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Women Workers in Seven Professions by Edith J. Morley

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Education Committee(4) L50 3 years Pure or Applied Science

Frederick Clifford L50 _circa_ 2 years Open to graduates residing
within a radium of 40
miles of the University
#1851 Exhibition# L150 2 years Science

Sorby Interest on L15,503, Chemistry. Next award 1914
16s. 6d. 5 years
Town Trustees L75 1 year

[Footnote 1: This does not appear to come under either of the categories of
County and Borough Scholarship alluded to in Note 3, p. 28. The Editor
therefore includes it here.]


Students read for the external degrees of the University of London.

Cost of Tuition in Arts: L12, 12s. per annum.
Cost of Tuition in Science: L18 per annum.
Cost of Residence at Hylton House (optional): L30 per annum.

Scholarships, Bursaries, and Prizes.

Name. Value and Tenure. Remarks.
Scholarships(3) L30 1 year Arts and Science. For
(renewable) students not over 19
years of age
Studentships Remission of fees
1 year
_Parker Senior_ L25-L50 3 years For daughters of residents
_Exhibitions_ in Nottingham
County Council College and travelling Open to candidates under
Scholarships fees, and books 19, ordinarily resident
in the County

Weinberg Scholarship L15 1 year For students in need of
pecuniary assistance
College Studentships L10 to L18 1 year For students in need of
pecuniary assistance

Science Research(2) L50 and free admission
1 year
Heymann Research L35 1 year May be divided between two
candidates. Preference
given to students in the
Faculty of Arts
#1851 Exhibition# L150 2 years For Research work in
#Scholarship# Science. Tenable at any


Students read for the external degrees of the University of London.

Cost of Tuition in Arts: L20. per annum.
Cost of Tuition in Science: From L20 to L24 per annum.
(There is a reduction for local students.)
Cost of Residence in St Andrew's Hall, Wessex Hall and St
George's Hostel (obligatory for students not residing with
parents or guardians): From L32 to L42 per annum.

Scholarships, Bursaries, and Prizes.

Name. Value and Tenure. Remarks.
Open Scholarships-- L69} 2 years Science
Major(2) L65} (renewable) Arts
Minor(2) Remission of College
fees 2 years
County Borough of
Minor Scholarships(2) Remission of College For candidates educated
fees. 1 year in Borough of Reading
_St Andrew's Hall._ L40 2 years

_St Andrew's Hall_ Amount variable Students in need of
_Bursaries_ pecuniary assistance
_Exhibition_ Remission of College For graduates, whether
fees 1 year already students of the
College of not. Secondary
Education Course


Students read principally for the external degrees of the University of

Cost of Tuition in Arts: L20 per annum.
Cost of Tuition in Science: L24 per annum.
There is no Hall of Residence.

Scholarships, Bursaries, and Prizes.

Name. Value and Tenure. Remarks.
College(2) L26, 8s., 1st year}
L34, 8s., 2nd year} 3
L36, 8s., 3rd year}years
College(2) L26, 8s., 1st year} 2
L34, 8s., 2nd year}years
Exhibitions(4) L15 and L18 3 years Open to candidates between
the ages of 16 and 19
Thomas Godolphin L23 1 year Open to candidates who
Rooper have been educated for at
least 2 years at a Public
Elementary School in the
late Mr. Rooper's
Inspectorial District




Duration of Arts Course, Pass and Honours, 4 years.
Duration of Science Course: Pass, 4 years; Honours, 5 years.
Cost of Tuition: L16. 16s. per annum.
Cost of Residence in Trinity Hall (for women not residing with
their parents or guardians): From L11 to L15 a term.

Scholarships, Bursaries, and Prizes.

Name. Value and Tenure. Remarks.
Exhibitions(12) L20 (6)} 2 years Examination results
L15 (6)} of Irish Board of
Intermediate Education
Junior Exhibitions(16) L20 (12)} 2 years Candidates under 19
L15 (4) }
Sizarships(10) College fees Students in need of
pecuniary assistance
Non-foundation L30 5 years Arts or Science
James Patrick Kidd L80 4 years Arts or Science
_Irish Society_ L60 3 years Open only to pupils of an
_Scholarship_ Intermediate School in
Londonderry or Coleraine

Senior Exhibitions(16) L20} 2 years Arts or Science
Lloyd Exhibition L16 2 years Mathematics
Mullins Exhibition L17 3 years Classics
Ekenhead Scholarship L32 3 years Science. Open only to
natives of Antrim
FitzGerald Memorial L50 1 year Research in Science
Blake National History L85 4 years

Bishop Law's Mathematics L20 Algebra and Trigonometry
McCullogh L30 and L20 Mathematics
Townsend Memorial L22 Mathematics
Vice Chancellor's L20 Classics
Ferrar Memorial L18 Classics
Marshal Porter Memorial Interest on L500 Classics
Wray Prize L30 Mental and Moral
Cobden Prize L20 Essay on Political Economy
Hebrew Chaldee and L40
Ferguson Memorial L20 Celtic Literature


(In connection with the University of Dublin.)

Duration of Course in Arts: Pass, 3 years 9 months to 4 years;
Honours 4 years.
Duration of Course in Science, Pass and Honours: 4 years.
Cost of Course in Arts or Science: From L32, 12s. to L50. 8s.
for the course.
There is no Hall of Residence.

Scholarships, Bursaries, and Prizes.

Name. Value and Tenure. Remarks.
Bigger L30 1 year
Grocers' Company L25 1 year
M'Crea Science L25 1 year Mathematics and Physics
Adams' Bursary L15 1 year
M'Crea Science L30 1 year Mathematics and Physics
Grocers' Company L25 1 year
Findlater L25 1 year
Irish Society L20 1 year
Mabel L20 1 year Modern Literature


All students of the University are eligible for University
Scholarships in accordance with the regulations laid
down in each case.

Scholarships, Bursaries, and Prizes.

Name. Value and Tenure. Remarks.
#University Undergraduate.#
Dr Henry Hutchinson L30 3 years Awarded on results of
Stewart Literary First Examination in Arts
Tipperary County L50 3 years

#University Post-Graduate.#
Coyne Memorial L32 1 year Awarded in alternate years
Scholarship for Essay on Political
University Travelling L200 2 years In Arts and Science
Studentships(3) subjects in rotation


Duration of Course in Arts or Science, Pass and Honours: 3 years.
Cost of Arts Course: L28, 10s.
Cost of Science Course: Variable, according to subjects chosen.
Cost of Residence in Loreto Hall or St Mary's Dominican Hall
(optional): From L30 to L40 per annum.

Scholarships, Bursaries, and Prizes.

Name. Value and Tenure. Remarks.
Scholarships(4) L50 1 year
Scholarships(4) L40 1 year
Scholarships(4) L30 1 year
Scholarships(4) L20 1 year

Scholarships(4) L50 2 years Arts and Science. For 2nd
year students
Scholarships(4) L40 2 years Arts and Science. For 2nd
year students
Scholarships(4) L30 2 years Arts and Science. For 2nd
year students
Scholarships(4) L20 2 years Arts and Science. For 2nd
year students
First Class Exhibitions L20 1 year Result of Examination in
(4) 2nd year

Scholarships(5) L60 1 year Result of B.A. and B.Sc.
Honours Examination
Scholarship L30 1 year
Scholarships(2) L15 1 year
First Class Exhibitions L20 1 year Result of B.A. and B.Sc.
(3) Examination


Cost of Tuition in Arts: L10 per annum.
Cost of Tuition in Science: L15 per annum.
There is no Hall of Residence.

