Logique_ (1551), and _The Arte of Rhetorique_ (1553), and made
translations from Demosthenes. He endeavoured to maintain the purity of
the language against the importation of foreign words.
WINGATE, DAVID, (1828-1892).--Poet, was employed in the coal-pits near
Hamilton from the time he was 9. He _pub._ _Poems and Songs_ (1862),
which was favourably received, and followed by _Annie Weir_ (1866). After
this he studied at the Glasgow School of Mines, became a colliery
manager, and devoted his increased leisure to study and further literary
work. _Lily Neil_ appeared in 1879, followed by _Poems and Songs_ (1883),
and _Selected Poems_ (1890). W. was a man of independent character. He
was twice _m._, his second wife being a descendant of Burns.
WINTHROP, THEODORE (1828-1861).--Novelist, _b._ at New Haven, Conn.,
descended through his _f._ from Governor W., and through his mother from
Jonathan Edwards, _ed._ at Yale, travelled in Great Britain and on the
Continent, and far and wide in his own country. After contributing to
periodicals short sketches and stories, which attracted little attention,
he enlisted in the Federal Army, in 1861, and was killed in the Battle of
Great Bethel. His novels, for which he had failed to find a publisher,
appeared posthumously--_John Brent_, founded on his experiences in the
far West, _Edwin Brothertoft_, a story of the Revolution War, and _Cecil
Dreeme_. Other works were _The Canoe and Saddle_, and _Life in the Open
Air_. Though somewhat spasmodic and crude, his novels had freshness,
originality, and power, and with longer life and greater concentration he
might have risen high.
WITHER, GEORGE (1588-1667).--Poet, _b._ near Alton, Hampshire, was at
Oxf. for a short time, and then studied law at Lincoln's Inn. In 1613 he
_pub._ a bold and pungent satire, _Abuses Stript and Whipt_, with the
result that he was imprisoned for some months in the Marshalsea. While
there he wrote _The Shepheard's Hunting_, a pastoral. _Wither's Motto_,
_Nec Habeo, nec Careo, nec Curo_ (I have not, want not, care not) was
written in 1618, and in 1622 he _coll._ his poems as _Juvenilia_. The
same year he _pub._ a long poem, _Faire Virtue, the Mistress of
Philarete_, in which appears the famous lyric, "Shall I wasting in
despair." Though generally acting with the Puritans he took arms with
Charles I. against the Scotch in 1639; but on the outbreak of the Civil
War he was on the popular side, and raised a troop of horse. He was taken
prisoner by the Royalists, and is said to have owed his life to the
intercession of a fellow-poet, Sir John Denham. After the establishment
of the Commonwealth he was considerably enriched out of sequestrated
estates and other spoils of the defeated party; but on the Restoration
was obliged to surrender his gains, was impeached, and committed to the
Tower. In his later years he wrote many religious poems and hymns,
_coll._ as _Hallelujah_. Before his death his poems were already
forgotten, and he was referred to by Pope in _The Dunciad_ as "the
wretched Withers". He was, however, disinterred by Southey, Lamb, and
others, who drew attention to his poetical merits, and he has now an
established place among English poets, to which his freshness, fancy, and
delicacy of taste well entitle him.
WODROW, ROBERT (1679-1734).--Church historian, _s._ of James W., Prof. of
Divinity in Glasgow. Having completed his literary and theological
education there, he entered the ministry of the Church of Scotland, and
was ordained to the parish of Eastwood, Renfrewshire. Here he carried on
the great work of his life, his _History of the Sufferings of the Church
of Scotland 1660 to 1688_. W. wrote when the memory of the persecutions
was still fresh, and his work is naturally not free from partisan feeling
and credulity. It is, however, thoroughly honest in intention, and is a
work of genuine research, and of high value for the period with which it
deals. It was _pub._ in two folio vols. in 1721 and 1722. W. made large
collections for other works which, however, were not _pub._ in his
lifetime. _The Lives of the Scottish Reformers and Most Eminent
Ministers_ and _Analecta, or a History of Remarkable Providences_, were
printed for the Maitland Club, and 3 vols. of his correspondence in 1841
for the Wodrow Society. The _Analecta_ is a most curious miscellany
showing a strong appetite for the marvellous combined with a hesitating
doubt in regard to some of the more exacting narratives.
WOLCOT, JOHN (1738-1819).--Satirist, _b._ near Kingsbridge, Devonshire,
was _ed._ by an uncle, and studied medicine. In 1767 he went as physician
to Sir William Trelawny, Governor of Jamaica, and whom he induced to
present him to a Church in the island then vacant, and was ordained in
1769. Sir William dying in 1772, W. came home and, abandoning the Church,
resumed his medical character, and settled in practice at Truro, where he
discovered the talents of Opie the painter, and assisted him. In 1780 he
went to London, and commenced writing satires. The first objects of his
attentions were the members of the Royal Academy, and these attempts
being well received, he soon began to fly at higher game, the King and
Queen being the most frequent marks for his satirical shafts. In 1786
appeared _The Lousiad, a Heroi-Comic Poem_, taking its name from a legend
that on the King's dinner plate there had appeared a certain insect not
usually found in such exalted quarters. Other objects of his attack were
Boswell, the biographer of Johnson, and Bruce, the Abyssinian traveller.
W., who wrote under the _nom-de-guerre_ of "Peter Pindar," had a
remarkable vein of humour and wit, which, while intensely comic to
persons not involved, stung its subjects to the quick. He had likewise
strong intelligence, and a power of coining effective phrases. In other
kinds of composition, as in some ballads which he wrote, an unexpected
touch of gentleness and even tenderness appears. Among these are _The
Beggar Man_ and _Lord Gregory_. Much that he wrote has now lost all
interest owing to the circumstances referred to being forgotten, but
enough still retains its peculiar relish to account for his contemporary
WOLFE, CHARLES (1791-1823).--Poet, _s._ of a landed gentleman in Kildare,
was _b._ in Dublin, where he completed his _ed._ at Trinity Coll., having
previously been at Winchester. He took orders, and was Rector of
Donoughmere, but his health failed, and he _d._ of consumption at 32. He
is remembered for one short, but universally known and admired poem, _The
Burial of Sir John Moore_, which first appeared anonymously in the _Newry
Telegraph_ in 1817.
WOOD, or A WOOD, ANTHONY (1632-1695).--Antiquary, was _b._ at Oxf., where
he was _ed._ and spent most of his life. His antiquarian enthusiasm was
awakened by the collections of Leland, and he early began to visit and
study the antiquities of his native county. This with history, heraldry,
genealogies, and music occupied his whole time. By 1669 he had written
his _History and Antiquities of the University of Oxford_, which was
translated into Latin not to his satisfaction by the Univ. authorities,
and he wrote a fresh English copy which was printed in 1786. His great
work was _Athenae Oxonienses; an exact History of all the Writers and
Bishops who have had their Education in the University of Oxford, to
which are added the Fasti or Annals of the said University_ (1691-92).
For an alleged libel on the Earl of Clarendon in that work the author was
expelled in 1694. He also wrote _The Ancient and Present State of the
City of Oxford_, and _Modius Salium, a Collection of Pieces of Humour_,
generally of an ill-natured cast.
WOOD, MRS. ELLEN (PRICE) (1814-1887).--Novelist, writing as "Mrs. Henry
Wood," was _b._ at Worcester. She wrote over 30 novels, many of which,
especially _East Lynne_, had remarkable popularity. Though the stories
are generally interesting, they have no distinction of style. Among the
best known are _Danesbury House_, _Oswald Cray_, _Mrs. Halliburton's
Troubles_, _The Channings_, _Lord Oakburn's Daughters_, and _The Shadow
of Ashlydyat_. Mrs. W. was for some years proprietor and ed. of the
WOOD, JOHN GEORGE (1827-1889).--Writer on natural history, _s._ of a
surgeon, _b._ in London, and _ed._ at home and at Oxf., where he worked
for some time in the anatomical museum. He took orders, and among other
benefices which he held was for a time chaplain to St. Bartholomew's
Hospital. He was a very prolific writer on natural history, though rather
as a populariser than as a scientific investigator, and was in this way
very successful. Among his numerous works may be mentioned _Illustrated
Natural History_ (1853), _Animal Traits and Characteristics_ (1860),
_Common Objects of the Sea Shore_ (1857), _Out of Doors_ (1874), _Field
Naturalist's Handbook_ (with T. Wood) (1879-80), books on gymnastics,
sport, etc., and an ed. of White's _Selborne_.
WOOLMAN, JOHN (1720-1772).--Quaker diarist, _b._ at Burlington, New
Jersey, began life as a farm labourer, and then became a clerk in a
store. He underwent deep religious impressions, and the latter part of
his life was devoted to itinerant preaching and doing whatever good came
to his hand. To support himself he worked as a tailor. He was one of the
first to witness against the evils of slavery, on which he wrote a tract,
_Some Considerations on the Keeping of Negroes_ (1753). His _Journal_
"reveals his life and character with rare fidelity" and, though little
known compared with some similar works, gained the admiration of, among
other writers, Charles Lamb, who says, "Get the writings of John Woolman
by heart." In 1772 he went to England, where he _d._ of smallpox in the
WOOLNER, THOMAS (1826-1892).--Sculptor and poet, _b._ at Hadleigh,
attained a high reputation as a sculptor. He belonged to the
pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, and contributed poems to their magazine, the
_Germ_. He wrote several vols. of poetry, including _My Beautiful Lady_
(1863), _Pygmalion_, _Silenus_, _Tiresias_, and _Nelly Dale_. He had a
true poetic gift, though better known by his portrait busts.
WORDSWORTH, CHRISTOPHER (1774-1846).--Biographer, etc., was a younger
brother of the poet, _ed._ at Camb., took orders, and became Chaplain to
the House of Commons, and Master of Trinity Coll., Camb. 1820-41. He was
also Vice-Chancellor of the Univ. 1820-21 and 1826-27. He _pub._
_Ecclesiastical Biography_ (1810), and _Who wrote Eikon Basilike?_ in
which he argued for the authorship of Charles I.
WORDSWORTH, CHRISTOPHER (1807-1885).--_S._ of above, _ed._ at Camb., took
orders and became a Canon of Westminster 1844, and Bishop of Lincoln
1868. He travelled in Greece, and discovered the site of Dodona. His
writings include in theology a commentary on the Bible (1856-70), _Church
History to A.D. 451_ (1881-83), and in other fields, _Athens and Attica_
(1836), and _Theocritus_ (1844).
WORDSWORTH, DOROTHY (1771-1855).--Diarist, etc., was the only sister of
the poet, and his lifelong and sympathetic companion, and endowed in no
small degree with the same love of and insight into nature as is
evidenced by her _Journals_. Many of her brother's poems were suggested
by scenes and incidents recorded by her, of which that on Daffodils
beginning "I wandered lonely as a cloud" is a notable example.
