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A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature by John W. Cousin

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displayed a turbulent and unruly temper, and only obtained a degree by
"special grace." After the Revolution he joined his mother, then resident
at Leicester, by whose influence he was admitted to the household of Sir
William Temple (_q.v._) at Moor Park, Lady T. being her distant
kinswoman. Here he acted as sec., and having access to a well-stocked
library, made good use of his opportunities, and became a close student.
At Moor Park he met many distinguished men, including William III., who
offered him a troop of horse; he also met Esther Johnson (Stella), a
natural _dau._ of Sir William, who was afterwards to enter so largely
into his life. Dissatisfied, apparently, that Temple did not do more for
his advancement, he left his service in 1694 and returned to Ireland,
where he took orders, and obtained the small living of Kilroot, near
Belfast. While there he wrote his _Tale of a Tub_, one of the most
consummate pieces of satire in any language, and _The Battle of the
Books_, with reference to the "Phalaris" controversy (_see_ Bentley),
which were _pub._ together in 1704. In 1698 he threw up his living at the
request of Temple, who felt the want of his society and assistance, and
returned to Moor Park. On the death of his patron in 1699 he undertook by
request the publication of his works, and thereafter returned to Ireland
as chaplain to the Lord Deputy, the Earl of Berkeley, from whom he
obtained some small preferments, including the vicarage of Laracor, and a
prebend in St. Patrick's Cathedral. At this time he made frequent visits
to London and became the friend of Addison, Steele, Congreve, and other
Whig writers, and wrote various pamphlets, chiefly on ecclesiastical
subjects. In 1710, disgusted with the neglect of the Whigs, alike of
himself and of the claims of his Church, he abandoned them and attached
himself to Harley and Bolingbroke. The next few years were filled with
political controversy. He attacked the Whigs in papers in the _Examiner_
in 1710, and in his celebrated pamphlets, _The Conduct of the Allies_
(1712), _The Barrier Treaty_ (1713), and _The Public Spirit of the Whigs_
(1714). In 1713 he was made Dean of St. Patrick's, the last piece of
patronage which he received. The steady dislike of Queen Anne had proved
an insurmountable obstacle to his further advancement, and her death
proved the ruin of the Tories. On the destruction of his hopes S. retired
to Ireland, where he remained for the rest of his life a thoroughly
embittered man. In 1713 he had begun his _Journal to Stella_, which sheds
so strange a light upon his character, and on his return to Ireland his
marriage to her is now generally believed to have taken place, though
they never lived together. Now also took place also his final rupture
with Miss Van Homrigh (Vanessa), who had been in love with him, with whom
he had maintained a lengthened correspondence, and to whom he addressed
his poem, _Cadenus and Vanessa_ (1726). Though he disliked the Irish and
considered residence in Ireland as banishment, he interested himself in
Irish affairs, and attained extraordinary popularity by his _Drapier's
Letters_, directed against the introduction of "Wood's halfpence." In
1726 he visited England and joined with Pope and Arbuthnot in publishing
_Miscellanies_ (1727). In the same year, 1726, he _pub._ _Gulliver's
Travels_, his most widely and permanently popular work. His last visit to
England was paid in 1727 and in the following year "Stella," the only
being, probably, whom he really loved, _d._ Though he had a circle of
friends in Dublin, and was, owing to his championing the people in their
grievances, a popular idol, the shadows were darkening around him. The
fears of insanity by which he had been all his life haunted, and which
may account for and perhaps partly excuse some of the least justifiable
portions of his conduct, pressed more and more upon him. He became
increasingly morose and savage in his misanthropy, and though he had a
rally in which he produced some of his most brilliant, work--the
_Rhapsody on Poetry_, _Verses on the Death of Dr. Swift_, and; the
_Modest Proposal_ (a horrible but masterly piece of irony)--he gradually
sank into almost total loss of his facilities, and _d._ on October 19,
1745.

The character of S. is one of the gloomiest and least attractive among
English writers. Intensely proud, he suffered bitterly in youth and early
manhood from the humiliations of poverty and dependence, which preyed
upon a mind in which the seeds of insanity were latent until it became
dominated by a ferocious misanthropy. As a writer he is our greatest
master of grave irony, and while he presents the most humorous ideas, the
severity of his own countenance never relaxes. The _Tale of a Tub_ and
_Gulliver's Travels_ are the greatest satires in the English language,
although the concluding part of the latter is a savage and almost insane
attack upon the whole human race. His history is a tragedy darkening into
catastrophe, and as Thackeray has said, "So great a man he seems that
thinking of him is like thinking of an Empire falling."

S. was tall and powerfully made. His eyes, blue and flashing under
excitement, were the most remarkable part of his appearance.

SUMMARY.--_B._ 1667, _ed._ at Trinity Coll., Dublin, entered household of
Sir W. Temple at Moor Park 1692, and became his sec., became known to
William III., and met E. Johnson (Stella), left T. in 1694 and returned
to Ireland, took orders and wrote _Tale of a Tub_ and _Battle of Books_
(_pub._ 1704), returned to Sir W.T. 1698, and on his death in 1699 _pub._
his works, returned to Ireland and obtained some small preferments,
visits London and became one of the circle of Addison, etc., deserts the
Whigs and joins the Tories 1710, attacking the former in various papers
and pamphlets, Dean of St. Patrick's 1713, death of Anne and ruin of
Tories destroyed hopes of further preferment, and he returned to Ireland
and began his _Journal to Stella_, _Drapier's Letters_ appeared 1724,
visits England, and joins with Pope and Arbuthnot in _Miscellanies_ 1726,
_pub._ _Gulliver's Travels_ 1727, "Stella" _d._ 1728, gradually lost his
faculties and _d._ 1745.

_Lives_ by Craik (1882), Leslie Stephen (1882), Churton Collins (1893),
etc. _Works_ ed. by Sir Walter Scott (19 vols., 1814, etc.) Bonn's
Standard Library (1897-1908).

SWINBURNE, ALGERNON CHARLES (1837-1909).--Poet, _s._ of Admiral S. and of
Lady Jane Ashburnham, _dau._ of the 3rd Earl of A., _b._ in London,
received his early education in France, and was at Eton and at Balliol
Coll., Oxf., where he attracted the attention of Jowett, and gave himself
to the study of Latin, Greek, French, and Italian, with special reference
to poetic form. He left Oxf. without graduating in 1860, and in the next
year _pub._ two plays, _The Queen Mother_ and _Rosamund_, which made no
impression on the public, though a few good judges recognised their
promise. The same year he visited Italy, and there made the acquaintance
of Walter Savage Landor (_q.v._). On his return he lived for some time
in Cheyne Row, Chelsea, with D.G. Rossetti (_q.v._), and G. Meredith
(_q.v._). The appearance in 1865 of _Atalanta in Calydon_ led to his
immediate recognition as a poet of the first order, and in the same year
he _pub._ _Chastelard, a Tragedy_, the first part of a trilogy relating
to Mary Queen of Scots, the other two being _Bothwell_ (1874), and _Mary
Stuart_ (1881). _Poems and Ballads_, _pub._ in 1866, created a profound
sensation alike among the critics and the general body of readers by its
daring departure from recognised standards, alike of politics and
morality, and gave rise to a prolonged and bitter controversy, S.
defending himself against his assailants in _Notes on Poems and Reviews_.
His next works were the _Song of Italy_ (1867) and _Songs before Sunrise_
(1871). Returning to the Greek models which he had followed with such
brilliant success in _Atalanta_ he produced _Erechtheus_ (1876), the
extraordinary metrical power of which won general admiration. _Poems and
Ballads_, second series, came out in 1878. _Tristram of Lyonnesse_ in
heroic couplets followed in 1882, _A Midsummer Holiday_ (1884), _Marino
Faliero_ (1885), _Locrine_ (1887), _Poems and Ballads_, third series
(1889), _The Sisters_ (1892), _Astrophel_ (1894), _The Tale of Balen_
(1896), _Rosamund, Queen of the Lombards_ (1899), _A Channel Passage_
(1904), and _The Duke of Gandia_ (1908). Among his prose works are
_Love's Cross Currents_ (1905) (fiction), _William Blake, a Critical
Essay_ (1867), _Under the Microscope_ (1872), in answer to R. Buchanan's
_Fleshly School of Poetry_, _George Chapman, a Critical Essay_ (1875), _A
Study of Shakespeare_ (1879), _A Study of Victor Hugo_ (1886), and _A
Study of Ben Jonson_ (1889).

S. belongs to the class of "Poets' poets." He never became widely
popular. As a master of metre he is hardly excelled by any of our poets,
but it has not seldom been questioned whether his marvellous sense of the
beauty of words and their arrangement did not exceed the depth and mass
of his thought. _The Hymn to Artemis_ in _Atalanta_ beginning "When the
hounds of Spring are on Winter's traces" is certainly one of the most
splendid examples of metrical power in the language. As a prose writer he
occupies a much lower place, and here the contrast between the thought
and its expression becomes very marked, the latter often becoming turgid
and even violent. In his earlier days in London S. was closely associated
with the pre-Raphaelites, the Rossettis, Meredith, and Burne-Jones: he
was thus subjected successively to the classical and romantic influence,
and showed the traces of both in his work. He was never _m._, and for the
last 30 years of his life lived with his friend, Mr. Theodore
Watts-Dunton, at the Pines, Putney Hill. For some time before his death
he was almost totally deaf.

SYLVESTER, JOSHUA (1563-1618).--Poet and translator, is chiefly
remembered by his translation from the French of Du Bartas' _Divine Weeks
and Works_, which is said to have influenced Milton and Shakespeare. He
seconded the _Counterblast against Tobacco_ of James I. with his _Tobacco
Battered and the Pipes Shattered ... by a Volley of Holy Shot thundered
from Mount Helicon_ (1620), and also wrote _All not Gold that Glitters_,
_Panthea: Divine Wishes and Meditations_ (1630), and many religious,
complimentary, and other occasional pieces. S., who was originally
engaged in commerce, acted later as a sort of factor to the Earl of
Essex.

SYMONDS, JOHN ADDINGTON (1840-1893).--Writer on art and literature, _s._
of a physician in Bristol, was _ed._ at Harrow and Oxf. His delicate
health obliged him to live abroad. He _pub._ (1875-86) _History of the
Italian Renaissance_, and translated the _Autobiography of Benvenuto
Cellini_. He also _pub._ some books of poetry, including _Many Moods_
(1878) and _Animi Figura_ (1882), and among his other publications were
_Introduction to the Study of Dante_ (1872), _Studies of the Greek Poets_
(1873 and 1876), _Shakespeare's Predecessors in the English Drama_
(1884), and Lives of various poets, including Ben Jonson, Shelley, and
Walt Whitman. He also made remarkable translations of the sonnets of
Michelangelo and Campanella, and wrote upon philosophical subjects in
various periodicals.

SYNGE, JOHN MILLINGTON (1871-1909).--Miscellaneous writer, _b._ near
Dublin, _ed._ privately and at Trinity Coll., Dublin. He wrote _Riders to
the Sea_, _In the Shadow of the Glen_ (1905), _The Well of the Saints_
(1905), _The Play Boy of the Western World_ (1907), and _The Aran
Islands_ (1907).

TABLEY DE, JOHN BYRON LEICESTER WARREN, 3RD LORD (1835-1895).--Poet,
eldest _s._ of the 2nd Lord, _ed._ at Eton and Oxf., was for a time
attached to the British Embassy at Constantinople. He wrote poems of a
very high order, some of them _pub._ under the _pseudonyms_ of "George F.
Preston" and "William Lancaster." They include _Ballads and Metrical
Sketches_, _The Threshold of Atrides_, _Glimpses of Antiquity_, etc.
These were followed by two dramas, _Philoctetes_ (1866) and _Orestes_
(1868). Later works in his own name were _Rehearsals_ (1870), _Searching
the Net_ (1873), _The Soldier's Fortune_, a tragedy. _Poems, Dramatic and
Lyrical_ (1893) included selections from former works. After his death
appeared _Orpheus in Thrace_ (1901). He was a man of sensitive
temperament, and was latterly much of a recluse. He was an accomplished
botanist, and _pub._ a work on the _Flora of Cheshire_.

TALFOURD, SIR THOMAS NOON (1795-1854).--Poet and biographer, _s._ of a
brewer at Reading, where he was _b._, and which he represented in
Parliament, 1835-41, was _ed._ at Mill Hill School. He studied law, was
called to the Bar in 1821, and became a Judge in 1849. He _d._ suddenly
of apoplexy while charging the Grand Jury at Stafford. He wrote much for
reviews, and in 1835 produced _Ion_, a tragedy, followed by _The Athenian
Captive_ (1838), and _The Massacre of Glencoe_, all of which were acted
with success. T. was the friend and literary executor of Charles Lamb
(_q.v._), and _pub._ in two sections his _Memoirs and Letters_. In 1837
he introduced the Copyright Bill, which was passed with modifications in
1842.

TANNAHILL, ROBERT (1774-1810).--Poet, _b._ in Paisley where he was a
weaver. In 1807 he _pub._ a small vol. of poems and songs, which met with
success, and carried his hitherto local fame over his native country.
Always delicate and sensitive, a disappointment in regard to the
publication of an enlarged ed. of his poems so wrought upon a lowness of
spirits, to which he was subject, that he drowned himself in a canal. His
longer pieces are now forgotten, but some of his songs have achieved a
popularity only second to that of some of Burns's best. Among these are
_The Braes of Balquhidder_, _Gloomy Winter's now awa'_ and _The Bonnie
Wood o' Craigielea_.

TATE, NAHUM (1652-1715).--Poet, _s._ of a clergyman in Dublin, was _ed._
at Trinity Coll. there. He _pub._ _Poems on Several Occasions_ (1677),
_Panacea, or a Poem on Tea_, and, in collaboration with Dryden, the
second part of _Absalom and Achitophel_. He also adapted Shakespeare's
_Richard II._ and _Lear_, making what he considered improvements. Thus in
_Lear_ Cordelia is made to survive her _f._, and marry Edgar. This
desecration, which was defended by Dr. Johnson, kept the stage till well
on in the 19th century. He also wrote various miscellaneous poems, now
happily forgotten. He is best remembered as the Tate of Tate and Brady's
metrical version of the Psalms, _pub._ in 1696. T., who succeeded
Shadwell as Poet Laureate in 1690, figures in _The Dunciad_. NICHOLAS
BRADY (1659-1726).--Tate's fellow-versifier of the Psalms, _b._ at
Bandon, and _ed._ at Westminster and Oxf., was incumbent of
Stratford-on-Avon. He wrote a tragedy, _The Rape_, a blank verse
translation of the _AEneid_, an _Ode_, and sermons, now all forgotten.

