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Women in the fine arts, from the Seventh Century B.C. to the Twentieth Century A.D. by Clara Erskine Clement

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Club, New York; "The Old Cobbler," etc.

Her prize picture at the National Academy, New York, 1894, was called
"The Old Spinner." This picture had been refused by the committee of the
Society of American Artists, only to be thought worthy a prize at the
older institution.

MACGREGOR, JESSIE. The gold medal in the Royal Academy Schools for
historical painting, a medal given biennially, and but one other woman
has received it. Born in Liverpool. Pupil of the Schools of the Royal
Academy; her principal teachers were the late Lord Leighton, the late P.
H. Calderon, R.A., and John Pettie, R.A.

Her principal works are "In the Reign of Terror" and "Jephthah's Vow,"
both in the Liverpool Permanent Collection; "The Mistletoe Bough";
"Arrested, or the Nihilist"; "Flight," exhibited at Royal Academy in
1901; "King Edward VII.," 1902.

Miss Macgregor is a lecturer on art in the Victoria University Extension
Lecture Scheme, and has lectured on Italian painting and on the National
Gallery in many places.

At the London Academy in 1903 she exhibited "The Nun," "If a Woman Has
Long Hair, it is a Glory to Her," I Cor. xi. 15; "Behind the Curtain,"
"Christmas in a Children's Hospital," and "Little Bo-peep."

MACKUBIN, FLORENCE. Bronze medal and diploma, Tennessee Exposition,
1897. Vice-president of Baltimore Water-Color Club. Born in Florence,
Italy. Studied in Fontainebleau under M. Laine, in Munich under Professor
Herterich, and in Paris under Louis Deschamps and Julius Rolshoven; also
with Mlle. J. Devina in miniature painting.

Miss Mackubin has exhibited at the Paris Salon, the London Academy, and
the National Academy, New York. Her works are portraits in miniature,
pastel, and oil colors.

She was appointed by the Board of Public Works of Maryland to copy the
portrait of Queen Henrietta Maria, for whom Maryland was named. The
portrait is by Vandyck and in Warwick Castle. Miss Mackubin's copy is in
the State House at Annapolis.

Her portraits are numerous. Among them are those of Mrs. Charles J.
Bonaparte, Justice Horace Gray, Hon. George F. Hoar, Mrs. Thomas F.
Bayard, and many others. In England she painted portraits of the Countess
of Warwick, the Marchioness of Bath, and several other ladies.

Miss Mackubin's portrait of Cardinal Gibbons, exhibited in Baltimore in
1903, is much praised. He is sitting in an armchair near a table on which
are books. The pose of the figure is natural, the drawing excellent, the
flesh tints well handled, and the likeness satisfactory to an unusual
degree. The accessories are justly rendered and the values well
preserved--the texture of the stuffs, the ring on the hand, the hand
delicate and characteristic; in short, this is an excellent example of
dignified portraiture.

MACMONNIES, MARY FAIRCHILD. Awarded a scholarship in Paris by the
St. Louis School of Fine Arts; medal at Chicago, 1893; bronze medal at
Paris Exposition, 1900; bronze medal at Buffalo, 1901; gold medal at
Dresden, 1902; Julia M. Shaw prize, Society of American Artists, New
York, 1902. Associate member of Societe Nationale des Beaux-Arts, Paris;
member of the Society of American Artists, New York. Born at New Haven,
Connecticut, about 1860.

Pupil of School of Fine Arts, St. Louis, Academy Julian, Paris, and of
Carolus Duran.

Exhibited at Salon des Beaux-Arts, 1902, "The October Sun," "The Last
Rays," and "The Rain"; in 1903, "A Snow Scene."

[_No reply to circular_.]

MACOMBER, MARY L. Bronze medal, Massachusetts Charitable Mechanics'
Association, 1895; bronze medal, Cotton State and International
Exposition, 1895; Dodge prize, National Academy, New York, 1897;
honorable mention, Carnegie Institute, 1901. Member of the Copley
Society, Boston. Born in Fall River, Massachusetts, 1861. Pupil of Robert
Dunning, School of Boston Art Museum under Otto Grundmann and F.
Crowninshield, and of Frank Duveneck.

This artist paints figure subjects. Her "Saint Catherine" is in the
Boston Museum of Fine Arts; "Spring Opening the Gate to Love" was in the
collection of the late Mrs. S. D. Warren; "The Annunciation" is in the
collection of Mrs. D. P. Kimball, Boston. Other works of hers are a
triptych, the "Magdalene," "Death and the Captive," "The Virgin of the
Book," etc.

[Illustration: From a Copley Print.



"One feels, on looking at the Madonnas, Annunciation, or any of Miss
Macomber's pictures,... that she must have lived with and in her subject.
Delicate coloring harmonizes with refined, spiritual conceptions.... Her
most generally liked picture is her 'Madonna.' All the figures wear a
sweet, solemn sadness, illumined by immortal faith and love."--_Art
Interchange,_ April, 1899.

MAGLIANI, FRANCESCA. Born at Palermo in 1845, and studied painting
there under a private teacher. Going later to Florence she was a pupil of
Bedussi and of Gordigiani. Her early work consisted of copies from the
Italian and other masters, and these were so well done that she soon
began to receive orders, especially for portraits, from well-known
people. Among them were G. Baccelli--the Minister of Public
Instruction--King Humbert, and Queen Margherita, the latter arousing much
interest when exhibited in Florence. Portraits of her mother, and of her
husband, who was the Minister of Finance, were also recognized as
admirable examples of portraiture. "Modesty and Vanity" is one of her
genre pictures.

MANGILLA, ADA. Gold medal at Ferrara for a "Bacchante," which is now
in the Gallery there; gold medal at Beatrice, in Florence, 1890, for the
"Three Marys." Born in Florence in 1863. Pupil of Cassioli. One of her
early works was a design for two mosaic figures in the left door of the
Cathedral in Florence, representing Bonifazio Lupi and Piero di Luca
Borsi; this was exhibited in 1879, and was received with favor by the

This artist has had much success with Pompeian subjects, such as "A
Pompeian Lady at Her Toilet," and "A Pompeian Flower-Seller." She catches
with great accuracy the characteristics of the Pompeian type; and this
facility, added to the brilliancy of her color and the spirit and
sympathy of her treatment, has given these pictures a vogue. Two of them
were sold in Holland. "Floralia" was sold in Venice. To an exhibition of
Italian artists in London, in 1889, she contributed "The Young Agrippa,"
which was sold to Thomas Walker. Her grace and fancy appear in the
drawings which she finds time to make for "Florentia," and in such
pictures as "The Rose Harvest."

This highly accomplished woman, who has musical and literary talent, is
the wife of Count Francessetti di Mersenile.

MANKIEWICZ, HENRIETTE. Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. A series of
her mural decorations was exhibited in various German cities, and finally
shown at the Paris Exposition of 1890(?), where they excited such
applause that the above honor was accorded her. These decorations are in
the form of panels, in which water, in its varying natural aspects,
supplies the subordinate features, while the fundamental motive is
vegetation of every description. The artist has evidently felt the
influence of Markart in Vienna, and some of her conceptions remind one
of H. von Preusschen. Her technique is a combination of embroidery,
painting, and applications on silk. Whether this combination of methods
is desirable is another question, but as a means of decoration it is
highly effective.

At an exhibition of paintings by women of Saxony, held in Dresden under
the patronage of Queen Carola in the fall of 1892, this artist exhibited
another decorative panel, done in the same manner, which seems to have
been a great disappointment to those who had heard wonderful accounts of
the earlier cycle of panels. It was too full of large-leaved flowers, and
the latter were too brilliant to serve as a foreground to the Alhambra
scenes, which were used as the chief motive.

MANLY, ALICE ELFRIDA. A national gold medal and the Queen's gold
medal, at the Royal Female School of Art, London. Member of the Dudley
Gallery Art Society and the Hampstead Art Society. Born in London. Pupil
of the above-mentioned School and of the Royal Academy Schools.

This artist has exhibited at the Academy, at the Royal Institute of
Painters in Water Colors, and other exhibitions. Her pictures have
frequently been sold from the exhibitions and reproduced. Among these are
"Sympathy," sold as first prize in Derby Art Union; "Diverse
Attractions"; "Interesting Discoveries"; "Coming," sold from the Royal
Academy; "Gossips"; "The Wedding Gown," etc.

Miss Manly has done much work for publishers, which has been reproduced
in colors and in black and white. She usually combines figures and


[_No reply to circular_.]

MARAINI, ADELAIDE. Gold medal in Florence, at Beatrice Exposition,
1903. Born in 1843. This sculptor resides in Rome, where her works have
been made. An early example of her art, "Camilla," while it gave proof of
her artistic temperament, was unimportant; but her later works, as they
have followed each other, have constantly gained in excellence, and have
won her an enviable reputation. Among her statues are "Amleto," "The
Sulamite Woman," and "Sappho." The last was enthusiastically received in
Paris in 1878, and is the work which gained the prize at Florence, where
it was said to be the gem of the exhibition. She has also executed a
monument to Attilio Lemmi, which represents "Youth Weeping over the Tomb
of the Dead," and is in the Protestant Cemetery at Florence; a
bas-relief, the "Angels of Prayer and of the Resurrection"; a group,
"Romeo and Juliet"; and portraits of Carlo Cattanei, Giuseppe Civinini,
Signora Allievi, Senator Musio, the traveller De Albertis, and Victor

MARCELLE, ADELE, Duchess of Castiglione-Colonna, family name
d'Affry. Born at Fribourg, Switzerland, 1837, and died at Castellamare,
1879. Her early manner was that of the later Cinquecento, but she
afterward adopted a rather bombastic and theatrical style. Her only
statue, a Pythia, in bronze was placed in the Grand Opera at Paris
(1870). In the Luxembourg Museum are marble busts of Bianca Capello
(1863) and an "Abyssinian Sheikh" (1870). A "Gorgon" (1865), a "Saviour"
(1875), "La Bella Romana" (1875) are among her other works. She left her
art treasures, valued at about fifty thousand francs, to the Cantonal
Museum at Fribourg, where they occupy a separate room, called the
Marcello Museum.

MARCOVIGI, CLEMENTINA. Born in Bologna, where she resides. Flower
pieces exhibited by her at Turin in 1884 and at Venice in 1887 were
commended for perfection of design and charm of color.

MARIA FEODOROVNA, wife of the Czar Peter I. As Princess Dorothea
Auguste Sophie of Wuertemberg she was born at Trepton in 1759, and died at
Petersburg in 1858. She studied under Leberecht, and engraved medals and
cameos, many of which are portraits of members of the royal family and
are in the royal collection at Petersburg. She was elected to the Berlin
Academy in 1820.

MARIANI, VIRGINIA. Honorary member of the Umbrian Academy and of the
Academy of the Virtuosi of the Pantheon. Born in Rome, 1824, where she
has met with much success in decorating pottery, as well as in oil and
water-color paintings. The Provincial Exposition at Perugia in 1875
displayed her "Mezze Figure," which was highly commended. She has
decorated cornices, with flowers in relief, as well as some vases that
are very beautiful. Besides teaching in several institutions and
receiving private pupils, she has been an inspector, in her own
department of art, of the municipal schools of Rome.