WORDSWORTH, WILLIAM (1770-1850).--Poet, _s._ of John W., attorney and
agent to the 1st Lord Lonsdale, was _b._ at Cockermouth. His boyhood was
full of adventure among the hills, and he says of himself that he showed
"a stiff, moody, and violent temper." He lost his mother when he was 8,
and his _f._ in 1783 when he was 13. The latter, prematurely cut off,
left little for the support of his family of four sons and a _dau._,
Dorothy (afterwards the worthy companion of her illustrious brother),
except a claim for L5000 against Lord Lonsdale, which his lordship
contested, and which was not settled until his death. With the help,
however, of uncles, the family were well _ed._ and started in life.
William received his earlier education at Penrith and Hawkshead in
Lancashire; and in 1787 went to St. John's Coll., Camb., where he
graduated B.A. in 1791. In the preceding year, 1790, he had taken a
walking tour on the Continent, visiting France in the first flush of the
Revolution with which, at that stage, he was, like many of the best
younger minds of the time, in enthusiastic sympathy. So much was this the
case that he nearly involved himself with the Girondists to an extent
which might have cost him his life. His funds, however, gave out, and he
returned to England shortly before his friends fell under the guillotine.
His uncles were desirous that he should enter the Church, but to this he
was unconquerably averse; and indeed his marked indisposition to adopt
any regular employment led to their taking not unnatural offence. In 1793
his first publication--_Descriptive Sketches of a Pedestrian Tour in the
Alps_, and _The Evening Walk_--appeared, but attracted little attention.
The beginning of his friendship with Coleridge in 1795 tended to confirm
him in his resolution to devote himself to poetry; and a legacy of L900
from a friend put it in his power to do so by making him for a time
independent of other employment. He settled with his sister at Racedown,
Dorsetshire, and shortly afterwards removed to Alfoxden, in the Quantock
Hills, to be near Coleridge, who was then living at Nether Stowey in the
same neighbourhood. One result of the intimacy thus established was the
planning of a joint work, _Lyrical Ballads_, to which Coleridge
contributed _The Ancient Mariner_, and W., among other pieces, _Tintern
Abbey_. The first ed. of the work appeared in 1798. With the profits of
this he went, accompanied by his sister and Coleridge, to Germany, where
he lived chiefly at Goslar, and where he began the _Prelude_, a poem
descriptive of the development of his own mind. After over a year's
absence W. returned and settled with Dorothy at Grasmere. In 1800 the
second ed. of _Lyrical Ballads_, containing W.'s contributions alone,
with several additions, appeared. In the same year Lord Lonsdale _d._,
and his successor settled the claims already referred to with interest,
and the share of the brother and sister enabled them to live in the
frugal and simple manner which suited them. Two years later W.'s
circumstances enabled him to marry his cousin, Mary Hutchinson, to whom
he had been long attached. In 1804 he made a tour in Scotland, and began
his friendship with Scott. The year 1807 saw the publication of _Poems in
Two Volumes_, which contains much of his best work, including the "Ode to
Duty," "Intimations of Immortality," "Yarrow Unvisited," and the
"Solitary Reaper." In 1813 he migrated to Rydal Mount, his home for the
rest of his life; and in the same year he received, through the influence
of Lord Lonsdale, the appointment of Distributor of Stamps for
Westmoreland, with a salary of L400. The next year he made another
Scottish tour, when he wrote _Yarrow Visited_, and he also _pub._ _The
Excursion_, "being a portion of _The Recluse_, a Poem." W. had now come
to his own, and was regarded by the great majority of the lovers of
poetry as, notwithstanding certain limitations and flaws, a truly great
and original poet. The rest of his life has few events beyond the
publication of his remaining works (which, however, did not materially
advance his fame), and tokens of the growing honour in which he was held.
_The White Doe of Rylstone_ appeared in 1815, in which year also he made
a collection of his poems; _Peter Bell_ and _The Waggoner_ in 1819; _The
River Duddon_ and _Memorials of a Tour on the Continent_ in 1820;
_Ecclesiastical Sonnets_ 1822; and _Yarrow Revisited_ in 1835. In 1831
he paid his last visit to Scott; in 1838 he received the degree of
D.C.L. from Durham, and in 1839 the same from Oxf. Three years later he
resigned his office of Distributor of Stamps in favour of his _s._, and
received a civil list pension of L300. The following year, 1843, he
succeeded Southey as Poet Laureate. His long, tranquil, and fruitful life
ended in 1850. He lies buried in the churchyard of Grasmere. After his
death the _Prelude_, finished in 1805, was _pub._ It had been kept back
because the great projected poem of which it was to have been the
preface, and of which _The Excursion_ is a part, was never completed.
The work of W. is singularly unequal. When at his best, as in the
"Intimations of Immortality," "Laodamia," some passages in _The
Excursion_, and some of his short pieces, and especially his sonnets, he
rises to heights of noble inspiration and splendour of language rarely
equalled by any of our poets. But it required his poetic fire to be at
fusing point to enable him to burst through his natural tendency to
prolixity and even dulness. His extraordinary lack of humour and the,
perhaps consequent, imperfect power of self-criticism by which it was
accompanied, together with the theory of poetic theme and diction with
which he hampered himself, led him into a frequent choice of trivial
subjects and childish language which excited not unjust ridicule, and
long delayed the general recognition of his genius. He has a marvellous
felicity of phrase, an unrivalled power of describing natural appearances
and effects, and the most ennobling views of life and duty. But his great
distinguishing characteristic is his sense of the mystic relations
between man and nature. His influence on contemporary and succeeding
thought and literature has been profound and lasting. It should be added
that W., like Milton, with whom he had many points in common, was the
master of a noble and expressive prose style.
SUMMARY.--_B._ 1770, _ed._ at Camb., sympathiser with French Revolution
in earlier stages, first publication _Tour in the Alps_ and _Evening
Walk_ 1793, became acquainted with Coleridge 1795, _pub._ with him
_Lyrical Ballads_ 1798, visits Germany and begins _Prelude_, returns to
England and settles at Grasmere, _pub._ second ed. of _Lyrical Ballads_,
entirely his own, 1800, _m._ Mary Hutchinson 1802, visits Scotland 1804
and becomes acquainted with Scott, _pub._ _Poems in Two Volumes_ 1807,
goes to Rydal Mount 1813, appointed Distributor of Stamps, revisits
Scotland, writes _Yarrow Visited_ and _pub._ _The Excursion_ 1814, _White
Doe_ and _coll._ works 1815, _Waggoner_, _Ecclesiastical Sonnets_, etc.,
1819-35, pensioned 1842, Poet Laureate 1843, _d._ 1850.
There are numerous good ed. of the poems, including his own by Moxon
(1836, 1845, and 1850), and those by Knight (1882-86), Morley (1888),
Dowden (1893), Smith (1908). Another by Knight in 16 vols. includes the
prose writings and the _Journal_ by Dorothy (1896-97). _Lives_ by
Christopher Wordsworth (1857), Myers (1880), and others. See also
criticism by W. Raleign (1903).
WOTTON, SIR HENRY (1568-1639).--Diplomatist and poet, _s._ of a Kentish
gentleman, was _b._ at Boughton Park, near Maidstone, and _ed._ at
Winchester and Oxf. After spending 7 years on the Continent, he entered
the Middle Temple. In 1595 he became sec. to the Earl of Essex, who
employed him abroad, and while at Venice he wrote _The State of
Christendom or a Most Exact and Curious Discovery of many Secret Passages
and Hidden Mysteries of the Times_, which was not, however, printed until
1657. Afterwards he held various diplomatic appointments, but Court
favour latterly failed him and he was recalled from Venice and made
Provost of Eton in 1624, to qualify himself for which he took deacon's
orders. Among his other works were _Elements of Architecture_ (1624) and
_A Survey of Education_. His writings in prose and verse were _pub._ in
1651 as _Reliquiae Wottonianae_. His poems include two which are familiar
to all readers of Elizabethan verse, _The Character of a Happy Life_,
"How happy is he born and taught," and _On his Mistress, the Queen of
Bohemia_, beginning "Ye meaner Beauties of the Night." He was the
originator of many witty sayings, which have come down.
WRAXALL, SIR NATHANIEL WILLIAM (1751-1831).--Historical writer, _b._ at
Bristol, was for a few years in the service of the East India Company,
and thereafter employed on diplomatic missions, and sat for some years in
the House of Commons. In addition to a book of travels and some
historical works relating to the French and other foreign Courts, he
wrote _Historical Memories of my own Time_ 1772-84, _pub._ in 1815. The
work was severely criticised by both political parties, and in particular
by Macaulay; but W. made a reply which was considered to be on the whole
successful. A continuation bringing the narrative down to 1790 was _pub._
in 1836. The _Memoirs_ are valuable for the light they throw on the
period, and especially for the portraits of public men which they give.
WRIGHT, THOMAS (1810-1877).--Antiquary, _b._ near Ludlow, of Quaker
parentage, was _ed._ at Camb. His first work was a _History of Essex_
(1831-36). In 1836 he went to London, and adopted literature as a
profession, devoting himself specially to archaeology, history, and
biography. He held office in various societies such as the "Camden,"
"Percy," and "Shakespeare," and ed. many works for them. In all he was
the author of over 80 publications, of which some of the chief are _The
Celt, the Roman, and the Saxon_, _Biographia Britannica Literaria_,
_Queen Elizabeth and her Times_, and _History of Domestic Manners and
Sentiments in England during the Middle Ages_. He was superintendent of
the excavation of the Roman city at Wroxeter in 1859.
WYATT, SIR THOMAS (1503-1542).--Poet, _s._ of Sir Henry W., a servant of
Henry VII., and _ed._ at St. John's Coll., Camb., came to Court and was
frequently employed by Henry VIII. on diplomatic missions. He is said to
have been an admirer of Anne Boleyn before her marriage, and on her
disgrace was thrown into the Tower for a short time. In 1537 he was
knighted, and two years later was against his will sent on a mission to
the Emperor Charles V. On the death in 1540 of Thomas Cromwell, to whose
party he belonged, W. was accused of misdemeanours during his embassy and
again imprisoned in the Tower, where he wrote a defence which resulted in
his release. In 1542 he was sent to meet the Spanish Ambassador at
Falmouth, and conduct him to London, but on the way caught a chill, of
which he _d._ W. shares with the Earl of Surrey (_q.v._) the honour of
being the first real successor of Chaucer, and also of introducing the
sonnet into England. In addition to his sonnets, which are in a more
correct form than those of Surrey, W. wrote many beautiful lyrics; in
fact he may be regarded as the reviver of the lyrical spirit in English
poetry which, making its appearance in the 13th century, had fallen into
abeyance. In the anthology known as _Tottel's Miscellany_, first _pub._
in 1557, 96 pieces by W. appear along with 40 by Surrey, and others by
different hands. W. has less smoothness and sweetness than Surrey, but
his form of the sonnet was much more difficult as well as more correct
than that invented by the latter, and afterwards adopted by Shakespeare,
and his lyrical gift is more marked.