TATHAM, JOHN (_fl._ 1632-1664).--Dramatist. Little is known of him. He
produced pageants for the Lord Mayor's show and some dramas, _Love Crowns
the End_, _The Distracted State_, _The Scots Figgaries, or a Knot of
Knaves_, _The Rump_, etc. He was a Cavalier, who hated the Puritans and
the Scotch, and invented a dialect which he believed to be their
vernacular tongue.

TAUTPHOEUS, BARONESS (MONTGOMERY) (1807-1893).--_Dau._ of an Irish
gentleman, _m._ the Baron T., Chamberlain at the Court of Bavaria. She
wrote several novels dealing with German life of which the first, _The
Initials_ (1850), is perhaps the best. Others were _Cyrilla_ (1883),
_Quits_ (1857), and _At Odds_ (1863).

TAYLOR, BAYARD (1825-1878).--Poet, _b._ in Pennsylvania of Quaker
descent, began to write by the time he was 12. Apprenticed to a printer,
he found the work uncongenial and, purchasing his indentures, went to
Europe on a walking tour, and thereafter he was a constant and
enterprising traveller. After his return from Europe he ed. a paper, got
on the staff of the _New York Tribune_, and _pub._ several books of
travel and poetry, among which are _Views Afoot_ (1846), an account of
his travels in Europe, and _El Dorado_ (1850), which described the
Californian gold-fields. After some experience and some disappointments
in the diplomatic sphere, he settled down to novel-writing, his first
venture in which, _Hannah Thurston_ (1863), was very successful, and was
followed by _John Godfrey's Fortunes_ (1864), partly autobiographical,
and _The Story of Kenneth_ (1866). His poetic works include _Poems of the
Orient_ (1854), _Poet's Journal_ (1862), _Masque of the Gods_ (1872),
_Lars_ (1873), _The Prophet_ (1874), a tragedy, _Prince Deucalion_, and
_Home Pastorals_ (1875). In 1878 he was appointed to the German Embassy,
and _d._ in Berlin in the following year. His translation of Goethe's
_Faust_ is perhaps his best work. He was a man of untiring energy and
great ability and versatility, but tried too many avenues to fame to
advance very far in any of them.

TAYLOR, SIR HENRY (1800-1886).--Dramatist, _s._ of a gentleman farmer in
the county of Durham. After being at sea for some months and in the Naval
Stores Department, he became a clerk in the Colonial Office, and remained
there for 48 years, during which he exercised considerable influence on
the colonial policy of the Empire. In 1872 he was made K.C.M.G. He wrote
four tragedies--_Isaac Comnenus_ (1827), _Philip van Artevelde_ (1834),
_Edwin the Fair_ (1842), and _St. Clement's Eve_ (1862); also a romantic
comedy, _The Virgin Widow_, which he renamed _A Sicilian Summer_, _The Eve
of the Conquest and other Poems_ (1847). In prose he _pub._ _The Statesman_
(1836), _Notes from Life_ (1847), _Notes from Books_ (1849), and an
_Autobiography_. Of all these _Philip van Artevelde_ was perhaps the most
successful. T. was a man of great ability and distinction, but his
dramas, with many of the qualities of good poetry, lack the final touch
of genius.

TAYLOR, ISAAC (1787-1865).--Philosophical and historical writer, artist,
and inventor, was the most eminent member of a family known as the
Taylors of Ongar, which has shown a remarkable persistence of ability in
various departments, but especially in art and literature. His
grandfather and _f._, who bore the same name, were both eminent
engravers, and the latter was the author of various books for children.
T. was brought up to the hereditary art of engraving, in which he
displayed pre-eminent skill, his work gaining the admiration of D.G.
Rossetti. He decided, however, to devote himself to literature, and for
40 years continued to produce works of originality and value, including
_Elements of Thought_ (1823), _Natural History of Enthusiasm_ (1829),
_Spiritual Despotism_ (1831), _Ancient Christianity_ (1839), _Restoration
of Belief_ (1855), _The Physical Theory of Another Life_, _History of
Transmission of Ancient Books_, and _Home Education_, besides numerous
contributions to reviews and other periodicals. Besides his literary and
artistic accomplishments T. was an important inventor, two of his
inventions having done much to develop the manufacture of calico. Two of
his sisters had considerable literary reputation. ANN T., afterwards MRS.
GILBERT (1782-1866), and JANE (1783-1824) were, like their brother,
taught the art of engraving. In 1804-5 they jointly wrote _Original Poems
for Infant Minds_, followed by _Rhymes for the Nursery_ and _Hymns for
Infant Minds_. Among those are the little poems, "My Mother" and
"Twinkle, twinkle, little Star," known to all well-conditioned children.
Jane was also the author of _Display_, a tale (1815), and other works,
including several hymns, of which the best known is "Lord, I would own
Thy tender Care." The hereditary talents of the family were represented
in the next generation by CANON ISAAC T. (1829-1901), the _s._ of Isaac
last mentioned, who, in addition to _The Liturgy and the Dissenters_,
_pub._ works in philology and archaeology, including _Words and Places_
and _Etruscan Researches_; and by JOSIAH GILBERT, _s._ of Ann T., an
accomplished artist, and author of _The Dolomite Mountains_, _Cadore, or
Titian's Country_, and ed. of the _Autobiography_ of his mother.

TAYLOR, JEREMY (1613-1667).--Divine, was _b._ at Camb. His _f._, though
of gentle descent, followed the trade of a barber, and Jeremy entered
Caius Coll. as a sizar. After his graduation in 1634 he was asked to
preach in London, where his eloquence attracted the attention of Laud,
who sent him to Oxf., caused him to be elected a Fellow of All Souls
Coll., and made him his chaplain. He also became a chaplain to the King,
and soon attaining a great reputation as a preacher, was presented to the
living of Uppingham. In 1639 he _m._ his first wife, and in 1643 he was
made Rector of Overstone. On the outbreak of the Civil War T. sided with
the King, and was present, probably as a chaplain, at the battle fought
in 1645 near Cardigan Castle, when he was taken prisoner. He was soon
released, but the Royalist cause being practically lost, he decided to
remain in Wales, and with two friends started a school at Newtonhall,
Caermarthenshire, which had some success. T. also found a friend in Lord
Carbery, whose chaplain he became. During the period of 13 years from
1647-60, which were passed in seeming obscurity, he laid the foundations
and raised the structure of his splendid literary fame. The _Liberty of
Prophesying_ (that is, of preaching), one of the greatest pleas for
toleration in the language, was _pub._ in 1647, _The Life of Christ_ in
1649, _Holy Living_ in 1650, and _Holy Dying_ in 1651. These were
followed by various series of sermons, and by _The Golden Grove_ (1655),
a manual of devotion which received its title from the name of the seat
of his friend Lord Carbery. For some remarks against the existing
authorities T. suffered a short imprisonment, and some controversial
tracts on _Original Sin_, _Unum Necessarium_ (the one thing needful), and
_The Doctrine and Practice of Repentance_ involved him in a controversy
of some warmth in which he was attacked by both High Churchmen and
Calvinists. While in Wales T. had entered into a second marriage with a
lady of some property which, however, was seriously encroached upon by
the exactions of the Parliamentarians. In 1657 he ministered privately to
an Episcopalian congregation in London, and in 1658 accompanied Lord
Conway to Ireland, and served a cure at Lisburn. Two years later he
_pub._ _Ductor Dubitantium, or the Rule of Conscience in all her General
Measures_, a learned and subtle piece of casuistry which he dedicated to
Charles II. The Restoration brought recognition of T.'s unswerving
devotion to the Royalist cause; he was made Bishop of Down and Connor,
and to this was added the administration of the see of Dromore. In his
new position, though, as might have been expected, he showed zeal,
diligence, and benevolence, he was not happy. He did not, probably could
not, entirely practise his own views of absolute toleration, and found
himself in conflict with the Presbyterians, some of whose ministers he
had extruded from benefices which they had held, and he longed to escape
to a more private and peaceful position. He _d._ at Lisburn of a fever
caught while ministering to a parishioner. T. is one of the great
classical writers of England. Learned, original, and impassioned, he had
an enthusiasm for religion and charity, and his writings glow with an
almost unequalled wealth of illustration and imagery, subtle argument,
and fullness of thought. With a character of stainless purity and
benevolence, and gracious and gentle manners, he was universally beloved
by all who came under the spell of his presence.

TAYLOR, JOHN (1580-1653).--Known as the "Water Poet," _b._ at Gloucester
of humble parentage, was apprenticed to a London waterman, and pressed
for the navy. Thereafter he returned to London and resumed his occupation
on the Thames, afterwards keeping inns first at Oxf., then in London. He
had a talent for writing rollicking verses, enjoyed the acquaintance of
Ben Jonson, and other famous men, superintended the water pageant at the
marriage of the Princess Elizabeth 1613, and composed the "triumphs" at
the Lord Mayor's shows. He made a journey on foot from London as far as
to Braemar, of which he wrote an account, _The Pennyless Pilgrimage ...
of John Taylor_, _the King's Majesty's Water Poet_ (1618). He visited the
Queen of Bohemia at Prague in 1620, and made other journeys, each of
which was commemorated in a book. His writings are of little literary
value, but have considerable historical and antiquarian interest.

TAYLOR, PHILIP MEADOWS (1808-1876).--Novelist, _b._ at Liverpool, _s._ of
a merchant there. When still a boy went out to a mercantile situation in
Calcutta, but in 1826 got a commission in the army of the Nizam of
Hyderabad. From this he rose to a high civil position in the service of
the Nizam, and entirely reorganised his government. He wrote several
striking novels dealing with Indian life, including _Confessions of a
Thug_ (1639), _Tara_, and _A Noble Queen_. He left an autobiography, _The
Story of my Life_, ed. by his _dau._

TAYLOR, THOMAS (1758-1835).--Translator, _b._ in London and _ed._ at St.
Paul's School, devoted himself to the study of the classics and of
mathematics. After being a bank clerk he was appointed Assistant
Secretary to the Society for the encouragement of Arts, etc., in which
capacity he made many influential friends, who furnished the means for
publishing his various translations, which include works of Plato,
Aristotle, Proclus, Porphyry, Apuleius, etc. His aim indeed was the
translation of all the untranslated writings of the ancient Greek
philosophers.

TAYLOR, TOM (1817-1880).--Dramatist, _b._ at Sunderland, _ed._ at Glasgow
and Camb., and was Prof. of English Literature in London Univ. from
1845-47. In 1846 he was called to the Bar, and from 1854-71 he was Sec.
to the Local Government Board. He was the author of about 100 dramatic
pieces, original and adapted, including _Still Waters run Deep_, _The
Overland Route_, and _Joan of Arc_. He was likewise a large contributor
to _Punch_, of which he was ed. 1874-80, and he ed. the autobiographies
of Haydon and Leslie, the painters, and wrote _Life and Times of Sir
Joshua Reynolds_.

TAYLOR, WILLIAM (1765-1836).--Translator, etc., _s._ of a merchant,
travelled on the Continent, learned German, and became an enthusiastic
student of German literature, which he was one of the first to introduce
to his fellow-countrymen. His articles on the subject were _coll._ and
_pub._ as _Historic Survey of German Poetry_ (1828-30). He translated
Buerger's _Lenore_, Lessing's _Nathan_, and Goethe's _Iphigenia_. He also
wrote _Tales of Yore_ (1810) and _English Synonyms Described_ (1813).

TEMPLE, SIR WILLIAM (1628-1699).--Statesman and essayist, _s._ of Sir
John T., Master of the Rolls in Ireland, was _b._ in London, and _ed._ at
Camb. He travelled on the Continent, was for some time a member of the
Irish Parliament, employed on various diplomatic missions, and negotiated
the marriage of the Prince of Orange and the Princess Mary. On his return
he was much consulted by Charles II., but disapproving of the courses
adopted, retired to his house at Sheen, which he afterwards left and
purchased Moor Park, where Swift was for a time his sec. He took no part
in the Revolution, but acquiesced in the new _regime_, and was offered,
but refused, the Secretaryship of State. His works consist for the most
part of short essays _coll._ under the title of _Miscellanea_, but longer
pieces are _Observations upon the United Provinces_, and _Essay on the
Original and Nature of Government_. Apart from their immediate interest
they mark a transition to the simpler, more concise, and more carefully
arranged sentences of modern composition.

TENNANT, WILLIAM (1784-1848).--Poet and scholar, a cripple from his
birth, was _b._ at Anstruther (commonly called Anster) in Fife. As a
youth he was clerk to his brother, a corn-merchant, but devoted his
leisure to the study of languages, and the literature of various
countries. In 1813 he became parish schoolmaster of Lasswade, near
Edinburgh, thereafter classical master at Dollar Academy, and in 1835
Prof. of Oriental Languages at St. Andrews. In 1812 he _pub._ _Anster
Fair_, a mock-heroic poem, in _ottava rima_, full of fancy and humour,
which at once brought him reputation. In later life he produced two
tragedies, _Cardinal Beaton_ and _John Baliol_, and two poems, _The Thane
of Fife_ and _Papistry Stormed_. He also issued a _Syriac and Chaldee
Grammar_.