MARIE, DUCHESS OF WUeRTEMBERG. Daughter of Louis Philippe, and wife
of Duke Frederick William Alexander of Wuertemberg. Born at Palermo, 1813,
and died at Pisa, 1839. She studied drawing with Ary Scheffer. Her statue
of "Jeanne d'Arc" is at Versailles; in the Ferdinand Chapel, in the Bois
de Boulogne, is the "Peri as a Praying Angel"; in the Saturnin Chapel at
Fontainebleau is a stained-glass window with her design of "St. Amalia."
Among her other works are "The Dying Bayard," a relief representing the
legend of the Wandering Jew, and a bust of the Belgian Queen. Many of her
drawings are in possession of her family. She also executed some
lithographs, such as "Souvenirs of 1812," 1831, etc.

MARIE LOUISE, EMPRESS OF FRANCE. 1791-1846. She studied under
Prud'hon. Her "Girl with a Dove" is in the Museum of Besancon.

MARLEF, CLAUDE. Bronze medal at Paris Exposition, 1900. Associate of
the French National Society of Fine Arts (Beaux-Arts). Born at Nantes.
Pupil of A. Roll, Benjamin Constant, Puvis de Chavannes, and Dagnaux.

Mme. Marlef is a portrait painter. Her picture, "Manette Salomon," is in
the Hotel de Ville, Paris; the "Nymphe Accroupie" is in the Municipal
Museum of Nantes. Among her portraits of well-known women are those of
Jane Hading, Elsie de Wolfe, Bessie Abbott of the Opera, Rachel Boyer of
the Theatre Francais, Marguerite Durand, Editeur de la Fronde, Mlle.
Richepin, and many others.

Mme. Marlef has the power of keen observation, so necessary to a painter
of portraits. Although there is a certain element of soft tenderness in
her pictures, the bold virility of her drawing misled the critics, who
for a time believed that her name was used to conceal the personality of
a man. A critic in the Paris _World_ writes of this artist: "She has
exquisite color sense and delights in presenting that _exaltation de la
vie_, that love, radiance, and joy of life, which are at once the secret
of the success and the keynote of the masterful canvases of Roll, in
whose studio were first developed Claude Marlef's delicate qualities of
truthful perception in the portraiture of woman.... Her perceptions being
rapid, she has a remarkable instantaneous insight, enabling her to fix
the dominant feature and soul of expression in each of the various types
among her numerous sitters."

Mme. Marlef's family name is Lefebure. Her husband died in 1891, the year
after their marriage, and she then devoted herself to the serious study
of painting, which she had practised from childhood. She first exhibited
at the Salon, 1895, and has exhibited annually since then. In 1902 she
sent her own portrait, and in 1903 that of Bessie Abbott, to the
Exhibition of the Societe Nationale des Beaux-Arts.

MARTIN DE CAMPO, VICTORIA. Member of the Academy of Fine Arts of
Cadiz, her native city. In the different expositions of this and other
Andalusian capitals she has exhibited since 1840 many works, including
portraits, genre, historical pictures, and copies. Among them may be
mentioned "Susanna in the Bath," "David Playing the Harp before Saul," a
"Magdalen," a "Cupid," a "Boy with a Linnet," and a "Nativity." Some of
these were awarded prizes. In the Chapel of Relics in the new Cathedral
at Cadiz are her "Martyrdom of St. Lawrence" and a "Mater Dolorosa."

MARTINEAU, EDITH. Associate of Royal Society of Painters in
Water-Colors; member of the Hampstead Art Society. Born in Liverpool,
where she made her first studies in the School of Art, and later became a
pupil of the Royal Academy Schools, London.

Her pictures are not large and are principally figures or figures in
landscape, and all in water-colors. She writes very modestly that so many
are sold and in private hands that she will give no list of subjects.

MASSARI, LUIGIA. Medal at Piacenza, 1869, and several other medals
from art societies. Born at Piacenza, 1810. Pupil of A. Gemmi. Her works
are in a number of churches: "St. Martin" in the church at Altoe; "St.
Philomena" in the church at Busseto; the "Madonna del Carmine" and "St.
Anna" in the church at Monticelli d'Ongina. This artist was also famous
for her beautiful embroidery, as seen in her altar-cloths, one of which
is in the Guastafredda Chapel at Piacenza. The fruits and flowers
produced by her needle are marvellously like those in her pictures.

MASSEY, MRS. GERTRUDE. Member of the Society of Miniaturists. Born
in London, 1868. Has studied with private teachers in London and Paris.

This painter has made a specialty of miniatures and of pictures of dogs.
She has been extensively employed by various members of the royal family,
of whom she painted eleven miniatures, among which was one of the late

She sends me a list of several pictures of dogs and "Pets," all belonging
to titled English ladies; also a long list of miniatures of gentlemen,
ladies, and children of high degree, several being of the royal family,
in addition, I suppose, to the eleven mentioned above.

She writes me: "Constantly met King and Queen and other members. Sittings
took place at Windsor Castle, Sandringham, Marlborough House, Osborne,
and Balmoral. One dog died after first sitting; had to finish from dead
dog. Live in charming little cottage with _genuine_ old-fashioned garden
in St. John's Wood."

Mrs. Massey has exhibited at the Royal Academy and New Gallery, and has
held a special exhibition of her pictures of dogs at the Fine Art
Society, New Bond Street, London.

MASSIP, MARGUERITE. Member of the Society of Swiss Painters and
Sculptors and of the Society of Arts and Letters, Geneva. Born at Geneva.
Made her studies in Florence and Paris under the professors in the public
schools. Her picture of "Le Buveur" is in the Museum of Geneva; "Five
o'Clock Tea," also in a Geneva Museum; "La Bohemienne" is at Nice; "The
Engagement"--a dancer--at St. Gall, and a large number of portraits in
various cities, belonging to their subjects and their families.

Her portrait of Mme. M. L. was very much praised when exhibited in
proximity with the works of some of the famous French artists. One critic
writes: "The painting is firm and brilliant. The hands are especially
beautiful; we scarcely know to whom we can compare Mme. Massip, unless
to M. Paul Dubois. They have the same love of art, the same soberness of
tone, the same scorn of artifice.... The woman who has signed such a
portrait is a great artist." It is well known that the famous sculptor is
a remarkable portraitist.

In a review of the Salon at Nice we read: "A portrait by Mme. Massip is a
magnificent canvas, without a single stroke of the charlatan. The pose is
simple and dignified; there is the serenity and repose of a woman no
longer young, who makes no pretension to preserve her vanishing beauty;
the costume, in black, is so managed that it would not appear
superannuated nor ridiculous at any period. The execution is that of a
great talent and an artistic conscience. It is not a portrait for a
bedchamber, still less for a studio; it is a noble souvenir for a family,
and should have a place in the salon, in which, around the hearth, three
generations may gather, and in this serene picture may see the wife, the
mother, and the grandmother, when they mourn the loss of her absolute

MASSOLIEN, ANNA. Born at Goerlitz, 1848. A pupil of G. Graef and of
the School of Women Artists in Berlin. Her portraits of Field Marshal von
Steinmetz, Brueckner, and G. Schmidt by their excellence assured the
reputation of this artist, whose later portraits are greatly admired.

MATHILDE, PRINCESS. Medal at Paris Salon, 1865. Daughter of King
Jerome Bonaparte. Born at Trieste, 1820; died at Paris, 1904. Pupil of
Eugene Giraud. She painted genre subjects in water-colors. Her medal
picture, "Head of a Young Girl," is in the Luxembourg; "A Jewess of
Algiers," 1866, is in the Museum of Lille; "The Intrigue under the
Portico of the Doge's Palace" was painted in 1865.

MATHILDE CAROLINE, Grand Duchess of Hesse. Was born Princess of
Bavaria. 1813-1863. Pupil of Dominik Onaglio. In the New Gallery at
Munich are two of her pictures--"View of the Magdalen Chapel in the
Garden at Nymphenburg," 1832, and "Outlook on the Islands, Procida and
Ischia," 1836.

MATTON, IDA. Two grand prizes and a purse, also a travelling purse
from the Government of Sweden; honorable mention at the Paris Salon,
1896; honorable mention, Paris Exposition, 1900; prize for sculpture at
the Union des femmes peintres et sculpteurs, 1903. Decorated with the
"palmes academique" of President Loubet, 1903. Member of the Union des
femmes peintres et sculpteurs, Paris. Born at Gefle, Sweden. Pupil of the
Technical School, Stockholm, and of H. Chapu, A. Mercie, and D. Puech at

[Illustration: In Cemetery In Gefle, Sweden



Among the works of this artist are "Mama!" a statue in marble; "Loke," a
statue; "Dans les Vagues," a marble bust; "Funeral Monument," in bronze,
in Gefle, Sweden; and a great number of portrait busts and various
subjects in bas-relief.

At the Salon des Artistes Francais, 1902, she exhibited four portraits,
and in 1903, "Confidence."

MAURY, CORNELIA F. Member of St. Louis Artists' Guild and Society of
Western Artists. Born in New Orleans, Louisiana. Pupil of St. Louis
School of Fine Arts and of Julian Academy, under Collin and Merson. At
the Salon of 1900 her picture, "Mother and Child," was hung on the line.

Miss Maury has made an especial study of child life. Among her pictures
are "Little Sister," "Choir Boy," "Late Breakfast," and "First Steps."
The latter picture and the "Baby in a Go-Cart" have been published in the
Copley Prints.

"Cornelia F. Maury is most successful in portrayals of childhood. Her
small figures are simple, unaffected, with no suggestion of pose. They
convey that delightful feeling of unconsciousness in the subject that is
always so charming either in nature or in artistic expression. The pastel
depicting the flaxen-haired child in blue dress drawing a tiny cart is
exceedingly artistic, and the same may be said of a pastel showing a
small child in a Dutch high-chair near a window. A third picture--also a
pastel--represents a choir-boy in a red robe, red cap, and white
surplice, sitting in a high-backed, carved chair, holding a book in his
hand. Miss Maury really has produced nothing finer than this last. It is
a most excellent work."--_The Mirror, St. Louis,_ April 10, 1902.

MAYREDER-OBERMAYER, ROSE. Born in Vienna, 1858. Pupil of Darnaut and
Charmont. The works of this successful painter of flowers and still-life
have been exhibited in Berlin, Vienna, Dresden, and Chicago. She has a
broad, sure touch quite unusual in water-colors. She has also executed
some notable decorative works, one of which, "November," has attracted
much attention.

MCCROSSAN, MARY. Silver and bronze medals, Liverpool; silver medal
and honorable mention, Paris. Has exhibited at Royal Academy, London,
at Royal Institute of Oil Colors, and many other English and Scotch
exhibitions. Member of Liverpool Academy of Arts and of the Liverpool
Sketching Club. Born in Liverpool. Studied at Liverpool School of Art
under John Finnie; Paris, under M. Delecluse; St. Ives, Cornwall, under
Julius Ollson.

The principal works of this artist are marine subjects and landscapes,
and are mostly in private collections.

