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Women in the fine arts, from the Seventh Century B.C. to the Twentieth Century A.D. by Clara Erskine Clement

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established herself there permanently. A goodly circle of friends
gathered about her, and she found occupation and solace for her griefs in
the oversight of her college.

She continued her painting and the exhibition of her pictures at the
Royal Academy. She made illustrations for the works of Virgil, Homer,
Spenser, and other poets, and painted portraits of interesting and
distinguished persons, among whom were Mme. Le Brun and Mme. Recamier.
The life and work of Maria Cosway afford a striking contradiction of the
theory that wealth and luxury induce idleness and dull the powers of
their possessors. Hers is but one of the many cases in which a woman's a
woman "for a' that."

At an art sale in London in 1901, an engraving by V. Green after Mrs.
Cosway's portrait of herself, first state, brought $1,300, and a second
one $200 less.

COUDERT, AMALIA KUeSSNER. Born in Terre Haute, Indiana. This
distinguished miniaturist writes me that she "never studied." Like Topsy,
she must have "growed." By whatever method they are produced or by
whatever means the artist in her has been evolved, her pictures would
seem to prove that study of a most intelligent order has done its part in
her development.

She has executed miniature portraits of the Czar and Czarina of Russia,
the Grand Duchess Vladimir, King Edward VII., the late Cecil Rhodes, many
English ladies of rank, and a great number of the beautiful and
fashionable women of America.

COUTAN-MONTORGUEIL, MME. LAURE MARTIN. Honorable mention, Salon des
Artistes Francais, 1894. Born at Dun-sur-Auron, Cher. Pupil of Alfred

This sculptor has executed the monument to Andre Gill, Pere Lachaise;
that of the Poet Moreau, in the cemetery Montparnasse; bust of Taglioni,
in the foyer of the Grand Opera House, Paris; bust of the astronomer
Leverrier, at the Institute, Paris; a statue, "The Spring," Museum of
Bourges; "Sirius," in the Palais of the Governor of Algiers. Also busts
of Prince Napoleon, General Boulanger, the Countess de Choiseul, the
Countess de Vogue, and numerous statuettes and other compositions.

At the Salon, Artistes Francais, 1903, she exhibited "Fortune" and "A

COWLES, GENEVIEVE ALMEDA. Member of the Woman's Art Club, New York;
Club of Women Art Workers, New York; and the Paint and Clay Club of New
Haven. Born in Farmington, Connecticut, 1871. Pupil of Robert Brandagee;
of the Cowles Art School, Boston; and of Professor Niemeyer at the Yale
Art School.

Together with her twin sister, Maud, this artist has illustrated various
magazine articles. Also several books, among which are "The House of the
Seven Gables," "Old Virginia," etc.

Miss G. A. Cowles designed a memorial window and a decorative border for
the chancel of St. Michael's Church, Brooklyn. Together with her sister,
she designed a window in the memory of the Deaconess, Miss Stillman, in
Grace Church, New York City. These sisters now execute many windows and
other decorative work for churches, and also superintend the making and
placing of the windows.

Regarding their work in the Chapel of Christ Church, New Haven, Miss
Genevieve Cowles writes me: "These express the Prayer of the Prisoner,
the Prayer of the Soul in Darkness, and the Prayer of Old Age. These are
paintings of states of the soul and of deep emotions. The paintings are
records of human lives and not mere imagination. We study our characters
directly from life."

These artists are now, November, 1903, engaged upon a landscape frieze
for a dining-room in a house at Watch Hill.

Miss Genevieve Cowles writes: "We feel that we are only at the beginning
of our life-work, which is to be chiefly in mural decoration and stained
glass. I desire especially to work for prisons, hospitals, and
asylums--for those whose great need of beauty seems often to be

COWLES, MAUD ALICE. Twin sister of Genevieve Cowles. Bronze medal at
Paris Exposition, 1900, and a medal at Buffalo, 1901. Her studies were
the same as her sister's, and she is a member of the same societies.
Indeed, what has been said above is equally true of the two sisters, as
they usually work on the same windows and decorations, dividing the
designing and execution between them.

COX, LOUISE--MRS. KENYON COX. Third Hallgarten prize, National
Academy of Design; bronze medal, Paris Exposition, 1900; silver medal at
Buffalo, 1901; medal at Charleston, 1902; Shaw Memorial prize, Society of
American Artists, 1903. Member of Society of American Artists, and an
associate of the Academy of Design. Born at San Francisco, 1865. Studies
made at Academy of Design, Art Students' League, under C. Turner, George
de Forest Brush, and Kenyon Cox.

Mrs. Cox paints small decorative pictures and portraits, mostly of
children. The Shaw prize was awarded to a child's portrait, called
"Olive." Among other subjects she has painted an "Annunciation," the
"Fates," and "Angiola," reproduced in this book.

[Illustration: From a Copley Print.



A writer in the _Cosmopolitan_ says: "Mrs. Cox is an earnest worker and
her method is interesting. Each picture is the result of many sketches
and the study of many models, representing in a composite way the
perfections of all. For the Virgin in her 'Annunciation' a model was
first posed in the nude, and then another draped, the artist sketching
the figure in the nude, draping it from the second model. The hands are
always separately sketched from a model who has a peculiar grace in
folding them naturally."

Mrs. Cox gives her ideas about her picture of the "Fates" as follows: "My
interpretation of the Fates is not the one usually accepted. The idea
took root in my mind years ago when I was a student at the League. It
remained urgently with me until I was forced to work it out. As you see,
the faces of the Fates are young and beautiful, but almost
expressionless. The heads are drooping, the eyes heavy as though half
asleep. My idea is, that they are merely instruments under the control of
a higher power. They perform their work, they must do it without will or
wish of their own. It would be beyond human or superhuman endurance for
any conscious instrument to bear for ages and ages the horrible
responsibility placed upon the Fates."

CRESPO DE REIGON, ASUNCION. Honorable mention at the National
Exhibition, Madrid, 1860. Member of the Academy of San Fernando, 1839.
Pupil of her father. To the exhibition in 1860 she sent a "Magdalen in
the Desert," "The Education of the Virgin," "The Divine Shepherdess," "A
Madonna," and a "Venus." Her works have been seen in many public
exhibitions. In 1846 she exhibited a miniature of Queen Isabel II. Many
of her pictures are in private collections.

CROMENBURCH, ANNA VON. In the Museum of Madrid are four portraits by
this artist: "A Lady of the Netherlands," which belonged to Philip IV.;
"A Lady and Child," "A Lady with her Infant before Her," and another
"Portrait of a Lady." The catalogue of the Museum gallery says: "It is
not known in what place or in what year this talented lady was born. She
is said to have belonged to an old and noble family of Friesland. At any
rate, she was an excellent portrait painter, and flourished about the end
of the sixteenth century. The Museo del Prado is the only gallery in
Europe which possesses works signed by this distinguished artist."

DAHN-FRIES, SOPHIE. Born in Munich. 1835-98. This artist was endowed
with unusual musical and artistic talent. After the education of her only
son, she devoted herself to painting, principally of landscape and
flowers. After 1868, so long as she lived she was much interested in Frau
von Weber's Art School for Girls. In 1886, when a financial crisis came,
Mme. Dahn-Fries saved the enterprise from ruin. She exhibited, in 1887,
two pictures which are well known--"Harvest Time" and "Forest Depths."

DAMER, MRS. ANNE SEYMOUR. Family name Conway. 1748-1828. She was a
granddaughter of the Duke of Argyle, a relative of the Marquis of
Hertford, and a cousin of Horace Walpole. Her education was conducted
with great care; the history of ancient nations, especially in relation
to art, was her favorite study. She had seen but few sculptures, but was
fascinated by them, and almost unconsciously cherished the idea that she
could at least model portraits and possibly give form to original

Allan Cunningham wrote of her thus: "Her birth entitled her to a life of
ease and luxury; her beauty exposed her to the assiduity of suitors and
the temptations of courts; but it was her pleasure to forget all such
advantages and dedicate the golden hours of her youth to the task of
raising a name by working in wet clay, plaster of Paris, stubborn marble,
and still more intractable bronze."

Before she had seriously determined to attempt the realization of her
dreams, she was brought to a decision by a caustic remark of the
historian, Hume. Miss Conway was one day walking with him when they met
an Italian boy with plaster vases and figures to sell. Hume examined the
wares and talked with the boy. Not long after, in the presence of several
other people, Miss Conway ridiculed Hume's taste in art; he answered her
sarcastically and intimated that no woman could display as much science
and genius as had entered into the making of the plaster casts she so

This decided her to test herself, and, obtaining wax and the proper
tools, she worked industriously until she had made a head that she was
willing to show to others. She then presented it to Hume; it has been
said that it was his own portrait, but we do not know if this is true. At
all events, Hume was forced to commend her work, and added that modelling
in wax was very easy, but to chisel in marble was quite another task.
Piqued by this scant praise she worked on courageously, and before long
showed her critic a copy of the wax head done in marble.

Though Hume genuinely admired certain portions of this work, it is not
surprising that he also found defects in it. Doubtless his critical
attitude stimulated the young sculptress to industry; but the true
art-impulse was awakened, and her friends soon observed that Miss Conway
was no longer interested in their usual pursuits. When the whole truth
was known, it caused much comment. Of course ladies had painted, but to
work with the hands in wet clay and be covered with marble dust--to say
the least, Miss Conway was eccentric.

She at once began the study of anatomy under Cruikshanks, modelling with
Cerrachi, and the handling of marble in the studio of Bacon.

Unfortunately for her art, she was married at nineteen to John Darner,
eldest son of Lord Milton, a fop and spendthrift, who had run through a
large fortune. He committed suicide nine years after his marriage. It is
said that Harrington, in Miss Burney's novel of "Cecilia," was drawn from
John Damer, and that his wardrobe was sold for $75,000--about half its
original cost!

Mrs. Damer was childless, and very soon after her husband's death she
travelled in Europe and renewed her study and practice of sculpture with
enthusiasm. By some of her friends her work was greatly admired, but
Walpole so exaggerated his praise of her that one can but think that he
wrote out of his cousinly affection for the artist, rather than from a
judicial estimate of her talent. He bequeathed to her, for her life, his
villa of Strawberry Hill, with all its valuables, and L2,000 a year for
its maintenance.

Mrs. Damer executed many portrait busts, some animal subjects, two
colossal heads, symbolic of the Thames and the Isis, intended for the
adornment of the bridge at Henley. Her statue of the king, in marble, was
placed in the Register Office in Edinburgh. She made a portrait bust of
herself for the Uffizi Gallery, in Florence. Her portrait busts of her
relatives were numerous and are still seen in private galleries. She
executed two groups of "Sleeping Dogs," one for Queen Caroline and a
second for her brother-in-law, the Duke of Richmond. Napoleon asked her
for a bust of Fox, which she made and presented to the Emperor. A bust of
herself which she made for Richard Payne Knight was by him bequeathed to
the British Museum. Her "Death of Cleopatra" was modelled in relief, and
an engraving from it was used as a vignette on the title-page of the
second volume of Boydell's Shakespeare.