TENNYSON, ALFRED, 1ST LORD (1809-1892).--Poet, was the fourth _s._ of
George T., Rector of Somersby, Lincolnshire, where he was _b._ His _f._
was himself a poet of some skill, and his two elder brothers, Frederick
T. (_q.v._) and Charles T. Turner (_q.v._), were poets of a high order.
His early education was received from his _f._, after which he went to
the Grammar School of Louth, whence in 1828 he proceeded to Trinity
Coll., Camb. In the previous year had appeared a small vol., _Poems by
Two Brothers_, chiefly the work of his brother Charles and himself, with
a few contributions from Frederick, but it attracted little attention. At
the Univ. he was one of a group of highly gifted men, including Trench
(_q.v._), Monckton Milnes, afterwards Lord Houghton (_q.v._), Alford
(_q.v._), Lushington, his future brother-in-law, and above all, Arthur
Hallam, whose friendship and early death were to be the inspiration of
his greatest poem. In 1829 he won the Chancellor's medal by a poem on
_Timbuctoo_, and in the following year he brought out his first
independent work, _Poems chiefly Lyrical_. It was not in general very
favourably received by the critics, though Wilson in _Blackwood's
Magazine_ admitted much promise and even performance. In America it had
greater popularity. Part of 1832 was spent in travel with Hallam, and the
same year saw the publication of _Poems_, which had not much greater
success than its predecessor. In the next year Hallam _d._, and T. began
_In Memoriam_ and wrote _The Two Voices_. He also became engaged to
Emily Sellwood, his future wife, but owing to various circumstances their
marriage did not take place until 1850. The next few years were passed
with his family at various places, and, so far as the public were
concerned, he remained silent until 1842, when he _pub._ _Poems_ in two
volumes, and at last achieved full recognition as a great poet. From this
time the life of T. is a record of tranquil triumph in his art and of the
conquest of fame; and the publication of his successive works became
almost the only events which mark his history. _The Princess_ appearing
in 1847 added materially to his reputation: in the lyrics with which it
is interspersed, such as "The Splendour Falls" and "Tears, idle Tears" he
rises to the full mastery of this branch of his art. The year 1850 was
perhaps the most eventful in his life, for in it took place his marriage
which, as he said, "brought the peace of God into his life," his
succession to the Laureateship on the death of Wordsworth, and the
publication of his greatest poem, _In Memoriam_. In 1852 appeared his
noble _Ode on the Death of the Duke of Wellington_; and two years later
_The Charge of the Light Brigade_. The publication of _Maud_ in 1855 gave
his rapidly growing popularity a perceptible set-back, though it has
since risen in favour. But this was far more than made up for by the
enthusiasm with which the first set of _The Idylls of the King_ was
received on its appearance four years later. _Enoch Arden_, with the
_Northern Farmer_, came out in 1864; _The Holy Grail_ and _Gareth and
Lynette_, both belonging to the _Idyll_ series, in 1869 and 1872
respectively. Three years later in 1875 T. broke new ground by beginning
a series of dramas with _Queen Mary_, followed by _Harold_ (1876), _The
Falcon_ (1879), _The Cup_ (1881), _The Promise of May_ (1882), _Becket_
(1884), and _Robin Hood_ (1891). His later poems were _The Lovers' Tale_
(1879) (an early work retouched), _Tiresias_ (1885), _Locksley Hall--60
Years after_ (1886), _Demeter and other Poems_ (1889), including
"Crossing the Bar," and _The Death of Oenone_ (1892). T., who cared
little for general society, though he had many intimate and devoted
friends, lived at Farringford, Isle of Wight, from 1853-69, when he built
a house at Aldworth, near Haslemere, which was his home until his death.
In 1884 he was raised to the peerage. Until he had passed the threescore
years and ten he had, with occasional illnesses, enjoyed good health on
the whole. But in 1886 the younger of his two sons _d._, a blow which
told heavily upon him; thereafter frequent attacks of illness followed,
and he _d._ on October 6, 1892, in his 84th year, and received a public
funeral in Westminster Abbey.

The poetry of T. is characterised by a wide outlook, by intense sympathy
with the deepest feelings and aspirations of humanity, a profound
realisation of the problems of life and thought, a noble patriotism
finding utterance in such poems as _The Revenge_, the _Charge of the
Light Brigade_, and the _Ode on the Death of the Duke of Wellington_, an
exquisite sense of beauty, marvellous power of vivid and minute
description often achieved by a single felicitous phrase, and often
heightened by the perfect matching of sense and sound, and a general
loftiness and purity of tone. No poet has excelled him in precision and
delicacy of language and completeness of expression. As a lyrist he has,
perhaps, no superiors, and only two or three equals in English poetry,
and even of humour he possessed no small share, as is shown in the
_Northern Farmer_ and in other pieces. When the volume, variety, finish,
and duration of his work are considered, as well as the influence which
he exercised on his time, a unique place must be assigned him among the
poets of his country.

SUMMARY.--_B._ 1809, _ed._ Camb., _Poems by Two Brothers_ 1827, _Poems
chiefly Lyrical_ 1830, his chief works _Poems in two Volumes_ 1842,
_Princess_ 1847, _In Memoriam_ 1850, _Maud_ 1855, _Idylls of the King_
1869-72, Poet Laureate 1850, _d._ 1892.

_Life_ by his _s._ (2 vols., 1897). There are also numerous books,
biographical and critical, by, among others, W.E. Wace (1881), A.C.
Benson, A. Lang, F. Harrison, Sir A. Lyell, C.F.G. Masterman (T. as a
Religious Teacher), Stopford Brooke, Waugh, etc.

TENNYSON, FREDERICK (1807-1898).--Poet, was the eldest _s._ of the Rector
of Somersby, Lincolnshire, and brother of Alfred T. (_q.v._). _Ed._ at
Eton and Camb., he passed most of his life in Italy and Jersey. He
contributed to the _Poems by Two Brothers_, and produced _Days and Hours_
(lyrics) (1854), _The Isles of Greece_ (1890), _Daphne_ (1891), and
_Poems of the Day and Night_ (1895). All his works show passages of
genuine poetic power.

TENNYSON TURNER, CHARLES (1808-1879).--Poet, elder brother of Alfred T.
(_q.v._), _ed._ at Camb., entered the Church, and became Vicar of Grasby,
Lincolnshire. The name of Turner he assumed in conformity with the will
of a relation. He contributed to _Poems by Two Brothers_, and was the
author of 340 sonnets, which were greatly admired by such critics as
Coleridge, Palgrave, and his brother Alfred.

THACKERAY, WILLIAM MAKEPEACE (1811-1863).--Novelist, _s._ of Richmond T.,
who held various important appointments in the service of the East India
Company, and who belonged to an old and respectable Yorkshire family, was
_b._ at Calcutta, and soon after the death of his _f._, which took place
in 1816, sent home to England. After being at a school at Chiswick, he
was sent to the Charterhouse School, where he remained from 1822-26, and
where he does not appear to have been very happy. Meanwhile in 1818 his
mother had _m._ Major H.W.C. Smythe, who is believed to be, in part at
any rate, the original of Colonel Newcome. In 1829 he went to Trinity
Coll., Camb., where he remained for a year only, and where he did not
distinguish himself particularly as a student, but made many life-long
friends, including Spedding (_q.v._), Tennyson, Fitzgerald (_q.v._), and
Monckton Milnes (_see_ Houghton), and contributed verses and caricatures
to two Univ. papers, "The Snob" and "The Gownsman." The following year,
1831, was spent chiefly in travelling on the Continent, especially
Germany, when, at Weimar, he visited Goethe. Returning he entered the
Middle Temple, but having no liking for legal studies, he soon abandoned
them, and turning his attention to journalism, became proprietor, wholly
or in part, of two papers successively, both of which failed. These
enterprises, together with some unfortunate investments and also, it
would seem, play, stripped him of the comfortable fortune, which he had
inherited; and he now found himself dependent on his own exertions for a
living. He thought at first of art as a profession, and studied for a
time at Paris and Rome. In 1836, while acting as Paris correspondent for
the second of his journals, he _m._ Isabella, _dau._ of Colonel Shawe, an
Irish officer, and the next year he returned to England and became a
contributor to _Fraser's Magazine_, in which appeared _The Yellowplush
Papers_, _The Great Hoggarty Diamond_, _Catherine_, and _Barry Lyndon_,
the history of an Irish sharper, which contains some of his best work.
Other works of this period were _The Paris Sketch-book_ (1840) and _The
Irish Sketch-book_ (1843). His work in _Fraser_, while it was appreciated
at its true worth by a select circle, had not brought him any very wide
recognition: it was his contributions to _Punch_--the _Book of Snobs_ and
_Jeames's Diary_--which first caught the ear of the wider public. The
turning point in his career, however, was the publication in monthly
numbers of _Vanity Fair_ (1847-48). This extraordinary work gave him at
once a place beside Fielding at the head of English novelists, and left
him no living competitor except Dickens. _Pendennis_, largely
autobiographical, followed in 1848-50, and fully maintained his
reputation. In 1851 he broke new ground, and appeared, with great
success, as a lecturer, taking for his subject _The English Humourists of
the Eighteenth Century_, following this up in 1855 with the _Four
Georges_, first delivered in America. Meanwhile _Esmond_, perhaps his
masterpiece, and probably the greatest novel of its kind in existence,
had appeared in 1852, and _The Newcomes_ (1853), _The Virginians_, a
sequel to _Esmond_, which, though containing much fine work, is generally
considered to show a falling off as compared with its two immediate
predecessors, came out in 1857-59. In 1860 the _Cornhill Magazine_ was
started with T. for its ed., and to it he contributed _Lovell the
Widower_ (1860), _The Adventures of Philip_ (1861-62), _The Roundabout
Papers_, a series of charming essays, and _Denis Duval_, left a mere
fragment by his sudden death, but which gave promise of a return to his
highest level of performance. In addition to the works mentioned, T. for
some years produced Christmas books and burlesques, of which the best
were _The Rose and the Ring_ and _The Kickleburys on the Rhine_. He also
wrote graceful verses, some of which, like _Bouillabaisse_, are in a
strain of humour shot through with pathos, while others are the purest
rollicking fun. For some years T. suffered from spasms of the heart, and
he _d._ suddenly during the night of December 23, 1863, in his 53rd year.
He was a man of the tenderest heart, and had an intense enjoyment of
domestic happiness; and the interruption of this, caused by the permanent
breakdown of his wife's health, was a heavy calamity. This, along with
his own latterly broken health, and a sensitiveness which made him keenly
alive to criticism, doubtless fostered the tendency to what was often
superficially called his cynical view of life. He possessed an inimitable
irony and a power of sarcasm which could scorch like lightning, but the
latter is almost invariably directed against what is base and hateful. To
human weakness he is lenient and often tender, and even when weakness
passes into wickedness, he is just and compassionate. He saw human nature
"steadily and saw it whole," and paints it with a light but sure hand. He
was master of a style of great distinction and individuality, and ranks
as one of the very greatest of English novelists.

SUMMARY.--_B._ 1811, _ed._ at Charterhouse and Camb., after trying law
turned to journalism, in which he lost his fortune, studied art at Paris
and Rome, wrote for _Fraser's Magazine_ and _Punch_, _Barry Lyndon_,
_Book of Snobs_, and _Jeames's Diary_, _pub._ _Vanity Fair_ 1847-8,
_Pendennis_ (1848-50), lectured on _Humourists_ 1851, and on _Four
Georges_ in America 1855, _pub._ _Esmond_ 1852, _Newcomes_ 1853,
_Virginians_ 1857-59, ed. _Cornhill Magazine_ 1860, his last great work,
_Denis Duval_, left unfinished, _d._ 1863.

_Lives_ by Merivale and Marzials (Great Writers), A. Trollope (English
Men of Letters), Whibley (Modern English Writers). Article in _Dictionary
of National Biography_ by Leslie Stephen.

THEOBALD, LEWIS (1688-1744).--Editor of Shakespeare, and translator,
originally an attorney, betook himself to literature, translated from
Plato, the Greek dramatists, and Homer, and wrote also essays,
biographies, and poems. In 1715 he _pub._ _Shakespeare Restored, etc._,
in which he severely criticised Pope's ed., and was in consequence
rewarded with the first place in _The Dunciad_, and the adoption of most
of his corrections in Pope's next ed. Though a poor poet, he was an acute
and discriminating critic, made brilliant emendations on some of the
classics, and produced in 1734 an ed. of Shakespeare which gave him a
high place among his ed.

THIRWALL, CONNOP (1797-1875).--Historian, was _b._ at Stepney, the _s._
of a clergyman, and _ed._ at the Charterhouse and Camb. He studied law,
was called to the Bar in 1825, and in the same year _pub._ a translation
of Schleiermacher's _Critical Essay on the Gospel of St. Luke_. After
this, having changed his mind, he took orders in 1827, and the next year
translated, with Julius Hare (_q.v._), the first vol. of Niebuhr's
_History of Rome_, and _pub._, also with him, _The Philological Museum_
(1831-33). He was an advocate for the admission of Dissenters to degrees,
and in consequence of his action in the matter had to resign his Univ.
tutorship. Thereupon Lord Brougham, then Lord Chancellor, presented him
to the living of Kirkby Underdale. Between 1835 and 1847 he wrote his
great _History of Greece_, which has a place among historical classics.
In 1840 he was made Bishop of St. David's, in which capacity he showed
unusual energy in administering his see. The eleven charges which he
delivered during his tenure of the see were pronouncements of exceptional
weight upon the leading questions of the time affecting the Church. As a
Broad Churchman T. was regarded with suspicion by both High and Low
Churchmen, and in the House of Lords generally supported liberal
movements such as the admission of Jews to Parliament. He was the only
Bishop who was in favour of the disestablishment of the Irish Church.

THOMS, WILLIAM JOHN (1803-1885).--Antiquary and miscellaneous writer, for
many years a clerk in the secretary's office of Chelsea Hospital, was in
1845 appointed Clerk, and subsequently Deputy Librarian to the House of
Lords. He was the founder in 1849 of _Notes and Queries_, which for some
years he also ed. Among his publications are _Early Prose Romances_
(1827-28), _Lays and Legends_ (1834), _The Book of the Court_ (1838),
_Gammer Gurton's Famous Histories_ (1846), _Gammer Gurton's Pleasant
Stories_ (1848). He also _ed._ Stow's _London_, and was sec. of the
Camden Society. He introduced the word "folk-lore" into the language.