In the _Studio,_ November, 1900, we read: "Miss McCrossan's exhibition of
pictures and sketches displayed a pleasant variety of really clever work,
mostly in oils, with a few water-colors and pastels. In each medium her
color is strong, rich, and luminous, and her drawing vigorous and

"While this artist's landscape subjects are intelligently selected and
attractively rendered, there is unusual merit in her marine pictures,
composed mainly from the fisher-craft of the Isle of Man and the
neighborhood of St. Ives, and recording effects of brilliant sunshine
lighting up white herring boats lying idly on intensely reflective blue
sea, or aground on the harbor mud at low tide. There is a fascination in
the choice color treatment of these characteristic pictures."

MCLAUGHLIN, MARY LOUISE M. Honorable mention, Paris Salon, 1878;
silver medal, Paris Exposition, 1889; gold medal, Atlanta, 1895; bronze
medal, Buffalo, 1900. Member of the Society of Arts, London; honorary
member of National Mineral Painters' League, Cincinnati. Born in
Cincinnati, Ohio. Pupil of Cincinnati Art Academy and of H. F. Farny and
Frank Duveneck in private classes.

Miss McLaughlin has painted in oil and water-colors and exhibited in
various places, as indicated by the honors she has received. Having
practised under- and over-glaze work on pottery, as well as porcelain
etching and decorative etching on metals, she is now devoting herself to
making the porcelain known as Losanti Ware.

Of a recent exhibition, 1903, a critic wrote: "Perhaps the most beautiful
and distinguished group in the exhibition is that of Miss McLaughlin, one
of the earliest artistic workers in clay of the United States. She sends
a collection of lovely porcelain vases, of a soft white tone and charming
in contour. Some of these have open-work borders, others are decorated in
relief, and the designs are tinted with delicate jade greens, dark blues,
or salmon pinks. This ware goes by the name of Losanti, from the early
name of Cincinnati, L'Osantiville."

This artist has written several books on china painting and pottery

MCMANUS MANSFIELD, BLANCHE. Diplomas from the New Orleans Centennial
and the Woman's Department, Chicago, 1903. Member of the New Vagabonds,
London, and the Touring Club of France. Born in East Feliciana Parish,
Louisiana, this artist has made her studies in London and Paris. Her
principal work has been done in book illustrations. The following list
gives some of her most important publications:

"Alice in Wonderland" and "Through the Looking-Glass." De
Luxe edition in color. New York, 1899.

"The Calendar of Omar Khayyam." In color. New York, 1900.

"The Altar Service." Thirty-six wood-cut blocks printed on
Japan vellum. London, 1902.

"The Coronation Prayer-Book." (Wood-cut borders.) Oxford
University Press, 1902.

"Cathedrals of Northern France." In collaboration with Francis
Miltoun. Boston and London, 1903.

"Cathedrals of Southern France." In collaboration with Francis
Miltoun. Sold for publication in London and Boston, 1904.

"A Dante Calendar." London, 1903.

"A Rubaiyat Calendar." Boston, 1903.

"The King's Classics." (Designs and Decorations.) London,

"The Book of Days." A Calendar. Sold in London for 1904.

After speaking of several works by Miss McManus, a notice from London
says: "A more difficult or at least a more intricate series were the
designs cut on wood for 'The Altar Service Book,' just issued in London
by that newly founded venture, the De La More Press; which has drawn unto
itself such scholars as Dr. Furnival, Professor Skeat, and Israel
Gollancz. These designs by Miss McManus were printed direct from the wood
blocks in very limited editions, on genuine vellum, on Japanese vellum,
and a small issue on a real sixteenth-century hand-made paper. The
various editions were immediately taken up in London on publication;
hence it is unlikely that copies will be generally seen in America.

[Illustration: DELFT


"We learn, however, that the original wood blocks will be shown at the
St. Louis Exposition, in the section to be devoted to the work of
American artists resident abroad. We suggest that all lovers of
latter-day bookmaking 'make a note of it,' recalling meanwhile that it
was this successful American designer who produced also the decorative
wood-cut borders and initials which were used in 'The Coronation
Prayer-Book of King Edward VII.,' issued from the celebrated Oxford
University Press. There were forty initials or headings, embodying the
coronation regalia, including the crown, sceptre, rose, thistle,
shamrock, etc. The magnificent cover for the book was also designed by
this artist.

"Among the American artists who have made a distinctive place in art
circles, not only in America but on 'the other side,' is Mrs. M. F.
Mansfield, formerly Blanche McManus of Woodville, Mississippi.

"In London she is widely known as a skilful, able, and versatile artist,
and her remarkable success there is an illustration of 'the American
invasion.' Little has been written in America, especially in the South,
of what this talented Southern woman has accomplished. She has never
sought personal advertisement; on the contrary, she has shrunk from any
kind of publicity--even that which would have accrued from a proper
valuation of her work.

"She is one of those artists whose talent is equalled only by her
modesty, who, enamoured of her art and aiming at a patient, painstaking
realization of her ideal, has been content to work on in silence. In the
estimation of art connoisseurs, Blanche McManus is an artist of
unquestionable talent and varied composition, who has already done much
striking work. Her execution in the various branches has attracted
international attention.

"She paints well in water-colors and in oil, and her etching is
considered excellent. Her drawing is stamped good, and every year she has
showed rapid improvement in design. She is a highly cultivated woman,
with a close and accurate observation. A sincere appreciation of nature
was revealed in her earliest efforts, and for some years she devoted much
time to its study."

Moring's _Quarterly_ says in regard to the special work which Mrs.
Mansfield has done: "It is so seldom that an artist is able to take in
hand what may be termed the entire decoration of a book--including in
that phrase cover, illustration, colophon, head- and tail-pieces, initial
letters, and borders--that it is a pleasure to find in the subject of our
paper a lady who may be said to be capable of taking all these points
into consideration in the embellishment of a volume."

MEDICI, MARIE DE'. Wife of Henry IV. Born at Florence, 1573; died at
Cologne, 1642. A portrait of herself, engraved on wood, bears the legend,
"Maria Medici F. MDLXXXII." Another portrait of a girl, attributed to
her, is signed, "L. O. 1617." It may be considered a matter of grave
doubt whether the nine-year-old girl drew and engraved with her own hand
the first-named charming picture, which has been credited to her with
such frank insouciance.

MENGS, ANNA MARIA. Member of the Academy of San Fernando. She was a
daughter of Anton Rafael Mengs, and was born in Dresden in 1751, where
she received instruction from her father. In 1777 she married the
engraver Salvador Carmona in Rome, and went with him to Spain, where she
died in 1790. Portraits and miniatures of excellent quality were
executed by her, and on them her reputation rests.

MERIAN, MARIA SIBYLLA. Born at Frankfort-on-the-Main in 1647. This
artist merits our attention, although her art was devoted to an unusual
purpose. Her father was a learned geographer and engraver whose published
works are voluminous. Her maternal grandfather was the eminent engraver,
Theodore de Bry or Brie.

From her childhood Anna Sibylla Merian displayed an aptitude for drawing
and a special interest in insect life. The latter greatly disturbed her
mother, but she could not turn the child's attention from entomology, and
was forced to allow that study to become her chief pursuit.

The flower painter, Abraham Mignon, was her master in drawing and
painting; but at an early age, before her studies were well advanced, she
married an architect, John Andrew Graf, of Nuremberg, with whom she lived
unhappily. She passed nearly twenty years in great seclusion, and, as she
tells us in the preface to one of her books, she devoted these years to
the examination and study of various insects, watching their
transformations and making drawings from them. Many of these were in
colors on parchment and were readily sold to connoisseurs.

Her first published work was called "The Wonderful Transformations of
Caterpillars." It appeared in 1679, was fully illustrated by copper plate
engravings, executed by herself from her own designs. About 1684 she
separated from her husband, and with her daughters returned to Frankfort.
Many interesting stories are told of her life there.

She made a journey to Friesland and was a convert to the doctrines of
Labadie, but she was still devoted to her study and research. She was
associated with the notable men of her time, and became the friend of the
father of Rachel Ruysch. Although Madame Merian, who had taken her maiden
name, was seventeen years older than the gifted flower painter, she
became to her an example of industry and devotion to study.

Madame Merian had long desired to examine the insects of Surinam, and in
1699, by the aid of the Dutch Government, she made the journey--of which
a French poet wrote:

"Sibylla a Surinam va chercher la nature,
Avec l'esprit d'un Sage, et le coeur d'un Heros"

--which indicates the view then held of a journey which would now attract
no attention.

While in Guiana some natives brought her a box filled with "lantern
flies," as they were then called. The noise they made at night was so
disturbing that she liberated them, and the flies, regaining liberty,
flashed out their most brilliant light, for which Madame Merian was
unprepared, and in her surprise dropped the box. From this circumstance a
most exaggerated idea obtained concerning the illuminating power of the

The climate of Surinam was so unhealthy for Madame Merian that she could
remain there but two years, and in that time she gathered the materials
for her great work called "Metamorphoses Insectorum Surinamensium," etc.
The illustrations were her own, and she pictured many most interesting
objects--animals and vegetables as well as insects--which were quite
unknown in Europe. Several editions of this book were published both in
German and French. Her plates are still approved and testify to the scope
and thoroughness of her research, as well as to her powers as an artist.

Her chief work, however, was a "History of the Insects of Europe, Drawn
from Nature, and Explained by Maria Sibylla Merian." The illustrations of
this work were beautiful and of great interest, as the insects, from
their first state to their last, were represented with the plants and
flowers which they loved, each object being correctly and tastefully
pictured. Most of the original paintings for these works are in the
British Museum. In the Vienna Gallery is a "Basket of Flowers" by this
artist, and in the Basle Museum a picture of "Locust and Chafers."

The daughters of this learned artist naturalist, Joanna Maria Helena and
Dorothea, shared the pursuits and labors of their mother, and it was her
intention to publish their drawings as an appendix to her works. She did
not live to do this, and later the daughters published a separate volume
of their own.

This extraordinary woman, whose studies and writings added so much to the
knowledge of her time, was neither beautiful nor graceful. Her portraits
present a woman with hard and heavy features, her hair in short curls
surmounted by a stiff and curious headdress, made of folds of some black

MERRITT, MRS. ANNA LEA. Honorable mention, Paris Exposition, 1889;
two medals and a diploma, Chicago Exposition, 1893. In 1890 her picture
of "Love Locked Out" was purchased by the Chantry fund, London, for two
hundred and fifty pounds. This honor has been accorded to few women, and
of these I think Mrs. Merritt was first. Member of the Royal Society of
Painter-Etchers. Born in Philadelphia. Pupil of Heinrich Hoffman in
Dresden, and of Henry Merritt--whom she married--in London.

Mrs. Merritt has a home in Hampshire, England, but is frequently in
Philadelphia, where she exhibits her pictures, which have also been seen
at the Royal Academy since 1871.

This artist is represented by her pictures in the National Gallery of
British Art, in the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, and by her
portrait of Mr. James Russell Lowell in Memorial Hall, Harvard

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MICHIS, MARIA. See Cattaneo.

MILBACHER, LOUISE VON. Prize at Berlin in 1886. Born at
Boehmischbrod, 1845. Pupil of Poenninger and Eisenmenger. A painter of
portraits and of sacred and genre subjects. Three of her portraits are
well known--those of Baron Thienen, General von Neuwirth, and Baron
Eber-Eschenbach. The altar-piece in the chapel of the Vienna Institute, a
"Holy Family," is by this artist. She has also painted still-life and
animal subjects.