Those who have written of Mrs. Darner's art have taken extreme views.
They have praised _ad nauseam_, as Walpole did when he wrote: "Mrs.
Darner's busts from life are not inferior to the antique. Her shock dog,
large as life and only not alive, rivals the marble one of Bernini in
the Royal Collection. As the ancients have left us but five animals of
equal merit with their human figures--viz., the Barberini Goat, the
Tuscan Boar, the Mattei Eagle, the Eagle at Strawberry Hill, and Mr.
Jennings' Dog--the talent of Mrs. Damer must appear in the most
distinguished light."

Cerrachi made a full length figure of Mrs. Damer, which he called the
Muse of Sculpture, and Darwin, the poet, wrote:

"Long with soft touch shall Damers' chisel charm,
With grace delight us, and with beauty warm."

Quite in opposition to this praise, other authors and critics have
severely denied the value of her talent, her originality, and her ability
to finish her work properly. She has also been accused of employing an
undue amount of aid in her art. As a woman she was unusual in her day,
and as resolute in her opinions as those now known as strong-minded.
Englishwoman as she was, she sent a friendly message to Napoleon at the
crisis, just before the battle of Waterloo. She was a power in some
political elections, and she stoutly stood by Queen Caroline during her

Mrs. Damer was much esteemed by men of note. She ardently admired Charles
Fox, and, with the beautiful Duchess of Devonshire and Mrs. Crewe, she
took an active part in his election; "rustling their silks in the lowest
sinks of sin and misery, and in return for the electors' 'most sweet
voices' submitting, it is said, their own sweet cheeks to the salutes of
butchers and bargemen." She did not hesitate to openly express her
sympathy with the American colonies, and bravely defended their cause.

At Strawberry Hill Mrs. Damer dispensed a generous hospitality, and many
distinguished persons were her guests; Joanna Baillie, Mrs. Siddons, Mrs.
Garrick, and Mrs. Berry and her daughters were of her intimate circle.

She was fond of the theatre and frequently acted as an amateur in private
houses. She was excellent in high comedy and recited poetry effectively.
Mrs. Damer was one of the most interesting of Englishwomen at a period of
unusual excitement and importance.

When seventy years old she was persuaded to leave Strawberry Hill, and
Lord Waldegrave, on whom it was entailed, took possession. Mrs. Damer
then purchased York House, the birthplace of Queen Anne, where she spent
ten summers, her winter home being in Park Lane, London.

She bequeathed her artistic works to a relative, directed that her apron
and tools should be placed in her coffin, and all her letters destroyed,
by which she deprived the world of much that would now be historically
valuable, since she had corresponded with Nelson and Fox, as well as with
other men and women who were active in the important movements of her
time. She was buried at Tunbridge, Kent.

DASSEL, MRS. HERMINIE, whose family name was Borchard. Daughter of a
Prussian gentleman, who, having lost his fortune, came to the United
States in 1839. His children had enjoyed the advantages of education and
of an excellent position in the world, but here, in a strange land, were
forced to consider the means of their support. Herminie determined to be
a painter, and in some way earned the money to go to Duesseldorf, where
she studied four years under Sohn, all the time supporting herself. Her
pictures were genre subjects introducing children, which found a ready

She returned to America, determined to earn money to go to Italy. In a
year she earned a thousand dollars, and out of it paid some expenses for
a brother whom she wished to take with her. Herminie was still young, and
so petite in person that her friends were alarmed by her ambitions and
strenuously opposed her plans. However, she persevered and reached Italy,
but unfortunately the Revolution of 1848 made it impossible for her to
remain, and she had many unhappy experiences in returning to New York.

Her pictures were appreciated, and several of them were purchased by the
Art Union, then existing in New York. Soon after her return to America
she married Mr. Dassel, and although she had a large family she continued
to paint. Her picture of "Othello" is in the Duesseldorf Gallery. Her
painting of "Effie Deans" attracted much attention.

Mrs. Dassel interested herself in charities and was admired as an artist
and greatly respected as a woman. She died in 1857.

Academy School and prize for best drawing of the year. Member of Royal
Institute of Painters in Water-Colors. Born in Liverpool. Studied at
Slade School and Royal Academy School. Has exhibited several years at
the Royal Academy Exhibition and Institute of Painters in Water-Colors.

In 1901 her picture, "A Dutch Bargain," was etched and engraved.
"Hush-a-Bye Baby" and "Good-by, Summer," have been published by Messrs.
De la Rue et Cie. She has successfully illustrated the following
children's books: "Sixes and Sevens," "The Land of Little People,"
"Children's Prayers," and "Children's Hymns."

To the Academy Exhibition of 1903 Mrs. Lewis sent "On the Mountain-side,

DE ANGELIS, CLOTILDE. This Neapolitan artist has made a good
impression in at least two Italian exhibitions. To the National
Exposition, Naples, 1877, she sent "Studio dal Vero" and "Vallata di
Porrano," showing costumes of Amalfi. Both her drawing and color are

DEBILLEMONT-CHARDON, MME. GABRIELLE. Third-class medal, Salon, 1894;
honorable mention at Paris Exposition, 1900; second-class medal, Salon,
1901. This miniaturist is well known by her works, in which so much
grace, freshness, skill, and delicacy are shown; in which are represented
such charming subjects with purity of tone and skilful execution in all
regards, as well as with an incomparable spirit of attractiveness.

This artist is one of the three miniaturists whose works have a place in
the Museum of the Luxembourg. She has had many pupils, and by her
influence and example--for they endeavor to imitate their teacher--she
has done much to improve and enlarge the style in miniature painting.

DE HAAS, MRS. ALICE PREBLE TUCKER. Born in Boston. Studied at the
Cooper Union and with M. F. H. de Haas, Swain Gifford, William Chase, and
Rhoda Holmes Nicholls. Painter of water-color pictures and miniatures.

Her pictures are in private hands in Washington, New York, and Boston.

The following article written at the time of an exhibition by Mrs. de
Haas gives a just estimate of her work:

"Mrs. de Haas is especially devoted to the painting in water-color of
landscape and sea views, for which the Atlantic coast affords such a wide
and varied range. A constant and keen observer of Nature, she has seized
her marvellous witchery of light and color, and reproduced them in the
glow of the moonlight on the water when in a stormy mood, and the silvery
gleam has become an almost vivid orange tint. She is most happy in the
tender opalescent hues of the calm sea and the soft sky above, while the
little boats seem to rock quietly on the water, barely stirred by the
unruffled tide beneath.

"The sunset light is a never-failing source of variety and beauty, and
Mrs. de Haas has found a most attractive subject in the steeple of the
old church in York Village--whose graceful curves are said to have been
designed by Sir Christopher Wren--as it rises above the soft mellow glow
of the sky or is pictured against the dark clouds.

"In another mood the artist paints the low rocks among the reeds, with
the breakers playing about them, while the distant sea stretches out to a
horizon, with dark, stormy clouds brooding over the solitary waste. A
remarkable union of the beauty of land and water is produced by a
foreground of brilliant fancy flowers relieved by a scrubby tree in the
background, with the faint responsive touch of yellow in the clouds over
a calm sea, where gentle motion is only indicated by the little boat
floating on its surface.

"The schooners on the Magnolia Shore with Norman's Woe in the distance
suggest alike the tragic story of the past and the present beauty, for
now the sea is calm and the sails are drying in the sun after the storm
is over.

"Many other pictures might be mentioned--a quaint old house at
Gloucester, a view of Ten Pound Island, with its picturesque
surroundings, and the familiar beach, with Fort Head at York Harbor. As a
specimen of landscape I would mention a picturesque group of trees at
Gerrish Island, full of sunshine.

"But Mrs. de Haas has added another most attractive style of art to her
resources, and her miniatures, besides their charm of simplicity of
treatment and delicacy of coloring, are said to have the merit of
faithful likeness to their originals. Of course portraits, being painted
on commission, are not generally available for exhibition, but Mrs. de
Haas has a few specimens of her work which warrant all that has been said
in their praise.

"One is a charming picture of a child, which for beauty of delineation
and delicacy of tinting recalls the memory of our greatest of miniature
painters, Malbone.

"Another is the portrait of the artist's father, and is represented with
such truth of nature and so much vitality of expression and character as
at once to give rise to the remark, 'I must have known that man, he seems
so living to me.'"

DE KAY, HELENA--MRS. R. WATSON GILDER. This artist has exhibited at
the National Academy of Design, New York, since 1874, flower pieces and
decorative panels. In 1878 she sent "The Young Mother." She was the first
woman elected to the Society of American Artists, and to its first
exhibition in 1878 she contributed "The Last Arrow," a figure subject,
also a portrait and a picture of still-life.

[_No reply to circular_.]

DELACROIX-GARNIER, MME. P. Honorable mention, Salon des Artistes
Francais; medal at Exposition, Paris, 1900, for painting in oils; and a
second medal for a treatise on water-colors. Member of the Societe des
Artistes Francais, of the Union of women painters and sculptors, and
vice-president from 1894 to 1900. Pupil of Henry Delacroix in painting in
oils and of Jules Garnier in water-colors.

Mme. Delacroix-Garnier has painted numerous portraits; among them those
of the Dowager Duchess d'Uzes, Jules Garnier, and the Marquis Guy de
Charnac, the latter exhibited at the Salon des Artistes Francais, 1903.
At the same Salon in 1902 she exhibited the portrait of J. J. Masset,
formerly a professor in the Paris Conservatory.

Among her pictures are the "Happy Mother," "Temptation," "Far from
Paris," "Maternal Joys," and in the Salon des Artistes Francais, 1903,
"Youth which Passes."

DELASALLE, ANGELE. Honorable mention, Salon des Artistes Francais,
1895; third-class medal, 1897; second-class medal, 1898; travelling
purse, 1899; Prix Piot, of the Institute, 1899; silver medal, Paris
Exposition, 1900. Member of the Societe des Artistes Francais, the
Societe Nationale des Beaux-Arts, Societe des prix du Salon et boursiers
de voyage de la Societe Nationale. Born in Paris. Pupil of Jean Paul
Laurens and Benjamin-Constant.

Her picture of "Diana in Repose" is in the collection of Alphonse de
Rothschild; "Return from the Chase," a prehistoric scene, purchased by
the Government; "The Forge," in the Museum of Rouen, where is also a
"Souvenir of Amsterdam." Portrait of Benjamin-Constant and several other
works of Mlle. Delasalle are in the Luxembourg; other pictures in the
collections Demidoff, Coquelin, Georges Petit, etc.

At the Salon des Artistes Francais, 1902, this artist exhibited the
portrait of M. Constant and the "Roof-Maker." At the Salon des
Beaux-Arts, 1903, "The Park at Greenwich," "The Pont Neuf," "On the
Thames," and a portrait in oils; and in water-colors, "The Coliseum,
Rome," "A Tiger Drinking," "A Lion Eating," "Head of a Lion," "The
Forge," etc.