THOMSON, JAMES (1700-1748).--Poet, _s._ of the minister of Ednam,
Roxburghshire, spent most of his youth, however, at Southdean, a
neighbouring parish, to which his _f._ was translated. He was _ed._ at
the parish school there, at Jedburgh, and at Edin., whither he went with
the view of studying for the ministry. The style of one of his earliest
sermons having been objected to by the Prof. of Divinity as being too
flowery and imaginative, he gave up his clerical views and went to London
in 1725, taking with him a part of what ultimately became his poem of
_Winter_. By the influence of his friend Mallet he became tutor to Lord
Binning, _s._ of the Earl of Haddington, and was introduced to Pope,
Arbuthnot, Gay, and others. _Winter_ was _pub._ in 1726, and was followed
by _Summer_ (1727), _Spring_ (1728), and _Autumn_ (1730), when the whole
were brought together as _The Seasons_. Previous to 1730 he had produced
one or two minor poems and the tragedy of _Sophonisba_, which, after
promising some success, was killed by the unfortunate line, "Oh!
Sophonisba, Sophonisba, oh!" being parodied as "Oh! Jemmy Thomson, Jemmy
Thomson, oh!" In 1731 T. accompanied Charles Talbot, _s._ of the Lord
Chancellor, to the Continent, as tutor, and on his return received the
sinecure Secretaryship of Briefs which, however, he lost in 1737, through
omitting to apply for its continuance to Talbot's successor. He then
returned to the drama and produced _Agamemnon_ in 1738, and _Edward and
Eleanora_ in 1739. The same year he received from the Prince of Wales a
pension of L100, and was made Surveyor-General of the Leeward Islands
which, after providing for a deputy to discharge the duties, left him
L300 a year. He was now in comfortable circumstances and settled in a
villa near Richmond, where he amused himself with gardening and seeing
his friends. In conjunction with Mallet he wrote, in 1740, the masque of
_Alfred_, in which appeared _Rule Britannia_, which M. afterwards
claimed, or allowed to be claimed, for him, but which there is every
reason to believe was contributed by T. In 1745 appeared _Tancred and
Sigismunda_, the most successful of his dramas, and in 1748 _Coriolanus_.
In May of the latter year he _pub._ _The Castle of Indolence_, an
allegorical poem in the Spenserian stanza, generally considered to be his
masterpiece. In August following he caught a chill which developed into a
fever, and carried him off in his 48th year. Though T. was undoubtedly a
poet by nature, his art was developed by constant and fastidious
polishing. To _The Seasons_, originally containing about 4000 lines, he
added about 1400 in his various revisions. He was the first to give the
description of nature the leading place, and in his treatment of his
theme he showed much judgment in the selection of the details to be dwelt
upon. His blank verse, though not equal to that of a few other English
poets, is musical and wielded in a manner suitable to his subject. In all
his poems he displays the genial temper and kindly sympathies by which he
was characterised as a man. He was never _m._, and lived an easy,
indolent life, beloved by his many friends. (_See also_ Lyttelton, Lord)

THOMSON, JAMES (1834-1882).--Poet, _b._ at Port Glasgow and brought up in
the Royal Caledonian Asylum, was for some years an army teacher, but was
dismissed for a breach of discipline. He became associated with Charles
Bradlaugh, the free-thought protagonist, who introduced him to the
conductors of various secularist publications. His best known poem is
_The City of Dreadful Night_, deeply pessimistic. Others are _Vane's
Story_ and _Weddah and Omel-Bonain_. His views resulted in depression,
which led to dipsomania, and he _d._ in poverty and misery. His work has
a certain gloomy power which renders it distinctly noteworthy.

THOREAU, HENRY DAVID (1817-1862).--Essayist, poet, and naturalist, was
_b._ at Concord, Massachusetts. His _f._, of French extraction, from
Jersey, was a manufacturer of lead-pencils. He was _ed._ at Harvard,
where he became a good classical scholar. Subsequently he was a competent
Orientalist, and was deeply versed in the history and manners of the Red
Indians. No form of regular remunerative employment commending itself to
him, he spent the 10 years after leaving coll. in the study of books and
nature, for the latter of which he had exceptional qualifications in the
acuteness of his senses and his powers of observation. Though not a
misanthropist, he appears in general to have preferred solitary communion
with nature to human society. "The man I meet," he said, "is seldom so
instructive as the silence which he breaks;" and he described himself as
"a mystic, a transcendentalist, and a natural philosopher." He made such
money as his extremely simple mode of life called for, by building boats
or fences, agricultural or garden work, and surveying, anything almost of
an outdoor character which did not involve lengthened engagement. In 1837
he began his diaries, records of observation with which in ten years he
filled 30 vols. In 1839 he made the excursion the record of which he in
1845 _pub._ as _A Week on the Concord and Merrimac Rivers_. Two years
later, in 1841, he began a residence in the household of Emerson, which
lasted for two years, when he assisted in conducting the _Dial_, and in
1845, after some teaching in New York, he retired to a hut near the
solitary Walden Pond to write his _Week on the Concord_, etc. Later works
were _Walden_ (1854), and _The Maine Woods_ (1864), and _Cape Cod_
(1865), accounts of excursions and observations, both _pub._ after his
death. T. was an enthusiast in the anti-slavery cause, the triumph of
which, however, he did not live to see, as he _d._ on May 6, 1862, when
the war was still in its earlier stages. The deliberate aim of T. was to
live a life as nearly approaching naturalness as possible; and to this
end he passed his time largely in solitude and in the open air. As he
says, "I went to the woods because I wished to live deliberately, to
front only the essential facts of life, and see if I could not learn what
it had to teach." To his great powers of observation he added great
powers of reflection, and two of the most characteristic features of his
writings are immediateness and individuality in his descriptions of
nature, and a remarkable power of giving permanent and clear form to the
most subtle and evanescent mental impressions.

TICKELL, THOMAS (1686-1740).--Poet, _b._ at Bridekirk Vicarage,
Cumberland, and _ed._ at Oxf. became the friend of Joseph Addison
(_q.v._), contributed to the _Spectator_ and _Guardian_, and accompanied
him when he went to Ireland as sec. to the Lord Lieutenant. His
translation of the first book of the _Iliad_ came out at the same time as
Pope's, and led to a quarrel between the latter and Addison, Pope
imagining that the publication was a plot to interfere with the success
of his work. On Addison becoming Sec. of State in 1717 he appointed T.
Under-Sec. Among the writings of T. are the well-known ballad, _Colin and
Lucy_, _Kensington Gardens_, a poem, and an _Elegy_ on the death of
Addison, of which Macaulay says that it "would do honour to the greatest
name in our literature." In 1725 he became sec. to the Lords Justices of
Ireland, and retained the post until his death.

TICKNOR, GEORGE (1791-1871).--Historian and biographer, _s._ of a rich
man, was _b._ at Boston, Mass., and _ed._ for the law. He, however, gave
himself to study and writing, and also travelled much. After being a
Prof. at Harvard, 1819-35, he went in the latter year to Europe, where he
spent some years collecting materials for his _magnum opus_, _The History
of Spanish Literature_ (1849). He also wrote Lives of Lafayette and
Prescott, the historian. His _Letters and Journals_ were _pub._ in 1876,
and are the most interesting of his writings.

TIGHE, MARY (BLACKFORD) (1772-1810).--Poet, _dau._ of a clergyman, made
an unhappy marriage, though she had beauty and amiable manners, and was
highly popular in society. She wrote a good deal of verse; but her chief
poem was a translation in Spenserian stanza of the tale of _Cupid and
Psyche_, which won the admiration of such men as Sir J. Mackintosh,
Moore, and Keats.

TILLOTSON, JOHN (1630-1694).--Divine, _s._ of a Presbyterian clothier,
was _b._ near Halifax, and _ed._ at Camb., where his originally Puritan
views became somewhat modified. At the Savoy Conference in 1661 he was
still a Presbyterian, but submitted to the Act of Uniformity, and became
next year Rector of Keddington, and in 1664 preacher at Lincoln's Inn,
where he became very popular. In 1672 he was made Dean of Canterbury. He
vainly endeavoured to secure the comprehension of the Nonconformists in
the Church. After the Revolution he gained the favour of William III.,
who made him Clerk of the Closet, and Dean of St. Paul's, and in 1691 he
succeeded Sancroft as Archbishop of Canterbury. His sermons, which had
extraordinary popularity, give him a place in literature, and he was one
of those writers who, by greater simplicity and greater attention to
clearness of construction, helped to introduce the modern style of
composition.

TIMROD, HENRY (1829-1867).--Poet, _b._ at Charleston, S. Carolina, of
German descent, was ruined by the Civil War, and _d._ in poverty. He
wrote one vol. of poems, _pub._ 1860, which attained wide popularity in
the South. He had notable descriptive power.

TOBIN, JOHN (1770-1804).--Dramatist, was for long unsuccessful, but in
the year of his death made a hit with _The Honey Moon_, which had great
success, and maintained its place for many years. Other plays were _The
Curfew_ and _The School for Authors_.

TOLAND, JOHN (1670?-1722).--Deistical writer, _b._ in Ireland of Roman
Catholic parentage, completed his education at Glasgow, Edin., and
Leyden. Very early in life he had become a Protestant, and at Leyden he
studied theology with the view of becoming a Nonconformist minister, but
imbibed Rationalistic views. He then resided for some time at Oxf., and
in 1696 _pub._ his first work, _Christianity not Mysterious_, which was
censured by Convocation and gave rise to much controversy. Next year he
returned to Ireland, where, however, he was not more popular than in
England, and where his book was burned by the common hangman. Returning
to England he took to writing political pamphlets, including one, _Anglia
Libera_, in support of the Brunswick succession, which gained him some
favour at Hanover, and he was sent on some political business to the
German Courts. He then served Harley in Holland and Germany practically
as a political spy. His later years were passed in literary drudgery and
poverty. Among his numerous writings may be mentioned _Account of Prussia
and Hanover_, _Origines Judaicae_, _History of the Druids_, and a Life of
Milton prefixed to an ed. of his prose works.

TOOKE, JOHN HORNE (1736-1812).--Philologist, _s._ of a poulterer called
Horne, added the name of Tooke in 1782 in anticipation of inheriting from
his friend W. Tooke, of Purley. He was at Camb. and took orders, but
disliking the clerical profession, travelled abroad. Returning he became
prominent as a radical politician, and espoused the cause of Wilkes, with
whom, however, he afterwards quarrelled. He also supported the revolted
American colonists, and was fined and imprisoned for endeavouring to
raise a subscription for them. An effort to be admitted to the Bar was
unsuccessful; and in 1786 he published his _Diversions of Purley_, a work
on philology which brought him great reputation, and which, containing
muck that has been proved to be erroneous, showed great learning and
acuteness. T. twice endeavoured unsuccessfully to enter Parliament for
Westminster, but ultimately sat for the rotten burgh of Old Sarum,
making, however, no mark in the House. He was the author of numerous
effective political pamphlets.

TOPLADY, AUGUSTUS MONTAGUE (1740-1778).--Hymn-writer, _s._ of an officer
in the army, was _b._ at Farnham, _ed._ at Westminster and Trinity Coll.,
Dublin, after which he took orders and became incumbent of Broad Hembury.
He was a strong Calvinist and entered into a bitter controversy with
Wesley. His controversial works are forgotten; but he will always be
remembered as the author of "Rock of Ages," perhaps the most widely known
of English hymns.

TOURNEUR, or TURNER, CYRIL (1575?-1626).--Dramatist, perhaps _s._ of
Richard T., Lieutenant of the Brill, served in the Low Countries, and was
sec. to Sir Edward Cecil in his unsuccessful expedition to Cadiz,
returning from which he was disembarked with the sick at Kinsale, where
he _d._ He wrote two dramas, _The Revenger's Tragedy_ (_pr._ 1607), and
_The Atheist's Tragedy_ (_pr._ 1611), in both of which, especially the
former, every kind of guilt and horror is piled up, the author
displaying, however, great intensity of tragic power. Of _The Revenger_
Lamb said that it made his ears tingle. Another play of his, _Transformed
Metamorphosis_, was discovered in 1872.

TRAHERNE, THOMAS (1636?-1674).--Poet and theological writer, _s._ of a
shoemaker at Hereford where, or at Ledbury, he was probably _b._ Very few
facts concerning him have been preserved, and indeed his very existence
had been forgotten until some of his MS. were discovered on a bookstall
in 1896, without, however, anything to identify the author. Their
discoverer, Mr. W.T. Brooke, was inclined to attribute them to Henry
Vaughan (_q.v._), in which he was supported by Dr. Grosart (_q.v._), and
the latter was about to bring out a new ed. of Vaughan's poems in which
they were to be included. This was, however, prevented by his death. The
credit of identification is due to Mr. Bertram Dobell, who had become the
possessor of another vol. of MS., and who rejecting, after due
consideration, the claims of Vaughan, followed up the very slender clues
available until he had established the authorship of Traherne. All the
facts that his diligent investigations were successful in collecting were
that T. was "entered as a commoner at Brasenose Coll., Oxf., in 1652,
took one degree in arts, left the house for a time, entered into the
sacred function, and in 1661 was actually created M.A. About that time he
became Rector of Crednell, near Hereford ... and in 1669 Bachelor of
Divinity;" and that after remaining there for over 9 years he was
appointed private chaplain to the Lord Keeper, Sir Orlando Bridgeman, who
on his retirement from office retained him as a member of his household
at Teddington until his death in 1674, T. himself dying three months
later. T. also appears to have been incumbent of Teddington, or perhaps
more probably, curate to a pluralist incumbent. The complete oblivion
into which T. had fallen is the more remarkable when the quality of his
poetry, which places him on a level with Herbert, Vaughan, and Crashaw,
is considered; and that he appears in his own day to have had some
reputation as a scholar and controversialist. His _Roman Forgeries_
(1673) achieved some note. His next work, _Christian Ethics_, which was
not _pub._ until after his death, appears to have fallen dead, and is
extremely rare: it is described by Mr. Dobell as "full of eloquence,
persuasiveness, sagacity, and piety." _Centuries of Meditations_ consists
of short reflections on religious and moral subjects, etc. The _Poems_
constitute his main claim to remembrance and, as already stated, are of a
high order. With occasional roughness of metre they display powerful
imagination, a deep and rich vein of original thought, and true poetic
force and fire. It has been pointed out that in some of them the author
anticipates the essential doctrines of the Berkeleian philosophy, and in
them is also revealed a personality of rare purity and fascination.

TRELAWNY, EDWARD JOHN (1792-1881).--Biographer, entered the navy, from
which, however, he deserted, after which he wandered about in the East
and on the Continent. In Switzerland he met Byron and Shelley, and was
living in close friendship with the latter when he was drowned, and was
one of the witnesses at the cremation of his remains. He took part in the
Greek war of independence, and _m._ the sister of one of the insurgent
chiefs. After various adventures in America he settled in London, where
he was a distinguished figure in society, and enjoyed the reputation of a
picturesque, but somewhat imaginative, conversationalist. He wrote _The
Adventures of a Younger Son_ (1831), a work of striking distinction, and
the intensely interesting _Records of Shelley, Byron, and the Author_
(1858). The last survivor of that brilliant group, he was buried by the
side of Shelley.