WYCHERLEY, WILLIAM (1640?-1716).--Dramatist, was _b._ at Clive, near
Shrewsbury, where his _f._ had an estate. He was at the Inner Temple in
1659, and at Oxf. in 1660. Part of his youth had been spent in France,
where he became a Roman Catholic, but at the Restoration he returned to
Protestantism. He wrote four comedies, _Love in a Wood_, _The Gentleman
Dancing Master_, _The Country Wife_, and _The Plain Dealer_, all produced
in the reign of Charles II., and nothing of consequence afterwards, a
vol. of poems doing little to add to his reputation. About 1679 he _m._
the widowed Countess of Drogheda, who _d._ in 1681, and he entered into a
second marriage eleven days before his death. In his later years he
formed a friendship with Pope, then a boy of 16. W. was one of the
founders of the Comedy of Manners. The merit of his plays lies in smart
and witty dialogue rather than in construction. _The Plain Dealer_, his
best, is founded upon Moliere's _Misanthrope_. His plays are notoriously
WYNTOUN, ANDREW of (1350?-1420?).--Chronicler, was a canon of St.
Andrews, who became Prior of St. Serf's island in Loch Leven. His work,
entitled _The Orygynale Cronykil_, begins with the creation of angels and
men and comes down to 1406. It is poetic in form though rarely so in
substance, and is of considerable historical value in its later parts and
as regards the see of St. Andrews.
YALDEN, THOMAS (1670-1736).--Poet, _s._ of an exciseman at Oxf., and
_ed._ at Magdalen Coll., entered the Church, in which he obtained various
preferments. He was the author of a considerable number of poems,
including a _Hymn to Darkness_, Pindaric Odes, and translations from the
YATES, EDMUND (1831-1894).--Novelist and dramatist, _b._ at Edin., held
for some years an appointment in the General Post Office. He did much
journalistic work, mainly as a dramatic writer, and wrote many dramatic
pieces and some novels, including _Running the Gauntlet_ and _The Black
Sheep_. He was perhaps best known as ed. of _The World_ society journal.
YONGE, CHARLOTTE MARY (1823-1901).--Novelist, only _dau._ of a landed
gentleman of Hampshire, was _b._ near Winchester, and in her girlhood
came under the influence of Keble, who was a near neighbour. She began
writing in 1848, and _pub._ during her long life about 100 works, chiefly
novels, interesting and well-written, with a High Church tendency. Among
the best known are _The Heir of Redclyffe_, _Heartsease_, and _The Daisy
Chain_. She also wrote _Cameos from English History_, and Lives of Bishop
Patteson and Hannah More. The profits of her works were devoted to
YOUNG, ARTHUR (1741-1820).--Writer on agriculture, was _b._ in London,
the _s._ of a Suffolk clergyman. In his early years he farmed, making
many experiments, which though they did not bring him financial success,
gave him knowledge and experience, afterwards turned to useful account.
Various publications had made his name known, and in 1777 he became agent
to Lord Kingsborough on his Irish estates. In 1780 he _pub._ his _Tour in
Ireland_, and four years later started the _Annals of Agriculture_, 47
vols. of which appeared. His famous tours in France were made 1787-90,
the results of his observations being _pub._ in _Travels in France_
(1792). He was in 1793 appointed sec. to the newly founded Board of
Agriculture, and _pub._ many additional works on the subject. He is
justly regarded as the father of modern agriculture, in which, as in all
subjects affecting the public welfare, he maintained an active interest
until his death. In his later years he was blind.
YOUNG, EDWARD (1683-1765).--Poet, _s._ of the Rector of Upham, Hampshire,
where he was _b._ After being at Winchester School and Oxf. he
accompanied the Duke of Wharton to Ireland. Y., who had always a keen eye
towards preferment, and the cult of those who had the dispensing of it,
began his poetical career in 1713 with _An Epistle to Lord Lansdowne_.
Equally characteristic was the publication in the same year of two poems,
_The Last Day_ and _The Force of Religion_. The following year he
produced an elegy _On the Death of Queen Anne_, which brought him into
notice. Turning next to the drama he produced _Busiris_ in 1719, and _The
Revenge_ in 1721. His next work was a collection of 7 satires, _The Love
of Fame, the Universal Passion_. In 1727 he entered the Church, and was
appointed one of the Royal Chaplains, and Rector of Welwyn, Herts, in
1730. Next year he _m._ Lady Elizabeth Lee, the widowed _dau._ of the
Earl of Lichfield, to whom, as well as to her _dau._ by her former
marriage, he was warmly attached. Both _d._, and sad and lonely the poet
began his masterpiece, _The Complaint, or Night Thoughts_ (1742-44),
which had immediate and great popularity, and which still maintains its
place as a classic. In 1753 he brought out his last drama, _The
Brothers_, and in 1761 he received his last piece of preferment, that of
Clerk to the Closet to the Princess Dowager of Wales. Four years later,
in 1765, he _d._ The poems of Y., though in style artificial and
sometimes forced, abound in passages of passion and power which sometimes
reach the sublime. But the feelings and sentiments which he expresses
with so much force as a poet form an unpleasantly harsh contrast with the
worldliness and tuft-hunting of his life.
APPENDIX OF LIVING WRITERS
_The number of writers included in this Appendix, and their
bibliographies, are necessarily limited, but it is hoped that despite the
difficulties of selection the list will be found fairly representative_.
ABBOTT, REV. EDWIN ABBOTT, D.D. (1838).--Writer on Biblical and literary
subjects. _Shakespearian Grammar_ (1870), ed. of _Bacon's Essays_ (1876),
_Bacon and Essex_ (1877), _Francis Bacon ... his Life and Works_ (1885),
_Flatland, a Romance of Many Dimensions_ (1884), _St. Thomas of
Canterbury_ (1898), _Paradosis_ (1904), _Johannine Vocabulary_ (1905),
_Silanus the Christian_ (1906), etc.
ALLEN, JAMES LANE (1849).--American novelist. _A Kentucky Cardinal_, _The
Choir Invisible_, _A Summer in Arcady_, _Blue Grass Region of Kentucky_,
_The Increasing Purpose_, _Aftermath_, part ii. of _A Kentucky Cardinal_,
_The Mettle of the Pasture_, _The Reign of Law_.
ANSON, SIR WILLIAM REYNELL, BART., D.C.L. (1843).--Legaland
constitutional writer, etc., _Law and Custom of the Constitution_, ed.
_Memoirs of the third Duke of Grafton_, etc.
ANSTEY, F., (_see_ GUTHRIE).
ARBER, EDWARD, D.Litt.--Literary antiquary. Has issued many reprints of
rare books. _English Reprints_, _English Scholars' Library_, ed. _An
English Garner_ (1880-83), _British Anthologies_ (1899-1901), _A
Christian Library_ (1907).
ARCHER, WILLIAM (1856).--Writer on the drama and translator of Ibsen; ed.
Ibsen's _Prose Dramas_, 5 vols., _Collected Works of Ibsen_, 11 vols.,
translated with his brother, Major Chas. A., Ibsen's _Peer Gynt_, _Life
of Macready_, _Masks or Faces_, _Study and Stage_, _Real Conversations_
ARNIM, COUNTESS VON (BEAUCHAMP).--_Elizabeth and her German Garden_, _A
Solitary Summer_, _The April Baby's Book of Tunes_, _The Benefactress_,
_Elizabeth's Adventures in Ruegen_, _Fraulein Schmidt and Mr.
ASHTON, JOHN (1834).--Literary antiquary, etc. _History of Chap-books of
Eighteenth Century_ (1882), _Humour, Wit, and Satire of Seventeenth
Century_ (ed. 1883), _Adventures and Discoveries of Capt. John Smith_
(1884), _Romances of Chivalry_ (1886), _Social England under the Regency_
AUSTIN, ALFRED (1835).--Poet Laureate 1896. _The Human Tragedy_, _Lyrical
Poems_, _Narrative Poems_, _Fortunatus the Pessimist_, _Alfred the
Great_, _Flodden Field: a Tragedy_ (1903), etc. Prose works include _The
Garden that I Love_, _In Veronica's Garden_, _Lamia's Winter Quarters_,
_Sacred and Profane Love_ (1908).
AVEBURY, JOHN LUBBOCK, 1ST LORD, P.C., D.C.L., etc.
(1834).--Miscellaneous writer. _Use of Life_, _Beauties of Nature_,
_Pleasures of Life_ (two parts), _British Wild Flowers considered in
relation to Insects, Ants, Bees, and Wasps_, _The Origin of
Civilisation_, and many other works on Natural History, Sociology, and
BAGOT, RICHARD (1860).--Novelist. _A Roman Mystery_ (1899), _Casting of
Nets_ (1901), _Donna Diana_ (1903), _Temptation_ (1907), etc.
BALFOUR, RIGHT HON. ARTHUR JAMES, P.C., LL.D., D.C.L., etc.
(1848).--Statesman and philosophic writer. _A Defence of Philosophic
Doubt_ (1879), _Essays and Addresses_ (1893), _The Foundations of Belief_
(1895), _Reflections suggested by the New Theory of Matter_ (1904).
BALL, SIR ROBERT STAWELL, LL.D., F.R.S. (1840).--Scientific writer. _The
Story of the Heavens_ (1885), _Starland_ (1889), _The Story of the Sun_
(1893), _The Earth's Beginning_ (1901), etc.
BARING-GOULD, SABINE (1834).--Novelist and folk-lorist, etc. _Iceland,
its Scenes and Sagas_ (1862), _Curious Myths of the Middle Ages_ (1866),
_Origin and Development of Religious Belief_ (1869-70), _Lives of the
Saints_ (1872-77). Novels, _Mehalah_ (1880), _Richard Cable_ (1888), _The
Pennycomequicks_ (1889), _Domitia_ (1898), _Pabo the Priest_ (1899),
_Crock of Gold_ (1899), _Nebo the Nailer_ (1902), _Devonshire Characters_
(1908), etc.; also books on Folk-lore.
BARRIE, JAMES MATTHEW, LL.D. (1860).--Novelist and dramatist. _Auld Licht
Idylls_, _When a Man's Single_ (1888), _A Window in Thrums_ (1889), _My
Lady Nicotine_ (1890), _The Little Minister_ (1891), _Sentimental Tommy_,
_Margaret Ogilvy_ (1896), _The Little White Bird_ (1902), _Peter Pan_
(1906), etc. Dramatic works include _The Professor's Love Story_, _The
Little Minister_, _The Wedding Guest_ (1900), _The Admirable Crichton_
(1903), _Peter Pan_ (1904), _What Every Woman Knows_ (1908).
BARRY, REV. WILLIAM (FRANCIS), D.D. (1849).--Novelist, etc. _The New
Antigone_ (1887), _Two Standards_ (1898), _Arden Massiter_ (1900), _The
Wizard's Knot_ (1901), _The Dayspring_ (1903), etc.
BATTERSBY, HARRY FRANCIS PREVOST ("FRANCIS PREVOST").--Poet, novelist,
and war correspondent. Poems, _Melilot_ (1886), _Fires of Greenwood_
(1887). Novels, _Rust of Gold_ (1895), _The Avenging Hour_ (1896), _False
Dawn_ (1897), _The Plague of the Heart_ (1902), etc.; joint translator of
Tolstoi's _Christ's Christianity_ and _What to Do_. Plays, _The Way of
War_ (1902), and _Voice of Duty_ (1904).