MODIGLIANI, SIGNORINA CORINNA. Silver medal at Turin Exposition,
1898; silver medal at the Exposition of Feminine Art, 1899, 1900; diploma
at Leghorn, 1901; gold medal. Member of the International Artistic
Association. Born in Rome. Pupil of Professore Commendatore Pietro Vanni.

This artist has exhibited her works in the Expositions of Rome, Turin,
Milan, Leghorn, Munich, Petersburg, and Paris since 1897, and will
contribute to the St. Louis Exposition. Her pictures have been sold in
Paris, London, and Ireland, as well as in Rome and other Italian cities,
where many of them are in the collections of distinguished families.

MOLDURA, LILLA. A Neapolitan painter. Her father was an Italian and
her mother a Spaniard. She was instructed in the elements of art by
various excellent teachers, and then studied oil painting under
Maldarelli and water-color under Mancini. She has often exhibited
pictures in Naples, to the satisfaction of both artists and critics, and
has also won success in London. She has been almost equally happy in
views of the picturesque Campagna, and in interiors, both in oil and
water-colors. The interior of the Chapel of the Immaculate Conception, in
the Church of the Gerolamini, is strong in execution and good in drawing
and color.

MOeLLER, AGNES SLOTT. Born in 1862. Resides in Copenhagen. The
especial work of this artist, by which her reputation is world-wide, is
the illustration of old legends for children's books.

MONTALBA, CLARA. Associate of the Society of Painters in
Water-Colors, London, and of the Belgian Society of Water-Colorists. Born
in Cheltenham, 1842. Pupil of Isabey in Paris. Her professional life has
been spent in London and Venice. She has sent her pictures to the
Academy and the Grosvenor Gallery exhibitions since 1879. "Blessing a
Tomb, Westminster," was at the Philadelphia Exposition, 1876; "Corner of
St. Mark's" and "Fishing Boats, Venice," were at Paris, 1878.

In 1874 she exhibited at the Society of British Artists, "Il Giardino
Publico"--the Public Garden--of which a writer in the _Art Journal_ said:
"'Il Giardino Publico' stands foremost among the few redeeming features
of the exhibition. In delicate perception of natural beauty the picture
suggests the example of Corot. Like the great Frenchman, Miss Montalba
strives to interpret the sadder moods of nature, when the wind moves the
water a little mournfully and the outlines of the objects become
uncertain in the filmy air."

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MORETTO, EMMA. Venetian painter, exhibited at Naples, in 1877,
"Abbey of St. Gregory at Venice"; at Turin, in 1880, a fine view of the
"Canal of the Giudecca," and "Canal of S. Giorgio"; at the National
Exposition in Milan, 1881, "Sunset" and a marine view; at Rome, in 1883,
"Excursion on the Lagoon." Still others of the same general character
are: "A Gondola," "At St. Mark's," "Grand Canal," "Morning at Sea," etc.

MORON, THERESE CONCORDIA. Born in Dresden, 1725; died in Rome, 1806.
Pupil, of her father, Ismael Mengs. Her attention was divided between
enamel painting and pastel, much of the latter being miniature work. In
the Dresden Gallery are two of her pastel portraits and two copies in
miniature of Correggio, viz., a half-length portrait of herself and a
portrait of her sister, Julie Mengs; a copy of St. Jerome, or "The
Day"--original in Parma--and "The Night."

A curious story has recently been published to the effect that in 1767
this artist sent word to Duke Xavier of Saxony that during the Seven
Years' War she painted a copy in miniature of Correggio's "Holy Mother
with the Christ Child, Mary Magdalen, Hieronymus, and Two Angels," which
she sent by Cardinal Albani to the Duke's father--Frederick Augustus II.
of Saxony and Augustus III. of Poland--at Warsaw. It was claimed that two
hundred and fifty ducats were due her. Apparently the demand was not met;
but, on the other hand, the lady seems to have received for some years a
pension of three hundred thalers from the Electorate of Saxony without
making any return. Probably her claim was satisfied by this pension.

MOSER, MARY. One of the original members of the London Academy. The
daughter of a German artist, who resided in London. She was as well known
for her wit as for her art. A friend of Fuseli, she was said to be as
much in love with him as he was in love with Angelica Kauffman. Dr.
Johnson sometimes met Miss Moser at the house of Nollekens, where they
made merry over a cup of tea.

Queen Charlotte commissioned this painter to decorate a chamber, for
which work she paid more than nine hundred pounds, and was so well
pleased that she complimented the artist by commanding the apartment to
be called "Miss Moser's Room."

MOTT, MRS. ALICE. Born at Walton on Thames. Pupil of the Slade
School and Royal Academy in London, and of M. Charles Chaplin in Paris in
his studio. A miniaturist whose works are much esteemed. Her work is
life-like, artistic, and strong in drawing, color, and composition. After
finishing her study under masters she took up miniature painting by
herself, studying the works of old miniaturists.

Recently she writes me: "I have departed from the ordinary portrait
miniature, and am now painting what I call picture miniatures. For
instance, I am now at work on the portrait of Miss D. C., who is in
old-fashioned dress, low bodice, and long leg-of-mutton sleeves. She is
represented as running in the open, with sky and tree background. She has
a butterfly net over her shoulder, which floats out on the wind; she is
looking up and smiling; her hair and her sash are blown out. It is to be
called, 'I'd be a Butterfly.' The dress is the yellow of the common
butterfly. It is a large miniature. I hope to send it, with others, to
the St. Louis Exposition."

Her miniatures are numerous and in private hands. A very interesting one
belongs to the Bishop of Ripon and is a portrait of Mrs. Carpenter, his


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MURRAY, ELIZABETH. Member of the Institute of Painters in
Water-Colors, London, and of the American Society of Water-Color
Painters, New York. Her pictures are of genre subjects, many of them
being of Oriental figures. Among these are "Music in Morocco," "A
Moorish Saint," "The Greek Betrothed," etc. Other subjects are "The Gipsy
Queen," "Dalmatian Peasant," "The Old Story in Spain," etc.


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NEGRO, TERESA. Born in Turin, where she resides. She has made a
study of antique pottery and has been successful in its imitation. Her
vases and amphorae have been frequently exhibited and are praised by
connoisseurs and critics. At the Italian National Exposition, 1880, she
exhibited a terra-cotta reproduction of a classic design, painted in
oils; also a wooden dish which resembled an antique ceramic.

NELLI, PLAUTILLA. There is a curious fact connected with two women
artists of Florence in the middle of the sixteenth century. In that city
of pageants--where Ghirlandajo saw, in the streets, in churches, and on
various ceremonial occasions, the beautiful women with whom he still
makes us acquainted--these ladies, daughters of noble Florentine
families, were nuns.

No Shakespearean dissector has, to my knowledge, affirmed that Hamlet's
advice to Ophelia, "Get thee to a nunnery," and his assertion, "I have
heard of your paintings, too," prove that Ophelia was an artist and a
nunnery a favorable place in which to set up a studio. Yet I think I
could make this assumption as convincing as many that have been "proved"
by the _post obitum_ atomizers of the great poet's every word.

But we have not far to seek for the reasons which led Plautilla Nelli and
Maria Maddalena de' Pazzi to choose the conventual life. The subjects of
their pictures prove that their thoughts were fixed on a life quite out
of tune with that which surrounded them in their homes. If they pictured
rich draperies and rare gems, it was but to adorn with them the Blessed
Virgin Mother and the holy saints, in token of their belief that all of
pomp and value in this life can but faintly symbolize the glory of the
life to come.

Plautilla Nelli, born in Florence in 1523, entered the convent of St.
Catherine of Siena, in her native city, and in time became its abbess.
Patiently, with earnest prayer, she studied and copied the works of Fra
Bartolommeo and Andrea del Sarto, until she was able to paint an original
"Adoration of the Magi" of such excellence as to secure her a place among
the painters of Florence.

Many of her pictures remained in her convent, but she also painted a
"Madonna Surrounded by Saints" for the choir of Santa Lucia at Pistoja.
There are pictures attributed to Plautilla Nelli in Berlin--notably the
"Visit of Martha to Christ,"--which are characterized by the earnestness,
purity, and grace of her beloved Fra Bartolommeo. Her "Adoration of the
Wise Men" is at Parma; the "Descent from the Cross" in Florence; the
"Last Supper" in the church of Santa Maria Novella, Florence.

There are traditions of her success as a teacher of painting in her
convent, but of this we have no exact knowledge such as we have of the
work of the "Suor Plautilla," the name by which she came to be known in
all Italy.

NEMES-RANSONNETT, COUNTESS ELISA. Born at Vienna, 1843. She studied
successively with Vastagh, Lulos, Aigner, Schilcher, Lenbach, Angeli, and
J. Benczur, and opened her studio at Kun Szent Miklos near Budapest. The
"Invitation to the Wedding" was well received, and her portraits of
Schiller and Perczel are in public galleries--the former in the Vienna
Kuenstlerhaus, and the latter in the Deputy House at Budapest.

NEWCOMB, MARIA GUISE. Born in New Jersey. Pupil of Schenck,
Chialiva, and Edouard Detaille in Paris. Travelled in Algeria and the
Sahara, studying the Arab and his horses. Very few artists can be
compared with Miss Newcomb in representing horses. She has a genius for
portraying this animal, and understands its anatomy as few painters have

She was but a child when sketching horses and cattle was her pastime, and
so great was her fondness for it that the usual dolls and other toys were
crowded out of her life. Her studies in Paris were comprehensive, and her
work shows the results and places her among the distinguished painters of

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NEY, ELISABETH. Born in 1830. After studying at the Academy in
Berlin, this sculptor went to Munich, where she was devoted to her art.
She then came to Texas and remained some years in America. She returned
to Berlin in 1897. Among her best known works are busts of Garibaldi, of
J. Grimm, 1863, "Prometheus Bound," 1868, and a statue of Louis II. of

NICHOLLS, MRS. RHODA HOLMES. Queen's Scholarship, Bloomsbury Art
School, London; gold medal, Competitive Prize Fund Exhibition, New York;
medal, Chicago Exposition, 1893; medal, Tennessee Exposition, 1897;
bronze medal at Buffalo Exposition, 1901. Member of American Water-Color
Society, New York Water-Color Society, Woman's Art Club, American Society
of Miniature Painters, Pen and Brush Club; honorable member of Woman's
Art Club, Canada. Born in Coventry, England. Pupil of Bloomsbury School
of Art, London; of Cannerano and Vertunni in Rome, where she was elected
to the Circolo Artistico and the Societa degli Aquarelliste.

Her pictures are chiefly figure subjects, among which are "Those Evening
Bells," "The Scarlet Letter," "A Daughter of Eve," "Indian after the
Chase," "Searching the Scriptures," etc.

In the _Studio_, March, 1901, in writing of the exhibition of the
American Water-Color Society, the critic says: "In her two works,
'Cherries' and 'A Rose,' Mrs. Rhoda Holmes Nicholls shows us a true
water-color executed by a master hand. The subject of each is slight;
each stroke of her brush is made once and for all, with a precision and
dash that are inspiriting; and you have in each painting the sparkle, the
deft lightness of touch, the instantaneous impression of form and
coloring that a water-color should have."