Scholarships, Bursaries, and Prizes.

Name. Value and Tenure. Remarks.
College(4) L30 1 year
College(8) L25 1 year

College, 2nd year L30 1 year Arts
College, 2nd year(3) L25 1 year Arts
College, 2nd year L30 1 year Science
College, 2nd year(2) L25 1 year Science
Blayney L30 1 year Scholars must attend
Honours Courses
Dr and Mrs W.A. Browne L32 1 year Modern Languages

College(4) L60 1 year

Irish L15


Cost of Tuition in Arts: L9 per annum.
Cost of Tuition in Science varies according to subjects chosen.
There is no Hall of Residence.

Scholarships, Bursaries, and Prizes.

Name. Value and Tenure. Remarks.
#Entrance and Undergraduate#
College Scholarships(12) L20-L40 1 year
Honan Scholarships(3) L50 3-5 years To candidates born in
one of the counties of
Munster other than Clare
Cork County Council(10) L24 3 years
Kerry County Council(2) L50 3 years Open to candidates of not
more than 19 years of age
Kerry County Council(3) L30 -- Open to candidates of not
more than 19 years of age
Waterford County L50 3 years Open to candidates of not
Council(3) more than 19 years of age
Waterford County L50 3 years Open to candidates of not
Borough(2) more than 19 years of age
College Scholarships(8) L20-L40 2-3 years Open to 2nd year students

#Post-Graduate Scholarships.#
Studentships (2) L150 3 years


Duration of Course in Arts or Science, Pass and Honours: 3 years.
Cost of Tuition varies according to subjects chosen, but does
not exceed L11, 11s. per annum for the Arts Course.

Scholarships, Bursaries, and Prizes.

Name. Value and Tenure. Remarks.
#Entrance and Undergraduate#
Entrance(12) L40 1 year Arts, Science, and
Second and Third Year L40 2 years Arts and Science
Porter L20 1-3 years
Porter L40 1 year
Sullivan L40 _circa_ 1 year Open to pupils of the
Royal Belfast Academical
Sullivan(2) L40 _circa_ 3 years Open to teachers in Irish
National Schools
Sir Hercules Pakenham L20 1 year Science
Emily Lady Pakenham L20 1 year Arts
Reid-Harwood L40 _circa_ 1 year Modern Languages
Andrews Studentship L36, 10s. 2 years Awarded alternate years
for Chemical and Physical
Blayney L27 1 year Arts
County Borough(4) L40 3 years Arts, Science, Medicine,
Law, Commerce
Antrim(2) L40 3 years Tenable at any University
in Ireland
Donegal(2) L45 3 years Tenable at any University
in Ireland
Kildare(4) L50 3 years Tenable at any University
in Ireland by non-Roman
Catholic students
King's County L50 3 years Tenable by non-Roman
Monaghan(3) L50 3 years Tenable at any University
in Ireland by a non-Roman
Catholic student
Monaghan Bursaries(2) L25 3 years Tenable at any University
in Ireland by a non-Roman
Catholic student
Westmeath(3) L50 3 years Tenable in the National
University of Ireland or
in Queen's University,
Wexford(3) L50 3 years Tenable in any University
or College in Ireland by
a non-Roman Catholic
Wexford Bursaries(2) L25 3 years Tenable in any University
or College in Ireland by
a non-Roman Catholic

Studentships(5) L50 1 year Arts
Studentships(4) L50 1 year Science
Dunville Studentships(2) L50 1st year }
L100 2nd year}2 years Physical Science and
Biological Science
Purser L108 1 year Mathematics
Studentship L80 1 year Arts


Students read for the Examinations of the University of Dublin, the
National University of Ireland, and Queen's University, Belfast.
Duration of Course in Arts or Science, Pass and Honours: 3 to 4 years.
Cost of Tuition: From L17 per annum.
Cost of Residence in Alexandra Hall: From L58 to L68 per annum.
Alexandra College is for women only.

Scholarships, Bursaries, and Prizes.

Name. Value and Tenure. Remarks.
#Entrance and Undergraduate#.
_Skinners' Entrance_ L22 total value Candidates must be under
_Scholarship_ 17 on 1st. Jan.
_Governess Association_ L42 total value Candidates must be under
_Scholarship_ 17 on 1st. Jan.
_Pfeiffer Entrance_ L30 total value Candidates must be under
_Scholarship_ 17 on 1st. Jan.
_Stearne Scholarships(2)_L20 total value Candidates must be under
17 on 1st. Jan.
_Wilson Suffern_ L15 Candidates must be under
_Skinners' Senior_ L27 total value Awarded in alternate years
_Pfeiffer Senior_ L30 total value
_Pfeiffer Literature_ L30 total value
_Jellicoe Memorial_ L24 total value
_Scholarship (Governess_
_Jellicoe Memorial_ L25 total value
_Trench Memorial_ L15 total value
_Trench Memorial_ L15 total value Candidates must be under
_(Junior)_ 17
_R.P. Graves Memorial_ L15 total value



Scholarships, Bursaries, and Prizes.

Name. Value and Tenure. Remarks.
David Anderson(2) L30 4 years Restricted to candidates
from specified schools or
Duart L32 3 years Restricted to candidates
from specified schools or
Maclean L25 4 years Restricted to candidates
from specified schools or
James Stewart L35 3 years Restricted to candidates
from specified schools or
Strang-Steel L30 4 years Restricted to candidates
from specified schools or
Glenbuck L27 3 years Restricted to candidates
from specified schools or
Ferguson Bursaries L25 to L30 4 years Restricted to candidates
from specified schools or
Louson L20 4 years
Dumfries L30 3 years
Spence(2) L30 1st year} 2 years For 2nd year Arts students
L40 2nd year}
Menzies L45 4 years Tenable at St Andrews,
Glasgow, or Edinburgh
Patrick A. Lowson L70 2 years Tenable at any University
in the United Kingdom
Cowan L30 for 2 years } Tenable alternately at
L20 for 3rd year} Edinburgh and Glasgow
3 years


Scholarships, Bursaries, and Prizes.

Name. Value and Tenure. Remarks.
Franco-Scottish Society L15 1 year For students wishing to
Travelling Scholarships study in France
Spence Bursaries -- -- _See above,_ Scholarships
tenable at any Scottish
James Stewart Bursary -- -- _See ante,_ Scholarships
tenable at any Scottish

Ferguson Scholarships(3) L80 2 years Arts and Science. Open to
Masters of Arts
Carnegie Research L150 2 years Arts, Science, Medicine
Carnegie Research L100 1 year Arts, Science, Medicine
1851 Science Scholarship L150 2 years Tenable at any approved
Shaw Philosophical L150 5 years Mental Philosophy. Open to
Fellowship Arts Graduates
_George Heriot_ L30 1 year Open to graduates of
_Bursary for Women_ the United Kingdom for
training as teachers.
Tenable at St. George's
Training College,


Duration of Pass Course in Arts or Science: 3 years.
Duration of Honours Course in Arts or Science: 5 years.
Cost of Tuition in Arts : L10, 10s. per annum.
Cost of Tuition in Science : L21 per annum.
There is no Hall of Residence.

Scholarships, Bursaries, and Prizes.