BAX, ERNEST BELFORT (1854).--Writer on philosophy and socialism. _Kant's
Prolegomena with Biography and Introduction_ (1882), _Handbook to the
History of Philosophy_ (1884), _Religion of Socialism_ (1886), _Ethics of
Socialism_ (1889), _The Problem of Reality_ (1893), _Socialism, its
Growth and Outcome_ (with W. Morris) (1894), _The Roots of Reality_
BEAZLEY, CHARLES RAYMOND, F.R.G.S. (1868).--Historical geographer, _James
of Aragon_ (1870), _Henry the Navigator_ (1895), _Dawn of Modern
Geography_, 3 vols. (1897-1906), etc.
BECKE, GEORGE LOUIS (1848).--Novelist. _By Reef and Palm_ (1890), _A
First Fleet Family_ (1896), _Pacific Tales_ (1897), _Tom Wallis_ (1900),
_Yorke, the Adventurer_ (1901), _Chinkie's Flat_ (1903), etc.; and with
W. Jeffery, _His Native Wife_ (1896), _The Mutineer_, _Admiral Phillip_
(1899), _The Tapu of Benderah_, etc.
BEECHING, REV. HENRY CHARLES, D.Litt. (1859).--Miscellaneous writer. _In
a Garden and other Poems_ (1895), _Pages from a Private Diary_ (1898),
various vols. of sermons, etc., including _Seven Sermons to Schoolboys_
(1894), _The Grace of Episcopacy_ (1906); has ed. _A Paradise of English
Poetry_ (1892), _Lyra Sacra_ (1894), and various English classics, etc.
BEERBOHM, MAX (1872).--Essayist and dramatic critic, _The Works of Max
Beerbohm_, _The Happy Hypocrite_, _Caricatures of Twenty-five Gentlemen_,
_More_ (1898), _Yet Again_ (1909), etc.
BEESLY, EDWARD SPENCER (1831).--Writer on history and philosophy.
_Catiline, Clodius, and Tiberius_ (1878), _Queen Elizabeth_ (1892), has
translated various works of Aug. Comte, etc.
BELL, HENRY THOMAS MACKENZIE (1856).--Poet and critic. _Spring's
Immortality and other Poems_, _Christina Rossetti_, _Pictures of Travel
and other Poems_ (1898), _Collected Poems_ (1901).
BELLOC, HILAIRE (1870).--Miscellaneous writer. _The Bad Child's Book of
Beasts_ (1896), _More Beasts for Worse Children_ (1897), _The Moral
Alphabet_, _Danton_ (1899), _Lambkin's Remains_ (1900), _Robespierre_
(1901), _Caliban's Guide to Letters_ (1903), _Mr. Burden_ (1904), _Esto
Perpetua_ (1906), _The Historic Thames_ (1907), _The Path to Rome_, etc.
BENNETT, ENOCH ARNOLD (1867).--Novelist, etc. _A Man from the North_
(1898), _Polite Farces_ (1899), _Anna of the Five Towns_ (1902), _A Great
Man_ (1904), _The Grim Smile of the Five Towns_ (1907), _Buried Alive_
(1908), _Old Wives' Tale_ (1908), etc.
BENSON, ARTHUR CHRISTOPHER (1862).--Poet, biographer and miscellaneous
writer. _Poems_ (1893), _Lyrics_ (1895), _The Professor and other Poems_
(1900), _The House of Quiet_ (1903), _Peace and other Poems_ (1905),
_From a College Window_ (1906), _Beside Still Waters_ (1907), books on
Tennyson, Rossetti, E. Fitzgerald, Walter Pater, etc.
BENSON, EDWARD FREDERIC (1867).--Novelist. _Dodo_ (1893), _Rubicon_
(1894), _Judgment Books_ (1895), _The Babe B.A._ (1897), _Vintage_
(1898), _Scarlet and Hyssop_ (1902), _Image in the Sand_ (1905). Plays,
_Aunt Jeannie_ (1902), _House of Defence_ (1907), etc.
BERDOE, EDWARD (1836).--Writer on Browning, etc. _Browning's Message to
his Time_ (1890), _Browning Cyclopaedia_ (1891), _Biographical and
Historical Notes to Browning's Complete Works_ (1894), _Browning and the
Christian Faith_ (1896), _A Browning Primer_ (1904), and various books on
BERENSON, BERNHARD (1865).--Writer on art. _Venetian Painters of the
Renaissance_ (1894), _Lorenzo Lotto, an Essay on Constructive Art
Criticism_ (1895), _Florentine Painters of the Renaissance_ (1896),
_Central Italian Painters of the Renaissance_ (1897), _Study and
Criticism of Italian Art_ (1901), _North Italian Painters of the
Renaissance_, _A Sienese Painter of the Franciscan Legend_ (1910), etc.
BESANT, MRS. ANNIE (1847).--Theosophist. _Re-incarnation_ (1892), _Death
and After_ (1893), _Karma_ (1895), _The Self and its Sheaths_ (1895),
_Ancient Wisdom_ (1897), _Dharma_ (1899), _Esoteric Christianity_ (1901),
_Pedigree of Man_ (1903), _Wisdom of the Upanishats_ (1906), etc.
BINYON, LAURENCE (1869).--Poet and art critic. _Lyric Poems_ (1894),
_London Visions_, Book I. (1895), Book II. (1898), _The Praise of Life_
(1896), _Porphyrion and other Poems_ (1898), _Odes_ (1900), _Penthesilea_
(1905), _Paris and AEnone_ (1906), etc.
BIRRELL, AUGUSTINE, M.P., LL.D. (1850).--Essayist, etc. _Obiter Dicta_
(1884), _Res Judicatae_ (1892), _Men, Women, and Books_ (1894), _Collected
Essays_ (1900), _Miscellanies_ (1901). Books on Charlotte Bronte,
Hazlitt, etc. Ed. Boswell's _Johnson_ (1907).
BLAIKIE, JOHN ARTHUR (1849).--Poet and journalist. _Madrigals, Songs, and
Sonnets_ (1870), _Love's Victory_ (1890), and _A Sextet of Singers_
BLAND, MRS. HUBERT ["E. NESBIT"] (1858).--Poet and novelist. _Lays and
Legends_ (1886), second series (1892), _A Pomander of Verse_ (1895), _In
Homespun_ (1896), _Secret of Kyriels_ (1898), _Book of Dragons_ (1900),
_Five Children and It_ (1902), _The Phoenix and the Carpet_ (1904), _The
Railway Children_ (1906), _Salome and the Head_ (1908), etc.
BLOUNDELLE-BURTON, JOHN EDWARD (1850).--Novelist. _Silent Shore_ (1886),
_Desert Ship_ (1890), _Denounced_ (1896), _A Bitter Heritage_ (1899), _A
Branded Name_ (1903), _A Woman from the Sea_ (1907), and _Last of her
Race_ (1908), etc.
BLUNT, WILFRID SCAWEN (1840).--Poet, etc. _Love Sonnets of Proteus_
(1880), _Future of Islam_ (1882), _The Wind and the Whirlwind_ (1883),
_Esther_ (1892), _The Stealing of the Mare_ (1892), _Seven Golden Odes of
Pagan Arabia_ (1903), _Secret History of the English Occupation of Egypt_
BOAS, FREDERICK S. (1862).--Scholar. _Shakespeare and his Predecessors_
(1896), ed. works of T. Kyd, and of Giles and Phineas Fletcher, etc.
BODLEY, JOHN EDWARD COURTENAY, D.C.L. (1853).--Historian. _France_, vol.
i. _The Revolution and Modern France_, vol. ii. _The Parliamentary
System_, _The Coronation of Edward VII._ (1903), _The Church in France_
"BOLDREWOOD, ROLF," (_see_ BROWNE).
BOURDILLON, F.W. (1852).--Poet, etc. _Among the Flowers_ (1878), _Sursum
Corda_ (1893), _Nephele_ (1896), etc.
BRADDON, MARY ELIZABETH (1837).--Novelist. _Lady Audley's Secret_,
_Aurora Floyd_ (1862), _Henry Dunbar_ (1864), _Only a Clod_ (1865), _The
Lady's Mile_ (1866), _Dead Sea Fruit_ (1869), _Robert Ainsleigh_ (1872),
_Hostages to Fortune_ (1875), _Vixen_ (1870), _Wyllard's Weird_ (1886),
_Rough Justice_ (1898), _His Darling Sin_ (1895), _The White House_
(1906), and many others.
BRADLEY, ANDREW CECIL, L.L.D., Litt.D., etc.--Critic. _A Commentary on
Tennyson's In Memoriam_ (1901), _Shakespearian Tragedy_ (1904), _Oxford
Lectures on Poetry_ (1909).
BRADLEY, FRANCIS HERBERT (1846).--Philosopher. _The Presuppositions of
Critical History_ (1874), _Ethical Studies_ (1876), _The Principles of
Logic_ (1883), and _Appearance and Reality_ (1893).
BRIDGES, ROBERT (1844).--Poet. _Essay on Milton's Prosody_, _Critical
Essay on Keats_. Poems, _The Growth of Love_, _Prometheus the Firegiver_,
_Eros and Psyche_. Plays, _Nero_, _Ulysses_, _Christian Captives_,
_Achilles in Scyros_, _Feast of Bacchus_, etc.
BROOKE, REV. STOPFORD AUGUSTUS, LL.D. (1832).--Writer on English
literature and theology, etc. _Theology of the English Poets_ (1874),
_Primer of English Literature_ (1876), _Riquet of the Tuft_ (1880),
(drama), _Unity of God and Man_ (1886), _Poems_ (1888), _History of Early
English Literature_ (1892), _History of English Literature_ (1894), and
_Gospel of Joy_ (1898).
BROUGHTON, RHODA (1840).--Novelist. _Cometh up as a Flower_ (1867), _Not
Wisely but too Well_ (1867), _Red as a Rose is She_ (1870), _Goodbye,
Sweetheart, Goodbye_ (1872), _Dr. Cupid_ (1886), _Scylla or Charybdis?_
(1895), _Dear Faustina_ (1897), _The Game and the Candle_ (1899), _Foes
in Law_ (1901), etc.
BROWN, PETER HUME, LL.D. (1850).--Historian. _George Buchanan, Humanist
and Reformer_ (1890), _Early Travellers in Scotland_ (1891), _Scotland
before 1700_ (1893), _John Knox, a Biography_ (1895), _History of
Scotland_ (1898-1909), etc.
BROWNE, THOMAS ALEXANDER (1826).--Australian novelist. _Robbery under
Arms_ (1888), _The Miner's Right_ (1890), _A Sydney-side Saxon_ (1891),
_A Modern Buccaneer_ (1894), _The Squatter's Dream_, _The Crooked Stick_,
_Old Melbourne Memories_ (1895), _A Canvas Town Romance_ (1898), _Babes
in the Bush_ (1900), _A Tale of the Golden West_ (1906), etc.