TRENCH, RICHARD CHENEVIX (1807-1886).--Poet and theologian, _b._ in
Dublin, and _ed._ at Harrow and Camb., took orders, and after serving
various country parishes, became in 1847 Prof. of Theology in King's
Coll., London, in 1856 Dean of Westminster, and in 1864 Archbishop of
Dublin. As Primate of the Irish Church at its disestablishment, he
rendered valuable service at that time of trial. In theology his best
known works are his _Hulsean Lectures_, _Notes on the Parables_, and
_Notes on the Miracles_. His philological writings, _English Past and
Present_ and _Select Glossary of English Words_ are extremely interesting
and suggestive, though now to some extent superseded. His _Sacred Latin
Poetry_ is a valuable collection of mediaeval Church hymns. He also wrote
sonnets, elegies, and lyrics, in the first of which he was specially
successful, besides longer poems, _Justin Martyr_ and _Sabbation_.

TREVISA, JOHN of (1326-1412).--Translator, a Cornishman, _ed._ at Oxf.,
was Vicar of Berkeley, Gloucestershire, and chaplain to the 4th Lord
Berkeley, and Canon of Westbury. He translated for his patron the
_Polychronicon_ of Ranulf Higden, adding remarks of his own, and
prefacing it with a _Dialogue on Translation between a Lord and a Clerk_.
He likewise made various other translations.

TROLLOPE, ANTHONY (1815-1882).--Novelist, _s._ of Thomas Anthony T., a
barrister who ruined himself by speculation, and of Frances T. (_q.v._),
a well-known writer, was _b._ in London, and _ed._ at Harrow and
Winchester. His childhood was an unhappy one, owing to his father's
misfortunes. After a short time in Belgium he obtained an appointment in
the Post Office, in which he rose to a responsible position. His first
three novels had little success; but in 1855 he found his line, and in
_The Warden_ produced the first of his Barsetshire series. It was
followed by _Barchester Towers_ (1857), _Doctor Thorne_ (1858), _Framley
Parsonage_ (1861), _The Small House at Allington_ (1864), and _The Last
Chronicle of Barset_ (1867), which deal with the society of a small
cathedral city. Other novels are _Orley Farm_, _Can you forgive Her?_,
_Ralph the Heir_, _The Claverings_, _Phineas Finn_, _He knew he was
Right_, and _The Golden Lion of Grandpre_. In all he wrote about 50
novels, besides books about the West Indies, North America, Australia,
and South Africa, a translation of _Caesar_, and monographs on Cicero and
Thackeray. His novels are light of touch, pleasant, amusing, and
thoroughly healthy. They make no attempt to sound the depths of character
or either to propound or solve problems. Outside of fiction his work was
generally superficial and unsatisfactory. But he had the merit of
providing a whole generation with wholesome amusement, and enjoyed a
great deal of popularity. He is said to have received L70,000 for his
writings.

TROLLOPE, MRS. FRANCES (MILTON) (1780-1863).--Novelist and miscellaneous
writer, _b._ at Stapleton near Bristol, _m._ in 1809 Thomas A.T., a
barrister, who fell into financial misfortune. She then in 1827 went with
her family to Cincinnati, where the efforts which she made to support
herself were unsuccessful. On her return to England, however, she brought
herself into notice by publishing _Domestic Manners of the Americans_
(1832), in which she gave a very unfavourable and grossly exaggerated
account of the subject; and a novel, _The Refugee in America_, pursued it
on similar lines. Next came _The Abbess_ and _Belgium and Western
Germany_, and other works of the same kind on _Paris and the Parisians_,
and _Vienna and the Austrians_ followed. Thereafter she continued to pour
forth novels and books on miscellaneous subjects, writing in all over 100
vols. Though possessed of considerable powers of observation and a sharp
and caustic wit, such an output was fatal to permanent literary success,
and none of her books are now read. She spent the last 20 years of her
life at Florence, where she _d._ in 1863. Her third _s._ was Anthony T.,
the well-known novelist (_q.v._). Her eldest _s._, Thomas Adolphus, wrote
_The Girlhood of Catherine de Medici_, a _History of Florence_, and _Life
of Pius IX._, and some novels.

TRUMBULL, JOHN (1750-1831).--Poet, _b._ at Waterbury, Conn., was a
lawyer, and became a judge. He wrote much verse, his principal
productions being _The Progress of Dulness_ (1772) and _McFingal_ (1782),
written in support of the Revolution in imitation of _Hudibras_.

TUCKER, ABRAHAM (1705-1774).--Philosophic writer, _b._ in London, and
_ed._ at Oxf., was a country gentleman, who devoted himself to the study
of philosophy, and wrote under the name of Edward Search, a work in 7
vols., _The Light of Nature Followed_ (1768-78). It is rather a
miscellany than a systematic treatise, but contains much original and
acute thinking.

TUCKER, GEORGE (1775-1861).--Economist, etc., _b._ in Bermuda, became
Prof., of Moral Philosophy, etc., in the Univ. of Virginia. He wrote a
_Life of Jefferson_, _Political History of the United States_, _Essays
Moral and Philosophical_, _The Valley of the Shenandoah_, a novel, _A
Voyage to the Moon_ (satire), and various works on economics.

TUCKER, NATHANIEL BEVERLY (1784-1851).--_B._ in Virginia, became a Prof.,
of Law in William and Mary Coll. He wrote a novel, _The Partisan Leader_
(1836), a prophecy of the future disunion which led to the Civil War. It
was _re-pub._ in 1861 as _A Key to the Southern Conspiracy_. Another
novel was _George Balcombe_.

TUCKERMAN, HENRY THEODORE (1813-1871).--Essayist, etc., _b._ in Boston,
Mass. He was a sympathetic and delicate critic, with a graceful style. He
lived much in Italy, which influenced his choice of subjects in his
earlier writings. These include _The Italian Sketch-book_, _Isabel, or
Sicily_, _Thoughts on the Poets_, _The Book of the Artists_, _Leaves from
the Diary of a Dreamer_, etc.

TULLOCH, JOHN (1823-1886).--Theologian and historical writer, _b._ at
Bridge of Earn, Perthshire, studied at St. Andrews and Edin. He was
ordained to the ministry of the Church of Scotland at Dundee, whence he
was translated to Kettins, Forfarshire, and became in 1854 Principal and
Prof. of Theology in St. Mary's Coll., St. Andrews. He was a leader of
the liberal party in the Church of Scotland, and wrote _Literary and
Intellectual Revival of Scotland in the Eighteenth Century_ (1883),
_Movements of Religious Thought in the Nineteenth Century_ (1884-85),
_Rational Theology and Christian Philosophy in England in the Seventeenth
Century_, and a book on Pascal, etc.

TUPPER, MARTIN FARQUHAR (1810-1889).--Versifier, _s._ of a surgeon, was
_b._ in London, _ed._ at Charterhouse School and Oxf., and called to the
Bar in 1835. He, however, believed that literature was his vocation, and
wrote many works in prose and verse, only one of which, _Proverbial
Philosophy_, had much success. But the vogue which it had was enormous,
especially in America. It is a singular collection of commonplace
observations set forth in a form which bears the appearance of verse, but
has neither rhyme nor metre, and has long since found its deserved level.
He also wrote _War Ballads_, _Rifle Ballads_, and _Protestant Ballads_,
various novels, and an autobiography. T. was likewise an inventor, but
his ideas in this kind had not much success.

TURBERVILLE, or TURBERVILE, GEORGE (1540?-1610).--Poet, belonging to an
ancient Dorsetshire family, was _b._ at Whitchurch, and _ed._ at
Winchester and Oxf. He became sec. to Thomas Randolph, Ambassador to
Russia, and made translations from the Latin and Italian, and in 1570
_pub._ _Epitaphes, Epigrams, Songs, and Sonets_. He also wrote books on
_Falconrie_ and _Hunting_, and was one of the first to use blank verse.

TURNER, SHARON (1768-1847).--Historian, _b._ in London, was a solicitor,
and becoming interested in the study of Icelandic and Anglo-Saxon
literature, _pub._ the results of his researches in his _History of the
Anglo-Saxons_ (1799-1805). Thereafter he continued the narrative in
_History of England_ (1814-29), carrying it on to the end of the reign of
Elizabeth. These histories, especially the former, though somewhat marred
by an attempt to emulate the grandiose style of Gibbon, were works of
real research, and opened up, and to a considerable extent developed, a
new field of inquiry. T. also wrote a _Sacred History of the World_, and
a poem on Richard III.

TUSSER, THOMAS (1524?-1580).--Versifier on agriculture, was an Essex man.
Having a good voice he was trained in music, and was a chorister in St.
Paul's, and afterwards in Norwich Cathedral, and held the post of
musician to Lord Paget. He tried farming at different places, but
unsuccessfully, which did not, however, prevent his undertaking to
instruct others. This he does with much shrewdness and point in his
_Hundreth Goode Pointes of Husbandrie_ (1557), expressed in rude but
lively verse; thereafter he added _Hundreth Goode Pointes of Husserie_
(Housewifery). The two joined, and with many additions, were repeatedly
reprinted as _Five Hundredth Pointes of Goode Husbandrie united to as
many of Goode Huswifery_. Many proverbs may be traced back to the
writings of T., who, in spite of all his shrewdness and talent, _d._ in
prison as a debtor.

TYNDALE, WILLIAM (1484?-1536).--Translator of the Bible, belonged to a
northern family which, migrating to Gloucestershire during the Wars of
the Roses, adopted the alternative name of Huchyns or Hychins, which T.
himself bore when at Oxf. in 1510. After graduating there, he went to
Camb., where the influence of Erasmus, who had been Prof. of Theology,
still operated. He took orders, and in 1522 was a tutor in the household
of Sir John Walsh of Old Sodbury, and was preaching and disputing in the
country round, for which he was called to account by the Chancellor of
the diocese. At the same time he translated a treatise by Erasmus, the
_Enchiridion Militis Christiani_ (Manual of the Christian Soldier), and
in controversy with a local disputant prophesied that he would cause that
"a boye that driveth the plough" should know the Scriptures better than
his opponent. Having formed the purpose of translating the New Testament
T. went in 1523 to London, and used means towards his admission to the
household of Tunstal, Bishop of London, but without success; he then
lived in the house of a wealthy draper, Humphrey Monmouth, where he
probably began his translation. Finding, however, that his work was
likely to be interfered with, he proceeded in 1524 to Hamburg, whence he
went to visit Luther at Wittenberg. He began printing his translation at
Cologne the following year, but had to fly to Worms, where the work was
completed. The translation itself is entirely T.'s work, and is that of a
thorough scholar, and shows likewise an ear for the harmony of words. The
notes and introduction are partly his own, partly literal translations,
and partly the gist of the work of Luther. From Germany the translation
was introduced into England, and largely circulated until forcible means
of prevention were brought to bear in 1528. In this year T. removed to
Marburg, where he _pub._ _The Parable of the Wicked Mammon_, a treatise
on Justification by Faith, and _The Obedience of a Christian Man_,
setting forth that Scripture is the ultimate authority in matters of
faith, and the King in matters of civil government. Thereafter, having
been at Hamburg and Antwerp, T. returned to Marburg, and in 1530 _pub._
his translation of the _Pentateuch_ and _The Practice of Prelates_, in
which he attacked Wolsey and the proposed divorce proceedings of Henry
VIII., the latter of whom endeavoured to have him apprehended. Thereafter
he was involved in a controversy with Sir Thomas More. In 1533 he
returned to Antwerp, Henry's hostility having somewhat cooled, and was
occupied in revising his translations, when he was in 1535 betrayed into
the hands of the Imperial officers and carried off to the Castle of
Vilvorde, where the next year he was strangled and burned. T. was one of
the most able and devoted of the reforming leaders, and his, the
foundation of all future translations of the Bible, is his enduring
monument. He was a small, thin man of abstemious habits and untiring
industry.

TYNDALL, JOHN (1820-1893).--Scientific writer, _b._ at Leighlin Bridge,
County Carlow, was in early life employed in the ordnance survey and as a
railway engineer. He was next teacher of mathematics and surveying at
Queenwood Coll., Hampshire, after which he went to Marburg to study
science, and while there became joint author of a memoir _On the
Magneto-optic Properties of Crystals_ (1850). After being at Berlin he
returned in 1851 to Queenwood, and in 1853 was appointed Prof. of Natural
Philosophy in the Royal Institution, which in 1867 he succeeded Faraday
as Superintendent. With Huxley (_q.v._) he made investigations into the
Alpine glaciers. Thereafter he did much original work on heat, sound, and
light. In addition to his discoveries T. was one of the greatest
popularisers of science. His style, remarkable for lucidity and elegance,
enabled him to expound such subjects with the minimum of technical
terminology. Among his works are _The Glaciers of the Alps_ (1860),
_Mountaineering_ (1861), _Fragments of Science_, two vols. (1871),
including his address to the British Association at Belfast, which raised
a storm of controversy and protest in various quarters, _Hours of
Exercise on the Alps_, etc. T. _d._ from an overdose of chloral
accidentally administered by his wife.

TYTLER, ALEXANDER FRASER (1747-1813).--Historian, _s._ of William T.
(_q.v._), studied at Edin., was called to the Bar in 1770 and raised to
the Bench as Lord Woodhouselee in 1802. He was Prof. of History in Edin.,
and wrote _Elements of General History_ (1801), _An Essay on the
Principles of Translation_ (1791), besides various legal treatises.

TYTLER, PATRICK FRASER (1791-1849).--Historian, _s._ of the above,
studied at Edin., and was called to the Bar in 1813. Among his many
writings are an _Essay on the History of the Moors in Spain_, _The Life
of the Admirable Crichton_ (1819), _History of Scotland_ (1828-43), and
_England under the Reigns of Edward VI. and Mary_ (1839). His _History of
Scotland_, which was the result of 20 years of study and research, is
still authoritative.

TYTLER, WILLIAM (1711-1792).--Historical writer, was a lawyer in Edin.,
and wrote _An Inquiry into the Evidence against Mary Queen of Scots_, in
which he combated the views of Robertson. He discovered the _King's
Quhair_ of James I., and _pub._ in 1783 _The Poetical Remains of James
I., King of Scotland_, with a Life.