Name. Value and Tenure. Remarks.
#Entrance and Undergraduate.#
Adam(9) L20 (3)} Arts
L15 (6)} 4 years
Campbell(6) L18 4 years Arts
Cargill(8) L20 4 years Arts
Crombie(8) L15 4 years Arts
Fullerton(9) L15 4 years Arts
Gammie L35 2 years French and German
Gordon and Cuming L20 4 years
Hutton(7) L29 (2) } Competitors must not be
L20 (3) } 4 years under 14
L18 (2) }
Macpherson(3) L20 4 years Arts. Gaelic-speaking
Mather(4) L15 4 years Arts
Melvill(2) L15 4 years Arts
Milne and Fraser L20 4 years Arts
Moir(14) L20 (4) } 4 years Arts
L15 (10) }
Red Hyth, Smith and L25 4 years Arts or Science
Reid and Cruden L20 4 years Arts
Rolland L25 4 years Arts
Rose L20 4 years Arts
Simpson(5) L30 4 years Arts
Highland Society of L15 3 years Gaelic-speaking candidates

Robert Fletcher L30 2 years Mathematics
Fullerton, Moir, and L100 (4) } 2 years Arts
Gray(7) L75 (3) } 3 years
Fullerton L100 2 years Science
Knox Income on L2,000 Arts
1 year
Reid Scholarships --- 1 year Amount not specified. Arts
or Science
Croom Robertson L200 3 years Arts
James Day Scholarship L100 1 year Graduate in Arts intending
to take up teaching
Fullerton Scholarship L100 2 years Science

Arnott Interest on L1,000 Natural Philosophy
Dr Black L28 Latin
Blackwell L20 English Essay
Caithness L20 History
Greig L30 Natural Philosophy
Simpson and Boxill L65 and L28 Mathematics
Simpson L65 Greek


Duration of Pass Course in Arts or Science: 3 years.
Duration of Honour Course in Arts: 4 years.
Duration of Honour Course in Science: 5 years.
Cost of Tuition in Arts: L10, 10s. per annum.
Cost of Tuition in Science: L15, 15s. per annum for 5 years
for M.A. and B.Sc. L21 per annum for B.Sc. only.
Cost of Residence in Muir Hall (optional): From L10 to L13, 10s.
a term.

Scholarships, Bursaries, and Prizes.

Name. Value and Tenure. Remarks.
George Heriot Bursary L20 3 years Arts or Science
Heriot High School L30 3 years
R. Johnstone Bursary L19, 13s. 4 years
Chrystie Bursary L18 4 years
Pringle and Wardrop L19, 4s. 4 years
Mitchell and Shortt L27, 5s. 4 years
Dundas L36 4 years
Fraser L22, 4s. 7 years Arts
Grant L45 4 years Arts
Stuart L17, 12S 3 years Arts or Science
Jardine L42, 12S. 6d. 4 years Arts or Science. Limited
to natives of Scotland
Bruce(4) L40 (1) } 4 years
L30 (3) }
Patrick L45 4 years
Ayrshire Club L30 2 years
Peebleshire Society L20 4 years Arts or Science
Rhind L20 4 years
Bruce of Grangehill and L35 (3) } 3 years Arts. 1st and 2nd year
Falklands Bursaries L20 (2) } 3 years Students
Horsliehill Scott L39, 16s 2 years 3rd year Arts Students
Harrison L25, 18s. 6d. 2 years 3rd year Arts Students
Border Counties and L30 (1) } 4 years Arts or Science. For
Walter Scott L20 (1) } students having attended
schools in certain
specified counties.
Natives of Argyllshire,
Bute, or Western Islands
Argyllshire L20 3 years Arts or Science. For
students having attended
schools in certain
specified counties.
Natives of Argyllshire,
Bute, or Western Islands
Ardvorlich L15, 13s 4 years Arts. Students must come
from certain specified
Sibbald L30 3 years Arts and Science.
Specified parishes
Edinburgh Angus Club-- L25 4 years Preference given to
Dalhousie Bursary candidates from the
Orkney and Zetland L40 3 years For natives of Orkney and
Grierson(5) L20(4) } 4 years Preference given to
L24(1) } natives of parishes of
Cranford or Leadhills
Lanarkshire L20(4) 4 years
Johnstone of Harthope L17,2s. 4 years Natives of Moffat,
Bursary Peebles, and students of
name of Alexander or
Johnstone preferred
Marshall L36,18s. 4 years Restricted
Fothringham and Forrest L24 4 years Restricted
Marquess of Zetland L40 3 years Arts. For natives of
County of Orkney and
Thomson L25 4 years
Patterson L16 2 years In Anglo-Saxon Grammar or
John Welsh(8) L20 4 years Mathematics and Classics
Mackinnon(3) L22,4s.6d. 3 years Arts. Gaelic-speaking
Whitelaw(3) L24,12s. 3 years Arts
Renton L19,11s. 1 year Student must be between
age of 16 and 21. Arts
and Science
Newton L23,5s. 2 years Natural Philosophy and
Mann L29,6s.6d. 3 years Candidates must reside in
Allan L30 3 years Arts or Science
James Fairbairn L33,4s.6d. 4 years
Jardine or Thorlieshope L40,10s. 4 years Open to natives of
Roxburghshire and
Mackenzie L22 4 years
Maclaurin L91,12s.8d. 4 years Restricted to students
of name of founder
Bailie Cousin's L32,15s. 3 years
Maule L21,2s. 6 years
Donald Fraser L50 1 year For Science Research work
Baxter of Balgavies L30 3 years For students educated at
High School, Dundee
Masterton Memorial L30 3 years For sons and daughters of
ministers of United Free
London Inverness-shire L18 3 years Preference to students of
Association County of Inverness
Lanfine L35 2 years
Auchairne L53,15s.4d. 3 years Natives of County of Ayr
Edinburgh Morayshire L20 3 years Arts or Science. Natives
Club of County of Moray

Vans Dunlop L100 3 years Arts and Science
Fettes Exhibition(2) L60 4 years
Skirving L50 3 years
Mackay Smith L27 2 years Natural Philosophy
Nichol Foundation L50 1 year Laboratory Work
Hope Prize L30 1 year Chemistry
Misses Baxter of L40 1 or 2 years Men and women educated in
Balgavies High School of Dundee

Guthrie L86 4 years Classical Literature
Hamilton L100 3 years Philosophy
Edmonstonne Aytoun L85 3 years English Literature
Falconer Memorial L123 2 years Science

Pitt Club Classical L76 4 years
Mackenzie Club Classical L118 4 years
Sir David Baxter L68 4 years
Sir David Baxter L68 4 years
John Edward Baxter L100 3 years Arts and Science
Drummond Mathematical L103 3 years
Bruce of Grangehill and L100 3 years Classical
Bruce of Grangehill and L100 3 years Mental Philosophy
Bruce of Grangehill and L100 3 years Mathematics
Gray L97 2 years Arts or Science
Rhind L95 2 years Graduates and
undergraduates of not
more than 3 years
standing. Arts
Charles Maclaren L110 3 years Mathematics and Natural
Neil Arnott L40 1 year Experimental Physics
George Scott(Travelling) L40 1 year To enable graduates to
travel for purpose of
Macpherson L85 1 year For study of Celtic
Kirk Patrick L64 1 year History
C.B. Black L74 2 years Greek. Open to graduates
and undergraduates
George Heriot's L100 1 year To graduates intending to
Travelling become teachers of Modern
Baxter Physical Science L80 2 years
Baxter Natural Science L80 2 years

Ellis L30 Physiology
Lord Rector's L26.5s. Essay
Bruce of Grangehill and L20 Logic and Metaphysics
Scott and Dunbar L15 Greek
Cousin L15 Essay
Blackie Celtic L60



Duration of Arts Course: Pass, 3 years; Honours, 4 years.
Duration of Science Course, Pass and Honours: 3-4 years.
Cost of Tuition in Arts: L10, 10s. per annum.
Cost of Tuition in Science: L63 the course of 3 or 4 years.
Cost of Residence at Queen Margaret Hall (optional): From
17s. to 25s. a week without lunch.