BROWNING, OSCAR (1837).--Historian, etc. _Modern England_ (1879), _Modern
France_ (1880), _England and Napoleon in 1803_ (1887), _History of
England_, in four vols. (1890), _True Stories from English History_
(1886), _Guelphs and Ghibellines_ (1894), _Wars of the Nineteenth
Century_ (1899), _History of Europe_ 1814-1843 (1901), and also Lives of
George Eliot, Dante, Goethe, Bartolommeo Colleoni, and Napoleon.
BRYCE, RIGHT HON. JAMES, P.C., D.C.L., etc. (1838).--Historical and
political writer, etc. _The Holy Roman Empire_ (1862), _Transcaucasia and
Ararat_ (1877), _The American Commonwealth_ (1888), _Studies in History
and Jurisprudence_ (1901), _Studies in Contemporary Biography_ (1903),
BUCHAN, JOHN (1875).--Novelist, etc. _Musa Piscatrix_ (1896),
_Scholar-Gipsies_ (1896), _John Burnet of Barns_ (1898), _The Watcher by
the Threshold_ (1902), and _A Lodge in the Wilderness_ (1906).
BUDGE, ERNEST A. WALLIS, Litt.D., etc.--Orientalist, etc. Has produced
ed. of numerous Assyrian and Egyptian texts. _The Dwellers on the Nile_
(1885), _Excavations at Aswan_ (1888), _Festival Songs of Isis and
Nephthys, etc._ (1891), _Book of the Dead_ (1895), _The Laughable Stories
of Bar-Hebraeus_ (1896), _A History of Egypt, etc._ (1902), _The Gods of
Egypt_ (1903), _The Egyptian Sudan_ (1907), etc.
BULLEN, ARTHUR HENRY (1857).--Ed. of Old English writers. Ed. Works of
John Day, dramatist (1881), _Collection of Old English Plays_ (1882-84),
_Selections from Poems of Michael Drayton_ (1883), ed. Works of Marlowe,
Middleton, Marston, Peele, Campion, _Lyrics from the Song Books of
Elizabethan Age_ (1886), _England's Helicon_ (1887), works of Thos.
Traherne, W. Strode, etc.
BULLEN, FRANK THOMAS (1857).--Writer of nautical romances. _The Cruise of
the Cachalot_, _Idylls of the Sea_, _With Christ at Sea_, _A Whaleman's
Wife_, _Sea Wrack_, _Sea Puritans_, _A Son of the Sea_, _Frank Brown_,
BURNAND, SIR FRANCIS COWLEY (1836).--Humorist and dramatist, ed. of
_Punch_ (1880-1906), to which he contributed _Mokeanna_, _Strapmore_,
_Happy Thoughts_, etc. Has written over 120 plays, including _Black-eyed
Susan_, _The Colonel_, _Contrabandista_, _His Majesty_, etc.
BURNETT, MRS. FRANCES HODGSON (1849).--Novelist and dramatist. _That Lass
o' Lowrie's_ (1877), _Haworths_ (1879), _A Fair Barbarian_ (1881),
_Through One Administration_ (1883), _Little Lord Fauntleroy_ (1886), _A
Lady of Quality_ (1896), _Making of a Marchioness_ (1901), etc. Plays,
_Phyllis_, _The Showman's Daughter_, _Esmeralda_, _Little Lord
BURY, JOHN B., LL.D., etc. (1861).--Historian. _History_ _of the Later
Roman Empire from Arcadius to Irene_ (1889), _History of Greece to Death
of Alexander the Great_ (1900), _Life of St. Patrick_ (1905); has ed.
_Pindar's Nemean Odes_ and _Isthmian Odes_, Gibbon's _Decline and Fall_,
and part of E.A. Freeman's works.
BUTCHER, SAMUEL HENRY, LL.D., etc. (1850).--Scholar. _Prose Translation
of the Odyssey_ (1879), with A. Lang, _Some Aspects of the Greek Genius_
(1891-1904), _Aristotle's Theory of Poetry_, (1895, 1903). etc.
BUTLER, SIR WILLIAM FRANCIS, G.C.B. (1838).--Traveller and biographer.
_The Great Lone Land_ (1872), _The Wild North Land_ (1873), _The Campaign
of the Cataracts_ (1887), _From Naboth's Vineyard_ (1907), Lives of Gen.
Gordon, Sir. C. Napier, Sir G.P. Colley, etc.
CABLE, GEORGE WASHINGTON (1844).--American novelist. _Old Creole Days_
(1879), _The Grandissimes_ (1880), _Madame Delphine_ (1881), _Dr. Sevier_
(1884), _John March_ (1884), _The Cavalier_ (1901), _Bylow Hill_ (1902),
CAINE, HALL (1853).--Novelist.--_Shadow of a Crime_ (1885), _Son of
Hagar_ (1886), _The Deemster_ (1887), _The Bondman_ (1890), _The
Scapegoat_ (1891), _The Manxman_ (1894), _The Christian_ (1897), _The
Eternal City_ (1901), _The Prodigal Son_ (1904), several of which have
been dramatised. Has also written books on Rossetti and Coleridge.
CAMBRIDGE, ADA (MRS. CROSS) (1844).--Australian novelist. _A Marked Man_
(1891), _The Three Miss Kings_ (1891), _A Little Minx_ (1893), _Fidelis_
(1895), _Materfamilias_ (1898), _The Devastators_ (1901), _A Happy
Marriage_ (1906), _The Eternal Feminine_ (1907), etc.
CAMPBELL, WILFRED, LL.D. (1861).--Poet. _Lake Lyrics_ (1889), _Dread
Voyage Poems_ (1893), _Mordred and Hildebrand Tragedies_ (1895), _Beyond
the Hills of Dream_ (1899), _Ian of the Orcades_ (1906) (novel), etc.
CASTLE, EGERTON (1858).--Novelist. _Consequences_ (1891), _The Light of
Scarthey_ (1895), _The Jerningham Letters_ (1896), _The Pride of Jennico_
(1898), _Desperate Remedies_ (play), _Young April_ (1899), _The Secret
Orchard_ (1899), _Incomparable Bellairs_ (1904), _Wroth_ (1908) (with
Agnes Castle), etc.
CHAMBERS, ROBERT WILLIAM (1865).--American novelist. _In the Quarter_
(1895), _The Red Republic_ (1896), _Lorraine_, _The Cambric Mask_, _The
Maids of Paradise_ (1903), _A Young Man in a Hurry_ (1906), _The Fighting
Chance_ (1907), etc.
CHESTERTON, GILBERT KEITH (1874).--Essayist, etc. _The Wild Knight_,
_Greybeards at Play_, _Twelve Types_, _The Napoleon of Notting Hill_
(1904), _Club of Queer Trades_ (1905), _Heretics_ (1905), _All Things
Considered_ (1908), books on R. Browning, Dickens, G.F. Watts, G.B. Shaw,
CHOLMONDELEY, MARY.--Novelist. _Diana Tempest_, _Red Pottage_, _Moth and
Rust_ (1902), _Prisoners_ (1906), etc.
CHURCHILL, WINSTON (1871).--American novelist. _The Celebrity_, _Richard
Carvel_ (1899), _The Crisis_ (1901), _The Crossing_ (1903), _Coniston_
(1906), _Mr. Crewe's Career_ (1908).
CLEMENS, SAMUEL LANGHORNE, (_see_ "TWAIN").
CLIFFORD, MRS. W.K. (LANE).--Novelist, etc. _Mrs. Keith's Crime_ (1885),
_Love Letters of a Worldly Woman_ (1891), _Aunt Anne_ (1893), _A Woman
Alone_ (1901), _The Modern Way_ (1906), etc., and various plays.
CLODD, EDWARD (1840).--Scientific writer, etc. _The Childhood of the
World_ (1872), _The Childhood of Religions_ (1875), _Myths and Dreams_
(1885), _Story of Primitive Man_ (1895), _Primer of Evolution_ (1895),
_Animism_ (1906), etc.
COLERIDGE, CHRISTABEL ROSE (1843).--Novelist. _Lady Betty_ (1869), _The
Face of Carlyon_ (1875), _An English Squire_ (1881), _A Near Relation_
(1886), _Waynflete_ (1893), _The Winds of Cathrigg_ (1901), etc.
COLVIN, SIDNEY, D.Litt. (1845).--Writer on art, etc. _A Florentine
Picture-Chronicle_ (1898), _Early Engraving and Engravers in England_
(1906), Lives of Keats, Landor; ed. Letters of Keats and R.L. Stevenson,
and the Edinburgh ed. of the latter's works, etc.
"CONNOR, RALPH" (Rev. C.W. GORDON) (1860).--Novelist, etc. _The Sky
Pilot_, _The Man from Glengarry_, _The Doctor of Crow's Nest_, etc.
CONRAD, JOSEPH.--Novelist. _Almayer's Folly_ (1895), _An Outcast of the
Islands_ (1896), _Tales of Unrest_ (1898), _Lord Jim_ (1900), _Typhoon_
(1903), _Nostromo_ (1904), _The Mirror of the Sea_ (1906), _The Secret
CORELLI, MARIE (1864).--Novelist. _A Romance of Two Worlds_ (1886),
_Vendetta_ (1886), _Thelma_ (1887), _Soul of Lilith_ (1892), _Sorrows of
Satan_ (1895), _Mighty Atom_ (1896), _Murder of Delicia_ (1896), _Ziska_
(1897), _The Master Christian_ (1900), _God's Good Man_ (1904), _The
Treasure of Heaven_ (1906), _Holy Orders_ (1908).
COTES, MRS. EVERARD (DUNCAN) (1861).--Novelist. _A Social Departure_
(1890), _American Girl in London_ (1891), _The Simple Adventures of a Mem
Sahib_, _Story of Sunny Sahib_, _His Honour and a Lady_, _Pool in the
Desert_ (1903), _Set in Authority_ (1906), etc.
COURTHOPE, WILLIAM JOHN, C.B., LL.D., etc. (1842).--Critic, biographer,
etc. _Ludibria Lunae_ (1869), _Paradise of Birds_ (1870), _History of
English Poetry_ (vol. vi. 1910), and Lives of Addison and Pope.
COURTNEY, Wm. LEONARD, LL.D. (1850).--Critic, etc. _Studies New and Old_
(1888), _Dramas and Diversions_ (1900), _The Literary Man's Bible_
CRADDOCK, CHARLES EGBERT (_see_ MURFREE).
CROCKETT, SAMUEL RUTHERFORD (1860).--Novelist and poet. _The Stickit
Minister_ (1893), _The Raiders_ (1894), _Lilac Sunbonnet_ (1894), _Bog,
Myrtle, and Peat_ (1895), _Men of the Moss Hags_ (1895), _Grey Man_
(1896), _Standard Bearer_ (1898), _Joan of the Sword Hand_ (1900), _Love
Idylls_ (1901), _Me and Myn_ (1907), _Bloom of the Heather_ (1908).