UDALL, NICOLAS (1505-1556).--Dramatist and scholar, _b._ in Hampshire,
and _ed._ at Oxf. In 1534 he became headmaster of Eton, from which he was
dismissed for misconduct, 1541. In 1537 he became Vicar of Braintree, in
1551 of Calborne, Isle of Wight, and in 1554 headmaster of Westminster
School. He translated part of the _Apophthegms_ of Erasmus, and assisted
in making the English version of his _Paraphrase of the New Testament_.
Other translations were Peter Martyr's _Discourse on the Eucharist_ and
Thomas Gemini's _Anatomia_, but he is best remembered by _Ralph Roister
Doister_ (1553?), the first English comedy, a rude but lively piece.

UNDERDOWN, THOMAS (_fl._ 1566-1587).--Translator. He translated the
_AEthiopian History_ of Heliodorus 1566; also from Ovid.

UNDERWOOD, FRANCIS HENRY (1825-1894).--Critic and biographer, _b._ in
Massachusetts, was American Consul at Glasgow and Leith. He wrote
_Hand-books of English Literature_, _Builders of American Literature_,
etc., some novels, _Lord of Himself_, _Man Proposes_, and _Dr. Gray's
Quest_, and biographies of Lowell, Longfellow, and Whittier.

URQUHART, SIR THOMAS (1611-1660).--Eccentric writer and translator, was
_ed._ at King's Coll., Aberdeen, after leaving which he travelled in
France, Spain, and Italy. He was bitterly opposed to the Covenanters, and
fought against them at Turriff in 1639. His later life was passed between
Scotland, England (where he was for some time a prisoner in the Tower),
and the Continent, where he lived, 1642-45. A man of considerable ability
and learning, his vanity and eccentricity verged upon insanity, and he is
said to have _d._ from the effects of an uncontrollable fit of joyful
laughter on hearing news of the Restoration. Among his extravagances was
a genealogy of his family traced through his _f._ to Adam, and through
his mother to Eve, he himself being the 153rd in descent. He _pub._
_Trissotetras_, a work on trigonometry (1645), an invective against the
Presbyterians (1652), a scheme for a universal language,
_Logopandecteision_ (1653), and a partial translation of Rabelais (1653),
a further portion being _pub._ in 1693. In the last he was assisted by
Peter Anthony Motteux, a Frenchman who had established himself in
England, who continued the work.

USK, THOMAS (_d._ 1388).--Poet, _b._ in London, was sec. to John of
Northampton, the Wyclifite Lord Mayor of London, whom he betrayed to save
himself, in which, however, he failed, being executed in 1388. During his
imprisonment, which lasted from 1384 until his death, he composed _The
Testament of Love_, a didactic poem long attributed to Chaucer.

USSHER, JAMES (1581-1656).--Divine and scholar, _b._ in Dublin, the _s._
of a lawyer there, and _ed._ at Trinity Coll., took orders, and became
Chancellor of St. Patrick's, Dublin, 1605, and Prof. of Divinity,
1607-21. On the Irish clergy, in 1715, deciding to assert themselves as
an independent church, U. had the main hand in drawing up the
constitution, certain features of which led to the suspicion of his being
in favour of Puritanism. To defend himself he went in 1619 to England,
and had a conference with the King (James I.), in which he so completely
succeeded that he was in 1621 made Bishop of Meath, and four years later
Archbishop of Armagh. He constantly used his influence in favour of
reform, and endeavoured to introduce such modifications of Episcopacy as
would conciliate and comprehend the Presbyterians. During the troubles
which led to the Civil War U. maintained the unlawfulness of taking up
arms against the King. The Rebellion in Ireland in 1641 drove him away,
and he settled first at Oxf., but ultimately at the house of Lady
Peterborough at Reigate, where he _d._ in 1656. His works dealt chiefly
with ecclesiastical antiquities and chronology, his _magnum opus_ being
_Annales_, a chronology of the world from the creation to the dispersion
of the Jews in the reign of Vespasian, a work which gained him great
reputation on the Continent as well as at home. The date of the creation
was fixed as 4004 B.C., which was long universally received. It has, of
course, been altogether superseded, alike by the discovery of ancient
records, and by geology.

VANBRUGH, SIR JOHN (1664-1726).--Dramatist and architect, _b._ in London
of Flemish descent, was in France from 1683 to 1685, studying
architecture, for which he had early shown a taste. The next year he got
a commission in the army, and in 1690 he was a prisoner first at
Vincennes and then in the Bastille. In 1696 he began his dramatic career
with _The Relapse_, which had great success. _AEsop_ followed in 1697, and
_The Provoked Wife_ in the same year. The latter was severely handled by
Jeremy Collier (_q.v._) in his _Short View_, etc., which produced a
vindication by the author. In addition to these he wrote or collaborated
in various other plays. His leading features as a dramatist are the
naturalness of his dialogue and his lively humour. Like all his
contemporaries he is frequently extremely gross. He obtained great fame
as an architect, as well as a dramatist. Among his most famous designs
are Castle Howard, Blenheim Palace, and Dalkeith Palace. He was knighted
by George I., was controller of the Royal works, and succeeded Wren as
architect to Greenwich Hospital. In addition to the plays above mentioned
V. wrote _The Confederacy_ and _The Country House_. He was a handsome and
jovial person, and highly popular in society.

VAUGHAN, HENRY (1622-1695).--Poet, _b._ in the parish of Llansaintffraed,
Brecknock, and as a native of the land of the ancient Silures, called
himself "Silurist." He was at Jesus Coll., Oxf., studied law in London,
but finally settled as a physician at Brecon and Newton-by-Usk. In his
youth he was a decided Royalist and, along with his twin brother Thomas,
was imprisoned. His first book was _Poems, with the Tenth Satire of
Juvenal Englished_. It appeared in 1646. _Olor Iscanus_ (the Swan of
Usk), a collection of poems and translations, was surreptitiously _pub._
in 1651. About this time he had a serious illness which led to deep
spiritual impressions, and thereafter his writings were almost entirely
religious. _Silex Scintillans_ (Sparks from the Flint), his best known
work, consists of short poems full of deep religious feeling, fine fancy,
and exquisite felicities of expression, mixed with a good deal that is
quaint and artificial. It contains "The Retreat," a poem of about 30
lines which manifestly suggested to Wordsworth his _Ode on the
Intimations of Immortality_, and "Beyond the Veil," one of the finest
meditative poems in the language. _Flores Solitudinis_ (Flowers of
Solitude) and _The Mount of Olives_ are devout meditations in prose. The
two brothers were joint authors of _Thalia Rediviva: the Pastimes and
Diversions of a Country Muse_ (1678), a collection of translations and
original poems.

VAUGHAN, ROBERT (1795-1868).--A minister of the Congregationalist
communion, Prof. of History in London Univ., 1830-43, and Pres. of the
Independent Coll., Manchester, 1843-57. He founded, and for a time ed.
the _British Quarterly_. He wrote, among various other works, _A History
of England under the Stuarts_, _Revolutions of History_, and a Life of
Wycliffe.

VEITCH, JOHN (1829-1894).--Philosophic and miscellaneous writer, _b._ at
Peebles, _ed._ at Univ. and New Coll., Edin., was assistant to Sir Wm.
Hamilton (_q.v._), 1856-60, Prof. of Logic at St. Andrews, 1860-64, and
Glasgow, 1864-94. He was a voluminous and accomplished writer, his works
including Lives of _Dugald Stewart_ (1857) and _Sir W. Hamilton_ (1869),
_Tweed and other Poems_ (1875), _History and Poetry of the Scottish
Border_ (1877), _Feeling for Nature in Scottish Poetry_ (1887), _Merlin
and other Poems_ (1889), _Border Essays_ (1896), and _Dualism and Monism_
(1895).

VERY, JONES (1813-1880).--Essayist and poet, _b._ at Salem, Mass., where
he became a clergyman and something of a mystic. He _pub._ one small
volume, _Essays and Poems_, the latter chiefly in the form of the
Shakespearian sonnet. Though never widely popular, he appealed by his
refined, still thoughtfulness to a certain small circle of minds.

WACE (_fl._ 1170).--Chronicler, _b._ in Jersey, and _ed._ at Caen, was
influenced by the Chronicle of Geoffrey of Monmouth (_q.v._), and based
upon it a French metrical romance, _Brut_. Later, at the command of Henry
II., he rewrote with additions a chronicle of the life of William the
Conqueror and entitled it _Roman de Rou_.

WADE, THOMAS (1805-1875).--Poet, _b._ at Woodbridge, _pub._ poems,
dramas, sonnets, and a translation of Dante's _Inferno_. Among his
writings are _Tasso and the Sisters_ (1825), _Mundi et Cordis Carmina_
(1835); _Duke Andrea_ (1828), and _The Jew of Arragon_ (1830), both
tragedies, and the _Phrenologists_ (1830), a farce.

WAKEFIELD, GILBERT (1756-1801).--Scholar and controversialist, _b._ at
Nottingham, _ed._ at Camb., took orders, but becoming a Unitarian
renounced them and acted as classical tutor in various Unitarian
academies. He was a strong defender of the French Revolution, and was
imprisoned for two years for writing a seditious pamphlet. He _pub._ ed.
of various classical writers, and among his theological writings are
_Early Christian Writers on the Person of Christ_ (1784), _An Examination
of Paine's Age of Reason_ (1794), and _Silva Critica_ (1789-95),
illustrations of the Scriptures.

WALLACE, LEWIS (1827-1905).--Novelist, _b._ at Brookville, Indiana,
served with distinction in the Mexican and Civil Wars, and rose to the
rank of General. He was also a politician of some note, and was Governor
of Utah and Minister to Turkey. His novel, _Ben Hur_ (1880), dealing with
the times of Christ, had great popularity, and was followed by _The Fair
God_, _The Prince of India_, and other novels, and by a work on the
_Boyhood of Christ_.

WALLER, EDMUND (1606-1687).--Poet, _b._ at Coleshill, Herts, and _ed._ at
Eton and Camb., belonged to an old and wealthy family, and in early
childhood inherited the estate of Beaconsfield, Bucks, worth L3500 a
year. He was related to John Hampden, and was distantly connected with
Oliver Cromwell, his own family, however, being staunch Royalists. He
studied law at Lincoln's Inn, and at the age of 16 became a member of
Parliament, in which he sat for various constituencies for the greater
part of his life, and in which his wit and vivacity, as well as his
powers of adapting his principles to the times, enabled him to take a
prominent part. In 1631 he added to his fortune by marrying Anne Banks, a
London heiress, who _d._ in 1634, and he then paid assiduous but
unsuccessful court to Lady Dorothea Sidney, to whom, under the name of
Sacharissa, he addressed much of his best poetry. Though probably really
a Royalist in his sympathies, W. supported the popular cause in
Parliament, and in 1641 conducted the case against Sir Francis Crawley
for his opinion in favour of the legality of ship-money. His speech,
which was printed, had an enormous circulation and brought him great
fame. Two years later, however, he was detected in a plot for seizing
London for the King, was expelled from the House, fined L10,000, and
banished. On this occasion he showed cowardice and treachery, humiliating
himself in the most abject manner, and betraying all his associates. He
went to the Continent, living chiefly in France and Switzerland, and
showing hospitality to Royalist exiles. Returning by permission in 1652
he addressed some laudatory verses, among the best he wrote, to Cromwell,
on whose death nevertheless he wrote a new poem entitled, _On the Death
of the late Usurper, O.C._ On the Restoration the accommodating poet was
ready with a congratulatory address to Charles II., who, pointing out its
inferiority as a poem to that addressed to Cromwell, elicited the famous
reply, "Poets, Sire, succeed better in fiction than in truth." The poem,
however, whatever its demerits, succeeded in its prime object, and the
poet became a favourite at Court, and sat in Parliament until his death.
In addition to his lighter pieces, on which his fame chiefly rests, W.
wrote an epic, _The Summer Islands_ (Bermudas), and a sacred poem,
_Divine Love_. His short poems, such as "On a Girdle," often show fancy
and grace of expression, but are frequently frigid and artificial, and
exhibit absolute indifference to the charms of Nature. As a man, though
agreeable and witty, he was time-serving, selfish, and cowardly.
Clarendon has left a very unflattering "character" of him. He _m._ a
second time and had five sons and eight daughters.

WALLER, JOHN FRANCIS (1810-1894).--Poet, _b._ at Limerick, and _ed._ at
Trinity Coll., Dublin, became a contributor to and ultimately ed. of the
_Dublin University Magazine_, usually writing under the pseudonym of
"Jonathan Freke Slingsby." His works include _Ravenscroft Hall_ (1852),
_The Dead Bridal_ (1856), and _Peter Brown_ (1872).

WALPOLE, HORATIO or HORACE (1717-1797).--Miscellaneous writer, third _s._
of Sir Robert W., the great minister of George II., was _b._ in London,
and _ed._ at Eton and Camb., after which he travelled on the Continent
with Gray, the poet (_q.v._). His _f._ bestowed several lucrative
appointments upon him, and he sat in Parliament for various places, but
never took any prominent part in public business. By the death of his
nephew, the 3rd Earl, he became in 1791 4th Earl of Orford. In 1747 he
purchased the villa of Strawberry Hill, Twickenham, the conversion of
which into a small Gothic Castle and the collection of the works of art
and curios with which it was decorated was the main interest of his
subsequent life. His position in society gave him access to the best
information on all contemporary subjects of interest, and he was as
successful in collecting gossip as curios. He also erected a private
press, from which various important works, including Gray's _Bard_, as
well as his own writings, were issued. Among the latter are _Letter from
Xo Ho to his Friend Lien Chi at Pekin_ (1757), _The Castle of Otranto_,
the forerunner of the romances of terror of Mrs. Radcliffe and "Monk"
Lewis, _The Mysterious Mother_ (1768), a tragedy of considerable power,
_Catalogue of Royal and Noble Authors_, _Anecdotes of Painting_,
_Catalogue of Engravers_ (1763), _Essay on Modern Gardening_, _Memoirs of
the Last Ten Years of George II._, _Memoirs of the Reign of George III._,
and above all his _Letters_, 2700 in number, vivacious, interesting, and
often brilliant. W. never _m._

WALPOLE, SIR SPENCER (1839-1907).--Historian, _s._ of the Right Hon.
Spencer W., Home Sec. in the three Derby Cabinets, belonged to the same
family as Sir Robert W. _Ed._ at Eton he became a clerk in the War
Office, and was thereafter successively Inspector of Fisheries 1867,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Isle of Man 1882, and Sec. to the Post Office,
where he made a reputation as an efficient administrator, and was made
K.C.B. in 1898. He _pub._ _History of England from_ 1815 in 6 vols.,
bringing the story down to 1858, and followed it up with _The History of
Twenty-five Years_. He also wrote Lives of Spencer Percival, Prime
Minister 1809-12, who was assassinated in the lobby of the House of
Commons in the latter year, and who was his maternal grandfather, and of
Earl Russell. His latest book was _Studies in Biography_. He wrote with
much knowledge, and in a clear and sober style.