Scholarships, Bursaries, and Prizes.

Name. Value and Tenure. Remarks.
Barbour (Kilbarchan)(1) L25 3 years Arts. Candidates must not
be over 18
John Clark(24) L30 4 years Arts
Crawford and Brown(1) L19, 13s. 4d 4 years Arts
Forfar(5) L58 4 years Arts
Forrester(1) L20 3 years Arts
Foundation(2) L20 4 years Arts
Gartmore(1) L22 3 years Arts
General Council(5) L20 2 or 3 years Arts
Glasgow City Education L25 4 or 2 years Arts
Endowments(10) L50
George Grant(1) L40 3 or 4 years Arts
George Grant Junior(1) L40 4 years Arts
Hamilton Educational L20 3 years Arts. Competitors to
Trust(3) pupils from public or
State-aided schools in
burgh and parish of
Hastie(1) L27 4 years
Highland Society, L20 3 years
Glasgow (12)
Hill(6) L20 3 years Arts. For pupils in School
Board district of Govan
James Laing(8) L25 4 years Arts. For candidates
educated at least 3 years
in schools in County of
Lanfine(6) L27 2 years
Lorimer(4) L25 and L17 3 years Mathematics
Alexander Manderson(1) L15 3 years Arts. Natives of the Lower
Ward of Renfrewshire
Marshall Trust(20) L30 4 years Arts. Pupils from public
or State-aided schools in
Lanarkshire or
Sir Walter Scott L25 4 years
A. and B. Stewart(13) L20 3 years Arts
Stewart(3) L15 4 years Arts
King Williams(2) L15 3 years Arts
Ayrshire Society(4) L15 3 years Arts or Science. For
descendants of Society or
natives of Aryshire and
Denny(4) L30 4 years Arts or Science. Students
over 14 who have been 2
years at Dumbarton Burgh
Dumfriesshire Society(2) L15 4 years Arts or Science
Hart(2) L30 5 years Arts or Science.
Preference to students
born in Ayrshire
Pratt(2) L20 4 years Arts or Science

Will. Houldsworth L150 2 years Research in Science
Mackay Smith L48 2 years Natural Philosophy and
MacKinnin L60 1 year Science and Modern
Thomson Experimental L20 1 year Science

Breadalbane (2) L56 3 years Arts or Science
George A. Clark L170 4 years Arts or Science
John Clark L50 4 years Arts
Alexander Donaldson L44 2 years Chemistry
Robert Donaldson L66 2 years Science
Eglinton L65 2 years Arts
William Euing L80 5 years Arts
Luke L95 3 years Arts
Metcalfe L120 3 years Arts
Reid Stuart L60 3 years Arts
Walter Scott L80 2 years Arts
Mackinnon L60 1 year Geology, Natural History,
Modern Languages
Examination as for Final
Hons. Degree

Arnott L25 and L15 Examination
Cobden L20 Essay
Findlater L38 Examination
Gladstone Historical L25 Examination
Henderson L21 Essay
William Jack L35 Thesis for D.Sc.
Kelvin L35 Thesis for D.Sc.
Macfarlan and Cook L21 Examination
MacKenzie L25 Essay
Reid L25 Original Research
Watson L50 Examination



Duration of Pass Course in Arts: 3 years.
Duration of Honour Course in Arts: 4 years.
Duration of Pass and Honour Courses in Science: 4 to 5 years.
Cost of Tuition in Arts: L10, 10S. per annum.
Cost of Tuition in Science: L15, 15s. per annum.
Cost of Residence in University Hall (optional): From L45 to
L75 per annum.

Scholarships, Bursaries, and Prizes.

Name. Value and Tenure. Remarks.
#Entrance and Undergraduate.#
Foundation Bursaries(4) L20 4 years
Foundation Bursary(1) L50 4 years
Patrick Kidd L32 3 years
William Byers L39 3 or 4 years Preference given to
students of Mairs and
Strathmartine. Arts
Russell(6) L30 (5) } 3 years Arts and Science
L40 (1) }
Simson(6) L20 (5) } 3 years
L30 (1) }
_Valentine_ L25 3 years Restricted to women
residing in the County
of Fife, Ross or
Cromarty, or in village
of Findhorn, Morayhire
Fife, Clackmannan, and L5 3 or 4 years Restricted to students
Kinross Bursary coming from the above
Wilkie L19 4 years
Henry L15 4 years
Madras L20 4 years
Fairweather L25 3 years Arts or Science. For
pupils from any school in
Blyth(2) L20 3 years
George Scott L27 3 or 4 years Arts. Restricted to
applicants who are
natives of the Parishes
of Dull, Weem, Logierait
in Perthshire
Wood of Orkie L20 3 or 4 years Restricted to pupils who
have attended public or
state-aided schools in
the Parishes of Newburn,
Kilconquhar, Scoonie,
Largo, Kennoway, Elie,
_Lumsden_ L35 1 to 3 years For women students
educated at St Leonard's
School, St Andrews
Ramsay L40 4 years
Baxter(2) L21 2 years For 2nd year students
Cheape(2) L23 3 years For 2nd year students
Thomas Thow L50 1 year Arts. For 2nd year
students natives of and
resident in Dundee or
the County of Forfar
Stephen Williamson L47 1 year For 4th year Honours
Smeaton L20 1 year For 4th year Honours


Bruce and Falkland L50 2 years
Berry L80 1 year May be continued for 2nd
year. Arts or Science
Grants(6) L20 1 year For students entering on
Course of Training for
Secondary Teachers

Miller(2) L30 Arts and Science
Arnott(2) L20 and L10
Chancellor's L21 Essay


Duration of Course in Arts: Pass, 3 years; Honours, 4 years.
Duration of Course in Science: Pass or Honours: 3 years.
Cost of Tuition in Arts: L10, 10s. per annum.
Cost of Tuition in Science: L21 per annum.
Cost of Residence in Mayfield Hostel (optional): L1 per week.

Scholarships, Bursaries, and Prizes.

Name. Value and Tenure. Remarks.
Armitstead L20-L15 1 year
David Myles -- --
Entrance Scholarships(9) L15 1 year
Educational Endowment L25 3 years

Bursaries(11) L15 to L20 1 year For second and third year
Bursaries(8) L15 to L20 1 year For fourth and subsequent
Bute Bursary Income of L1,000
3 years

William Strong(2 Income of L3,240
or more) 1 year

Gladstone Memorial L20 (in books) Essay



Scholarships, etc., not connected exclusively with one College.

Scholarships, Bursaries, and Prizes.