In the _Magazine of Art_, June, 1902, B. Dufernex writes of Mlle.
Delasalle essentially as follows: This artist came into notice in 1895 by
means of her picture of "Cain and Enoch's Daughters." Since then her
annual contributions have demonstrated her gradual acquirement of
unquestionable mastery of her art. Her characteristic energy is such that
her sex cannot be detected in her work; in fact, she was made the first
and only woman member of the International Association of Painters under
the impression that her pictures--signed simply A. Delasalle--were the
work of a man. Attracted by the dramatic aspects of human nature, she
finds congenial subjects in the great efforts of humanity in the struggle
for life. Her power of observation enables her to give freshness to
hackneyed subjects, as in "La Forge." The attitudes of the workmen, so
sure and decided, turning the half-fused metal are perfect in the
precision of their combined efforts; the fatigue of the men who are
resting, overwhelmed and stupefied by their exhausting labor, indicates
the work of a profound thinker; whilst the atmosphere, the play of the
diffused glow of the molten metal, are the production of an innate
colorist. Her portrait of Benjamin-Constant represents not only the
masterful man, but is also the personification of the painter. The
attentive attitude, discerning eye, the openness of the absorbing look,
the cerebral mask where rests so much tranquil power, the impressive
shape of the leonine face, all combine to make the painting one of the
finest portraits of the French school.

She has a perfect and rare knowledge of the art of drawing and a faculty
for seizing the character of things. Mlle. Delasalle exhibited her
pictures at the Grafton Gallery, London, in 1902.

DELORME, BERTHE. Medals at Nimes, Montpellier, Versailles, and
London. Member of the Societe des Artistes Francais. Born at Paris. Pupil
of A. Chaplin.

Mlle. Delorme has painted a great number of portraits, which are in the
hands of her subjects. Her works are exhibited in the Salon au Grand
Palais. In 1902 she exhibited a "Portrait of Mlle. Magdeleine D."

DEMONT-BRETON, VIRGINIE. Paris Salon, honorable mention, 1880;
medals of third and second class, 1881, 1883; Hors Concours; gold medal
at Universal Exposition, Amsterdam, 1883; Paris Expositions, 1889 and
1900, gold medals; medal of honor at Exposition at Antwerp; Chevalier of
the Legion of Honor and of the Belgian Order of Leopold; officer of the
Nichan Iftikhar, a Turkish order which may be translated "A Sign of
Glory"; member and honorary president of the Union des femmes peintres et
sculpteurs de France, of the Alliance Feminine, of the Alliance
Septentrionale; fellow of the Royal Academy, Antwerp; member of the
Societe des Artistes Francais; member of the committee of the Central
Union of Decorative Arts and of the American National Institute; member
of the Verein der Schriftstellerinnen und Kuenstlerinnen of Vienna; one of
the founders of the Societe Populaire des Beaux-Arts and of the Societe
de bienfaisance l'Allaitement Maternel, etc. Born at Courriere, Pas de
Calais, 1859. Pupil of her father, Jules Breton.

The works of this artist are in a number of museums and in private
collections in several countries. "La Plage" is in the Gallery of the
Luxembourg, "Les Loups de Mer" in the Museum of Ghent, "Jeanne d'Arc at
Domremy" in a gallery at Lille; other pictures are in New York,
Minneapolis, and other American cities; also in Berlin and Alexandria,

At the Salon des Artistes Francais, in 1902, Mme. Demont-Breton
exhibited a picture of "Les Meduses bleues." The fish were left on the
beach by the retreating water, and two nude children, a boy and a girl,
are watching them with intense interest. The children are very

At the Salon of 1903 she exhibited "Seaweed." A strong young fisherwoman,
standing in the water, draws out her net filled with shells, seaweed, and
other products of the sea, while two nude children--again a boy and a
girl--are selecting what pleases them in the mother's net.

At the exhibition of Les Femmes Peintres et Sculpteurs, in February,
1903, Mme. Demont-Breton exhibited the "Head of a Young Girl," which
attracted much attention. Gray and sober in color, with a firmly closed
mouth and serious eyes denoting great strength of character, it is
admirably studied and designed and proves the unusual excellence of the
art of this gifted daughter of Jules Breton. At the Exposition of
Limoges, May to November, 1903, Mme. Demont-Breton was pronounced hors
concours in painting.

DICKSON, MARY ESTELLE. Honorable mention, Paris Salon, 1896; bronze
medal, Paris Exposition, 1900; honorable mention, Buffalo Exposition,
1901; third-class medal, Paris Salon, 1902.

[_No reply to circular_.]


[_No reply to circular_.]

DIETRICH, ADELHEID. Born in Wittemberg, 1827. Daughter and pupil of
Edward Dietrich, whose teaching she supplemented by travel in Italy and
Germany. She made her home in Erfurt after her journeys and painted
flower and fruit subjects. Her pictures were of forest, field, and garden
flowers. They are much valued by their owners and are mostly in private

DIETRICHSEN, MATHILDE--NEE BONNEIRE. Born in Christiania, 1847. When
but ten years old she began the study of art at Duesseldorf, under the
direction of O. Mengelberg and Tideman. When but fifteen she married, at
Stockholm, the historian of art, Dietrichsen. She travelled extensively,
visiting Germany, France, Italy, and Greece. She passed three years in
Rome. Her pictures show refined, poetic feeling as well as good taste and

DILLAYE, BLANCHE. Silver medal at Atlanta Exposition, 1895; medal at
American Art Society, 1902. Member of New York and Philadelphia
Water-Color Clubs, American Women's Art Association, Paris; first
president of Plastic Club, Philadelphia. Pupil of Philadelphia Academy of
Fine Arts; has also studied in Europe.

This artist makes a specialty of etching, and the medal she received at
Atlanta was for a group of works in that art. She paints in water-colors,
and has exhibited at the principal American exhibitions, in London, and
in both Paris Salons. Her etchings have been widely noticed. At an early
age she showed talent, and preferring etching as a mode of expression,
she soon became noted for the qualities which have since made her famous,
and is one of the best known among a group of women etchers. Her work,
exhibited at the New York Etching Club, is conspicuous on account of its
strength, directness, and firmness, allied to delicacy of touch.

"In Miss Dillaye's work one sees the influence of her wanderings in many
lands; the quaintness of Holland landscapes, the quiet village life in
provincial France, the sleepy towns in Norway, and the quietude of
English woods."--_Success_, September, 1902.

DINA, ELISA. A Venetian figure and portrait painter. Is known
through the pictures she has shown at many Italian exhibitions. At
Venice, in 1881, she exhibited a graceful, well-executed work called
"Caldanino della Nonna." "Di Ritorno dalla Chiesa" appeared at Milan in
the same year. The latter, which represented a charming young girl coming
out of church, prayer-book in hand, is full of sentiment. She sent to
Turin, in 1884, "Popolana," which was much admired. Her portraits are
said to be exceedingly life-like.

DRINGLINGER, SOPHIE FRIEDERICKE. Born in Dresden, 1736; died 1791.
Pupil of Oeser in Leipzig. In the Dresden Gallery are seven miniatures by
her of different members of the Dringlinger family. The head of this
house was John Melchior Dringlinger, court jeweller of Augustus the

Salon, 1894; medal third class, 1895; picture in Gallery of Luxembourg,
1903. Member of the Societe des Artistes Francais. Born in Paris, 1840.
Studies made at the Museum of the Louvre.

Mme. Dubourg has exhibited her works at the Salons regularly since 1868,
and her pictures are now seen in the Museums of Grenoble and Pau, as
well as in many private collections. Her subjects are of still life.

At the Salon of the Artistes Francais, in 1902, Mme. Dubourg exhibited a
"Basket of Flowers."

DUBRAY, CHARLOTTE GABRIELLE. Born at Paris, and was the pupil of her
father, Gabriel Vital-Dubray. In 1874 she exhibited at the Salon a marble
bust of a "Fellah Girl of Cairo"; in 1875, a silvered bronze bust called
the "Study of a Head," in the manner of Florence, sixteenth century; in
1876, "The Daughter of Jephthah Weeping on the Mountain," a plaster
statue, a bust in bronze, and "A Neapolitan"; in 1877, "The Coquette," a
bust in terra-cotta, and a portrait bust, in bronze, of M. B.

DUCOUDRAY, MLLE. M. Honorable mention, 1898; honorable mention,
Paris Exposition, 1900. At the Salon des Artistes Francais, in 1902, this
sculptor exhibited "Mon Maitre Zacharie Astruc," and in 1903, "En

[_No reply to circular_.]

DUFAU, CLEMENTINE HELENE. Awards from the Salon, Bashkirtseff prize,
1895; medal third class, 1897; travelling purse, 1898; medal second
class, 1902; Hors Concours; silver medal, Paris Exposition, 1900. Picture
in the Luxembourg, 1902. Member of the Societe des Artistes Francais and
of the Societa Heleno Latina, Rome. Born at Quinsac (Gironde).

Studies made at Julian Academy, under Bouguereau and Robert-Fleury. Mlle.
Dufau calls her works illustrations and posters, and gives the following
as the principal examples:

"Fils des Mariniers," in Museum of Cognac; "Rhythme," "Dryades,"
"Automne," a study, Manzi collection; "Espagne," "Ete," Behourd
collection; "Automne," Gallery of the Luxembourg. The latter is a
decorative work of rare interest. At the Salon of 1903 Mlle. Dufau
exhibited two works--"La grande Voix" and "Une Partie de Pelotte, au Pays
basque." The latter was purchased by the Government, and will be hung in
the Luxembourg.

DUHEM, MARIE. Officer of the Academy, 1895; member of the Societe
Nationale des Beaux-Arts; medal at the Paris Exposition, 1900; diploma of
honor at Exposition of Women Artists, London, 1900. Born at Guemps
(Pas-de-Calais). Has had no masters, has studied and worked by herself.

Her pictures are in several museums: "The Communicants," at Cambrai;
"Easter Eve," at Calais; "Death of a White Sister," at Arras, etc. The
picture of St. Francis of Assisi was exhibited at the Salon of the
Beaux-Arts, 1903. The saint, with a large aureole, is standing in the
midst of a desolate landscape; his left hand raised, as if
speaking--perhaps to some living thing, though nothing is revealed in the
reproduction in the illustrated catalogue of the Salon.

The other exhibits by Mme. Duhem are flower pictures--jonquils and
oranges, chrysanthemums and roses. In 1902 she exhibited "The House with
Laurels" in water-colors, and in oils "The High Road" and "The Orison."
The first is a scene at nightfall and is rendered with great delicacy and

DUPRE, AMALIA. Corresponding member of the Academy of Fine Arts,
Florence, and of the Academy of Perugia. Born in Florence, 1845. Pupil of
her father, Giovanni Dupre, who detected her artistic promise in her
childish attempts at modelling. She has executed a number of notable
sepulchral monuments, one for Adele Stiacchi; one for the daughter of the
Duchess Ravaschieri, in Naples, which represents the "Madonna Receiving
an Angel in her Arms"; it is praised for its subject and for the action
of the figures. "A Sister of Charity" for the tomb of the Cavaliere
Aleotti is her work, and for the tomb of her parents, at Fiesole, she
reproduced "La Pieta," one of her father's most famous sculptures.

For the facade of the Florence Cathedral she made a statue of "Saint
Reparata," and finished the "San Zenobi" which her father did not live to

She has a wide reputation in Italy for her statues of the "Young Giotto,"
"St. Peter in Prison," and "San Giuseppe Calasanzio."