CROMMELIN, MAY DE LA CHEROIS.--Novelist. _Queenie_, _My Love She's but a
Lassie_, _Orange Lily_, _For the Sake of the Family_, _Crimson Lilies_,
_I Little Knew_, etc.
CUNNINGHAM, WILLIAM, D.D. (1849).--Economist, etc. _Growth of English
Industry and Commerce_, _Western Civilisation_, _Modern Civilisation_,
_Use and Abuse of Money_, _Path Towards Knowledge_, _Rise and Decline of
Free Trade_, etc.
CUNNINGHAME-GRAHAM, ROBERT BONTINE (1852).--Traveller, essayist, etc.
_Father Archangel of Scotland_ (1896), with Mrs. C.-G. _Aurora la
Cugini_, _Mogreb el Acksa_, _Journey in Morocco_ (1898), _Thirteen
Stories_ (1900), _A Vanished Arcadia_ (1901), _Life of Hernando de Soto_
DAVIS, RICHARD HARDING (1864).--American novelist, etc. _Soldiers of
Fortune_, _The Princess Aline_, _In the Fog_, _Captain Macklin_, _Real
Soldiers of Fortune_ (1906), also books on his adventures in Venezuela,
Cuba, South Africa, etc.
DE MORGAN, WILLIAM FREND (1839).--Novelist. _Joseph Vance: An Ill-written
Autobiography_ (1906), _Alice-for-short: A Dichronism_ (1907), _Somehow
Good_ (1908), _It Never can Happen Again_ (1909).
DICKINSON, GOLDSWORTHY LOWES.--Historical writer. _Revolution and
Reaction in Modern France_, _The Development of Parliament in the
Nineteenth Century_, _The Greek View of Life_, _The Meaning of Good_,
_Letters of John Chinaman_, _A Modern Symposium_, _Justice and Liberty_
DILKE, SIR CHARLES WENTWORTH, BART., P.C., LL.D., etc. (1843).--Political
writer. _Greater Britain_ (1868), _The Fall of Prince Floristan of
Monaco_, _Problems of Greater Britain_ (1890), etc.
DOBSON, HENRY AUSTIN, LL.D. (1840).--Poet and biographer. Poems,
_Vignettes in Rhyme_ (1873), _Proverbs in Porcelain_ (1877), _Old World
Idylls_ (1883), _At the Sign of the Lyre_ (1885). Prose, _Thomas Bewick
and his Pupils_ (1884), _Eighteenth Century Vignettes_ (3 series, 1892,
1894, and 1896), Lives of Fielding (1883), Steele (1886), Goldsmith
(1888), H. Walpole (1890), Hogarth (1891), Richardson (1892), etc. Ed.
Diaries of Madame D'Arblay, J. Evelyn, etc.
DOUGHTY, ARTHUR.--Historical and miscellaneous writer. _Life and Works of
Tennyson_ (1893), _Song Story of Francesca and Beatrice_ (1896), _The
Siege of Quebec and Battle of the Plains of Abraham_ (6 vols. 1901-2),
_The Fortress of Quebec_ (1904), etc.
DOUGHTY, CHARLES MONTAGUE.--Traveller and poet. _Wanderings in Arabia_
(1908) (new ed. abridged from _Arabia Deserta_), _The Dawn in Britain_,
_Adam Cast Forth_ (1906), _The Cliffs_ (1909).
DOUGLAS, SIR GEORGE BRISBANE SCOTT, BART. (1856).--Poet and miscellaneous
writer. _Poems_ (1880), _The Fireside Tragedy_ (1896), _New Border Tales_
(1892), _Poems of a Country Gentleman_ (1897), _History of Border
Counties_, Lives of James Hogg and General Wauchope, etc.
DOUGLAS, JAMES (1869).--_The Man in the Pulpit_ (1905), _The Unpardonable
Sin_ (1907), _Theodore Watts-Dunton_.
DOWDEN, EDWARD, LL.D., D.C.L. (1843).--Literary critic, etc.
_Shakespeare, his Mind and Art_ (1875), _Shakespeare Primer_ (1877),
_Studies in Literature_ (1878), _The French Revolution and English
Literature_ (1897), _A History of French Literature_ (1897), books on
Shelley, Browning, Montaigne; ed. Shakespeare's Sonnets, _The Passionate
Pilgrim_ (1883), the Correspondence of Henry Taylor, Works of Shelley,
DOYLE, SIR ARTHUR CONAN, LL.D. (1859).--Novelist. _A Study in Scarlet_
(1887), _Micah Clarke_ (1888), _The Sign of Four_ (1889), _White Company_
(1890), _Firm of Girdlestone_ (1890), _Adventures of Sherlock Holmes_
(1891), _Memoirs of Sherlock Holmes_ (1893), _Exploits of Brigadier
Gerard_ (1896), _Uncle Bernac_ (1897), _Sir Nigel_ (1906), etc.
DUCLAUX, MADAME, (_see_ ROBINSON, A.M.F.)
DUDENEY, MRS. HENRY (WHIFFIN) (1866).--Novelist. _A Man with a Maid_
(1897), _Folly Corner_, _Men of Marlowe's_, _Robin Brilliant_, _Wise
Words_, _The Orchard Thief_ (1907), etc.
EDWARDS, MATILDA BETHAM.--Novelist, etc. _The White House by the Sea_,
_Dr. Jacob_, _John and I_, _The Sylvesters_, _France of To-day_, _The
Golden Bee_ (ballads) (1896), _Anglo-French Reminiscences_ (1899), _A
Suffolk Courtship_ (1900), and _Home Life in France_ (1905).
EDWARDS, OWEN MORGAN (1858).--Writer on Welsh history and literature.
_Story of Wales_ (1902), and several books (_Tro yn yr Eidal_, etc.) in
Welsh, and has ed. various Welsh texts, etc.
ELLIS, ROBINSON (1834).--Scholar. _The Poems and Fragments of Catullus in
the Metres of the Original_ (1871), _A Commentary on Catullus_ (1876),
_The Ibis of Ovid, etc._ (1881), _The Fables of Avianus_ (1887), _Noctes
Manilianae_ (1891), many separate lectures on classical subjects, etc.
ELTON, OLIVER (1861).--Critical writer, etc. _The Augustan Ages_ (Periods
of European Literature) (1890), _Michael Drayton_ (1906); has ed. some of
Milton's poems and translated Mythical Books of Saxo Grammaticus'
ESLER, MRS. ERMINDA (RENTOUL).--Novelist. _The Way of Transgressors_
(1890), _The Way they loved at Grimpat_ (1894), _'Mid Green Pastures_
(1895), _Youth at the Prow_ (1898), _Awakening of Helena Thorpe_ (1901),
_The Trackless Way_ (1904), etc.
EVERETT-GREEN, Miss EVELYN (1856).--Novelist, etc. _Last of the Dacres_
(1886), _Dare Lorimer's Heritage_ (1892), _French and English_ (1898),
_Heir of Hascombe Hall_ (1899), _Dufferin's Keep_ (1905), etc.
"FIELD, MICHAEL".--Poet (pen-name adopted by two ladies, understood to be
Miss Bradley and Miss Cooper). _Callirrhoe_ (1884), _Brutus Ultor_
(1887), _Fair Rosamund_ (1884), _The Father's Tragedy_ (1885),
_Stephania_ (1892), _Canute the Great_ (1887), _Anna Ruina_ (1899),
_Julia Danna_ (1903), and _Wild Honey_ (1908).
FINDLATER, JANE HELEN.--Novelist. _Green Graves of Balgowrie_, _A
Daughter of Strife_, _Rachel_, _Tales that are Told_ (with Mary
Findlater), _Story of a Mother_, _Stones from a Glass House_, _The Affair
at the Inn_ (with K.D. Wiggin), _The Ladder to the Stars_ (1906), etc.
FISHER, HERBERT ALBERT LAURENS (1865).--Historian. _The Mediaeval Empire_
(1898), _Studies in Napoleonic Statesmanship_ (1903), _A Political
History of England_ (1906), etc.
FISON, LORIMER, D.D. (1832).--Anthropologist. _Kamilaroi and Kurnai_,
_Group Marriage and Marriage by Elopement_ (with A.W. Hewitt), _Land
Tenure in Fiji_, _Tales from Old Fiji_, etc.
FITZMAURICE-KELLY, JAMES (1858).--Writer on Spanish literature. _Life of
Cervantes_ (1892), _History of Spanish Literature_ (1898), _Lope de Vega
and the Spanish Drama_ (1902), _Cervantes in England_ (1905), ed.
complete Works of Cervantes, etc.
FLEMING, DAVID HAY, LL.D. (1849).--Historian and antiquary. _Charters of
St. Andrews_ (1883), _Martyrs and Confessors of St. Andrews_ (1887),
_Scotland after the Union of the Crowns_ (1890), _Mary Queen of Scots_
(1897), _Scottish History and Life_ (3 sections, 1902), _Story of the
FLINT, ROBERT, D.D., LL.D. (1838).--Writer on philosophy, sociology, and
theology. _Philosophy of History in Europe_ (1874), _Theism_ (1877),
_Anti-Theistic Theories_ (1879), _Historical Philosophy in France_
(1894), _Socialism_ (1894), _Agnosticism_ (1903), etc.
FORMAN, HARRY BUXTON, C.B. (1842).--Biographer, etc. _Our Living Poets_
(1871), ed. Works of Shelley (1876-80), _Letters of John Keats to Fanny
Brawne_ (1878), _Poetical Works of John Keats_, and books on E.B.
Browning, W. Morris, etc.
FOWLER, ELLEN THORNEYCROFT (MRS. FELKIN).--Novelist, etc. _Concerning
Isabel Carnaby_ (1898), _A Double Thread_ (1899), _The Farringdons_
(1900), _Fuel of Fire_ (1902), and with A.L. Felkin, _Kate of Kate Hall_
(1904), _In Subjection_ (1906), also some books of verse, etc.
FOX, JOHN (1863).--American novelist. _A Cumberland Vendetta_, _The
Kentuckians_, _Blue Grass_, _Little Shepherd of Kingdom Come_, etc.
FRASER, ALEXANDER CAMPBELL, LL.D., D.C.L. (1819).--Philosopher. _Essays
in Philosophy_ (1846-56), _Collected Works of Bishop Berkeley_, annotated
(1871), _Life and Letters of Berkeley_ (1871), _Locke's Essay on the
Human Understanding with Prolegomena, etc._ (1894), _Philosophy of
Theism_ (1898), _Biographia Philosophica_ (1904), etc.
FRAZER, JAMES GEORGE, LL.D., D.C.L., (1854).--Writer on comparative
religion, etc. _Totemism_ (1887), _The Golden Bough_ (1890), _Lectures on
the Early History of the Kingship_ (1905), _Adonis, Attis, Osiris,
Studies in the History of Oriental Religion_ (1906), _Questions on the
Customs, Beliefs, and Languages of Savages_ (1907), etc.
FURNESS, HORACE HOWARD, Ph.D., LL.D. (1833).--Shakespearian scholar.
Variorum ed. of Shakespeare (1871).