Name. Value and Tenure. Remarks.
Price Davies L30 2 years Tenable at Aberystwyth or
Scholarship(2) Bangor

University L125 2 years
University L65 2 years Awarded on nomination by
Studentships(6) the Colleges
Eyton Williams L65 2 years
#Isaac Roberts# L150 1 year Open to graduates of any
#Scholarship# (renewable) University in the United
Kingdom. Science. Tenable
at Cardiff
1851 Science Scholarship L150 2 years Tenable at any approved
Gilchrist Modern L80 1 year Open to graduates
Language Studentship intending to teach
Modern Languages.
Tenable abroad


Duration of Pass Course in Arts or Science: 3 years.
Duration of Honour Course in Arts or Science: 3 to 4 years.
Cost of Tuition in Arts: L12 per annum.
Cost of Tuition in Science: L16 per annum.
Cost of Residence in Alexandra Hall (optional): From L11,11s.
to L17, 17s. per annum.

Scholarships, Bursaries, and Prizes.

Name. Value and Tenure. Remarks.
#Entrance and Undergraduate#.
David Davies L40 1 year Entrance
Open L40 1 year Entrance
Visitor's L15 1 year Entrance

Commercial Travellers of L20 1 year Entrance
North Wales (renewable)

Scholarship(1) L20 1 year Confined to students
(renewable) intending to proceed to
the Degree of B.Sc. in
Agriculture and Rural
Brereton L15 1 year Entrance
_Elizabeth Davies_ L20 1 year Entrance.
(renewable) Limited to women natives
of Cardiganshire or
Cynddelw Welsh L20 1 year For students undertaking
Scholarship to pursue a course of
Welsh study
Humphreys Owen L20 1 year
(renewable) For natives of

Keeling Resewell L40 1 year

Thomas Davies L54 1 year For Research work in
Chemistry or Agriculture


Cost of Tuition in Arts or Science: L12 per annum.
Cost of Residence in University Hall (optional): L25 to L42 per annum.

Scholarships, Bursaries, and Prizes.

Name. Value and Tenure. Remarks.
#Entrance and Undergraduate.#
Eyton Williams L40 3 years
Eyton Williams L30 3 years
Eyton Williams L20 3 years
Piercey L30 3 years Confined to candidates
from Flintshire or
Richard Hughes L50 1 year
Isaac Roberts(2) L50 Not less
than 1 yr.

Osborne Morgan L40 Not more Open to past and present
than 3 years students


Cost of Tuition in Arts: L10 to L12 per annum.
Cost of Tuition in Science: L10 to L16 per annum.
Cost of Residence in Aberdare Hall (optional): L34 to L43, 10s. per annum.

Scholarships, Bursaries, and Prizes.

Name. Value and Tenure. Remarks.
#Entrance and Under-graduate.#
Drapers' Company L35 1 year Science
Sir Alfred Thomas L20 3 years
_Caroline Williams_ L25 3 years
College L25 3 years
Craddock Wells(5) L20 and 1 year Open to candidates under
fees 19 years of age
Studentships Fees and Open only to natives of
maintenance Glamorgan and Monmouth,
grant 3 years the City of Cardiff and
the County Borough of

Catherine Buckton L40 1 year


In addition to the University Post-Graduate Studentships mentioned
in the above table, the following Research Scholarships in Arts and
Science, not restricted to graduates of any one University, are open
to women:--


In addition to the University Post-Graduate Studentships mentioned
in the above table, the following Research Scholarships in Arts and
Science, not restricted to graduates of any one University, are open
to women:--

Subject. Title. By whom awarded. Restrictions (if any). Annual Value and

Subject not fixed. A.K. Travelling A Board of Trustees who receive nominations British Subjects who are L600 and L60 for
Fellowship from Vice-Chancellors of Universities in the University graduates books; 2 awarded
United Kingdom, the President of the Royal annually for 1 year
Society, and the President of the British

Physical Science McKinnon Research Royal Society -- L150 for 2 years

Biological Science McKinnon Research Royal Society -- L150 for 2 years

Bio-Chemistry -- Lister Institute of Preventive Medecine -- L150 for 1 year, renewable
for a 2nd year.

Bacteriology -- Lister Institute of Preventive Medecine -- L150 for 1 year, renewable
for a 2nd year.

Physiology George Henry Lewes Special Trustees; application to Professor Investigator must be in need L200 for 3 years (renewable)
Scholarship Langley, Cambridge of pecuniary help to prosecute

Philosophy George Henry Lewes University of Toronto Graduates who have specialised L50 for 1 year
Scholarship in Philosophy

Subject not fixed. _Price Fellowship_ Federation of University Women Women graduates who have L120 for 1 year
already published the results
of independent research

Natural Science Research Studentship Board of Agriculture and Fisheries Science graduates who are L150 for 3 years, part
prepared to research in of which must be spent
subjects under the purview abroad, and all 3 at
of the Board, and afterwards approved institutions
to adopt a career in
agricultural science

Economics _Shaw Research_ London School of Economics -- L105 for 2 years

Economics Hutchinson Research London School of Economics -- L105 for 1 year

Natural Sciences _The Ellen Richards_ American Association for Advancement of Thesis 1,000 dollars
_Research Prize_ Research Work by Women. Hon. Sec., (L204, 10s.)
Mrs A.D. Mead, 283 Wayland Avenue,
Providence, R.I.





It may be safely claimed that, although there is still much to be
done, in medicine women have gained as good a position as in any other
branch of labour.

One of the most important considerations in discussing any branch of
women's work is what sort of women are suited for it. The following
are the chief requisites for the medical profession:--

(1) The first and most important qualification is enthusiasm. It is
impossible to follow this profession with success, unless it is
work for which one has not only aptitude but also natural taste. It
necessitates a very strenuous life, and many unpleasant details of
work, which are unimportant to a person to whom the occupation
is acceptable as a whole, but which would be quite insuperably
disagreeable to any one to whom the total idea of life embodied in it
was unattractive.

(2) Another very important qualification is a knowledge of men and
things. A doctor must never forget that she is dealing primarily with
human nature; certainly human nature which may be for a time
unhinged, or the mechanism of which may not be working smoothly, but
nevertheless with the human individual as a whole.

The so-called "bedside" manner which is the butt for so much ridicule
is not so purely ridiculous as one might be tempted to think. Its
basis is to be found in this very knowledge of human nature which is
so essential, although the superstructure is often nothing more than
vapid futility. In addition to this the ideal doctor should possess a
trained scientific mind, and, of the two, the former is infinitely
the more important, although the latter is very valuable, not only for
itself, but for the training which it gives in "tidy" thinking.

(3) Good health. A sick doctor is an anomaly and many people prefer
to be indifferently treated by some one who is cheerful and healthy,
rather than have the most expert advice from a woeful person.

(4) A good general education is essential. This should include a
certain amount of Latin, which is needed throughout medical work.
The student must also possess the necessary capacity for acquiring
knowledge. It is very usual to find among the general public--women in
particular--an idea that a tremendous amount of a vague quality which
they describe as "cleverness" is necessary in order to follow one of
the learned professions. Certainly this is not so in medicine. It is,
however, necessary to be possessed of average intelligence and a
good memory, and it is difficult for people to pass the qualifying
examinations if they have for many years given up "school
work"--_i.e._, the habit of learning large numbers of new facts.

(5) Money. For three reasons: (i.) The training is expensive, (ii.)
It is also strenuous, making a certain amount of margin for suitable
recreation very desirable, (iii.) Earning capacity, although
ultimately high, so far as women are concerned, is much delayed, and
the work itself is one of considerable nerve-strain. It is, therefore,
very important that economic worry should, if possible, be avoided.