Mrs. Nicholls is also known as an illustrator. Harold Payne says of her:
"Rhoda Holmes Nicholls, although an illustrator of the highest order,
cannot be strictly classed as one, for the reason that she is equally
great in every other branch of art. However, as many of her best examples
of water-colors are ultimately reproduced for illustrative purposes, and
as even her oil paintings frequently find their way into the pages of art
publications, it is not wrong to denominate her as an illustrator, and
that of the most varied and prolific type. She may, like most artists,
have a specialty, but a walk through her studio and a critical
examination of her work--ranging all along the line of oil paintings,
water-colors of the most exquisite type, wash drawings, crayons, and
pastels--would scarcely result in discovering her specialty.... As a
colorist she has few rivals, and her acute knowledge of drawing and
genius for composition are apparent in everything she does."

NICHOLS, CATHERINE MAUDE, R. E. The pictures of this artist have
been hung on the line at the Royal Academy exhibitions a dozen times at
least. From Munich she has received an official letter thanking her for
sending her works to exhibitions in that city. Fellow of the Royal
Painter-Etchers' Society; president of the Woodpecker Art Club, Norwich;
Member of Norwich Art Circle and of a Miniature Painters' Society and the
Green Park Club, London. Born in Norwich. Self-taught. Has worked in the
open at Barbizon, in Normandy, in Cornwall, Devon, London, and all around
the east coast of Norfolk.

Miss Nichols has held three exhibitions of her pictures both in oil and
water-colors in London. She has executed more than a hundred copper
plates, chiefly dry-points. The pictures in oils and water-colors, the
miniatures and the proofs of her works have found purchasers, almost
without exception, and are in private hands. Most of the plates she has

Miss Nichols has illustrated some books, her own poems being of the
number, as well as her "Old Norwich." She has also made illustrations for
journals and magazines.

One is impressed most agreeably with the absence of mannerism in Miss
Nichols' work, as well as with the pronounced artistic treatment of her
subjects. Her sketches of sea and river scenery are attractive; the views
from her home county, Norfolk, have a delightful feeling about them.
"Norwich River at Evening" is not only a charming picture, but shows, in
its perspective and its values, the hand of a skilful artist. "Mousehold
Heath," showing a rough and broken country, is one of her strongest
pictures in oils; "Stretching to the Sea" is also excellent. Among the
water-colors "Strangers' Hall," Norwich, and "Fleeting Clouds," merit
attention, as do a number of others. One could rarely see so many works,
with such varied subjects, treated in oils, water-colors, dry point,
etc., by the same artist.

I quote the following paragraph from the _Studio_ of April, 1903: "Miss
C. M. Nichols is an artist of unquestionable talent, and her work in the
various mediums she employs deserves careful attention. She paints well
both in water-colors and in oil, and her etchings are among the best that
the lady artists of our time have produced. Her drawing is good, her
observation is close and accurate, and she shows year by year an
improvement in design. Miss Nichols was for several years the only lady
fellow of the Royal Society of Painter-Etchers."

Her "Brancaster Staithe" and "Fir Trees, Crown Point," dry points, are in
the Norwich Art Gallery, presented by Sir Seymour Haden, president of the
Royal Society of Painter-Etchers. Two of her works, a large oil painting
of "Earlham" and a water-color of "Strangers' Hall," have been purchased
by subscription and presented to the Norwich Castle Art Gallery.

NICOLAU Y PARODY, TERESA. Member of the Academy of San Fernando and
of the Academy of San Carlos of Valencia. This artist, who was born in
Madrid, early showed an enthusiasm for painting, which she at first
practised in various styles, but gradually devoted herself entirely to
miniature. She has contributed to many public exhibitions, and has
received many prizes and honorable mentions, as well as praise from the
critics. Among her portraits are those of Isabel de Braganza, Washington,
Mme. de Montespan, Mme. Dubarry, Queen Margaret of Austria, and Don
Carlos, son of Philip II. Her other works include a "Magdalen in the
Desert," "Laura and Petrarch," "Joseph with the Christ-Child," "Francis
I. at the Battle of Pavia," and many good copies after celebrated

NIEDERHAeUSEN, MLLE. SOPHIE. Medal at the Swiss National Exposition,
1896. Member of the Exposition permanente de l'Athenee, Geneva. Born at
Geneva. Pupil of Professor Wymann and M. Albert Gos, and of M. and Mme.
Demont-Breton in France.

Mlle. Niederhaeusen paints landscapes principally, and has taken her
subjects from the environs of Geneva, in the Valais, and in
Pas-de-Calais, France.

Her picture, called the "Bord du Lac de Geneve," was purchased by the
city and is in the Rath Museum. She also paints flowers, and uses
water-colors as well as oils.

NOBILI, ELENA. Silver medal at the Beatrice Exposition, Florence,
1890. Born in Florence, where she resides. She is most successful in
figure subjects. She is sympathetic in her treatment of them and is able
to impart to her works a sentiment which appeals to the observer. Among
her pictures are "Reietti," "The Good-Natured One," "September," "In the
Country," "Music," and "Contrasts."

NORMAND, MRS. ERNEST--HENRIETTA RAE. Medals in Paris and at Chicago
Exposition, 1893. Born in London, 1859. Daughter of T. B. Rae, Esquire.
Married the artist, Ernest Normand, 1884. Pupil of Queen's Square School
of Art, Heatherley's, British Museum, and Royal Academy Schools. Began
the study of art at the age of thirteen. First exhibited at the Royal
Academy in 1880, and has sent important pictures there annually since
that time.

Mrs. Normand executed decorative frescoes in the Royal Exchange, London,
the subject being "Sir Richard Whittington and His Charities."

In the past ten years she has exhibited "Mariana," 1893; "Psyche at the
Throne of Venus," 1894; "Apollo and Daphne," 1895; "Summer," 1896;
"Isabella," 1897; "Diana and Calisto," 1899; "Portrait of Marquis of
Dufferin and Ava," 1901; "Lady Winifred Renshaw and Son," and the
"Sirens," 1903, which is a picture of three nude enchantresses, on a
sandy shore, watching a distant galley among rocky islets.

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NOURSE, ELIZABETH. Medal at Chicago Exposition, 1903; Nashville
Exposition, 1897; Carthage Institute, Tunis, 1897; elected associate of
the Beaux-Arts, Paris, 1895; silver medal, Paris Exposition, 1900;
elected Societaire des Beaux-Arts, 1901. Born in Cincinnati, Ohio, where
she began her studies, later going to the Julian Academy, under Boulanger
and Lefebvre, and afterward studying with Carolus Duran and Henner. This
artist idealizes the subjects of every-day, practical life, and gives
them a poetic quality which is an uncommon and delightful attainment.

At the Salon des Beaux-Arts, 1902, Miss Nourse exhibited "The Children,"
"Evening Toilet of the Baby," "In the Shade at Pen'march," "Brother and
Sister at Pen'march," "The Madeleine Chapel at Pen'march." In 1903, "Our
Lady of Joy, Pen'march," "Around the Cradle," "The Little Sister," and "A
Breton Interior."

[_No reply to circular_.]

OAKLEY, VIOLET. Member of Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts,
Philadelphia Water-Color Club, Plastic Club, Philadelphia. Born in New
Jersey, but has lived in New York, where she studied at the Art
Students' League under Carroll Beckwith. Pupil of Collin and Aman-Jean in
Paris and Charles Lasar in England; also in Philadelphia of Joseph de
Camp, Henry Thouron, Cecilia Beaux, and Howard Pyle.

Miss Oakley has executed mural decorations, a mosaic reredos, and five
stained-glass windows in the Church of All Saints, New York City, and a
window in the Convent of the Holy Child, at Sharon Hill, Pennsylvania.

In the summer of 1903 she was commissioned to decorate the walls of the
Governor's reception room in the new Capitol at Harrisburg. Before
engaging in this work--the first of its kind to be confided to an
American woman--Miss Oakley went to Italy to study mural painting. She
then went to England to thoroughly inform herself concerning the
historical foundation of her subject, the history of the earliest days of
Pennsylvania. At Oxford and in London she found what she required, and on
her return to America established herself in a studio in Villa Nova,
Pennsylvania, to make her designs for "The Romance of the Founding of the
State," which is to be painted on a frieze five feet deep. The room is
seventy by thirty feet, and sixteen feet in height.

The decoration of this Capitol is to be more elaborate and costly than
that of any other public edifice in the United States. In mural
decoration Miss Oakley will be associated with Edwin A. Abbey, but the
Governor's room is to be her work entirely, and will doubtless occupy her
during several years.

Mr Charles A. Caffin, in his article upon the exhibition of the New York
Water-Color Club, January, 1904, says: "Miss Oakley has had considerable
experience in designing stained-glass windows, and has reproduced in some
of her designs for book covers a corresponding treatment of the
composition, with an attempt, not very logical or desirable, considering
the differences between paint and glass, to reproduce also something of
her window color schemes.... But for myself, her cover, in which some
girls are picking flowers, is far more charming in its easy grace of
composition, choice gravity of color, and spontaneity of feeling. Here is
revealed a very _naive_ imagination, free of any obsessions."

OCCIONI, SIGNORA LUCILLA MARZOLO. Diploma of gold medal at the
Women's Exhibition, Earl's Court, London, 1900. Born in Trieste. Pupil,
in Rome, of Professor Giuseppe Ferrari.

This artist paints figure subjects, portraits, landscapes, and flowers,
in both oils and water-colors, and also makes pen-drawings. Her works are
in many private galleries. She gives me no list of subjects. Her pictures
have been praised by critics.

1823-1885. She passed her early life in her native city, having all the
advantages of a solid and brilliant education. She early exhibited a love
of drawing and devoted herself to the study of anatomical plates. She
soon designed original subjects and introduced persons of her own
imagination, which early marked her as powerful in her fancy and original
in her manner of rendering her ideas.

A picture of "Raphael and the Fornarina," which she executed at the age
of fifteen, was so satisfactory as to determine her fate, and she was
allowed to study art.

When about eighteen years old she became the pupil of Charles Joseph
Begas, a very celebrated artist of Berlin. Under his supervision she
painted her first picture, called the "Day of the Dupes," which, though
full of faults, had also virtues enough to secure much attention in the
exhibition. It was first hung in a disadvantageous position, but the
crowd discovered its merits and would have it noticed. She received a
complimentary letter from the Academy of Berlin, and the venerable artist
Cornelius made her a visit of congratulation.

About 1844 she married and removed to Brussels. Here she came into an
entirely new atmosphere and her manner of painting was changed. She
sought to free herself from all outer influence and to express her own
feeling. She studied color especially, and became an imitator of Rubens.
She gained in Brussels all the medals of the Belgian expositions, and
there began two historical pictures, "Peter the Great and Catherine" and
"Maria Theresa and Frederick the Great." These were not finished until
after her removal to Paris in 1853. They were bought by Prince Demidoff
for the Russian Government.