WALTON, IZAAK (1593-1683).--Biographer, and author of _The Compleat
Angler_, _s._ of a yeoman, was _b._ at Stafford. Of his earlier years
little is known. He carried on business as a hosier in London, in which
he made a modest competence, which enabled him to retire at 50, the rest
of his long life of 90 years being spent in the simple country pleasures,
especially angling, which he so charmingly describes. He was twice _m._,
first to Rachel Floud, a descendant of Archbishop Cranmer, and second to
Ann Ken, half-sister of the author of the Evening Hymn. His first book
was a _Life of Dr. Donne_ (1640), followed by Lives of Sir Henry Wotton
(1651), Richard Hooker (1662), George Herbert (1670), and Bishop
Sanderson (1678). All of these, classics in their kind, short, but simple
and striking, were _coll._ into one vol. His masterpiece, however, was
_The Compleat Angler_, the first ed. of which was _pub._ in 1653.
Subsequent ed. were greatly enlarged; a second part was added by Charles
Cotton (_q.v._). With its dialogues between Piscator (angler), Venator
(hunter), and Auceps (falconer), full of wisdom, kindly humour, and
charity, its charming pictures of country scenes and pleasures, and its
snatches of verse, it is one of the most delightful and care-dispelling
books in the language. His long, happy, and innocent life ended in the
house of his son-in-law, Dr. Hawkins, Prebendary of Winchester, where in
the Cathedral he lies buried.

WARBURTON, BARTHOLOMEW ELIOT GEORGE (1810-1852).--Miscellaneous writer,
_b._ in County Galway, travelled in the East, and _pub._ an account of
his experiences, _The Crescent and the Cross_, which had remarkable
success, brought out an historical work, _Memoirs of Prince Rupert and
the Cavaliers_ (1849), and ed. _Memoirs of Horace Walpole and his
Contemporaries_. He perished in the burning of the steamer _Amazon_.

WARBURTON, WILLIAM (1698-1779).--Theologian, _b._ at Newark, where his
_f._ was an attorney. Intended for the law, he was for a few years
engaged in its practice, but his intense love of, and capacity for,
study led him to enter the Church, and in 1728 he was presented to the
Rectory of Brand-Broughton, where he remained for many years. His first
important work was _The Alliance between Church and State_ (1736), which
brought him into notice. But it was entirely eclipsed by his _Divine
Legation of Moses_, of which the first part appeared in 1737, and the
second in 1741. The work, though learned and able, is somewhat
paradoxical, and it plunged him into controversies with his numerous
critics, and led to his publishing a _Vindication_. It, however, obtained
for him the appointment of chaplain to Frederick, Prince of Wales. In
1739 W. gained the friendship of Pope by publishing a defence of _The
Essay on Man_. Through Pope he became acquainted with most of the men of
letters of the time, and he was made by the poet his literary executor,
and had the legacy of half his library, and the profits of his posthumous
works. On the strength of this he brought out an ed. of Pope's works. He
also _pub._ an ed. of Shakespeare with notes, which was somewhat severely
criticised, and his _Doctrine of Grace_, a polemic against Wesley. He
became Dean of Bristol in 1757 and Bishop of Gloucester in 1759. W. was a
man of powerful intellect, but his temper was overbearing and arrogant.

"WARD, ARTEMUS", (_see_ BROWN, C.F.).

WARD, ROBERT PLUMER (1765-1846).--Novelist and politician, _b._ in
London, _ed._ at Oxf., and called to the Bar 1790, held various political
offices, and wrote some books on the law of nations; also three novels,
_Tremaine, or the Man of Refinement_, full of prolix discussions; _De
Vere, or the Man of Independence_, in which Canning is depicted under the
character of Wentworth; and _De Clifford, or the Constant Man_.

WARD, WILLIAM GEORGE (1812-1882).--Theologian, _ed._ at Winchester and
Oxf., and came under the influence of J.H. Newman, whose famous Tract No.
XC. he defended, and whom he followed into the Church of Rome. In 1844 he
_pub._ _The Ideal of a Christian Church_ from the Romanist point of view,
whence his soubriquet of "Ideal Ward." He was lecturer on Moral
Philosophy at St. Edward's Coll., Ware, and wrote various treatises on
controversial theology.

WARDLAW, ELIZABETH, LADY (1677-1727).--Poetess, _dau._ of Sir Charles
Halkett of Pitfirrane, and wife of Sir Henry Wardlaw of Pitreavie, is
believed to have written the pseudo-ancient ballad of "Hardyknute." The
ballad of "Sir Patrick Spens" and others have also, but doubtfully, been
attributed to her.

WARNER, SUSAN (1819-1885).--Writer of tales, _b._ at New York, and wrote,
under the name of "Elizabeth Wetherell," a number of stories, of which
_The Wide, Wide World_ (1851) had an extraordinary popularity. Others
were _Queechy_ (1852), _The Old Helmet_ (1863), and _Melbourne House_
(1864). They have no particular literary merit or truth to nature, and
are rather sentimental and "gushy."

WARNER, WILLIAM (1558-1609).--Poet, _b._ in London or Yorkshire, studied
at Oxf., and was an attorney in London. In 1585 he _pub._ a collection
of seven tales in prose entitled _Pan his Syrinx_, and in 1595 a
translation of the _Menaechmi_ of Plautus. His chief work was _Albion's
England_, _pub._ in 1586 in 13 books of fourteen-syllabled verse, and
republished with 3 additional books in 1606. The title is thus explained
in the dedication, "This our whole island anciently called Britain, but
more anciently Albion, presently containing two kingdoms, England and
Scotland, is cause ... that to distinguish the former, whose only
occurrants I abridge from our history, I entitle this my book _Albion's
England_." For about 20 years it was one of the most popular poems of its
size--it contains about 10,000 lines--ever written, and he and Spenser
were called the Homer and Virgil of their age. They must, however, have
appealed to quite different classes. The plain-spoken, jolly humour,
homely, lively, direct tales, vigorous patriotic feeling, and
rough-and-tumble metre of Warner's muse, and its heterogeneous
accumulation of material--history, tales, theology, antiquities--must
have appealed to a lower and wider audience than Spenser's charmed verse.
The style is clear, spirited, and pointed, but, as has been said, "with
all its force and vivacity ... fancy at times, and graphic descriptive
power, it is poetry with as little of high imagination in it as any that
was ever written." In his narratives W. allowed himself great latitude of
expression, which may partly account for the rapidity with which his book
fell into oblivion.

WARREN, SAMUEL (1807-1877).--Novelist, _b._ in Denbighshire, _s._ of a
Nonconformist minister. After studying medicine at Edin. he took up law,
and became a barrister, wrote several legal text-books, and in 1852 was
made Recorder of Hull. He sat in the House of Commons for Midhurst
1856-59, and was a Master in Lunacy 1859-77. He was the author of
_Passages from the Diary of a late Physician_, which appeared (1832-37)
first in _Blackwood's Magazine_, as did also _Ten Thousand a Year_
(1839). Both attracted considerable attention, and were often reprinted
and translated. His last novel, _Now and Then_, had little success. W.
entertained exaggerated ideas as to the importance of his place in
literature.

WARTON, JOSEPH (1722-1800).--Critic, elder _s._ of the Rev. Thomas W.,
Prof. of Poetry at Oxf., was _ed._ at Basingstoke School, (of which his
_f._ was headmaster), Winchester, and Oxf. He took orders, held various
benefices, and became headmaster of Winchester Coll., and Prebendary of
Winchester and of St. Paul's. He _pub._ miscellaneous verses, 2 vols. of
_Odes_ (1744 and 1746), in which he displayed a then unusual feeling for
nature, and revolted against the critical rules of Pope and his
followers. He was a good classical scholar, and made an approved
translation of the _Eclogues_ and _Georgics_ of Virgil. He and his
brother Thomas (_q.v._) were friends of Johnson, and members of the
Literary Club. His last work of importance was an _Essay on the Writings
and Genius of Pope_, of which the first vol. appeared in 1757, and the
second in 1782, and which gave an impulse to the romantic movement in
English literature. He also ed. Pope's works, and had begun an ed. of
Dryden when he _d._

WARTON, THOMAS (1728-1790).--Literary historian and critic, younger _s._
of Thomas W., Prof. of Poetry at Oxf., and brother of the above, was
_ed._ under his _f._ at Basingstoke and at Oxf. At the age of 19 he
_pub._ a poem of considerable promise, _The Pleasures of Melancholy_, and
two years later attracted attention by _The Triumph of Isis_ (1749), in
praise of Oxf., and in answer to Mason's _Isis_. After various other
poetical excursions he _pub._ _Observations on Spenser's Faery Queen_
(1754), which greatly increased his reputation, and in 1757 he was made
Prof. of Poetry at Oxf., which position he held for 10 years. After
bringing out one or two ed. of classics and biographies of college
benefactors, he issued, from 1774-81, his great _History of English
Poetry_, which comes down to the end of the Elizabethan age. The research
and judgment, and the stores of learning often curious and recondite,
which were brought to bear upon its production render this work, though
now in various respects superseded, a vast magazine of information, and
it did much to restore our older poetry to the place of which it had been
unjustly deprived by the classical school. His ed. of Milton's minor
poems has been pronounced by competent critics to be the best ever
produced. W. was a clergyman, but if the tradition is to be believed that
he had only two sermons, one written by his _f._ and the other printed,
and if the love of ease and of ale which he celebrates in some of his
verses was other than poetical, he was more in his place as a critic than
as a cleric. As a poet he hardly came up to his own standards. He was
made Poet Laureate in 1785, and in the same year Camden Prof. of History,
and was one of the first to detect the Chatterton forgeries, a task in
which his antiquarian lore stood him in good stead.

WATERLAND, DANIEL (1683-1740).--Theologian, _b._ at Waseley Rectory,
Lincolnshire, and _ed._ at Camb., took orders, and obtained various
preferments, becoming Master of Magdalene Coll., Camb. 1713, Chancellor
of York 1722, and Archdeacon of Middlesex 1730. He was an acute and able
controversialist on behalf of the orthodox doctrine of the Trinity, on
which he wrote several treatises. He was also the author of a _History of
the Athanasian Creed_ (1723).

WATERTON, CHARLES (1782-1865).--Naturalist, belonged to an old Roman
Catholic family in Yorkshire, and was _ed._ at Stonyhurst Coll. Sent out
in 1804 to look after some family estates in Demerara, he wandered
through the wildest parts of Guiana and Brazil, in search of plants and
animals for his collections. His adventures were related in his
highly-spiced and entertaining _Wanderings in South America, etc._
(1825), in which he details certain surprising episodes in connection
with the capture of serpents, and specially of a cayman, on the back of
which he rode. He also wrote an interesting account of his family.

WATSON, JOHN (1850-1907) "IAN MACLAREN".--Novelist and theological
writer, _b._ at Manningtree, where his _f._ was an Inland Revenue
official, _ed._ at Stirling and Edin., and the New Coll. there. He came,
after serving in a country charge, to Sefton Park Presbyterian Church,
Liverpool, where he was a popular preacher, and took a prominent part in
the social and religious life of the city. He wrote, under the name of
"Ian Maclaren," several novels belonging to the "Kailyard" school,
including _Beside the Bonnie Briar Bush_ and _The Days of Auld Lang
Syne_, which had great popularity both at home and in America. He also
wrote religious works, of which _The Mind of the Master_ is the best
known.

WATSON, ROBERT (1730-1781).--Historian, _s._ of an apothecary in St.
Andrews, where and at Edin. and Glasgow, he was _ed._ He became Prof. of
Logic, and afterwards Principal of St. Salvador's Coll., at St. Andrews,
and wrote a History of Philip II. of Spain, and part of a continuation on
Philip III., which were long standard works.

WATSON, THOMAS (1557?-1592).--Poet, _b._ in London, was at Oxf., and
studied law. He was a scholar, and made translations, one of which was a
Latin version of the _Antigone_ of Sophocles. In 1582 he _pub._
_Hecatompathia, or The Passionate Centurie of Love_, consisting of 100
eighteen-line poems, which he called sonnets. It was followed by
_Amyntas_ (1585) and _Teares of Fansie_ (1593).

WATTS, ALARIC ALEXANDER (1797-1864).--Poet, _b._ in London, had an active
career as a journalist. He founded the _United Service Gazette_, and ed.
various newspapers and an annual, the _Literary Souvenir_. His poems were
_coll._ as _Lyrics of the Heart_. His numerous journalistic ventures
finally resulted in bankruptcy.

WATTS, ISAAC (1674-1748).--Poet and theologian, _b._ at Southampton,
where his _f._ kept a school, and _ed._ at a Nonconformist academy at
Stoke Newington, became minister of an Independent congregation in Mark
Lane; but his health proving insufficient for his pastoral duties, he
resigned, and gave himself chiefly to literary work, continuing to preach
occasionally. For the last 36 years of his life he resided at Theobald's,
the house of his friend, Sir Thomas Abney. Among his writings were
various educational treatises, including those on _Logic_ and _The
Improvement of the Mind_, and some works on theological subjects. But his
fame rests on his sacred poems and his hymns, which number over 500, and
with much that is prosaic comprised "There is a Land of Pure Delight," "O
God our Help in Ages Past," and "When I survey the Wondrous Cross," which
has been called "the most majestic hymn in English speech." His _Horae
Lyricae_ was _pub._ in 1706, _Hymns_ (1707), _Divine Songs_ (for children)
(1715), _Metrical Psalms_ (1719). Some of his poems, such as his
exquisite cradle song, "Hush, my dear, lie still and slumber" have a
perfect beauty and tenderness.