Medicine is one of the few professions in which women receive as high
remuneration as men. A very strenuous battle was fought between the
public authorities and medical women on the subject of equal pay for
equal work. All sorts of dodges have been used to get cheap woman
labour, but, so far, the victory has been almost completely on the
side of medical women. By the word "almost" is meant the fact, that
if two or three posts of varying grades and remunerations are created
under a health authority the woman nearly always gets the lowest,
whatever her qualifications and experience. With this exception the
victory has been complete, and this has been entirely due to two

(1) The very able support given by the British Medical Association,
which practically served as a Trade Union for doctors, stated the
lowest rate of remuneration to be accepted, and kept a black list
of posts which were advertised at salaries below this rate. The
Association has throughout supported with absolute consistency, the
principle of equal pay for equal work for the two sexes, and has
helped us as medical women to fight many battles.

(2) The other factor has been the public spirit of the medical women
concerned, without which nothing could have been done. One of the
forms of public service most essential at the present day and for
which the individual gets neither honour nor even thanks, is that of
refusing "black leg" labour. It is generally admitted by those who
have to deal with the question of salaries and conditions of work
under public authorities, that medical women, as a whole, have shown
at least as great public spirit as men in refusing unsatisfactory
terms. To lose a post which would give one enough for one's own
needs and which would mean so much more in the way of experience and
adequate scope for one's energies, and to refuse it simply because
it would lower the market rate of pay, is a very fine thing to do.
Unless, however, this high tone is maintained the position of medical
women will become as bad as that of some other working women. If, on
the other hand, it can be maintained, the position already gained may
be used as a very powerful lever in raising the rate of pay in other
departments of women's work. There is sufficient support for
us amongst medical men. Everything, therefore, depends upon the
_personnel_ of the women doctors, and, as things become easier for
the students, it becomes more and more difficult to convince the new
recruits of the strenuousness of the fight in earlier years and of the
need for constant vigilance and self-sacrifice at the present time.

Those who fought so nobly in the past have earned the lasting respect
and gratitude of those who come after them. An account of their
labours has been written by Mrs Isabel Thorne, and is called a "Sketch
of the Foundation and Development of the London School of Medicine
for Women."[1] It reads like a romance and shows the absolute
determination and pluck which were needed by the women in order to
gain their point. As one learns of the rebuffs and indignities which
they endured, it reminds one of the struggle which is at the present
time going on for the parliamentary vote. There is one thing which
makes one inclined to "back the women every time," and that is their
stupendous patience. A very short _resume_ of the facts may not be out
of place here. Miss Elizabeth Blackwell, English by birth but resident
in America, succeeded in 1858 after much difficulty in obtaining the
degree of M.D. of the University of Geneva, United States of America.
She then applied to have her name placed upon the register of duly
qualified medical practitioners of the General Medical Council of
Great Britain and Ireland, and it was discovered to the dismay of the
authorities that she could not be refused. The next step was taken by
Miss Garrett, now Dr Garrett Anderson. She decided to qualify herself
for the medical examinations of the Society of Apothecaries, London,
who also, owing to the wording of their charter, were unable to refuse
her, and in 1865 she successfully passed the required tests. In order,
however, to prevent a recurrence of such "regrettable incidents," the
society made a rule that in future no candidates should be admitted to
their examinations unless they came from a recognised medical school,
and, as no such school would admit women, this closed their doors.

In the meantime Miss Jex-Blake had applied to Edinburgh University
for medical education, but had been refused on the score that it was
impossible to make such alterations "in the interests of one lady."
Mrs Thorne, Miss Chaplin, Miss Pechey, and Mrs de Lacy Evans then
decided to join Miss Jex-Blake, thus making five instead of one. They
were allowed to matriculate, but forced to form separate classes
and to guarantee 100 guineas for each class. They were not, however,
allowed to receive scholarships, to which their work would have
entitled them, on the score that they were women. Mrs Thorne states
that their "success in the examination lists was their undoing," as,
owing to this, and to the fact that they were unjustly debarred from
receiving the distinctions that they had gained, a great deal of bad
feeling was aroused.

As the agitation increased, the efforts of these pioneers to obtain
a qualifying course for women in Edinburgh, were supported by a
committee of sympathisers, which speedily rose to five hundred
members, and, after a severe struggle, the question of clinical
teaching in the Infirmary was settled partially in the women's
favour in 1872. Later, the question of the validity of the original
resolutions admitting women to the University was raised and decided
against them. They had, therefore, been four years at the University
and were finally excluded. This, however, proved to be only temporary
as, in later years, the University reopened its medical degrees to
women; but not in time to allow of the return of these courageous

In the meantime Dr Garrett Anderson, having taken her degree in
Paris, had been steadily working in London, forming the nucleus of the
present New Hospital for Women, and the pioneers from Edinburgh came
to London and helped her to start a school of medicine for women.

This was successfully accomplished owing to the kind help of many
people, both within and without the profession, but no clinical
teaching could be obtained, as all the big London hospitals were
closed to women students. Finally, however, arrangements were made
with the Royal Free Hospital in Gray's Inn Road. It had no men's
medical school attached to it, and the admission of women to
the hospital was due to the kind intervention of the Rt. Hon. J.
Stansfeld, M.P., who met the Chairman of the hospital, Mr James
Hopgood, while away on a holiday, and induced him to persuade the
hospital authorities to give the dangerous experiment a trial. So
seriously was it regarded, that the women students had to guarantee an
indemnity to the hospital of 300 guineas annually in addition to their
fees, as it was felt that the general support might decrease by,
at least, this amount when the public became aware that there were
medical women studying at the hospital! This was soon found not to
be the case, and the yearly indemnity was generously remitted by the
hospital authorities, the students simply paying the usual fees for
instruction. In connection with this subject, it may be of interest
to note that to-day the presence of medical women at the hospital is
evidently found by the authorities to be an important means of
gaining the sympathy of the general public, for appeals for funds may
frequently be seen in London omnibuses stating, as the ground for
an appeal, the fact that this is the only general hospital in London
where women medical students are trained.

The medical school which began in a small Georgian house has now a
fine block of buildings with all modern appliances, and the hospital
is, at the time that this book goes to press, undergoing extensive
alterations and additions, including enlargement of the students'

The success of this pioneer work has been sufficiently amazing, but
it is most important that every one should realise that the fight is
still going on. Not a day passes but somebody tries to get medical
women to work either for less pay or under less honourable conditions
than those required by their medical brethren, and one of the most
trying parts of work in this profession at the present time is the
constant alertness required both for detecting and defeating these
attempts. That they should be made is not surprising, when we remember
the lower market value attached to women's work in almost every other
occupation. Practical examples of the sort of attempts made, may be of

_Example 1._--A medical woman went as _locum tenens_ for a
practitioner in a country town during the South African War. The
practitioner himself was at the time absolutely incapacitated by a
severe form of influenza, complicated by ocular neuralgia which made
work absolutely impossible. Owing to the War, he was quite unable to
get a man to act as _locum tenens_. A woman consented to help him in
his extremity, at considerable inconvenience both to herself and to
the people with whom she was working at the time. She carried on the
practice during the depth of the winter, having on some occasions to
go out in the snow-sleigh and frequently to drive in an open trap
at night in the deadly cold. She carried on the work with such
conspicuous success that her "chief" asked her to stay on as his
assistant when he was convalescent. For this he offered her L85 a
year, living in, saying, without any shame, that he knew that this was
not the price that any man would command, but that it was plenty for a
woman. He was bound to admit that he had lost no patient through her,
that he charged no lower fees when she went to a case than when he
did, that she did half the work while acting as his assistant, and
that she had kept his practice together for him while he was ill.
Fortunately, owing to the fact that she had behind her means
of subsistence without her salary, she was able to refuse his
unsatisfactory offer, although at considerable violence to her
feelings, for she had made many friends in the neighbourhood.