She obtained her first triumph in Paris, at the Salon of 1853, by a
portrait of Rachel. She represented the famous actress dressed entirely
in white, with the worn expression which her professional exertions and
the fatal malady from which she was already suffering had given to her
remarkable face. The critics had no words for this portrait which were
not words of praise, and two years later, in 1855, Madame O'Connell
reached the height of her talent. "A Faunesse," as it was called, in the
exposition of that year, was a remarkable work, and thus described by

"A strong and beautiful young woman was seated near a spring, where
beneath the shade of the chestnut trees the water lilies spread
themselves out upon the stream which flowed forth. She was nude and her
flesh palpitated beneath the caresses of the sun. With feminine caprice
she wore a bracelet of pearls of the style of the gold workers of the
Renaissance. Her black hair had lights of golden brown upon it, and she
opened her great brown eyes with an expression of indifference. A half
smile played upon her rosy lips and lessened the oval of the face like
that of the 'Dancing Faun.' The whole effect of the lines of the figure
was bold and gave an appearance of youth, the extremities were studiously
finished, the skin was fine, and the whole tournure elegant. It was a
Faunesse of Fontainebleau of the time of the Valois."

Mme. O'Connell then executed several fine portraits--two of Rachel, one
of M. O'Connell, others of Charles Edward and Theophile Gautier, which
were likened to works of Vandyck, and a portrait in crayon of herself
which was a _chef-d'oeuvre_. She excelled in rendering passionate
natures; she found in her palette the secret of that pallor which spreads
itself over the faces of those devoted to study--the fatigues of days and
nights without sleep; she knew how to kindle the feverish light in the
eyes of poets and of the women of society. She worked with great
freedom, used a thick pate in which she brushed freely and left the
ridges thus made in the colors; then, later, she put over a glaze, and
all was done. Her etchings were also executed with great freedom, and
many parts, especially the hair, were remarkably fine. She finished
numerous etchings, among which a "St. Magdalen in the Desert" and a
"Charity Surrounded by Children" are worthy of particular notice.

After Madame O'Connell removed to Paris she opened a large atelier and
received many pupils. It was a most attractive place, with gorgeous
pieces of antique furniture, loaded with models of sculpture, books,
albums, engravings, and so on, while draperies, tapestries, armor, and
ornaments in copper and brass all lent their colors and effects to
enhance the attractions of the place. Many persons of rank and genius
were among the friends of the artist and she was much in society.

In spite of all her talent and all her success the end of Madame
O'Connell's life was sad beyond expression. Her health suffered, her
reason tottered and faded out, yet life remained and she was for years in
an asylum for the insane. Everything that had surrounded her in her Paris
home was sold at auction. No time was given and no attempt was made to
bring her friends together. No one who had known or loved her was there
to shed a tear or to bear away a memento of her happy past. All the
beautiful things of which we have spoken were sacrificed and scattered as
unconscionably as if she had never loved or her friends enjoyed them.

In the busy world of Paris no one remembered the brilliant woman who had
flashed upon them, gained her place among them, and then disappeared.
They recalled neither her genius nor her womanly qualities which they had
admired, appreciated, and so soon forgotten!

OOSTERWYCK, MARIA VAN. The seventeenth century is remarkable for the
perfection attained in still-life and flower painting. The most famous
masters in this art were William van Aelst of Delft, the brothers De Heem
of Utrecht, William Kalf and the Van Huysums of Amsterdam. The last of
this name, however, Jan van Huysum, belongs to the next century.

Maria van Oosterwyck and Rachel Ruysch disputed honors with the above
named and are still famous for their talents.

The former was a daughter of a preacher of the reformed religion. She was
born at Nootdorp, near Delft, in 1630. She was the pupil of Jan David de
Heem, and her pictures were remarkable for accuracy in drawing, fine
coloring, and an admirable finish.

Louis XIV. of France, William III. of England, the Emperor Leopold of
Germany, and Augustus I. of Poland gave her commissions for pictures.
Large prices were paid her in a most deferential manner, as if the
tributes of friendship rather than the reward of labor, and to these
generous sums were added gifts of jewels and other precious objects.

Of Maria van Oosterwyck Kugler writes: "In my opinion she does not occupy
that place in the history of the art of this period that she deserves,
which may be partly owing to the rarity of her pictures, especially in
public galleries. For although her flower pieces are weak in arrangement
and often gaudy in the combination of color, she yet represents her
flowers with the utmost truth of drawing, and with a depth, brilliancy,
and juiciness of local coloring _unattained by any other flower painter_"

A picture in the Vienna Gallery of a sunflower with tulips and poppies,
in glowing color, is probably her best work in a public collection. Her
pictures are also in the galleries of Dresden, Florence, Carlsruhe,
Copenhagen, the Schwerin Gallery, and the Metropolitan Museum of New

There is a romantic story told of Maria van Oosterwyck, as follows.
William van Aelst, the painter of exquisite pictures of still-life,
fruits, glass, and objects in gold and silver, was a suitor for her hand.
She did not love him, but wishing not to be too abrupt in her refusal,
she required, as a condition of his acceptance, that he should work ten
hours a day during a year. This he readily promised to do. His studio
being opposite that of Maria, she watched narrowly for the days when he
did not work and marked them down on her window-sash. At the close of the
year Van Aelst claimed her as his bride, assuming that he had fulfilled
her condition; but she pointed to the record of his delinquencies, and he
could but accept her crafty dismissal of his suit.

OSENGA, GIUSEPPINA. This artist resides in Parma, and has there
exhibited landscapes that are praised for their color and for the manner
in which they are painted, as well as for the attractive subjects she
habitually chooses. "A View near Parma," the "Faces of Montmorency," and
the "Bridge of Attaro" are three of her works which are especially

OSTERTAG, BLANCHE. Member of Society of Western Artists; Arts Club,
Chicago; Municipal Art League. Born in St. Louis. From 1892-1896 pupil of
Laurens and Raphael Collin in Paris, where her works were hung on the
line at the New Gallery, Champ de Mars.

A decorative artist who has executed mural decoration in a private house
in Chicago, and has illustrated "Max Mueller's Memories" and other
publications. For use in schools she made a color print, "Reading of the
Declaration of Independence before the Army."

Her calendars and posters are in demand by collectors at home and in
foreign countries. Miss Ostertag has designed elaborate chimney pieces to
be executed in mosaic and glass. Her droll conceits in "Mary and Her
Lamb," the "Ten Little Injuns," and other juvenile tales were
complimented by Boutet de Monvel, who was so much interested in her work
that he gave her valuable criticism and advice without solicitation.

O'TAMA-CHIOVARA. Gold medal at an exhibition of laces in Rome and
prizes at all the exhibitions held in Palermo by the Art Club. Born in
Tokio, where she came to the notice of Vicenzo Ragusa, a Sicilian
sculptor in the employ of the Japanese Government at Tokio. He taught her
design, color, and modelling, and finally induced her to go with his
sister to Palermo. Here her merit was soon recognized in a varied
collection of water-colors representing flowers and fruits, which were
reproduced with surpassing truth. When the School of Applied Art was
instituted at Palermo in 1887, she was put in charge of the drawing,
water-color, and modelling in the Women's Section.

She knows the flowers of various countries--those of Japan and Sicily
wonderfully well, and her fancy is inexhaustible; her exquisite
embroideries reflect this quality. She has many private pupils, and is as
much beloved for her character as she is admired for her talents. When
she renounced Buddhism for Christianity, the Princess of Scalca was her

PACZKA-WAGNER, CORNELIA. Honorable mention, Berlin, 1890. Born in
Goettingen, 1864. She has been, in the main, her own instructor, living
for some years in Rome for the purpose of study. In 1895 she settled in
Berlin, where she has made a specialty of women's and children's
portraits in olgraphy (?) and lithography. Beautiful drawings by her were
exhibited at the International Water-Color Exhibition in Dresden, 1892.

An interesting account of a visit to the studio of the Hungarian painter
Paczka and his German wife tells of a strong series of paintings in
progress there, under the general title, "A Woman's Soul." In freedom and
boldness of conception they were said to remind one of Klinger, but in
warmth and depth of feeling to surpass him. Frau Paczka had just finished
a very large picture, representing the first couple after the expulsion
from Paradise. The scene is on the waste, stony slope of a mountain; the
sun shines with full force in the background, while upon the unshadowed
rocks of the foreground are the prostrate Adam and his wife--more
accusing than complaining.

In 1899 Frau Paczka exhibited in Berlin, "Vanitas," which excels in
richness of fancy and boldness of representation, while wanting somewhat
in detail; the ensemble presents a remarkably fine, symbolic composition,
which sets forth in rich color the dance of mankind before the golden
calf, and the bitter disillusions in the struggle for fame, wealth, and

PARLAGHY, VILMA, OR THE PRINCESS LWOFF. Great gold medal from the
Emperor of Austria, 1890; great gold medal, 1894; small gold medal at
Berlin, 1890, adjudged to her portrait of Windhorst. Born at Hadju-Dorogh
in 1863, and studied in Budapest, Munich, Venice, Florence, and Turin.
Her portraits having found great favor at the Court of Berlin, she
removed her studio from Munich to that capital.

One of her instructors was Lenbach, and she is said by some critics to
have appropriated his peculiarities as a colorist and his shortcomings in
drawing, without attaining his geniality and power of divination. In 1891
her portrait of Count von Moltke, begun shortly before his death and
finished afterward, was sent to the International Exposition at Berlin,
but was rejected. The Emperor, however, bought it for his private
collection, and at his request it was given a place of honor at the
Exposition, the incident causing much comment. She exhibited a portrait
of the Emperor William at Berlin in 1893, which Rosenberg called careless
in drawing and modelling and inconceivable in its unrefreshing,
dirty-gray color.

In January, 1895, she gave an exhibition of one hundred and four of her
works, mostly portraits, including those of the Emperor, Caprivi, von
Moltke, and Kossuth, which had previously been exhibited in Berlin,
Munich, and Paris. The proceeds of this exhibition went to the building
fund of the Emperor William Memorial Church.

Of a portrait exhibited in 1896, at Munich, a critic said that while it
was not wholly bad, it was no better than what hundreds of others could
do as well, and hundreds of others could do much better.

PASCH, ULRICKE FRIEDERIKA. Member of the Academy of Fine Arts of
Sweden. Born in Stockholm. 1735-1796. A portrait of Gustavus-Adolphus II.
by this artist is in the Castle at Stockholm. She was a sister of Lorenz

PASCOLI, LUIGIA. This Venetian painter has exhibited in various
Italian cities since 1870, when she sent a "Magdalen" to Parma. "First
Love" appeared at Naples in 1877, and "The Maskers"--pastel--at Venice in
1881. A "Girl with a Cat," a "Roman Girl," and a "Seller of Eggs"--the
latter in Venetian costume--are works of true value. Her copies of
Titian's "St. Mark" and of Gian Bellini's "Supper at Emmaus" have
attracted attention and are much esteemed.

PASSE, MAGDALENA VAN DE. Born at Utrecht about 1600; she died at the
age of forty. This engraver was a daughter of Crispus van de Passe, the
elder. She practised her art in Germany, England, Denmark, and the
Netherlands, and was important as an artist. Her engraving was
exceedingly careful and skilful. Among her plates are "Three Sibyls,"
1617; an "Annunciation," "Cephalus and Procris," "Latona," and landscapes
after the works of Bril, Savery, Willars, etc.