FURNIVALL, FREDERICK JAMES, Ph.D., D.Litt., (1825).--Scholar. Has ed.
many publications in connection with the Early English Text, Chaucer,
Ballad, New Shakespeare, and similar Societies, of several of which he
was the founder.
GAIRDNER, JAMES, C.B., LL.D. (1828).--Historian. Ed. in Rolls Series
_Memorials of Henry VII._, _Letters and Papers of the Reigns of Richard
III. and Henry VII._, _Calendar of Henry VIII._, vols. v. to xx., ed. the
_Paston Letters_ (1900), and various vols. for the Camden Society, author
of _England_ in the Early Chroniclers of Europe Series, a Life of Richard
III., _The English Church in the Sixteenth Century to the Death of Mary_
GALSWORTHY, JOHN (1867).--Novelist and playwright. Novels: _Jocelyn_
(1898), _Villa Rubein_ (1900), _The Island Pharisees_ (1904), _The Man of
Property_ (1906), _The Country House_ (1907), _A Commentary_ (1908),
_Fraternity_ (1909). Plays: _The Silver Box_ (1906), _Joy_ (1907), and
_Strife_ (1909), _Justice_ (1910).
GALTON, SIR FRANCIS, F.R.S., D.C.L. (1822).--Traveller and
anthropologist. _Tropical South Africa_ (1853), _Hereditary Genius_
(1869), _English Men of Science, their Nature and Nurture_ (1874), _Human
Faculty_ (1883), _Natural Inheritance_ (1889), _Finger Prints_ (1893),
_Noteworthy Families_ (with E. Schuster) (1906), etc.
GARDNER, EDMUND GARRATT (1869).--Miscellaneous writer. _Dante's Ten
Heavens_ (1898), _Story of Florence_ (1900), _Dukes and Ports in Ferrara_
(1904), _The King of Court Poets_ (1906), _Saint Catherine of Siena_
(1907), _Lyrical Poetry of Dante Alighieri_ (1910), etc.
GARDNER, ERNEST ARTHUR (1862).--Writer on Greek antiquities. _Chapter on
Inscriptions in Naukratis I._ (1886), _Naukratis II._ (1888), _Handbook
of Greek Sculpture_ (1896-97), _A Companion to Greek Studies_ (1905),
GARDNER, PERCY, Litt.D., LL.D. (1846).--Writer on Greek art, etc. Part
ed. of the British Museum Coin Catalogues (1873-86), _The Parthian
Coinage_ (1877), _Samos and Samian Coinage_ (1882), _The Types of Greek
Coins_ (1883), _New Chapters in Greek History_ (1892), _Sculptured Tombs
of Hellas_ (1896), _Historic View of the New Testament_ (1901). etc.
GARNETT, CONSTANCE (1862).--Translator of _Novels and Tales of Turgenev_
GARNETT, EDWARD (1868).--Dramatic critic, etc. _An Imaged World_ (1894),
_The Breaking Point_ (a censored play, 1907).
GASQUET, RIGHT REV. FRANCIS AIDAN, D.D. (1846).--Historical writer.
_Henry VIII. and the English Monasteries_ (1888-89), _Edward VI. and the
Book of Common Prayer_ (1890), _The Great Pestilence_ (1893), _Sketch of
Monastic Constitutional History_ (1896), _Short History of the Catholic
Church in England_ (1903), _Lord Acton and his Circle_, _Parish Life in
Mediaeval England_ (1906), etc.
GIBERNE, AGNES.--Novelist and scientific writer. Tales, _Conlyng Castle_,
_Life Tangles_, _Roy_, _Stories of the Abbey Precincts_, _Rowena_
(1906), _Astronomy_, _Sun, Moon, and Stars_, _Starry Skies_, _The World's
Foundations_, _Radiant Suns_, etc.
GILBERT, SIR WILLIAM SCHWENK (1836).--Dramatist and humorist. _The Palace
of Truth_ (1870), _Pygmalion and Galatea_ (1871), _Trial by Jury_ (1878),
_Pinafore_, _Pirates of Penzance_, _Patience_, _Iolanthe_, _The Mikado_,
_Yeomen of the Guard_, _Bab Ballads_.
GOLLANCZ, ISRAEL, Litt.D. (1864).--Scholar. Ed. _Cynewulf's Christ_
(1892), _Exeter Book of Anglo-Saxon Poetry_ (Early English Text Society),
and ed. Temple Shakespeare (1894-96).
GORDON-STABLES, WILLIAM (1840).--Novelist and writer of boys' books. Has
written 136 books, including _Cruise of the "Snowbird,"_ _Every Inch a
Sailor_, _Our Humble Friends and Fellow-Mortals_, _Pirates' Gold_, _Frank
Hardinge_, _The Rose o' Allandale_, etc.
GOSSE, EDMUND, LL.D. (1849).--Poet and critic. _On Viol and Flute_
(1873), _King Erik_ (1876), _New Poems_ (1879), _Firdausi in Exile_
(1885), _Collected Poems_ (1896), _Seventeenth Century Studies_ (1883),
_History of Eighteenth Century Literature_ (1889), _Secret of Narcisse_
(1892), _The Jacobean Poets_ (1894), _History of Modern English
Literature_ (1897), _French Profiles_ (1905), _Father and Son_ (1908),
and Lives of Gray (1882), Congreve (1888), P.H. Gosse (1890), Donne
(1899), Jeremy Taylor (1904), C. Patmore (1905), Sir Thomas Browne
GOULD, NATHANIEL (1857).--Sporting novelist. _The Double Event_ (1891),
_Running it Off_ (1892), _Thrown Away_ (1894), _The Miner's Cup_ (1896),
_A Gentleman Rider_ (1898), _A Stable Mystery_ (1900), _The Rajah's
Racer_ (1904), _A Sporting Squatter_ (1906), _A Run of Luck_ (1907),
etc., and many others.
GRAHAME, KENNETH.--Novelist. _Pagan Papers_ (1893), _The Golden Age_
(1895), _Dream Days_ (1898), and _The Headswoman_ (1898).
GRAND, SARAH (CLARKE).--Novelist. _Singularly Deluded_, _Ideala_, _The
Heavenly Twins_ (1893), _Our Manifold Nature_ (1894), _The Modern Man and
Maid_ (1898), _Babs the Impossible_ (1900), etc.
GRAVES, ALFRED PERCEVAL (1846).--Writer of Irish songs, etc. _Songs of
Killarney_ (1872), _Irish Songs and Ballads_ (1879), _Father O'Flynn and
other Irish Lyrics_ (1889), _Irish Song Book_ (1894), _The Post Bag_
"GRAY, MAXWELL" (TUTTIETT).--Novelist. _The Silence of Dean Maitland_
(1886), _Reproach of Annesley_ (1888), _An Innocent Impostor_ (1892),
_Sweethearts and Friends_ (1897), _Four-leaved Clover_ (1891), _The Great
Refusal_ (1906), and several vols. of poetry, etc.
GRUNDY, SYDNEY (1848).--Dramatist. _Mammon_ (1877), _Silver Shield_
(1885), _A White Lie_ (1889), _A Fool's Paradise_ (1889), _Sowing the
Wind_ (1893), _The New Woman_ (1894), _A Marriage of Convenience_ (1897),
_The Black Tulip_ (1899), etc.
GUTHRIE, THOMAS ANSTEY ("F. ANSTEY") (1856).--Novelist. _Vice-Versa_
(1882), _The Giant's Robe_ (1883), _The Black Poodle_ (1884), _The Tinted
Venus_ (1885), _The Pariah_ (1889), _Voces Populi_, _The Statement of
Stella Maberley_, _Baboo Jabberjee_, _Love Among the Lions_, _The
Travelling Companions_, _The Brass Bottle_ (1900), _Salted Almonds_
HAGGARD, HENRY RIDER (1856).--Novelist, etc. _The Witch's Head_ (1885),
_King Solomon's Mines_ (1886), _She_ (1887), _Jess_ (1887), _Allan
Quatermain_ (1887), _Maiwa's Revenge_ (1888), _Cleopatra_ (1889),
_Beatrice_ (1890), _Nada the Lily_ (1892), _Montezuma's Daughter_ (1894),
_Joan Haste_ (1895), _A Farmer's Year_ (1899), _Lysbeth_ (1901), _Rural
England_ (1902), _The Brethren_ (1904), _A Gardener's Year_ (1905),
_Ayesha_ (1905), _The Poor and the Land_ (1905), _Fair Margaret_ (1907),
HALES, JOHN WESLEY (1836).--Scholar, co-ed. of Percy's folio MS., ed.
_Longer English Poems_, author of _Shakespeare Essays and Notes_, etc.
HARDY, ERNEST GEORGE, D.Litt. (1852).--Writer on Roman History.
_Christianity and the Roman Government_, _A History of Jesus College_,
_Studies in Roman History_, ed. Plato's _Republic_, book i. Juvenal's
HARDY, THOMAS, LL.D. (1840).--Novelist. _A Short Story_ (1865),
_Desperate Remedies_ (1871), _Under the Greenwood Tree_ (1872), _A Pair
of Blue Eyes_ (1872-73), _Far from the Madding Crowd_ (1874), _Hand of
Ethelberta_ (1876), _Return of the Native_ (1878), _The Trumpet Major_
(1879), _A Laodicean_ (1870-71), _Two on a Tower_ (1882), _The Mayor of
Casterbridge_ (1884-85), _The Woodlanders_ (1886-87), _Wessex Tales_
(1888), _A Group of Noble Dames_ (1891), _Tess of the D'Urberville's_
(1891), _Life's Little Ironies_ (1894), _Jude, the Obscure_ (1895), _The
Well-Beloved_ (1897), _Wessex Poems_ (1898), _Poems of the Past and the
Present_ (1901), _The Dynasts_ (drama), part i. (1904), and part ii.
(1906), _Time's Laughing Stocks_ (1909).
HARRADEN, BEATRICE (1864).--Novelist. _Ships that Pass in the Night_
(1893), _In Varying Moods_ (1894), _Hilda Strafford_ (1897), _The Fowler_
(1899), _Katharine Frensham_ (1903), _The Scholar's Daughter_ (1903),
also tales for children, etc.
HARRIS, FRANK (1856).--Novelist, etc. _Elder Conklin_, _The Man William
Shakespeare_ (1898), _Montes the Matador_ (1900). Play: _Mr. and Mrs.
Daventry_. Formerly editor of _Saturday Review_ and _Fortnightly Review_.
HARRISON, FREDERIC, Litt.D. (1831).--Historical and miscellaneous writer.
_Meaning of History_ (1862), enlarged (1894), _Order and Progress_
(1875), _The Choice of Books_ (1886), _Oliver Cromwell_ (1888), _Annals
of an Old Manor-house_ (1893), _Victorian Literature_ (1895),
_Introduction to Comte's Positive Philosophy_, _Tennyson, Ruskin, Mill,
and Others_ (1899), _Byzantine History in the Early Middle Ages_ (1900),
_Life of Ruskin_ (1902), _Theophano_ (1904), _Nicephorus, a Tragedy of
New Rome_ (1906), _The Creed of a Layman_ (1907), etc.