_Example 2_.--A husband and wife, both medical, went to settle in a
town in the north of England. They both practised, the qualifications
of both were excellent, but the woman was the more brilliant of the
two, having better degrees and more distinctions. Both applied to
be admitted to the local medical society. The man was, of course,
accepted, the woman refused on the score of her sex, this meaning that
she would be cut off from all opportunity of hearing medical papers
and discussing medical subjects with her colleagues. During the next
few months a local friendly society was anxious to obtain a medical
officer and was offering terms regarded as insufficient by the local
doctors. Among others approached by this society was the medical woman
in question. Directly the officials of the medical society, which had
banned her when her own benefit was concerned, heard that she had been
approached by the friendly society, they elected her without asking
her consent to the very society from which they had previously
excluded her, in order that she might be unable to take the post in
question, whereby they might have financially suffered.

_Example 3_.--The exclusion from medical societies referred to under
Example 2, like many similar actions in life, tends to recoil on its
instigators. For instance, a medical woman in another northern town
applied for and accepted a post which the local men had decided was
unsatisfactory in some particulars, and for which therefore none of
them had applied. They were loud in their denunciations of the woman
in question, but owing to the fact that her men colleagues had not
recognised her professionally in other ways, she was quite unaware of
her offence for several months after undertaking her new duties.

_Example 4_.--Men and women are sometimes appointed on apparently
equal terms and conditions to posts which are not, however, really
equal, in that there is a chance of promotion for the men but none for
the women.

_Example 5_.--In another town in the north of England men and women
appointed to do the work of school medical inspection on equal terms
recently considered that they were not sufficiently remunerated. They
met and decided that they would together apply for better terms. A
rumour was then set abroad that the authority under whom they worked
would certainly not consider such an increase in expenditure. In this
crisis the men on the staff, although they had so far joined with
their women colleagues in sending up their petition, sent up another
of their own, without informing or consulting the women at all, in
which they said that they considered it was time that this equality of
remuneration for both sexes should cease. They begged the authority
to neglect their public appeal, but to grant instead increased
remuneration to the men, and the men only. One of the reasons given
for this suggestion on the part of the men was that their liabilities
were greater. The result of enquiry, however, proved that of the three
men, one only was engaged to be married, the other two had no one
dependent upon them; whereas of the three women, two were supporting
other people--one being a married woman separated from her husband and
with two children to support and educate.

_Example 6_.--The following is an instance of the way in which the
Government is sometimes responsible for encouraging women's "black
leg" labour. Dr Leslie Mackenzie in his evidence given recently before
the Civil Service Commission said that the Treasury refused to allow
the Scottish Local Government Board to have a woman medical inspector
at a medical inspector's salary, but permitted them to engage a woman
with medical qualifications at a woman inspector's salary, which was,
of course, much less. Sad to relate a woman was found to accept this

These examples have been given because it is necessary that a woman
intending to adopt the profession of medicine should know the sort
of work, quite apart from the treatment of her cases, which a medical
woman, worth her salt, has to do. It may be asked how it is, if these
difficulties are still constantly arising, that our pioneers were so
successful? For several reasons: first, because they were in the best
sense women of the world: they understood when to be firm and when
to give way. They understood mankind. Secondly, they had an assured
position. This is probably the most essential condition of all for
success. Before decent terms and conditions of work can be demanded,
the worker must be in such a position financially that she can, if
necessary, refuse the work in question, and if possible the employer
must be aware of this fact. So often women enter the labour market
only when driven by stark necessity, that it is unfortunately the
easiest thing in the world to exploit them. People of either sex faced
by starvation for themselves or those dependent on them must take the
first thing that offers if the conditions be in any way bearable. In
my opinion, next to the parliamentary vote, the most powerful lever
in raising the condition of women will be the entrance into the labour
market of a considerable number of women so trained in Economics that
they will always "play the game," and at the same time sufficiently
remote from want to be able to resist the sweating employer.

Some people discourage women of independent means from entering the
labour market through the mistaken idea that if such women work they
are taking away the chance of some other women who are in need. In
case any reader may be in doubt on this question, I should like
to point out that it is the groups of workers among whom no such
economically independent individuals are to be found, that are always
exploited by the unscrupulous employer; they are such easy prey.

What really makes women workers afraid of their independent sisters is
that extremely pernicious system of payment euphemistically known as
"pocket-money." This should be swept off the face of the earth. Even
the richer woman has some rights, notably the right to work, and
I would suggest that she has this particular, and certainly not
unimportant function of raising the rate of remuneration. From my
knowledge of her, I consider that she is most anxious to do nothing
but good to her fellows. The only thing she needs in order to become
a help instead of a menace to her poorer sisters is knowledge of the
rules that govern the economic labour market.

Owing to the necessary expense and prolonged training for the medical
profession it has probably attracted a larger proportion of working
women who were not subject to immediate economic stress than most
other branches of work, and it is, in my opinion, due to the
presence of such women, that the conditions in it as a whole are so

Having discussed the sort of woman suitable for the medical
profession, I now pass on to a consideration of the course of training
which must be taken in order to fit her for the work.

Before beginning her training, the student has to decide what medical
qualification she will take. Her choice lies between

(1) A degree of one of the universities, and
(2) A diploma.

It is essential to go to some University or Examining Board which
admits women and not to one, such as Oxford or Cambridge, where women
are denied the degree to which their work entitles them. As a matter
of fact, women medical students are not accepted at Oxford and
Cambridge. It is not possible to practise medicine, in a satisfactory
way unless one is actually in possession of the qualification. Any
one who does so, however well trained, ranks as a quack, and is not
legally entitled to sign death certificates nor to recover fees.

The degrees open to women in medicine, as in other branches of
learning, are those of London, Glasgow, Trinity College, Dublin, and,
in fact, of all the Universities of the United Kingdom except the two
just mentioned.

Qualifying diplomas other than degrees are those granted by:--

(1) The Conjoint Examining Board of the
Royal Colleges of Physicians and
Surgeons of England.
(2) The Royal Colleges of Scotland.
(3) The Royal Colleges of Ireland.
(4) The Society of Apothecaries of London.

The authorities at the Women's Medical School strongly advise students
to take a degree, and that the best open to them, namely, in Great
Britain, that of London for the south, or one of the good Scottish
Universities for the north. Their reason for this advice is that they
feel that it is extremely important that medical women should rank as
high as possible in their profession.

At London University there are no sex restrictions. A woman is
eligible not only to take the examinations on equal terms with a man,
but all the rights and honours (except, of course, the Parliamentary
vote) are also open to her. Women may vote for and sit upon the
Senate, become members of Convocation and take any of the exhibitions,
medals, or scholarships which are offered to candidates at
examinations. For this reason women feel attached and like to belong
to the London University, and to do it honour.

Having decided which qualification she wishes to take, the candidate
applies to be entered as a medical student at a definite school. If
she elects to work in _London_ she must follow the course of study
at the Royal Free Hospital School of Medicine for Women at 8 Hunter
Street, Brunswick Square.

At _Glasgow_ the students are all entered at the Women's College
(Queen Margaret's). The medical course is taken in conjunction with
men students. At the Royal Infirmary some wards are open to women for
clinical instruction.