PATTISON, HELEN SEARLE. Born in Burlington, Vermont. Daughter of
Henry Searle, a talented architect who moved to Rochester, New York,
where his daughter spent much of her girlhood. She held the position of
art teacher in a school in Batavia, New York, while still a girl herself.

About 1860 she became the pupil of Herr Johan Wilhelm Preyer, the
well-known painter of still-life, fruit, and flowers. Preyer was a dwarf
and an excellent man, but as a rule took no pupils. He was much
interested in Miss Searle, and made an exception in her case. She soon
acquired the technique of her master and painted much as he did, but with
less minute detail, finer color, and far more sentiment.

[Illustration: FLOWERS


In 1876 Miss Searle married the artist, James William Pattison, now on
the staff of the Art Institute, Chicago. After their marriage Mr. and
Mrs. Pattison resided at Ecouen, near Paris. Returning to America in
1882, they spent some time in Chicago and New York City, removing to
Jacksonville, Illinois, in 1884. Here Mr. Pattison was at the head of the
School of Fine Arts.

Mrs. Pattison lived but a few months in Jacksonville, dying in November,

Mrs. Pattison's artistic reputation was well established and her works
were exhibited at the Paris Salon and in all the German cities of
importance. They were frequently seen in England and at the National
Academy of Design in New York. Her subjects were still-life, fruit,
and flowers, and her works are widely distributed.

PAZZI, CATERINA DE, whose conventual name was Maria Maddalena. Was
born in Florence in 1566. It would be interesting to know the relation
that this gentle lady bore to those Pazzi who had earned a fame so unlike
hers fourscore years before she saw the light.

Caterina de Pazzi, when a mere girl, entered a convent which stood on the
site of the church known by her name in the Via Pinti. The cell of Santa
Maddalena--now a chapel--may still be visited. She was canonized by Pope
Alexander VIII. in 1670, sixty-two years after her death.

The Florentines have many lovely legends associated with her memory. One
of these relates that she painted pictures of sacred subjects when
asleep. Be this as it may, we know that her pictures were esteemed in the
days when the best artists lived and worked beside her. Examples of her
art may still be seen in churches in Rome and Parma, as well as in the
church of her native city which bears her name.

PEALE, ANNA C. Made her mark as a miniature painter and for some
years was the only professional woman artist in Philadelphia. Her
portrait of General Jackson made in 1819 was well considered. She also
made portraits of President Monroe, Henry Clay, R. M. Johnson, John
Randolph of Roanoke, and other prominent men. Miss Peale married in 1829
the Rev. William Staughton, a Baptist clergyman, the president of the
theological college at Georgetown, Kentucky. He lived but three months
after their marriage, and she returned to Philadelphia and again pursued
her artistic labors. She married a second husband, General William
Duncan, and from this time gave up professional painting.

PEALE, SARA M. 1860-1885. Daughter of James Peale, under whose
teaching she made her first studies. She was also a pupil of her uncle,
the founder of Peale's Museum, Philadelphia. Miss Peale painted portraits
and spent some years in Baltimore and Washington. Among her portraits are
those of Lafayette, Thomas Benton, Henry A. Wise, Caleb Cushing, and
other distinguished men. From 1847 she resided in St. Louis thirty years
and then went to Philadelphia. Her later works were still-life subjects,
especially fruits.

PELICHY, GEERTRUIDA. Honorary member of the Academy of Vienna. Born
in Utrecht, 1744; died in Bruegge, 1825. Pupil of P. de Cock and Suvee. In
1753, she went to Bruegge with her father, and later to Paris and Vienna.
She painted portraits of the Emperor Joseph II. and Maria Theresa, some
good landscapes, and animal studies. Two of her pictures are in the
Museum at Bruegge.

PELLEGRINO, ITALA. Born at Milan, 1865. Pupil of Battaglia. Her
pictures are of genre and marine subjects. At the great exhibition at
Turin, 1884, she exhibited a marine view which was bought by Prince
Amadeo. Another marine view exhibited at Milan was acquired by the
Societa Promotrice. In 1888 she sent to the exhibition at Naples, where
she resides, a view of Portici, which was added to the Royal Gallery. The
excellence of her work is in the strength and certainty of touch and the
sincerity and originality of composition. She has painted a "Marine View
of Naples," "In the Gulf," "Fair Weather," and "Evening at Sea"; also a
genre picture, "Frusta la," which was sold while in an exhibition in

PENICKE, CLARA. Born at Berlin in 1818, where she died in 1899. She
studied first with Remy and later with Carl Begas and Edward Magnus. Her
work was largely confined to portrait and historical painting. In the
Gallery at Schwerin is her "Elector Frederick of Saxony Refusing to
Accept the Interim." Another good example of her historical work is the
"Reconciliation of Charlemagne with Thassilo of Bavaria." A well-known
and strongly modelled portrait of Minister Von Stoach and several Luther
portraits, "Luther's Family Devotion" and "Luther Finds the First Latin
Bible," show her facility in this branch of art. She also painted a
"Christ on the Cross."

PERELLI, LIDA. A landscape painter living in Milan, who has become
well known by pictures that have been seen at the exhibitions in several
Italian cities, especially through some Roman studies that appeared at
Florence and Turin in 1884. "A View of Lecco, Lake Como," "Casolare," and
"A Lombard Plain" are among her best works.

PERMAN, LOUISE E. Born at Birkenshaw, Renfrewshire. Studied in
Glasgow. This artist paints roses, and roses only, in oils. In this art
she has been very successful. She has exhibited at the Royal Academy and
the New Gallery, London; at the Royal Scottish Academy, Glasgow; at art
exhibits in Munich, Dresden, Berlin, Prague, Hanover, etc., and wherever
her works have been seen they have been sold. In May, 1903, a collection
of twenty-five rose pictures were exhibited by a prominent dealer, and
but few were left in his hands.

A critic in the _Studio_ of April, 1903, writing of the exhibition at the
Ladies' Artists' Club, Glasgow, says: "Miss Louise Perman's rose pictures
were as refined and charming as ever. This last-named lady certainly has
a remarkable power of rendering the beauties of the queen of flowers,
whether she chooses to paint the sumptuous yellow of the 'Marechal Niel,'
the blush of the 'Katherine Mermet,' or the crimson glory of the 'Queen
of Autumn.' She seems not only to give the richness of color and fulness
of contour of the flowers, but to capture for the delight of the beholder
the very spiritual essence of them." To the London Academy, 1903, she
sent a picture called "York and Lancaster."

PERRIER, MARIE. Mention honorable at Salon des Artistes Francais,
1899; Prix Marie Bashkirtseff, 1899; honorable mention, Paris Exposition,
1900; numerous medals from foreign and provincial exhibitions; medals in
gold and silver at Rouen, Nimes, Rennes, etc.; bronze medals at Amiens
and Angers. Member of the Societe des Artistes Francais; perpetual member
of the Baron Taylor Association, section of the Arts of Painting, etc.
Born at Paris. Pupil of Benjamin Constant, Jules Lefebvre, and J. P.

Mlle. Perrier's picture of "Jeanne d'Arc" is in a provincial museum;
several pictures by her belonging to the city of Paris are scenes
connected with the schools of the city--"Breakfast at the Communal
School"; "After School at Montmartre" were at the Salon des Artistes
Francais, 1903; others are "Manual Labor at the Maternal School,"
"Flowers," and "Recreation of the Children at the Maternal School." Of
the last Gabriel Moury says, "It is one of the really good pictures in
the Salon."

This artist decorated a villa near Nimes with four large panels
representing the "Seasons," twelve small panels, the "Hours," and
pictures of the labors of the fields, such as the gathering of grapes and
picking of olives.

She has painted numerous portraits of children and a series of pictures
illustrating the "Life of the Children of Paris." They are "Children at
School and after School," "Children on the Promenade and Their Games,"
and "Children at Home."

PERRY, CLARA GREENLEAF. Member of the Copley Society. Born at Long
Branch, New Jersey. Pupil of Boston Art Museum School, under Mr. Benson
and Mr. Tarbell; in Paris pupil of M. Raphael Collin and Robert Henri.

Miss Perry has exhibited her portrait of Mrs. U. in the Salon of the
Societe Nationale des Beaux-Arts and in Philadelphia. She paints
landscapes and portraits.

PERRY, LILLA CABOT. Pupil in Boston of Dennis Bunker and Alfred
Collins; in Paris of Alfred Stevens, Robert Fleury, Bouguereau, and
Courtois; in Munich of Fritz von Uhde.

Mrs. Perry is essentially a portrait painter, but has painted landscapes,
especially in Japan, where she spent some years. The scenery of Japan and
its wonderfully beautiful Fuziyama would almost compel an artist to paint

Mrs. Perry says that her pictures of French and Japanese types are, in
fact, portraits as truly as are those she is asked to paint.

Her picture of a "Japanese Lacemaker" belongs to Mr. Quincy A. Shaw. It
has been much admired in the exhibitions in which it has been seen.

In the Water-Color Exhibition of the Boston Art Club, 1903, Mrs. Perry's
portrait of Miss S. attracted much attention. The delicate flesh tones,
the excellent modelling of the features, and what may be called the whole
atmosphere of the picture combine in producing an effective and pleasing
example of portraiture.

PERUGINI, CATERINA E. An Italian painter living in London, where she
frequently exhibits her excellent pictures. Among them are "A Siesta,"
"Dolce far Niente," "Multiplication," and portraits of Guy Cohn, son of
Sir Guy Campbell, Bart., and of Peggy and Kitty Hammond, two charming

At the Academy, 1903, she exhibited "Faith" and "Silken Tresses."

PERUGINI, MRS. KATE DICKENS. Younger daughter of Charles Dickens and
wife of Charles Edward Perugini. This artist has exhibited at the Royal
Academy and at other exhibitions since 1877. Her pictures are of genre
subjects, such as the "Dolls' Dressmaker," "Little-Red-Cap," "Old
Curiosity Shop," etc. At the Academy, 1903, she exhibited "Some Spring

[_No reply to circular_.]

PETERS, ANNA. Medals at Vienna, 1873; London, 1874; Munich, 1876;
Amsterdam and Antwerp, 1877. Born at Mannheim, 1843. Pupil of her father,
Pieter Francis Peters, in Stuttgart. Miss Peters travelled over Europe
and was commissioned to decorate apartments in the royal castles at
Stuttgart and Friedrichshafen.

Her picture of "Roses and Grapes" is in the National Gallery, London; and
one of "Autumn Flowers" in the Museum at Stuttgart.

PILLINI, MARGHERITA. An Italian painter living in Paris. Her most
successful exhibitions have been those at Rome, in 1883, when her
"Silk-cocoon Carder of Quimper" and "Charity" appeared; and at Turin, in
1884, when "The Three Ages," "The Poor Blind Man," and a portrait of the
Prince of Naples were shown, all exquisite in sentiment and excellent in
execution. The "Silk-cocoon Carder of Quimper" has been thus noticed by
De Rengis: "If I am not mistaken, Signora Margherita Pillini has also
taken this road, full of modernity, but not free from great danger. Her
'Silk-cocoon Carder' is touched with great disdain for every suggestion
of the old school. Rare worth--if worth it is--that a young woman should
be carried by natural inclination into such care for detail."