DURANT, SUSAN D. This English sculptor was educated in Paris, and
died there in 1873. She first exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1847. She
was the teacher of the Princess Louise, and executed medallion portraits
and busts of many members of the royal family of England. Her works were
constantly exhibited at the Royal Academy. The _Art Journal_, March,
1873, spoke of her as "one of our most accomplished female sculptors."
Her bust of Queen Victoria is in the Middle Temple, London; the
"Faithful Shepherdess," an ideal figure, executed for the Corporation of
London, is in the Mansion House. Among her other works are "Ruth," a bust
of Harriet Beecher Stowe, and a monument to the King of Belgium, at

D'UZES, MME. LA DUCHESSE. Honorable mention, Paris Salon, 1889. Born
in Paris, 1847. Pupil of Bonnassieux and Falguiere. The principal works
of this artist are "Diana Surprised," in marble; "Saint Hubert," in the
church of the Sacre-Coeur; the same subject for a church in Canada; "The
Virgin," a commission from the Government, in the church at Poissy;
"Jeanne d'Arc," at Mousson; the monument to Emile Augier, the commission
for which was obtained in a competition with other sculptors; and many
busts and statuettes.

In the spring of 1903, at the twenty-second exhibition of the Society of
Women Painters and Sculptors, the Duchesse d'Uzes exhibited a large
statue of the Virgin which is to be erected in the church of St.
Clothilde. It is correct anatomically and moulded with great delicacy.

EARL, MAUD. A painter of animals, whose "Early Morning" was
exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1885, and has been followed by "In the
Drifts," "Old Benchers," "A Cry for Help," etc. In 1900 she exhibited
"The Dogs of Death"; in 1901, "On Dian's Day."

Miss Earl has painted portraits of many dogs on the Continent and in
Great Britain, notably those belonging to Queen Victoria and to the
present King and Queen.

This artist exhibits in the United States as well as in the chief cities
of England, and has held private exhibitions in Graves' Galleries. In
1902 her principal work was "British Hounds and Gun-Dogs." Many of her
pictures have been engraved and published in both England and the United
States. Among them are the last-named picture, "Four by Honors," "The
Absent-Minded Beggar," and "What We Have We'll Hold."

[_No reply to circular_.]

EGLOFFSTEIN, COUNTESS JULIA. Born at Hildesheim. 1786-1868. This
painter of portraits and genre subjects belonged to a family of
distinction in the north of Germany. She was a maid of honor at the court
of Weimar. Her pictures were praised by Cornelius and other Munich
artists. Her portrait of Goethe, in his seventy-seventh year, is in the
Museum at Weimar. She also painted portraits of Queen Theresa Charlotte
of Bavaria and of the Grand Duchess of Saxe-Weimar. Her picture of "Hagar
and Ishmael in the Desert" is well known in Germany.

EGNER, MARIE. Pupil of Schindler in Vienna. She has exhibited her
pictures at the exhibitions of the Vienna Water-Color Club. In 1890 an
exquisite series of landscapes and flowers, in 1894 "A Mill in Upper
Austria," in gouache, and in 1895 other work in the same medium,
confirming previous impressions of her fine artistic ability.

EISENSTEIN, ROSA VON. Born in Vienna, 1844. This artist is one of
the few Austrian women artists who made all her studies in her native
city. She was a pupil of Mme. Wisinger-Florian, Schilcher, C. Probst, and
Rudolf Huber. Her pictures are of still-life. She is especially fond of
painting birds and is successful in this branch of her art.

ELLENRIEDER, ANNA MARIE. Born at Constance. 1791-1863. A pupil of
Einsle, a miniaturist, and later of Langer, in Munich. In Rome, where
this artist spent several years, she became a disciple of Overbeck.
Returning to Switzerland, she received the appointment of Court painter
at Baden in 1829.

Her works are portraits and pictures of historical subjects, many of the
latter being Biblical scenes. Among her best works are the "Martyrdom of
Saint Stephen," in the Catholic church at Carlsruhe; a "Saint Cecilia," a
"Madonna," and "Mary with the Christ-Child Leaving the Throne of Heaven"
are in the Carlsruhe Gallery. "Christ Blessing Little Children" is in the
church at Coburg. Among her other works are "John Writing his Revelation
at Patmos," "Peter Awaking Tabitha," and "Simeon in the Temple."

Her religious subjects sometimes verge on the sentimental, but are of
great sweetness, purity, and tenderness. She was happier in her figures
of women than in those of men. She also made etchings of portraits and
religious subjects in the manner of G. F. Schmidt.

EMMET, LYDIA FIELD. Medal at Columbian Exhibition, Chicago, 1893;
medal at Atlanta Exhibition, 1895; honorable mention at Pan-American
Exposition, Buffalo, 1901. Member of the Art Students' League and Art
Workers' Club for Women. Born at New Rochelle, New York. Studied at Art
Students' League under Chase, Mowbray, Cox, and Reid; at the Julian
Academy, Paris, under Robert-Fleury, Giacomotti, and Bouguereau; at the
Shinnecock School of Art under W. M. Chase; at Academie Viete, Paris,
under Collin, and in a private studio under Mac Monnies.

[Illustration: From a Copley Print.



Miss Emmet has painted many portraits, which are in private hands in New
York, Chicago, Boston, and elsewhere. She executed a decorative painting
for the Woman's Building at Chicago which is still in that city.

Exposition, 1889; the Art Department medal, Chicago, 1893; bronze medal,
Buffalo, 1901. Member of the Society of American Artists, American
Water-Color Society, New York Water-Color Club. Born in New York City.
Studied two years under William M. Chase and six months at Julian
Academy, Paris.

Miss Emmet exhibited at the National Academy of Design, in 1881, a
"Portrait of a Boy"; in 1882, a "Portrait of Alexander Stevens" and
"Waiting for the Doctor"; in 1883, "Red Rose Land" and "La Mesciana"; her
picture called "September" belongs to the Boston Art Club. The greater
number of her works are in private collections.

ESCALLIER, MME. ELEONORE. Medal at Salon, 1868. A pupil of Ziegler.
A painter of still-life whose pictures of flowers and birds were much
admired. "Chrysanthemums," exhibited in 1869, was purchased by the
Government. "Peaches and Grapes," 1872, is in the Museum at Dijon; and in
1875 she executed decorative panels for the Palais de la Legion

ESCH, MATHILDE. Born at Kletten, Bohemia, 1820. Pupil of
Waldmueller in Vienna. She also studied a long time in Duesseldorf and
several years in Paris, finally settling in Vienna. She painted charming
scenes from German and Hungarian life, as well as flowers and still-life.
Most of her works are in private galleries.

ESINGER, ADELE. Born in Salzburg, 1846. In 1874 she became a student
at the Art School in Stuttgart, where she worked under the special
direction of Funk, and later entered the Art School at Carlsruhe, where
she was a pupil of Gude. She also received instruction from Hansch. Her
pictures are remarkable for their poetic feeling; especially is this true
of "A Quiet Sea," "The Gollinger Waterfall," and "A Country Party."

EYCK, MARGARETHA VAN. In Bruges, in the early decades of the
fifteenth century, the Van Eycks were inventing new methods in the
preparation of colors. Their discoveries in this regard assured them an
undying fame, second only to that of their marvellous pictures.

Here, in the quaint old city--a large part of which we still describe as
mediaeval--in an atmosphere totally unlike that of Italy, beside her
devout brothers, Hubert and Jan, was Margaretha. When we examine the
minute detail and delicate finish of the pictures of Jan van Eyck, we see
a reason why the sister should have been a miniaturist, and do not wonder
that with such an example before her she should have excelled in this
art. The fame of her miniatures extended even to Southern Italy, where
her name was honorably known.

We cannot now point to any pictures as exclusively hers, as she worked in
concert with her brothers. It is, however, positively known that a
portion of an exquisite Breviary, in the Imperial Library in Paris, was
painted by Margaretha, and that she illustrated other precious and costly

She was held in high esteem in Bruges and was honored in Ghent by burial
in the Church of St. Bavo, where Hubert van Eyck had been interred. Karl
van Mander, an early writer on Flemish art, was poetically enthusiastic
in praise of Margaretha, calling her "a gifted Minerva, who spurned Hymen
and Lucina, and lived in single blessedness."

A Madonna in the National Gallery in London is attributed to Margaretha
van Eyck.

FACIUS, ANGELIKA. Born at Weimar. 1806-87. This artist was
distinguished as an engraver of medals and gems. Pupil of her father,
Friedrich Wilhelm Facius. Goethe recommended her to Rauch, and in 1827
she went to Berlin to study in his studio. Under her father's instruction
she engraved the medal for the celebration at Weimar, 1825, of the
jubilee of the Grand Duke Charles Augustus. Under Rauch's direction she
executed the medal to commemorate the duke's death. In 1841 she made the
medal for the convention of naturalists at Jena.

After Neher's designs, she modelled reliefs for the bronze doors at the
castle of Weimar.

FARNCOMB, CAROLINE. Several first prizes in exhibitions in London,
Toronto, Montreal, and Ottawa. Member of Women's Art Club, London,
Ontario. Born near Toronto, Canada. Pupil of Mr. Judson and Mlle. van
den Broeck in London, Canada, and later of William Chase in New York.
Now studying in Paris.

FASSETT, CORNELIA ADELE. 1831-1898. Member of the Chicago Academy of
Design and the Washington Art Club. Born in Owasco, New York. Studied
water-color painting in New York under an English artist, J. B.
Wandesforde. Pupil in Paris of Castiglione, La Tour, and Mathieu. Her
artistic life was spent in Chicago and Washington, D. C.

She painted numerous portraits in miniature and a large number in oils.
Among those painted from life were Presidents Grant, Hayes, and Garfield;
Vice-President Henry Wilson; Charles Foster, when Governor of Ohio, now
in the State House at Columbus, Ohio; Dr. Rankin, president of Howard
University, Washington; and many other prominent people of Chicago and

Her chief work and that by which she is best remembered hangs in the
Senate wing of the United States Capitol. No picture in the Capitol
attracts more attention, and large numbers of people view it daily. It is
the "Electoral Commission in Open Session." It represents the old Senate
Chamber, now the Supreme Court Room, with William M. Evarts making the
opening argument. There are two hundred and fifty-eight portraits of
notable men and women, prominent in political, literary, scientific, and
social circles. Many of these were painted from life.

The _Arcadian_, New York, December 15, 1876, in speaking of this picture,
says: "Mr. Evarts is addressing the court, and the large number of people
present are naturally and easily grouped. There is no stiffness nor
awkwardness in the positions, nothing forced in the whole work. There
are, in the crowd, ladies in bright colors to relieve the sombreness of
the black-coated men, and the effect of the whole picture is pleasing and
artistic, aside from its great value as an historical work."

The _Washington Capital_, March 17, 1878: "Mrs. Fassett's 'Electoral
Commission' gives evidence of great merit, and this illustration in oil
of an historical event in the presidential annals of the country, by the
preservation of the likenesses in groups of some of the principal actors,
and a few leading correspondents of the press, will be valuable. This
picture we safely predict will be a landmark in the history of the nation
that will never be erased. It memorizes a most remarkable crisis in our
life, and perpetuates, both by reason of its intrinsic value as a chapter
of history and its intrinsic worth as an art production, the incident it
represents and the name of the artist."