WAUGH, EDWIN (1817-1890).--Poet, _s._ of a shoemaker, was _b._ at
Rochdale and, after a little schooling, apprenticed to a printer. He read
eagerly, and became assistant sec. to the Lancashire Public School
Association. He first attracted attention by his sketches of Lancashire
life and character in the _Manchester Examiner_. He wrote also in prose
_Factory Folk_, _Besom Ben Stories_, and _The Chimney Corner_. His best
work was, perhaps, his dialect songs, _coll._ as _Poems and Songs_
(1859), which brought him great local fame. He was possessed of
considerable literary gift, and has been called "the Lancashire Burns."

WEBBE, WILLIAM (_b._ 1550).--Critic and translator. Almost nothing is
known of him except that he was at Camb. and acted as tutor in certain
distinguished families, and was a friend of Spenser. He wrote a
_Discourse of English Poetrie_ (1586), in which he discusses metre, rhyme
(the use of which he reprehends), and reviews English poetry up to his
own day. He also translated the first two of the _Eclogues_ of Virgil in
singularly unmelodious hexameters.

WEBSTER, MRS. AUGUSTA (DAVIES) (1837-1894).--Poet and translator, _dau._
of Admiral Davies, _m._ Mr. Thomas Webster, a solicitor. She wrote a
novel, _Lesley's Guardians_, and several books of poetry of distinguished
excellence, including _Blanche Lisle_, _Dramatic Studies_ (1866),
_Portraits_ (1870), _A Book of Rhyme_ (1881), and some dramas, including
_The Auspicious Day_ (1874), _Disguises_, and _The Sentence_ (1887). She
also made translations of _Prometheus Bound_ and _Medea_.

WEBSTER, DANIEL (1782-1852).--Orator, _s._ of a farmer in New Hampshire,
was a distinguished advocate in Boston, and afterwards a member of the
United States Senate and Sec. of State 1841-43 and 1850-52. He was the
greatest orator whom America has produced, and has a place in literature
by virtue of his _pub._ speeches.

WEBSTER, JOHN (1580?-1625?).--Dramatist. Though in some respects he came
nearest to Shakespeare of any of his contemporaries, almost nothing has
come down to us of the life of W. Even the dates of his birth and death
are uncertain. He appears to have been the _s._ of a London tailor, to
have been a freeman of the Merchant Taylor's Company, and clerk of the
parish of St. Andrews, Holborn. Four plays are known to be his, _The
White Devil, or the Life and Death of Vittoria Corombona_ (1612), _Appius
and Virginia_ (1654), _The Devil's Law Case_ (1623), and _The Duchess of
Malfi_ (1623), and he collaborated with Drayton, Middleton, Heywood,
Dekker, etc., in the production of others. He does not appear to have
been much regarded in his own day, and it was only in the 19th century
that his great powers began to be appreciated and expounded by such
critics as Lamb and Hazlitt, and in later days Swinburne. The first says,
"To move a horror skilfully, to touch a soul to the quick, to lay upon
fear as much as it can bear, to wean and weary a life till it is ready to
drop, and then step in with mortal instruments to take its last forfeit,
this only a Webster can do." W. revels in the horrible, but the touch of
genius saves his work from mere brutality, and evokes pity and sorrow
where, without it, there would be only horror and disgust. His work is
extremely unequal, and he had no power of construction, but his
extraordinary insight into motives and feelings redeem all his failings
and give him a place second only to Marlowe and Ben Jonson among the
contemporaries of Shakespeare.

WEBSTER, NOAH (1758-1843).--Lexicographer, etc., _b._ at Hartford, Conn.,
and _ed._ at Yale. His long life was spent in unremitting diligence as
teacher, lawyer, and man of letters. His great work is his American
_Dictionary of the English Language_ (1828), for which he prepared
himself by 10 years' study of philology. Many abridgments of it have
appeared, and in 1866 a new and enlarged ed. was _pub._ His _Elementary
Spelling Book_ is believed to have attained a circulation of 70,000,000
copies. He also _pub._ _A Philosophical and Practical Grammar of the
English Language_ (1807), and many other works.

WELLS, CHARLES JEREMIAH (1800?-1879).--Poet, _b._ in London, where he
practised as a solicitor, _pub._ in 1822 _Stories after Nature_, written
in poetic prose, which attracted no attention, and a biblical drama,
_Joseph and his Brethren_ (1824), which had an almost similar fate until
D.G. Rossetti called attention to it in 1863, giving it a high meed of
praise. In 1874, stung by want of appreciation, he had burned his
manuscripts of plays and poems; but on the new interest excited in his
_Joseph_ he added some new scenes. In his later years he lived in France.
_Joseph and his Brethren_ ed. in the World's Classics, 1909.

WENDOVER, ROGER DE (_d._ 1236).--Chronicler, a monk of St. Albans, became
Prior of Belvoir, from which he was deposed for extravagance, but was
recalled to St. Albans, where he _d._ He wrote _Flores Historiarum_
(Flowers of History), a history of the world in 2 books, the first from
the creation to the incarnation, the second to the reign of Henry III.,
his own time. The latter is of value as a contemporary authority, and is
an impartial and manly account of his own period.

WESLEY, CHARLES (1707-1788).--Hymn-writer, younger brother of John W.
(_q.v._), was _b._ at Epworth, and _ed._ at Westminster School and Oxf.
He was all his life closely associated with his elder and greater
brother, one of whose most loyal helpers he was, though not agreeing with
him in all points. His chief fame is founded upon his hymns, of which he
is said to have written the almost incredible number of 6500, many of
them among the finest in the language. They include "Jesus, Lover of my
Soul," "Love Divine all Loves excelling," "Come, oh Thou Traveller
Unknown," "Hark the Herald Angels Sing," and "Come, let us join our
Friends above."

WESLEY, JOHN (1703-1791).--Theological writer, diarist, and founder of
Methodism, was the second surviving _s._ of the Rev. Samuel W., Rector of
Epworth, Lincolnshire. The name was also written Westley and Wellesley,
and the family appears to be the same as that to which the Duke of
Wellington and his brother the Marquis Wellesley belonged. W. was _ed._
at the Charterhouse and at Oxf., and was ordained deacon in 1725, and
priest in 1728. After assisting his _f._ for a short time as curate, he
returned to Oxf., where he found that his brother Charles, along with G.
Whitefield (_q.v._) and others, had begun that association for religious
improvement from which sprang the great religious movement known as
Methodism. About the same time the two brothers came under the influence
of William Law (_q.v._), author of the _Serious Call_, and in 1735 John
went on a mission to Georgia to preach to the Indians and colonists, and
became closely associated with the Moravian Brethren. Difficulties of a
personal character, however, led to his return in 1738 to London, where
he continued to associate with the Moravians. It was at this time that,
hearing Luther's preface to the Epistle to the Romans read at a meeting,
he found his religious and ecclesiastical views revolutionised. Hitherto
holding strong High Church views in some directions, he now assumed a
position which ultimately led to his abandoning the doctrine of
Apostolical succession, and ordaining pastors and bishops, and finally
creating a separate ecclesiastical organisation. Consequences soon
followed; the pulpits of the Church were closed against him, and he began
his marvellous career of itinerant and out-of-door preaching, which was
continued to the close of his long life. He soon became a mighty power in
the land; vast crowds waited on his ministrations, which were
instrumental in producing a great revival of religious interest, and
improved morality among the people. At the same time violent opposition
was aroused, and W. was often in danger of his life from mobs. In the
end, however, he lived down this state of things to a large extent, and
in his old age was the object of extraordinary general veneration, while
in his own communion he exercised a kind of pontifical sway. During the
50 years of his apostolic journeyings he is said to have travelled
250,000 miles in Britain, Ireland, and the Continent; but notwithstanding
this phenomenal activity he was able, by extreme economy of time, to
write copiously, his works including educational treatises, translations
from the classics, histories of Rome and England, a history of the
Church, biblical commentaries, manifold controversial treatises and ed.
of religious classics. Most of them had an enormous circulation and
brought him in L30,000, all of which he expended on philanthropic and
religious objects. The work, however, on which his literary fame chiefly
rests is his _Journal_, extending from 1735-90, which is one of the most
graphic and interesting records of its kind in existence. He also wrote
many hymns, largely translations from the German, and he had a
considerable, hand in giving their final form to the almost innumerable
hymns of his brother Charles. W. was a man of practical and organising
ability of the first order, of intense religious earnestness and
sincerity, benevolent feelings, and agreeable manners. At the same time
he was of an autocratic temper, and often showed keenness and even
intolerance in his controversies, which were largely against the extreme
Calvinism of his old friend and fellow-labourer, Whitefield, and Toplady,
the author of the hymn "Rock of Ages," himself a bitter polemic. In 1740
he had formally withdrawn from association with the Moravians. W. was
_m._ in 1751 to a widow, Mrs. Vazeille, with whom, however, he did not
live happily, and who separated from him in 1776.

WESTALL, WILLIAM (1834-1903).--Novelist, was originally in business, but
later betook himself to journalism, and also wrote a large number of
novels, including _The Old Factory_, _Strange Crimes_, _Her Ladyship's
Secret_, etc., which, while healthy in tone and interesting, have no
literary distinction.

WHARTON, THOMAS WHARTON, 1ST MARQUIS of (1648-1715).--Statesman and
writer of "Lillibullero," _s._ of the 4th Baron W., was one of the most
profligate men of his age. He was a supporter of the Exclusion Bill, and
consequently obnoxious to James II. His only contribution to literature
was the doggerel ballad, "Lillibullero" (1688), which had so powerful a
political effect that its author claimed to have sung a King out of three
kingdoms. He was generally disliked and distrusted, but held for a short
time, from 1708, the Lord Lieutenancy of Ireland, when he had Addison as
his chief sec.

WHATELEY, RICHARD (1787-1863).--Theologian and economist, _s._ of the
Rev. Dr. Joseph W., _b._ in London, and _ed._ at a school in Bristol, and
at Oxf., where he became a coll. tutor. Taking orders he became Rector of
Halesworth, Suffolk. In 1822 he delivered his Bampton lectures on _The
Use and Abuse of Party Feeling in Religion_. Three years later he was
made Principal of St. Alban's Hall, in 1829 Prof. of Political Economy,
and in 1831 Archbishop of Dublin. As head of a coll. and as a prelate W.
showed great energy and administrative ability. He was a vigorous,
clear-headed personality, somewhat largely endowed with contempt for
views with which he was not in sympathy, and with a vein of caustic
humour, in the use of which he was not sparing. These qualities made him
far from universally popular; but his honesty, fairness, and devotion to
duty gained for him general respect. He had no sympathy with the Oxf.
movement, was strongly anti-Calvinistic, and somewhat Latitudinarian, so
that he was exposed to a good deal of theological odium from opposite
quarters. He was a voluminous writer, and among his best known works are
his treatises on _Logic_ (1826) and _Rhetoric_ (1828), his _Historic
Doubts relative to Napoleon Buonaparte_ (1819), intended as a _reductio
ad absurdum_ of Hume's contention that no evidence is sufficient to prove
a miracle, _Essays on some Peculiarities of the Christian Religion_
(1825), _Christian Evidences_ (1837), and ed. of Bacon's _Essays_ with
valuable notes, and of Paley's _Evidences_.

WHETSTONE, GEORGE (1544?-1587?).--Dramatist, one of the early, roistering
playwrights who frequented the Court of Elizabeth, later served as a
soldier in the Low Countries, accompanied Sir Humphrey Gilbert's
expedition to Newfoundland in 1578, and was at the Battle of Zutphen in
1586. He was a trenchant critic of the contemporary drama, contending for
greater reality and rationality. His play, _Promos and Cassandra_,
translated from Cinthio's _Hecatomithi_, was used by Shakespeare in
_Measure for Measure_.

WHEWELL, WILLIAM (1794-1866).--Philosopher, theologian and mathematician,
_s._ of a joiner at Lancaster, where he was _b._, _ed._ at Camb., where
he had a brilliant career. He became Prof. of Mineralogy at Camb. 1828,
of Moral Theology 1838, was Master of Trinity from 1841 until his death,
and he held the office of Vice-Chancellor of the Univ. in 1843 and 1856.
W. was remarkable as the possessor of an encyclopaedic fund of knowledge,
perhaps unprecedented, and he was the author of a number of works of
great importance on a variety of subjects. Among the chief of these may
be mentioned his Bridgewater Treatise on _Astronomy and General Physics
considered with Reference to Natural Theology_ (1833), _History of the
Inductive Sciences_ (1837), _The Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences_
(1840), _Essay on Plurality of Worlds_ (anonymously), _Elements of
Morality_ (1845), _History of Moral Philosophy in England_ (1852), and
_Platonic Dialogues_. In addition to these he wrote innumerable articles,
reviews, and scientific papers. It was as a co-ordinator of knowledge and
the researches of others that W. excelled; he was little of an original
observer or discoverer. He is described as a large, strong, erect man
with a red face and a loud voice, and he was an overwhelming and somewhat
arrogant talker.

WHICHCOTE, BENJAMIN (1609-1683).--Divine, belonged to a good Shropshire
family, and was at Camb., where he became Provost of King's Coll., of
which office he was deprived at the Restoration. He was of liberal views,
and is reckoned among the Camb. Platonists, over whom he exercised great
influence. His works consist of _Discourses_ and _Moral and Religious
Aphorisms_. In 1668 he was presented to the living of St. Lawrence,
Jewry, London, which he held until his death.

WHIPPLE, EDWIN PERCY (1819-1886).--Essayist and critic, _b._ in
Massachusetts, was a brilliant and discriminating critic. His works
include _Character and Characteristic Men_, _Literature and Life_,
_Success and its Conditions_, _Literature of the Age of Elizabeth_,
_Literature and Politics_, etc.

WHISTON, WILLIAM (1667-1752).--Theologian, and man of science, _b._ at
Norton, Leicestershire, and _ed._ at Camb., where he succeeded Newton as
Lucasian Prof. of Mathematics, was a prominent advocate of the Newtonian
system, and wrote a _Theory of the Earth_ against the views of Thomas
Burnet (_q.v._). He also wrote several theological works, _Primitive
Christianity Revived_ and the _Primitive New Testament_. The Arian views
promulgated in the former led to his expulsion from the Univ. His best

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