HARRISON, MISS JANE ELLEN, LL.D., etc. (1850).--Writer on Greek art and
religion. _Myths of the Odyssey in Art and Literature_ (1882),
_Introductory Studies in Greek Art_ (1885), _Mythology and Monuments of
Ancient Athens_ (1890) (with Mrs. A.W. Verrall), _Prolegomena to Study of
Greek Religion_, etc.
HARRISON, MARY ST. LEGER ("LUCAS MALET").--Novelist. _Mrs. Lorimer_
(1882), _Colonel Enderby's Wife_ (1885), _A Counsel of Perfection_
(1888), _The Wages of Sin_ (1891), _The Carissima_ (1896), _History of
Sir Richard Calmady_ (1901), etc.
HASSALL, ARTHUR (1853).--Historian. _Handbook of European History_
(1897), _The Balance of Power_ (1715-89), in Periods of European History,
of which he is ed. (1896), _A Class Book of English History_ (1901),
_History of France_ (1901), _The French People_ (1901), _The Tudor
Dynasty_ (1904), arranged Stubbs' _Introductions_ in Rolls Series, and
other works of his, author of Lives of Bolingbroke, Louis XIV., Mazarin,
HAWKINS, ANTHONY HOPE ("ANTHONY HOPE") (1863).--Novelist. _The Prisoner
of Zenda_, _The God in the Car_, _Dolly Dialogues_, _Rupert of Hentzau_,
_Tristram of Blent_, _The King's Mirror_, _The Intrusions of Peggy_,
_Double Harness_, _Sophie of Kravonia_, two plays, etc.
HAWTHORNE, JULIAN (1846).--Novelist, etc. _Saxon Studies_ (1874),
_Archibald Malmaison_ (1878), _Dust_ (1882), _Fortune's Fool_ (1883),
_Fool of Nature_ (1897), a Life of his _f._, Nathaniel H., etc.
HAYES, ALFRED (1857).--Poet. _Death of St. Louis_ (1885), _The Last
Crusade and other Poems_ (1886), _The Vale of Arden_ (1895), etc.
HAZLITT, WILLIAM CAREW (1834).--Critic, etc. _The Venetian Republic_
(1900), ed. Warton's _History of English Poetry_, _Biographical
Collections and Notes_ (8 vols. 1876-1904), ed. Letters of Charles
Lamb, _Memoirs of William Hazlitt_, _The Lambs_ (1897), _Shakespeare,
the Man and his Works_, _Coins of Europe_ (1893-97), etc.
HERFORD, CHARLES HAROLD, Litt.D. (1853).--Scholar and critical writer.
_Studies in the Literary Relations of England and Germany in the
Sixteenth Century_ (1886), _The Age of Wordsworth_ (1897), _English Tales
in Verse_ (1902), _The Social History of the English Drama_ (1881); has
done much work on Shakespeare, ed. _Eversley Shakespeare_ (10 vols.
1899), and has made translations from Ibsen, etc.
HEWLETT, MAURICE HENRY (1861).--Poet and novelist. _Earthwork out of
Tuscany_ (1895), _The Masque of Dead Florentines_ (1895), _Songs and
Meditations_ (1897), _Pan and the Young Shepherd_ (1898), _The Forest
Lovers_ (1898), _Little Novels of Italy_ (1899), _The Queen's Quair_
(1904), _The Stooping Lady_ (1907), etc.
HICHENS, ROBERT SMYTHE (1864).--Novelist, etc. _The Green Carnation_, _An
Imaginative Man_ (1895), _Tongues of Conscience_ (1900), _Prophet of
Berkeley Square_ (1901), _The Call of the Blood_ (1906), and various
HIGGINSON, THOMAS WENTWORTH (1823).--American essayist, etc. _Outdoor
Papers_, _Malbone_ (a romance), _Army Life in a Black Regiment_, _Oldport
Days_, _Young Folks' History of the United States_, _Common Sense about
Women_, _Concerning all of Us_, _Cheerful Yesterdays_ (autobiography),
_Tales of the Enchanted Islands_, etc.
HOCKING, REV. JOSEPH.--Novelist. _Zillah_ (1892), _The Birthright_
(1897), _Esau_ (1904), _Chariots of the Lord_ (1905), _A Strong Man's
Vow_ (1907), etc.
HOCKING, REV. SILAS KITTO (1850).--Novelist. _Ivy_ (1881), _Real Grit_
(1887), _In Spite of Fate_ (1897), _Gripped_ (1902), _A Modern Pharisee_
HODGKIN, THOMAS, D.C.L., etc. (1831).--Historian. _Italy and her
Invaders_, 8 vols. (1880-1899), _Letters of Cassiodorus_ (1886), _Dynasty
of Theodosius_ (1889), _Life of Theodoric_ (1891), _Life of Charles the
Great_ (Foreign Statesmen Series) (1897), etc.
"HOPE, ANTHONY," (_see_ HAWKINS, ANTHONY HOPE).
HORNUNG, ERNEST WILLIAM (1866).--Novelist. _A Bride from the Bush_
(1890), _The Boss of Taroomba_, _The Unbidden Guest_ (1894), _Dead Men
tell no Tales_ (1899), _The Amateur Cracksman_ (1899), _The Black Mask_,
_A Thief in the Night_ (1905), etc.
HOUSMAN, ALFRED EDWARD (1859).--Scholar, etc. _A Shropshire Lad_ (1896),
ed. Juvenal and other classics.
HOUSMAN, LAURENCE (1867).--Artist, poet, etc. _The Writings of William
Blake_ (1893), _A Farm in Fairyland_ (1894), _The House of Joy_ (1895),
_Green Arras_ (1896), _Gods and their Makers_ (1897), _Spikenard_ (1898),
_The Field of Clover_ (1898), _Rue_ (1899), _Sabrina Warham_ (1904),
_Prunella, or Love in a Dutch Garden_ (1906); has illustrated "Goblin
Market," "The Were Wolf," "Jump to Glory Jane," etc.
HOWELLS, WILLIAM DEAN, D.Litt. (1837).--American novelist, etc. _A
Foregone Conclusion_, _A Chance Acquaintance_, _A Counterfeit
Presentment_, _The Undiscovered Country_, _Modern Italian Poets_, _Indian
Summer_, _Heroines of Fiction_ (1901), _Miss Bellard's Inspiration_
(1905), _Through the Eye of the Needle_ (1907), etc.
HUDSON, W.H. (1862).--Naturalist and traveller. _The Purple Land_ (1885),
_The Naturalist in La Plata_ (1892), _Idle Days in Patagonia_ (1893),
_British Birds_ (1895), _Green Mansions_ (1904), _A Crystal Age_ (1906),
HUEFFER, FORD MADOX (1873).--Novelist, etc. _The Brown Owl_, _The
Inheritors_ and _Romance_ (both with J. Conrad), _The Face of the Night_
(1904), _The Soul of London_ (1905), _An English Girl_ (1907), _A Call_
(1910), Life of Madox Brown, etc.
HUTTON, EDWARD (1875).--Writer on Italian Art, etc. _Italy and the
Italians_ (1902), _The Cities of Umbria_ (1905), _The Cities of Spain_
(1906), _Sigismondo Malatesta_ (1906), _Giovanni Boccaccio_ (1910), etc.
HUTTON, REV. WILLIAM HOLDEN, B.D. (1860).--Historian, _The Misrule of
Henry III._, _The Church of the Sixth Century_, _Short History of the
Church in Great Britain_, _The English Church_ (1625-1714), and Lives of
Simon de Montfort, Laud, Sir T. More, etc.
HYDE, DOUGLAS, LL.D.--Irish scholar. _Beside the Fire_, _Love Songs of
Connacht_ (1894), _Three Sorrows of Story-telling_ (1895), _Story of
Early Irish Literature_ (1897), _A Literary History of Ireland_ (1899),
and various works in Irish; has ed. various Irish texts, and made
translations into English.
JACOBS, JOSEPH (1854).--Writer on folk-lore and Jewish history. _English
Fairy Tales_ (1890), _Celtic Fairy Tales_ (1891), _Indian Fairy Tales_
(1892), _Reynard the Fox_ (1895), _Jews of Angevin England_ (1893),
_Sources of the History of the Jews in Spain_ (1895); has ed. various
English classics, _e.g._, Caxton's "AEsop" and Howell's "Familiar
Letters," and many modern works, etc.
JACOBS, WILLIAM WYMARK (1863).--Novelist. _Many Cargoes_ (1896), _The
Skipper's Wooing_ (1897), _A Master of Craft_ (1900), _At Sunwich Port_
(1902), _Odd Craft_ (1903), _Dialstone Lane_ (1904), _Short Cruises_
(1907). Plays (with Louis N. Parker), _Beauty and the Barge_, _The
Monkey's Paw_, etc.
JAMES, HENRY (1843).--American novelist and critic. _A Passionate
Pilgrim_ (1875), _The American_ (1877), _The Europeans_ (1878), _Daisy
Miller_ (1878), _A Bundle of Letters_ (1879), _Washington Square_ (1880),
_The Bostonians_ (1886), _A London Life_ (1889), _Terminations_ (1896),
_What Maisie Knew_ (1897), _The Two Magics_ (1898), _The Sacred Fount_
(1901), _The Ambassador_ (1903), _The American Scene_ (1907); in
criticism, _French Poets and Novelists_ (1878), _Partial Portraits_, etc.
JAMES, WILLIAM, LL.D., etc. (1842).--Psychologist. _Principles of
Psychology_ (1890), _Human Immortality_ (1897), _The Varieties of
Religious Experience_ (1902), _Pragmatism_ (1907), and _The Meaning of
JEROME, JEROME KLAPKA (1860).--Novelist, playwright, etc. _On the Stage
and Off_ (1885), _Idle Thoughts of an Idle Fellow_ (1889), _Three Men in
a Boat_ (1891), _Sketches in Lavender_ (1897), _Paul Kelver_ (1902),
_Tommy & Co._ (1904). Plays, _The Passing of the Third Floor Back_
JESSOP, REV. AUGUSTUS, D.D. (1824).--Historian. _One Generation of a
Norfolk House_ (1878), _History of the Diocese of Norwich_ (1879),
_Arcady for Better or Worse_ (1881), _The Coming of the Friars_ (1885),
_Random Roaming_ (1896), _Before the Great Pillage_ (1901), ed. works by
JEWETT, SARAH ORME (1849).--American novelist. _Deephaven_, _The Country
JONES, HENRY ARTHUR (1851).--Dramatist. _A Clerical Error_ (1879), _The
Silver King_ (1882), _Saints and Sinners_ (1884), _The Middleman_ (1889),
_The Case of Rebellious Susan_ (1894), _The Liars_ (1897), _The
Hypocrites_ (1906), etc.
KIDD, BENJAMIN (1858).--Sociologist, etc. _Social Evolution_ (1894),
_Principles of Western Civilisation_ (1902), etc.
KIPLING, RUDYARD (1865).--Novelist, etc. _Departmental Ditties_ (1886),