In the _Washington Star_, October, 1903, an article appeared from which I
quote as follows: "On the walls of the beautiful tessellated corridor of
the eastern gallery floor of the Senate wing of the Capitol at
Washington, just opposite the door of the caucus room of the Senate
Democrats, hangs a large oil painting that never fails to attract the
keenest curiosity of sightseers and legislators alike. And for good
reason: that painting depicts in glowing colors a scene of momentous
import, a chapter of American political history of graver consequence and
more far-reaching results than any other since the Civil War. The printed
legend on the frame of the picture reads:

"'The Florida case before the electoral commission, February 5, 1877.
Painted from life sittings in the United States Supreme Court room by
Cornelia Adele Fassett.'"

"The painting belongs to Congress, having been purchased from the artist
for $15,000. As you face the picture the portraits of two hundred and
fifty-eight men and women, who, twenty-six years ago, were part and
parcel of the legislative, executive, judicial, social, and journalistic
life of Washington, look straight at you as if they were still living and
breathing things, as, indeed, many of them are. As a work of art the
picture is unique, for each face is so turned that the features can
easily be studied, and the likenesses of nearly all are so faithful as to
be a source of constant wonder and delight."--_David S. Barry_, in
_Pearson's Magazine_.

FAUVEAU, FELICIE DE. Second-class medal at Florence in 1827, when
she made her debut by exhibiting a statue, "The Abbot," and a group,
"Queen Christine and Monaldeschi." Born in Florence, of French parents,
about 1802. For political reasons she was forced to leave Florence about
1834, when she went to Belgium, but later returned to her native city.

Among her best works are "St. George and the Dragon," bronze; the
"Martyrdom of St. Dorothea," "Judith with the Head of Holofernes," "St.
Genoveva," marble, and a monument to Dante.

Her works display a wonderful skill in the use of drapery and a purity of
taste in composition. She handled successfully the exceedingly difficult
subject, a "Scene between Paolo and Francesca da Rimini."

FAUX-FROIDURE, MME. EUGENIE JULIETTE. Honorable mention at Salon,
1898; the same at the Paris Exposition, 1900; third-class medal at Salon,
1903; first prize of the Union of Women Painters and Sculptors, 1902;
chevalier of the Order Nichan Iftikar; Officer of Public Instruction.
Member of the Association of Baron Taylor, of the Societe des Artistes
Francais, of the Union of Women Painters and Sculptors, and of the
Association of Professors of Design of the City of Paris. Born at Noyen
(Sarthe). Pupil of P. V. Galland, Albert Maignan, and G. Saintpierre.

Mme. Faux-Froidure's pictures are principally of fruit and flowers, and
three have been purchased by the Government. One, "Raisins" (Grapes), is
in the Museum at Commerey; a second, "Hortensias" (Hydrangeas), is in the
Museum of Mans; the third, which was in the Salon of 1903, has not yet
been placed. In 1899 she exhibited a large water-color called "La Barque
fleurie," which was much admired and was reproduced in "L'Illustration."
Her water-color of "Clematis and Virginia Creeper" is in the Museum at
Tunis. In the summer exhibition of 1903, at Evreux, this artist's
"Peonies" and "Iris" were delightfully painted--full of freshness and
brilliancy, such as would be the despair of a less skilful hand.

At the Limoges Exposition, May to November, 1903, Mme. Faux-Froidure was
announced as hors concours in water-colors.

La Societe Francais des Amis des Arts purchased from the Salon, 1903, two
water-colors by Mme. Faux-Froidure--"Roses" and "Loose Flowers," or
"Jonchee fleurie."

Her pictures at the Exposition at Toulouse, spring of 1903, were much
admired. In one she had most skilfully arranged "Peaches and Grapes." The
color was truthful and delicate. The result was a most artistic picture,
in which the art was concealed and nature alone was manifest. A second
picture of "Zinnias" was equally admirable in the painting of the
flowers, while that of the table on which they were placed was not quite
true in its perspective.

Of a triptych, called the "Life of Roses," exhibited at the Salon des
Artistes Francais, 1903, Jules de Saint Hilaire writes: "Mme.
Faux-Froidure was inspired when she painted her charming triptych of
'Rose Life.' In the compartment on the left the roses are twined in a
crown resembling those worn in processions; in the centre, in all its
dazzling beauty, the red rose, the rose of love, is enthroned; while the
panel on the right is consecrated to the faded rose--the souvenir rose,
shrivelled, and lying beside the little casket which it still perfumes
with its old-time sweetness."

FISCHER, CLARA ELIZABETH. Born in Berlin, 1856. Studied under
Biermann six years, and later under Julius Jacob. Her pictures are
portraits and genre subjects. Among the latter are "What Will Become of
the Child?" 1886; "Orphaned," "In the Punishment Corner," and "Morning

FISCHER, HELENE VON. Born in Bremen, 1843. She first studied under a
woman portrait painter in Berlin; later she was a pupil of Frische in
Duesseldorf, of Robie in Brussels, and of Hertel and Skarbina in Berlin.

She makes a specialty of flowers, fruit, and still-life; her fruit and
flower pieces are beautiful, and her pictures of the victims of the chase
are excellent.

FLESCH-BRUNNENGEN, LUMA VON. Born in Bruenn in 1856. In Vienna she
worked under Schoener, the interpreter of Venetian and Oriental life, and
later in Munich she acquired technical facility under Frithjof Smith.
Travels in Italy, France, and Northern Africa furnished many of her
themes--mostly interiors with figures, in which the entering light is
skilfully managed. "The Embroiderers," showing three characteristic
figures, who watch the first attempt of their seriously earnest pupil, is
full of humor. In sharp contrast to this is a "Madonna under the Cross,"
exhibited at Berlin in 1895, in which the mother's anguish is most
sympathetically rendered. "Devotion," "Shelterless," and the "Kitchen
Garden" are among the paintings which have won her an excellent
reputation as a genre painter.


[_No reply to circular_.]

FOCCA, SIGNORA ITALIA ZANARDELLI. Silver medal at Munich, 1893;
diploma of gold medal at Women's Exhibition, London, 1900. Member of
Societa Amatorie Pittori di Belle Arti, of the Unione degli Artisti, and
of the Societa Cooperativa, all in Rome.

Born in Padua, 1872. Pupil of Ottin in Paris, and of the Academy of Fine
Arts in Rome.

The principal works of this sculptor are a "Bacchante," now in St.
Petersburg; "Najade," sold in London; "The Virgin Mother," purchased by
Cavaliere Alinari of Florence; portrait of the Minister Merlo, which was
ordered by the Ministry of Public Instruction. Many other less important
works are in various Italian and foreign cities.

Signora Focca is a professor of drawing in the Normal Schools of Rome.

FOLEY, MARGARET E. A native of New Hampshire. Died in 1877. Without
a master, in the quiet of a country village, Miss Foley modelled busts in
chalk and carved small figures in wood. At length she made some
reputation in Boston, where she cut portraits and ideal heads in cameo.
She went to Rome and remained there. She became an intimate friend of Mr.
and Mrs. Howitt, and died at their summer home in the Austrian Tyrol.

Among her works are busts of Theodore Parker, Charles Sumner, and others;
medallions of William and Mary Howitt, Longfellow, and Bryant; and
several ideal statues and bas-reliefs.

In a critical estimate of Miss Foley we read: "Her head of the somewhat
impracticable but always earnest senator from Massachusetts--Sumner--is
unsurpassable and beyond praise. It is simple, absolute truth, embodied
in marble."--_Tuckerman's Book of the Artists._

"Miss Foley's exquisite medallions and sculptures ought to be reproduced
in photograph. Certainly she was a most devoted artist, and America has
not had so many sculptors among women that she can afford to forget any
one of them."--_Boston Advertiser,_ January, 1878.

FONTAINE, JENNY. Silver medal, Julian Academy, 1889; silver medal at
Amiens Exposition, 1890 and 1894; honorable mention, Paris Salon, 1892;
gold medal at Rouen Exposition, 1893; third-class medal, Salon, 1896;
bronze medal, Paris Exposition, 1900. Officer of the Academy, 1896;
Officer of Public Instruction, 1902. Member of the Societe des Artistes
Francais, Paris; Societe de l'Union Artistique, du Pas-de-Calais, at
Arras; corresponding member of the Academy of Arras. Pupil of Jules
Lefebvre and Benjamin-Constant.

Mlle. Fontaine paints portraits only--of these she has exhibited
regularly at the Salons for sixteen years. Among her sitters have been
many persons of distinction, both men and women.

At the Salon of 1902 she exhibited her own portrait; in 1903, portraits
of MM. Rene et Georges D. The _Journal des Arts_, giving an account of
the exhibition at Rheims, summer, 1903, says: "The portraits here are not
so numerous as one might expect, but they are too fine to be overlooked.
Mlle. Jenny Fontaine has, for a long time, held a distinguished place as
a _portraitiste_ in our Salons, and two of her works are here: a portrait
of a young girl and one of General Jeanningros."

FONTANA, LAVINIA. Born in Bologna, 1552. Her father was a
distinguished portrait painter in Rome in the time of Pope Julius III.,
but the work of his daughter was preferred before his own. She was
elected to the Academy of Rome, while her charms were extolled in poetry
and prose.

Pope Gregory XIII. made her his painter-in-ordinary. Patrician ladies,
cardinals, and Roman nobles contended for the privilege of having their
portraits from her hand. Men of rank and scholars paid court to her,
but, with a waywardness not altogether uncommon, she married a man who
was even thought to be lacking in sense.

One of her two daughters was blind of one eye, and her only son was so
simple that the loungers in the antechamber of the Pope were accustomed
to amuse themselves with his want of wit. She is said to have died of a
broken heart after the death of this son, and her portrait of him is
considered her masterpiece.

Her own portrait was one of her most distinguished works, and though it
is in possession of her husband's family, the Zappi, of Imola, it may be
judged by an engraving after it in Rossini's "History of Italian

Many portraits by Lavinia Fontana are in the private collections of
Italian families for whom they were painted. In the Gallery of Bologna
there is a night-scene, the "Nativity of the Virgin," by her, and in the
Escorial is a Madonna lifting a veil to regard the sleeping Jesus, while
SS. Joseph and John stand near by.

In the churches of San Giacomo Maggiore and of the Madonna del Baracano,
both in Bologna, are Fontana's pictures of the "Madonna with Saints." In
Pieve di Cento are two of her works--a "Madonna" and an "Ascension." It
is said that several pictures by this artist are in England, but I have
failed to find to what collections they belong.

Lavinia Fontana was a distinguished woman in a notable age, and if, in
translating the tributes that were paid her by the authors of her day, we
should faithfully render their superlatives, these writings would seem
absurd in their exaggerations, and our comparatively cold adjectives
would be taxed beyond their power of expression.

FONTANA, VERONICA. Born in 1576. A pupil of Elisabetta Sirani, who
devoted herself to etching and wood-engraving. She is known from her
exceedingly fine, delicate portraits on wood and etchings of scenes from
the life of the Madonna.

FOORD, MISS J. A painter of plants and flowers, which are much
praised. An article in the _Studio_, July, 1901, says: "Miss Foord, by
patient and observant study from nature, has given us a very pleasing,
new form of useful work, that has traits in common; with the
illustrations to be found in the excellent botanical books of the
beginning of the nineteenth century." After praising the works of this
artist, attention is called to her valuable book, "Decorative Flower
Studies," illustrated with forty plates printed in colors.