PINTO-SEZZI, IDA. Silver medal at the Beatrice Exposition, Florence,
1890. Since 1882 pictures by this artist have been seen in various
Italian exhibitions. In the Beatrice of that year she exhibited
"Cocciara," and in 1887 "A Friar Cook." Her "Fortune-Teller" attracted
general attention at Venice in 1887.

This artist has also given some time to the decoration of terra-cotta in
oil colors. An amphora decorated with landscape and figures was exhibited
at the Promotrice in Florence in 1889 (?) and much admired.

POETTING, COUNTESS ADRIENNE. Born in Chrudim, Bohemia, 1856. The
effect of her thorough training under Blass, Straschiripka, and Frittjof
Smith is seen in her portraits of the Deputy-Burgomaster Franz Khume,
which is in the Rathhaus, Vienna, as well as in those of the Princess
Freda von Oldenburg and the writer, Bertha von Suttner. Her excellence is
also apparent in her genre subjects, "In the Land of Dreams" being an
excellent example of these.

POPERT, CHARLOTTE. Silver medal at the Beatrice, Florence, 1890.
Born in Hamburg, 1848. Pupil in Weimar of the elder Preller and Carl
Gherts; of P. Joris in Rome, and Bonnat in Paris. After extensive travels
in the Orient, England, the Netherlands, and Spain, she established
herself in Rome and painted chiefly in water-colors. Her "Praying Women
of Bethlehem" is an excellent example of her art.

In 1883 she exhibited at Rome, "In the Temple at Bethlehem"; at Turin in
1884, "In the Seventeenth Century" and "The Nun"; at Venice in 1887, an
exquisite portrait in water-colors.

POPPE-LUeDERITZ, ELIZABETH. Honorable mention, Berlin, 1891. For the
second time only the Senate of the Berlin Academy conferred this
distinction upon a woman. The artist exhibited two portraits, "painted
with Holbein-like delicacy and truthfulness"--if we may agree with the

This artist was born in Berlin in 1858, and was a pupil of Gussow. Her
best pictures are portraits, but her "Sappho" and "Euphrosine" are
excellent works.

POPP, BABETTE. Born in Regensburg, 1800; died about 1840. Made her
studies in Munich. In the Cathedral of Regensburg is her "Adoration of
the Kings."

POWELL, CAROLINE A. Bronze medal at Chicago, 1893; silver medal at
Buffalo, 1901. Member of the Society of American Wood-Engravers and of
the Boston Society of Arts and Crafts. Born in Dublin, Ireland. Pupil of
W. J. Linton and Timothy Cole.

[Illustration: Doge's Palace, Venice



Miss Powell was an illustrator of the _Century Magazine_ from 1880 to
1895. The engraving after "The Resurrection" by John La Farge, in the
Church of St. Thomas, New York, is the work of this artist. She also
illustrated "Engravings on Wood," by William M. Laffan, in which book her
work is commended.

Miss Powell is now employed by Messrs. Houghton, Mifflin & Co., and
writes me: "So far as I know, I am, at present, the only woman in America
engaged in the practise of engraving as a fine art."

1747. Her husband, Johan Prestel, was her teacher, and she was of great
assistance in the work which he produced at Frankfort-on-the-Main, in
1783. In 1786, however, she separated from him and went to London, where
she devoted herself to aquatints. She executed more than seventy plates,
some of them of great size.

PRESTEL, URSULA MAGDALENA. Born in Nuremburg. 1777-1845. Daughter of
the preceding artist. She worked in Frankfort and London, travelled in
France and Switzerland, and died in Brussels. Her moonlight scenes, some
of her portraits, and her picture of the "Falls of the Rhine near
Laufen," are admirable.

PREUSCHEN, HERMINE VON SCHMIDT; married name, Telman. Born at
Darmstadt, 1857. Pupil of Ferdinand Keller in Karlsruhe. Travelled in
Spain, France, Italy, the Netherlands, and Denmark. She remained some
time in Munich, Berlin, and Rome, establishing her studio in these cities
and painting a variety of subjects. Her flower pictures are her best
works. Her "Mors Imperator" created a sensation by reason of its striking
qualities rather than by intrinsic artistic merit. In the gallery at Metz
is her picture of "Irene von Spilimberg on the Funeral Gondola."

In 1883 she exhibited in Rome, "Answered," a study of thistles; "In
Autumn," a variety of fruits; and "Questions," a charming study of
carnations. At Berlin, in 1890, "Meadow Saffron and Cineraria" was
praised for its glowing color and artistic arrangement. A Viennese
critic, the same year, lamented that an artist of so much talent should
paint lifeless objects only. In Berlin, in 1894, she held an exhibition,
in which her landscapes and flower pieces were better than her still-life
pictures. Frau Preuschen is also a musician and poet.

The painting of flower pieces is a delightful art for man or woman, but
so many such pictures which are by amateurs are seen in exhibitions--too
good to be refused but not of a satisfactory quality--that one can
scarcely sympathize with the critic who would have Mme. Preuschen paint
other subjects than these charming blossoms, so exquisite in form and
color, into which she paints so much delightful sentiment.

PUEHN, SOPHIE. Born at Nuremberg, 1864. This artist studied in Paris
and Munich and resides in the latter city. At the International
Exhibition, Vienna, 1894, her portrait of a "Lady Drinking Tea" was
praised by the critics without exception, and, in fact, her portraits are
always well considered. That she is also skilful in etching was shown in
her "Forsaken," exhibited in 1896.

PUTNAM, SARAH GOOLD. Member of the Copley Society. Born in Boston.
Pupil in Boston and New York of J. B. Johnston, F. Duveneck, Abbott
Thayer, and William Chase; in Scheveningen, of Bart. J. Blommers; and in
Munich, of Wilhelm Duerr.

Miss Putnam's portrait of Hon. John Lowell is in the District Court Room
in Post-Office Building, Boston; that of William G. Russell, in the Law
Library in the Court House, Pemberton Square, same city; that of General
Charles G. Loring, for many years Director of Boston Museum of Fine Arts,
belongs to his family; among her other portraits are those of Dr. Henry
P. Bowditch, Francis Boott, George Partridge Bradford, Edward Silsbee,
Mrs. Asa Gray, and Lorin Deland. In addition to the above she has
painted more than one hundred portraits of men, women, and children,
which belong to the families of the subjects.

PUYROCHE, MME. ELISE. Born in Dresden, 1828. Resided in Lyons,
France, where she was a pupil of the fine colorist, Simon St. Jean. Mme.
Puyroche excelled her master in the arrangement of flowers in her
pictures and in the correctness of her drawing, while she acquired his
harmonious color. Her picture called the "Tom Wreath," painted in 1850,
is in the Dresden Gallery.

QUESTIER, CATHERINE. Born in Amsterdam. In 1655 she published two
comedies which were illustrated by engravings of her own design and
execution. She achieved a good reputation for painting, copper engraving,
and modelling in wax, as well as for her writings.

RAAB, DORIS. Third-class medal, Nuremberg; also second-class medal,
1892. Born in Nuremberg, 1851. Pupil of her father, Johann Leonhard Raab,
in etching and engraving. She has engraved many works by Rubens, Van
Dyck, and Cuyp; among her plates after works of more recent artists are
Piloty's "Death Warrant of Mary Stuart," Lindenschmidt's "In Thought,"
and Laufberger's "Hunting Fanfare." This artist resides in Munich.

RADOVSKA, BARONESS ANNETTA, of Milan. Her interesting genre pictures
are seen in most of the Italian exhibitions. "Old Wine, Young Wife," was
at Milan, 1881; in same city, 1883, "An Aggression," "The Visit," "The
Betrothed." She also sent to Rome, in 1883, two pictures, one of which,
"The Harem," was especially noteworthy. In 1884, at Turin, she exhibited
"Tea" and the "Four Ages"; these, were excellent in tone and technique
and attractive in subject. At Milan, 1886, her "Will He Arrive?" was
heartily commended in the art journals.

RAE, HENRIETTA. See Normand, Mrs. Ernest


RAPIN, AIMEE. At the Swiss National Exposition, 1896, a large
picture of a "Genevese Watchmaker" by this artist was purchased; By the
Government and is in the Museum at Neuchatel. In 1903 the city of Geneva
commissioned her to paint a portrait of Philippe Plantamour, which is in
the Museum Mon-Repos, at Geneva. Member of the Societe des Beaux-Arts of
Lausanne, Societe des Femmes peintres et sculpteurs de la Suisse romande,
Societe de l'exposition permanente des Beaux-Arts, Geneva. Born at
Payerne, Canton de Vaud. Studied at Geneva under M. Hebert and Barthelmy
Menn, in painting; Hugues Bovy, modelling.

[Illustration: In the Museum at Neuchatel



Mlle. Rapin writes me: "I am, above all, a portrait painter, and my
portraits are in private hands." She names among others of her sitters,
Ernest Naville, the philosopher; Raoul Pictet, chemist; Jules Salmson,
sculptor, etc. She mentions that she painted a portrait of the present
Princess of Wales at the time of her marriage, but as it was painted from
photographs the artist has no opinion about its truth to life. Mlle.
Rapin has executed many portraits of men, women, and children in Paris,
London, and Germany, as well as in Switzerland. She refers me to the
following account of herself and her art. In the _Studio_ of April, 1903,
R. M. writes: "The subject of these notes is a striking example of the
compensations of Nature for her apparent cruelty; also of what the
genuine artist is capable of achieving notwithstanding the most singular
disadvantages. Some years ago in the little town of Payerne, Canton Vaud,
a child was born without arms. One day the mother, while standing near a
rose-bush with her infant in her arms, was astonished to observe one of
its tiny toes clasp the stem of the rose. Little did she guess at the
time that these prehensile toes were destined one day to serve an artist,
in the execution of her work, with the same marvellous facility as hands.
As the child grew up the greatest care was bestowed upon her education.
She early manifested unmistakable artistic promise, and at the age of
sixteen was sent to the Ecole des Beaux Arts, Geneva.... For reasons
already mentioned Mlle. Rapin holds a unique position amongst that
valiant and distinguished group of Swiss lady artists to whose work we
hope to have the opportunity of referring.... She is a fine example of
that singleness of devotion which characterizes the born artist. Her art
is the all-absorbing interest of her life. It is not without its
limitations, but within these limitations the artist has known how to be
true to herself. Drawing her inspiration direct from nature, she has held
on her independent way, steadily faithful to the gift she possesses of
evoking a character in a portrait or of making us feel how the common
task, when representative of genuine human effort and touched with the
poetry of national tradition, of religion, and of nature, becomes a
subject of noble artistic treatment. She has kept unimpaired that
_merveilleux frisson de sensibilite_ which is one of the most precious
gifts of the artistic temperament, and which is quick to respond to the
ideal in the real. There are some artists who, though possessed of
extraordinary mastery over the materials of their art, bring to their
work a spirit which beggars and belittles both art and life; there are
others who seem to work with an ever-present sense of the noble purpose
of their vocation and the pathos and dignity of existence. Mlle. Rapin
belongs to the second category. Her 'L'Horloger' is an example of this. A
Genevese watchmaker is bending to his work at a bench covered with tools.
Through the window of the workshop one perceives in the blue distance

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