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FOOTE, MARY HALLOCK. Born in Milton, New York. At New York School of
Design for Women this artist studied anatomy and composition under
William Rimmer, and drawing on wood and black and white under William J.
Linton. Mrs. Foote is a member of the Alumni of the School of Design.

Her illustrations have been exhibited by the publishers for whom they
were made. In the beginning her work was suited to the taste and custom
of the time. She illustrated the so-called "Gift Books" and poems in the
elaborate fashion of the period. Later she was occupied principally in
illustrations for the Century Company and Houghton, Mifflin & Co. Mrs.
Foote writes that Miss Regina Armstrong--now Mrs. Niehaus--in a series of
articles on "Women Illustrators of America," whom she divided into
classes, placed her with the "Story-Tellers."

FORBES, MRS. STANHOPE. Mr. Norman Gastin, in an article upon the
work of the Royal Academician, Stanhope Forbes, in the _Studio_, July,
1901, pays the following tribute to the wife of the artist, whose maiden
name was Elizabeth Armstrong:

"Mrs. Stanhope Forbes's work does not ask you for any of that chivalrous
gentleness which is in itself so derogatory to the powers of women. As an
artist she stands shoulder to shoulder with the very best; she has taste
and fancy, without which she could not be an artist. But what strikes one
about her most is summed up in the word 'ability.' She is essentially
able. The work which that wonderful left hand of hers finds to do, it
does with a certainty that makes most other work look tentative beside
hers. The gestures and poses she chooses in her models show how little
she fears drawing, while the gistness of her criticism has a most solvent
effect in dissolving the doubts that hover round the making of pictures."

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FORTIN DE COOL, DELFINA. Third-class medal, Madrid, 1864, for the
following works reproduced on porcelain: the "Conception" of Murillo,
the "Magdalen" of Antolinez, and the portrait of Alonso Cano by
Velazquez; also a portrait on ivory of a young girl.

This artist, who was French by birth, was a pupil of her father. For
paintings executed in the imperial works at Sevres, she was awarded
prizes at Blois, Besancon, Rouen, Perigueux, and Paris.

FOULQUES, ELISA. Born in Pjatigorsk, in the Caucasus. She came under
Italian influence when but four years old, and was taken to Naples. At
the Institute of the Fine Arts she was a pupil of Antoriello, Mancinelli,
Perrisi, and Solari. She received a diploma when leaving the Institute.
Her picture, "Mendica," was exhibited in Naples, 1886; "Un ultimo
Squardo" and "Sogno," 1888. In London, in 1888, "Tipo Napoletano,"
"Studio dal vero," and "Ricordi" were exhibited. Since 1884 this artist
has taught drawing in the Municipal School for Girls in Naples, and has
executed many portraits in oil, as well as numerous pastels and
water-colors. Among her later works are "La Figlia del Corsaro," "Chiome
nere," "Una Carezza al Nonno," and "Di Soppiatto."

FRACKLETON, SUSAN STUART. Medal at Antwerp Exposition, 1894; at
Paris Exposition, 1900. Founder and first president of National League of
Mineral Painters; member of Park and Outdoor Association. Born at
Milwaukee, 1848. Pupil of private studios in Milwaukee and New York.

Mrs. Frackleton's gas-kilns for firing decorated china and glass are well
known; also her book, "Tried by Fire," a treatise on china painting. As a
ceramic artist she has exhibited in various countries, and has had
numerous prizes for her work. She declined the request of the Mexican
Government to be at the head of a National School of Ceramic Decoration,
etc. She is also a lecturer on topics connected with the so-called arts
and crafts.

FREEMAN, FLORENCE. Born in Boston. 1836-1883. Pupil of Richard S.
Greenough in Boston and of Hiram Powers in Florence, Italy. After a year
in Florence she went to Rome, where she made her home. Among her works
are a bust of "Sandalphon," which belonged to Mr. Longfellow, bas-reliefs
of Dante, and a statue of the "Sleeping Child."

She sent to the Exhibition in Philadelphia, 1876, a chimney-piece on
which were sculptured "Children and the Yule-Log and Fireside Spirits."
This was purchased by Mrs. Hemenway, of Boston.

"Her works are full of poetic fancy; her bas-reliefs of the seven days of
the week and of the hours are most lovely and original in conception. Her
sketches of Dante in bas-reliefs are equally fine. Her designs for
chimney-pieces are gems, and in less prosaic days than these, when people
were not satisfied with the work of mechanics, but demanded artistic
designs in the commonest household articles, they would have made her
famous."--_The Revolution_, May, 1871.

FRENCH, JANE KATHLEEN. Member of the Water-Color Society of Ireland.
Born in Dublin. Studied in Brussels under M. Bourson, and in Wiesbaden
under Herr Koegler. Miss French is a miniaturist and exhibited at the
Royal Academy, London, in 1901, a case of her works which she was later
specially invited to send to an exhibition in Liverpool, and several
other exhibits.

The last two years she has exhibited in Ireland only, as her commissions
employ her time so fully that she cannot prepare for foreign expositions.

Luke, 1822. Born in Strassburg. 1797-1847. Daughter and pupil of the
landscape painter, Stuntz. After travelling in France and Italy, making
special studies in Rome, she settled in Munich. She painted historical
and religious subjects, and a few portraits. "Zacharias Naming the Little
St. John" is in the New Picture Gallery, Munich; in the same gallery is
also a portrait called the "Boy Playing a Flute"; in the Leuchtenberg
Gallery, Petersburg, is her "Three Women at the Sepulchre." She painted a
picture called the "Glorification of Religion through Art" and a "Madonna
in Prayer." She also executed a number of lithographs and etchings.

FRIEDLAeNDER, CAMILLA. Born in Vienna, 1856. She was instructed by
her father, Friedrich Friedlaender. Among her numerous paintings of house
furniture, antiquities, and dead animals should be especially mentioned
her picture in the Rudolfinum at Prague, which represents all sorts of
drinking-vessels, 1888. Some critics affirm that she has shown more
patience and industry than wealth of artistic ideas, but her still-life
pictures demanded those qualities and brought her success and artistic

FRIEDRICH, CAROLINE FRIEDERIKE. Born in Dresden. 1749-1815. Honorary
member of Dresden Academy. In the Dresden Gallery is a picture by this
artist, "Pastry on a Plate with a Glass of Wine," signed 1799.

FRIEDRICHSON, ERNESTINE. Born in Dantzig, 1824. Pupil of Marie
Wiegmann in Duesseldorf, and later of Jordan and Wilhelm Sohn. While still
a student she visited Holland, Belgium, England, and Italy. Her favorite
subjects were scenes from the every-day life of Poles and Jews.

Her best pictures were sold to private collectors. Among these are
"Polish Raftsmen Resting in the Forest," 1867; "Polish Raftsmen before a
Crucifix," 1869; "A Jew Rag-picker," 1870; "The Jewish Quarter in
Amsterdam on Friday Evening," 1881; "A Goose Girl," 1891.

FRIES, ANNA. Silver medal at Berne, 1857; two silver medals from the
Academy of Urbino; silver medal at the National Exposition by Women in
Florence. Honorary member of the Academy Michael Angela, Florence, and of
the Academy of Urbino. Born in Zuerich, 1827. She encountered much
opposition to her desire to study art, but her talent was so manifest
that at length she was permitted to study drawing in Zuerich, and her
rapid progress was finally recognized and she was taken to Paris, where
the great works of the masters were an inspiration to her. She has great
individuality in her pictures, which have been immoderately praised. She
visited Italy, and in 1857 went to Holland, where she painted portraits
of Queen Sophia and the Prince of Orange. She returned to Zuerich and was
urged to remain in Switzerland, but she was ambitious of further study,
and went again to Florence. She there painted a portrait of the Grand
Duchess Marie of Russia. She turned her attention to decorative painting,
and her success in this may be seen in the facades of the Schmitz villa,
the Schemboche establishment, and her own home. When we consider the
usual monotony of this art, the charming effects which Mme. Fries has
produced make her distinguished in this specialty.


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FRITZE, MARGARETHE AUGUSTE. Born in Magdeburg, 1845. This genre
painter worked first in Bremen, and went in 1873 to Munich, where she
studied with Gruetzner and Liezen-Meyer. The most significant of her
pictures is "The Little Handorgan-Player with His Monkey." She has also
executed many strong portraits, and her painting is thought to show the
influence of A. von Kotzebue and Alexander Wagner. In 1880 she spent some
time in Stuttgart, and later settled in Berlin.

FRORIEP, BERTHA. Born in Berlin, 1833. Pupil of Martersteig and
Pauwels in Weimar. This artist's pictures were usually of genre subjects.
Her small game pictures with single figures are delightful. She also
painted an unusually fine portrait of Friedrich Rueckert. At an exhibition
by the women artists of Berlin, 1892, a pen study by Fraeulein Froriep
attracted attention and was admired for its spirit and its clear

FRUMERIE, MME. DE. Honorable mention at the Salon des Artistes
Francais in 1893 and 1895. Born in Sweden, she studied in the School of
Fine Arts in Stockholm. There she gained a prize which entitled her to
study abroad during four years.

She has exhibited her works in Paris, and to the Salon of Les Femmes
Peintres et Sculpteurs, in February, 1903, she contributed a bust of
Strindberg which was a delightful example of life-like portraiture.

FULLER, LUCIA FAIRCHILD. Bronze medal, Paris Exposition, 1900;
silver medal, Buffalo Exposition, 1901. Member of the Society of American
Artists and of the American Society of Miniature Painters. Born in
Boston. Studied at the Cowles Art School, Boston, under Denis M. Bunker,
and at the Art Students' League, New York, under H. Siddons Mowbray and
William M. Chase.

Mrs. Fuller is a most successful miniature painter. Among her principal
works are "Mother and Child," in the collection of Mrs. David P. Kimball,
Boston; "Girl with a Hand-Glass," owned by Hearn; and "Girl Drying Her
Feet," for which the medal was given in Paris.

Mrs. Fuller's miniatures are portraits principally, and are in private
hands. Some of her sitters in New York are Mrs. J. Pierpont Morgan and
her children, Mrs. H. P. Whitney and children, J. J. Higginson, Esq., Dr.
Edwin A. Tucker, and many others.

GAGGIOTTI-RICHARDS, EMMA. Historical and portrait painter, of the
middle of the nineteenth century, is known by her portrait of Alexander
von Humboldt (in possession of the Emperor William II.) and by her
portrait of herself before her easel. Her historical paintings include
"The Crusader" and a "Madonna."

GALLI, EMIRA. Reproduces with great felicity the customs of the
lagoons, the boys and fishermen of which she represents with marvellous
fidelity. She depicts not only characteristics of features and dress, but
of movement. "Giovane veneziana" and "Ragazzo del Popolo" were exhibited
at Turin in 1880, and were much admired. "Il Falconiere" was exhibited at
both Turin and Milan. "Un Piccolo Accattone" has also been accorded warm

GARDNER, ELIZABETH JANE. Honorable mention, Paris Salon, 1879; gold
medal, 1889; hors concours. Born in Exeter, New Hampshire, 1851, her
professional life has been spent in Paris, where she was a pupil of
Hugues Merle, Lefebvre, and M. William A. Bouguereau, whom she married.

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GARRIDO Y AGUDO, MARIA DE LA SOLEDAD. Born in Salamanca. Pupil of
Juan Peyro. She exhibited two works at the National Exposition, 1876--a
portrait and a youth studying a picture. In 1878 she sent to the same
exposition "The Sacrifice of the Saguntine Women." At the Philadelphia
Exposition, 1876, she exhibited her "Messenger of Love." Her "Santa
Lucia" is in the church of San Roque de Gardia.

GASSO Y VIDAL, LEOPOLDA. Honorable mention, 1876. Prizes, 1876, for
two works sent to the Provincial Exposition of Leon. Member of the
Association of Authors and Artists, 1876. Born in the Province of Toledo.
Pupil of Manuel Martinez Ferrer and Isidoro Lozano. At Madrid, in 1881,
she exhibited "A Pensioner," "A Beggar," a portrait of Senorita M. J.,
and a landscape; in 1878, "A Coxcomb," "Street Venders of Avila," and a
landscape; and in 1881, at an exhibition held by D. Ricardo Hernandez,
were seen a landscape and a portrait of D. Lucas Aguirre y Juarez.

GEEFS, MME. FANNY ISABELLE MARIE. Born at Brussels. 1814-1883. Wife
of the sculptor, Guillaume Geefs. A painter of portraits and genre
subjects which excel the historical pictures she also painted. Her
"Assumption of the Virgin" is in a church at Waterloo; "Christ Appearing
to His Disciples," in a church at Hauthem. "The Virgin Consoling the
Afflicted" was awarded a medal in Paris, and is in the Hospital of St.
John at Brussels. The "Virgin and Child" was purchased by the Belgian
Government. Her portraits are good, and among her genre subjects the
"Young Mother," the "Sailor's Daughter," and "Ophelia" are attractive and
artistic in design and execution.

GELDER, LUCIA VAN. Born in Wiesbaden. 1864-1899. This artist was the
daughter of an art dealer, and her constant association as a child with
good pictures stimulated her to study. In Berlin she had lessons in
drawing with Liezenmayer, and in color with Max Thedy. She was also a
constant student at the galleries. She began to work independently when
eighteen, and a number of her pictures achieved great popularity, being
reproduced in many art magazines. "The Little Doctor," especially, in
which a boy is feeling, with a grave expression of knowledge, the pulse
of his sister's pet kitten, has been widely copied in photographs,
wood-engravings, and in colors. She repeated the picture in varying
forms. She died in Munich, where she was favorably known through such
works as "The Village Barber," "Contraband," "The Wonderful Story," "At
the Sick Bed," and "The Violin Player," the last painted the year before
her death.

GENTILESCHI, ARTEMISIA. 1590-1642. A daughter of Orazio Gentileschi,
whom she accompanied to England when he was invited to the court of
Charles I. Artemisia has been called the pupil, and again the friend, of
Guido Reni. Whatever the relation may have been, there is no doubt that
the manner of her painting was influenced by Guido, and also by her study
of the works of Domenichino.

Wagner says that she excelled her father in portraits, and her own
likeness, in the gallery at Hampton Court, is a powerful and life-like
picture. King Charles had several pictures from her hand, one of which,
"David with the Head of Goliath," was much esteemed. Her "Mary Magdalene"
and "Judith with the Head of Holofernes" are in the Pitti Palace. The
latter work is a proof of her talent. Lanzi says: "It is a picture of
strong coloring, of a tone and intensity which inspires awe." Mrs.
Jameson praised its execution while she regretted its subject.

[Illustration: Alinari, Photo.

In the Pitti Gallery, Florence



Her picture of the "Birth of John the Baptist," in the Gallery of the
Prado, is worthy of attention, even in that marvellous collection, where
is also her "Woman Caressing Pigeons." The Historical Society of New York
has her picture of "Christ among the Doctors."

After her return to Italy from England, this artist was married and
resided in Naples. Several of her letters are in existence. They tell of
the manner of her life and give an interesting picture of Neapolitan
society in her day.

GESSLER DE LACROIX, ALEJANDRENA--known in art circles as Madame
Anselma. Gold medal at Cadiz, 1880. Honorary member of the Academy of
Cadiz. She has spent some years in Paris, where her works are often seen
in exhibitions. Her medal picture at Cadiz was an "Adoration of the
Cross." One of her most successful works is called "The Choir Boys."

GILES, MISS--MRS. BERNARD JENKIN. This sculptor exhibited a
life-size marble group, called "In Memoriam," at the Royal Academy in
1900, which attracted much attention. It was graceful in design and of a
sympathetic quality. At an open competition in the London Art Union her
"Hero" won the prize. In 1901 she exhibited an ambitious group called
"After Nineteen Hundred Years, and still They Crucify." It was excellent
in modelling, admirable in sentiment, and displayed strength in
conception and execution.

GINASSI, CATERINA. Born in Rome, 1590. This artist was of noble
family, and one of her uncles, a Cardinal, founded the Church of Santa
Lucia, in which Caterina, after completing her studies under Lanfranco,
painted several large pictures. After the death of the Cardinal, with
money which he had given her for the purpose, Caterina founded a
cloister, with a seminary for the education of girls.

As Abbess of this community she proved herself to be of unusual ability.
In her youth she had been trained in practical affairs as well as in art,
and, although she felt that "the needle and distaff were enemies to the
brush and pencil," her varied knowledge served her well in the
responsibilities she had assumed, and at the head of the institution she
had founded she became as well known for her executive ability as for her

Little as the works of Lanfranco appeal to us, he was a notable artist of
the Carracci school; Caterina did him honor as her master, and, in the
esteem of her admirers, excelled him as a painter.

GIRARDET, BERTHE. Gold medal at the Paris Exposition, 1900;
honorable mention, Salon des Artistes Francais, 1900; ten silver medals
from foreign exhibitions. Member of the Societe des Artistes Francais and
the Union des femmes peintres et sculpteurs. Born at Marseilles. Her
father was Swiss and her mother a Miss Rogers of Boston. She was a pupil
for three months of Antonin-Carles, Paris. With this exception, Mme.
Girardet writes: "I studied mostly alone, looking to nature as the best
teacher, and with energetic perseverance trying to give out in a concrete
form all that filled my heart."



Among her works are: "L'Enfant Malade," bought by the city of Paris and
placed in the Petit Palais des Champs Elysees; a group called the
"Grandmother's Blessing," purchased by the Government and placed in a
public museum; the bust of an "Old Woman," acquired by the Swiss
Government and placed in the Museum of Neuchatel; a group, the "Madonna
and Child," for which the artist received the gold medal; and two groups
illustrating the prayer, "Give us this day our daily bread." Also
portrait statues and busts belonging to private collections.

At the Salon des Artistes Francais, 1902, Mme. Girardet exhibited the
"Grandmother's Blessing" and "L'Enfant Malade." At the same Salon, 1903,
the two groups illustrating the Lord's Prayer.

A writer, G. M., in the _Studio_ of December, 1902, writes: "Prominent
among the women artists of the day whose talents are attracting attention
is Mme. Berthe Girardet. She has a very delicate and very tender vision
of things, which stamps her work with genuine originality. She does not
seek her subjects far from the life around her; quite the reverse; and
therein lies the charm of her sculpture--a great, sincere, and simple
charm, which at once arouses one's emotion. What, for instance, could be
more poignantly sad than this 'Enfant Malade' group, with the father,
racked with anxiety, bending over the pillow of his fragile little son,
and the mother, already in an attitude of despair, at the foot of the
bed? The whole thing is great in its profound humanity.

"The 'Benediction de l'Aieule' is less tragic. Behind the granddaughter,
delightful in her white veil and dress of a _premiere communicante_,
stands the old woman, her wrinkled face full of quiet joy. She is
thinking of the past, moved by the melancholy of the bells, and she is
happy with a happiness with which is mingled something of sorrow and
regret. It is really exquisite. By simple means Mme. Berthe Girardet
obtains broad emotional effects. She won a great and legitimate success
at the Salon of the Societe des Artistes Francais."

GLEICHEN, COUNTESS. Bronze medal at Paris Exposition, 1900.
Honorable member of Royal Institute of Painters in Water-Colors, of Royal
Society of Painter Etchers. Sculptor. Pupil of her father, Prince Victor
of Hohenlohe, and of the Slade School, London; also of Professor Legros.
She has exhibited regularly at the Royal Academy since 1893.

In 1895 she completed a life-size statue of Queen Victoria for the
Victoria Hospital, Montreal. The Queen is represented in royal robes,
with one child asleep on her knee, while another, with its arm in a
sling, stands on the steps of the throne. Shortly before the Queen's
death she gave sittings to Countess Gleichen, who then executed a bust of
her majesty, now at the Cheltenham Ladies' College. The Constitutional
Club, London, has her bust of Queen Alexandra, which was seen at the
Academy in 1895. Her "Satan" attracted much attention when exhibited in
1894. He is represented as seated on a throne composed of snakes, while
he has scales and wings and is armed like a knight. In 1899 her statue of
"Peace" was more pleasing, while a hand-mirror of jade and bronze was
much admired both in London and Paris, where it was seen in the
Exposition of 1900. In 1901 she executed a fountain with a figure of a
nymph for a garden in Paris; a year later, a second fountain for W.
Palmer, Esq., Ascot. She has made a half-length figure of Kubelik. Her
sculptured portraits include those of Sir Henry Ponsonby, Mme. Calve,
Mrs. Walter Palmer, and a bust of the late Queen, in ivory, which she
exhibited in 1903.


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GLOAG, ISOBEL LILIAN. Born in London, the daughter of Scotch
parents. Her early studies were made at St. John's Wood Art School,
preparatory to entering the School of the Royal Academy, but the
conservative and academic training of these institutions so displeased
her that she went to the Slade School. Ill health compelled her to put
aside all plans for regular study, and she entered Ridley's studio for
private instruction, following this with work at the South Kensington
Museum. After still further study with Raphael Collin in Paris, she
returned to London and soon had her work accepted at the Royal Academy.
Miss Gloag is reported as saying that women have little sense of
composition, a failing which she does not seem to share; in this respect
and as a colorist she is especially strong. "Rosamond," in which the
charming girl in a purple robe, sitting before an embroidery frame, is
startled by the shadow of Queen Eleanor bearing the poisoned cup,
displays these qualities to great advantage. The leafy bower, the hanging
mantle, show great skill in arrangement and a true instinct for color.
"The Magic Mantle," "Rapunzel," and the "Miracle of the Roses" have
all--especially, the first named--made an impression; another and
strikingly original picture, called the "Quick and the Dead," represents
a poorhouse, in the ward of which is a group of old women surrounded by
the ghosts of men and children. Miss Gloag has also made some admirable
designs for stained-glass windows. She has been seriously hampered by
ill health, and her achievements in the face of such a drawback are all
the more remarkable.

GODEWYCK, MARGARETTA. Born at Dort, 1627. A pupil of the celebrated
painter, Nicholas Maas. She excelled as a painter of flowers, and was
proficient in both ancient and modern languages. She was called by
authors of her time, "the lovely flower of Art and Literature of the
Merwestrom," which is a poetical way of saying Dordrecht!

GOLAY, MARY--MME. SPEICH GOLAY. Silver medal at Geneva Exposition,
1896; eighteen medals and rewards gained in the Art Schools of Geneva,
and the highest recompense for excellence in composition and decoration.
Member of the Amis des Beaux-Arts, Geneva; Societe vaudoise des Beaux
Arts, Lausanne. Born in Geneva and studied there under Mittey for flower
painting, composition, and ceramic decoration; under Gillet for figure

Mme. Golay has executed a variety of pictures both in oil and
water-colors. In an exhibition at the Athenee in Geneva, in the autumn of
1902, she exhibited two pictures of sleep, which afforded an almost
startling contrast. They were called "Sweet Sleep" and the "Eternal
Sleep." The first was a picture of a beautiful young woman, nude, and
sleeping in the midst of roses, while angels watching her inspire rosy
dreams of life and love. The roses are of all possible shades, rendered
with wonderful freshness--scarlet roses, golden roses--and in such masses
and so scattered about the nude figure as to give it a character of
purity and modesty. The flesh tints are warm, the figure is supple in
effect, and the whole is a happy picturing of the sleep and dream of a
lovely young woman who has thrown herself down in the carelessness of

It required an effort of will to turn to the second picture. Here lies
another young woman, in her white shroud, surrounded with lilies as white
as her face, on which pain has left its traces. In the artistic speech of
the present day, it is a symphony in white. The figure is as rigid as the
other is supple; it is frightfully immovable--and yet the drawing is not
exaggerated in its firmness. Certainly these contrasting pictures witness
to the skill of the artist. Without doubt the last is by far the most
difficult, but Mme. Golay has known how to conquer its obstacles.

A third picture by this artist in the exhibition is called the "Abundance
of Spring." Mme. Golay's reputation as a flower painter has been so long
established that one need not dwell on the excellence of the work. A
writer in the Geneva _Tribune_ exclaims: "One has never seen more
brilliant peonies, more vigorous or finer branches of lilacs, or iris
more delicate and distinguished. How they breathe--how they live--how
they smile--these ephemeral blossoms!"

GONZALEZ, INES. Member of the Academy San Carlos of Valencia. In the
expositions of 1845 and 1846 in that city she was represented by several
miniatures, one of which, "Dido," was much admired. Another--the portrait
of the Baron of Santa Barbara--was acquired by the Economic Society of
Valencia. In the Provincial Museum is her picture of the "Two Smokers."

GRANBY, MARCHIONESS OF. Replies as follows to circular: "Lady Granby
has been written about by Miss Tomlinson, 20 Wigmore Street, London, W.
And I advise you if you really want any information to get it from her.
V. G."

I was not "_really_" anxious enough to be informed about Lady Granby--who
drops so readily from the third person to the first--to act on her
advice, which I give to my readers, in order that any one who does wish
to know about her will be able to obtain the information!

GRANT, MARY R. This sculptor studied in Paris and Florence, as well
as in London, where she was a pupil of J. H. Foley, R.A. She has
exhibited at the Royal Academy since 1870. She has executed portraits of
Queen Victoria, Georgina, Lady Dudley, the Duke of Argyll, Mr. C.
Parnell, M.P., and Sir Francis Grant, P.R.A.

Her memorial work includes a relief of Dean Stanley, Royal Chapel,
Windsor; and a relief of Mr. Fawcett, M.P., on the Thames Embankment. The
late Queen gave Miss Grant several commissions. In Winchester Cathedral
is a screen, on the exterior of Lichfield Cathedral a number of figures,
and in the Cathedral of Edinburgh a reredos, all the work of this artist.
At the Royal Academy, 1903, she exhibited a medallion portrait in bronze.

GRATZ, MARIE. Born at Karlsruhe, 1839. This portrait painter was a
pupil of Bergmann, and later of Schick and Canon. Among her best-known
portraits are those of Prince and Princess Lippe-Detmold, Princess
Hohenlohe-Langenburg, Prince Wittgenstein, the hereditary Princess Reuss,
and Princess Biron von Kurland.

GRAY, SOPHIE DE BUTTS. First honor, Maryland Institute; second
honor, World's Fair, New Orleans; gold medal, Autumn Exhibition,
Louisville, 1898; first and second premiums, Nelson County Fair, 1898.

[_No reply to circular_.]

GREATOREX, ELIZA. In 1869 Mrs. Greatorex was elected associate
member of the National Academy, New York, and was the first woman member
of the Artists' Fund Society of New York. Born in Ireland. 1820-1897.
Studied under Witherspoon and James and William Hart in New York; under
Lambinet in Paris; and at the Pinakothek in Munich. Mrs. Greatorex
visited England, Paris, Italy, and Germany, spending a summer in
Nuremberg and one in Ober-Ammergau.

Among her most important works are "Bloomingdale," which was purchased by
Mr. Robert Hoe; "Chateau of Madame Cliffe," the property of Dykeman van
Doren; "Landscape, Amsterdam"; pictures of "Bloomingdale Church," "St.
Paul's Church," and the "North Dutch Church," all painted on panels taken
from these churches.

Mrs. Greatorex illustrated the "Homes of Ober-Ammergau" with etchings,
published in Munich in 1871; also "Summer Etchings in Colorado,"
published in 1874; and "Old New York from the Battery to Bloomingdale,"
published in 1875. Eighteen of the drawings for the "Old New York" were
at the Philadelphia Exhibition, 1876.

GREENAWAY, KATE. Member of the Royal Institute of Painters in
Water-Colors, 1890. Born in London. 1846-1901. Her father was a
well-known wood-engraver. Miss Greenaway first studied her art at the
South Kensington School; then at Heatherley's life class and at the Slade
School. She began to exhibit at the Dudley Gallery in 1868.

Her Christmas cards first attracted general attention to her as an
artist. Their quaint beauty and truthful drawing in depicting children,
young girls, flowers, and landscape soon made them more popular than the
similar work of other artists. These cards sold by thousands on both
sides of the Atlantic and secured consideration for any other work she
might do.

She soon made illustrations for _Little Folks_ and the _London News_. In
1879 "Under the Window" appeared, and one hundred and fifty thousand
copies were sold; it was also translated into French and German. The
"Birthday Book," "Mother Goose," and "Little Ann" followed and were
accorded the heartiest welcome. It is said that for the above four toy
books she received $40,000. Wherever they went--and they were in all
civilized countries--they were applauded by artists and critics and loved
by all classes of women and children. One can but hope that Kate
Greenaway realized the world-wide pleasure she gave to children.

The exhibition of her works at the Gallery of the Fine Arts Society,
since her death, was even more beautiful than was anticipated. The grace,
delicacy, and tenderness with which her little people were created
impressed one in an entire collection as no single book or picture could

It has been said that "Kate Greenaway dressed the children of two
continents," and, indeed, her revival of the costumes of a hundred years
ago was delightful for the children and for everybody who saw them.

Among her papers after her death many verses were found. Had she lived
she would doubtless have acquired the courage to give them to the world.
She was shy of strangers and the public; had few intimates, but of those
few was very fond; the charm of her character was great--indeed, her
friends could discover no faults in her; her personality and presence
were as lovely to them as were her exquisite flowers.

GREENE, MARY SHEPARD. Third-class medal, 1900, second-class medal,
1902, at Salon des Artistes Francais. Her picture of 1902 is thus spoken
of in _Success_, September of that year:

"'Une Petite Histoire' is the title of Miss Mary Shepard Greene's
graceful canvas. The lithe and youthful figure of a girl is extended upon
a straight-backed settle in somewhat of a Recamier pose. She is intently
occupied in the perusal of a book. The turn of the head, the careless
attitude, and the flesh tints of throat and face are all admirably
rendered. The diaphanous quality of the girlish costume is skilfully
worked out, as are also the accessories of the room. Miss Greene's work
must commend itself to those who recognize the true in art. Technical
dexterity and a fine discrimination of color are attributes of this
conscientious artist's work. She has a rare idea of grace and great
strength of treatment.

"Miss Greene's canvas has a charm all its own, and is essentially
womanly, while at the same time it is not lacking in character. Hailing
from New England, her first training was in Brooklyn, under Professor
Whittaker, from whom she received much encouragement. Afterward she came
under the influence of Herbert Adams, and, after pursuing her studies
with that renowned artist, she went to Paris, where she was received as a
pupil by Raphael Collin. She has exhibited at Omaha, Pittsburg, and at
the Salon. Her first picture, called 'Un Regard Fugitif,' won for her a
medal of the third class."

[_No reply to circular_.]

GREY, MRS. EDITH F. Member of the Society of Miniaturists, Royal
Institute of Painters in Water-Colors, Bewick Club, and Northumbrian Art
Institute, Newcastle-on-Tyne. Born at the last-named place, where she
also made her studies in the Newcastle School of Art, and later under
private masters in London.

Mrs. Grey has exhibited miniatures and pictures in both oils and
water-colors at the Royal Society of British Artists, the Royal Academy,
the Royal Institute of Painters in Water-Colors, and the exhibitions at
Liverpool, Manchester, and York. Since 1890 she has continuously
exhibited at the Academy of the Royal Institute, London, except in 1895
and 1902.

Mrs. Grey was fortunate in having the first picture she sent to London
sold, and has continued to find purchasers for her exhibited works,
which are now in many private collections and number about one hundred
and fifty. "Empty," a child study in oils, 1897, and a water-color, "A
Silver Latch," 1900, are among her important works.

To the Academy Exhibition, 1903, she sent a picture of "Nightfall,
Cullercoats," and a portrait of "Lily, daughter of Mrs. J. B. Firth."

GUILD, MRS. CADWALLADER. I quote from the Boston _Transcript_ a
portion of an article relative to this sculptor, some of whose works were
exhibited in Boston in 1903:

"In spite of the always suspected journalistic laudations of Americans
abroad, in spite of the social vogue and intimacy with royalty which
these chronicle, the work of Mrs. Guild shows unmistakable talent and
such a fresh, free spirit of originality that one can almost accept the
alleged dictum of Berlin that Mrs. Guild 'is the greatest genius in
sculpture that America has ever had.'

"The list of Mrs. Guild's works executed abroad include a painting
belonging to the very beginning of her career, of still-life in oils,
which was accepted and well hung at the Royal Academy in London; but it
is in Berlin that she has been especially successful. To her credit there
are: A bust of her royal highness the Princess Christian of
Schleswig-Holstein; Mr. Gladstone, in marble and bronze; G. F. Watts, in
bronze, for the 'Permanent Manchester Art Exhibition'; Mr. Peter
Brotherhood, inventor of a torpedo engine, in marble and bronze, which
held the place of honor at the Royal Academy the year of its exhibition;
Princess Henry of Prussia, in marble; her highness Princess Helena of
Saxe-Altenburg; his excellency the Baron von Rheinbaben, minister of
finance; his excellency Dr. Studt, minister of education in art; Prof.
Dr. Henry Thode, of the Heidelberg University; Hans Thoma and Joachim,
the violinist; Felix Weingartner; statuette of her royal highness
Princess Henry with her little son Prince Henry."

[_No reply to circular_.]

GUNTHER-AMBERG, JULIE. Born in Berlin, 1855. Daughter and pupil of
Wilhelm Amberg; later she studied under Gussow. She painted attractive
scenes of domestic life, the setting for these works often representing a
landscape characteristic of the shore of the Baltic Sea. Among these

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