At _Dublin_ the students are admitted to the degrees and diplomas
in medicine, surgery, and midwifery on the same conditions as men.
A special anatomical department with dissecting room, etc., has been
erected by the Board of Trinity College for them.

At _Edinburgh_ the arrangements for women students are largely
separate from those for the men. The degrees are open to them.

At _Durham_ the degrees are open to women, and most of their work is
done with the men.

The same applies to _Liverpool, Manchester, Leeds, Birmingham,_ and

The course takes from five to six years, but it is wise to allow the
longer time. The preliminary examination in general subjects is taken
before admission to the medical school. After this, the first year
at the medical school is spent in scientific study, such as Biology,
Inorganic Chemistry, etc. Having passed her first scientific
examination, the student proceeds to the study of the human
individual, and deals for the next two years with Anatomy, which
includes dissection, Physiology, the study of drugs in Materia Medica
and Pharmacology, and Organic Chemistry. When the examination in these
subjects has been satisfactorily negotiated, she passes on to medical
work proper, the study of disease and the result of accident in the
living person--in other words, she walks the wards of the hospital and
undertakes duties as clerk to physicians and dresser to surgeons, from
whom she receives instruction in medicine, surgery, and pathology.
Special branches are also studied, such as midwifery, women's
diseases, and affections of the throat, ear, eye, and skin. The
treatment of minor accidents also receives special attention. During
the whole of this time the student also attends regular courses of
lectures on these subjects, and she then takes her final examination.
If this be a degree examination, she becomes, on passing it, Bachelor
of Medicine, or M.B., and Bachelor of Surgery, Ch.B. or B.S. Having
obtained a diploma, she is generally entitled to style herself a
Member or Licentiate of the college of which she has passed the
qualifying examination, for example, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. or L.S.A.
On application, she is then placed upon the Medical Register, and is
known as a registered medical practitioner.

The cost of the training is approximately as follows :--

_For a London Degree._

Fee at the Medical School for Women, if paid as a composition fee in
five yearly instalments of L28, L51, L45, L40, and L15; Total:--L179,
or, if the whole sum is paid on entrance to the school, L160. In
addition there is a fee of three guineas for the special study of
fevers. These fees include everything in the way of material, except
books and instruments for which it is wise to allow another L30. The
examination fees of the university are L25. These amounts make no
allowance for any failures, and consequent revision of work, and
re-entry for examination. In reckoning the expense, the necessary cost
of living for the six years must also be included. For those students
whose homes are not in London there are flats and boarding-houses
where it is possible to live very reasonably. Suitable board and
residence can be obtained from about 25s. a week.

_For the Diploma of the Conjoint Board._

The school fees are the same; the examination fees are, however,
higher, namely L42.

For other qualifications, the school fees are L20 less for the course.

Certain scholarships are available for students, of which all
particulars can be obtained from the secretary of each school.

When a woman becomes a registered medical practitioner, she is for
the first time legally entitled to treat patients herself, and is
entrusted with responsibility. As in most other branches of knowledge
in the world, while she has simply been learning and carrying out her
duties under authority, she has had no opportunity of really testing
her own knowledge. It is, therefore, very generally felt amongst newly
qualified medical practitioners that they need more experience before
undertaking quite independent medical work. This experience is
best gained by taking hospital posts. By this is meant positions of
moderate responsibility, such as that of resident house physician or
resident house surgeon in a hospital, where the newly qualified doctor
is under the authority of an experienced visiting "chief," but is
expected to deal with ordinary incidents as they may arise, to realise
the relative importance of different symptoms, and report those that
matter to the visiting physician or surgeon.

It is at this stage that the doctor must decide whether she wishes to

(a) a "specialist" in some particular branch
of medicine or surgery,
(b) a general practitioner, or
(c) whether she wishes to work in the public

(a) If she wishes to be a specialist she must so arrange her future
work as to gain experience in the branch which she selects. For
this purpose it is necessary to take posts at special hospitals, and
ultimately to become a member of the staff of some hospital in the
department chosen. Here women find that they are heavily handicapped.
The only hospital of any size in London of which the members of staff
are all women is the New Hospital, Euston Road, and this admits only
of a small staff, giving opportunities to comparatively few women for
special experience.

The Royal Free Hospital, where women take their training as students,
has now two women on its staff in the department for gynaecology. It
has also a woman anaesthetist, and some of the minor posts, such as
clinical assistant to the outpatients, pathologist, etc., are open to
them. All the physicians, the surgeons, and the assistant physicians
and surgeons are, however, men.

Of the hospitals for special ailments in London, none so far admits
women to the staff, and it has only recently become possible for
them even to form part of the medical audience at the outpatients'
department at some of these special hospitals.

No London Hospital for Diseases of Women
and Midwifery (except that of Dr M'Call),
or for Diseases of Children (except one recently
started by women),
or for Diseases of the Eye,
or for Diseases of the Ear, Nose and Throat,
or for Diseases of the Nervous System,
admits women to its staff, although several of them allow women to
take appointments as clinical assistants, pathologists, anaesthetists,
and other minor posts. Their admission to the full staff is, perhaps,
merely a question of time, and of the naturally slow movement of the
British mind towards admitting women to positions of responsibility.

There has, however, been of late years a tendency on the part of
medical women themselves to take this matter into their own hands, and
new women's hospitals are being started about London where the staff
is exclusively composed of women.

(b) If, on the other hand, the newly qualified doctor decides to
become a general practitioner, her course is much simpler. She takes
such posts as are available, which she thinks will aid her general
knowledge of medicine. Then she selects a neighbourhood, puts up a
plate, and waits.

This course also involves delayed earning capacity, as she must be
prepared to face outlay for several years without much return. During
this time she generally augments the income which she gets from her
private practice by other part-time paid work, notably by giving
lectures in first aid, etc., by school inspection, where part-time
officers are appointed, and other such work. She also generally does
a certain amount of voluntary work on that most pernicious system
of giving her services in order to get known. It is in this way that
doctors are everywhere so terribly exploited. When they are _all_ so
busy doing work which they think will bring them into the public view,
this becomes of no particular use to any of them, and the only people
who benefit, and at the same time scoff, are the members of the
general public, who become so used to getting the doctor to work for
nothing or next to nothing, that it comes as a shock when they have
to pay. It is a healthy sign that the long-suffering doctor is at last
beginning to show symptoms of fight, and in the future it may be
hoped that doctors, like lawyers, will not be required to give their
services free to the community. It may be true that if a man will not
work neither shall he eat, but the converse should also be true, that
if a man works he should eat, and at present it is not by any means
always true of the doctor.

(c) Should she decide to enter the public service, she will still
require to take a certain number of posts, especially those dealing
with eyes, ears, and skin, and must also obtain the Diploma of Public
Health. To gain this diploma she will need to devote several months
to post-graduate study in that subject before taking the necessary

The chief posts at present open in the public service to a woman

(1) School medical officer, or assistant medical
officer of health.
(2) Assistant medical officer in some asylums
and poor law infirmaries.

There is one woman inspector of prisons who is a medical woman, but
she is not a medical inspector and was not appointed in that capacity.
It is much to be hoped that women prison medical officers will
speedily be appointed on equal terms with their medical colleagues.
The conditions for women prisoners from the standpoint of health are,
at the present time, extremely unsatisfactory.

The tendency is to employ more and more women in the public service,
and therefore the opportunities are likely rapidly to become more

The Act, under which medical school inspection was made obligatory,
particularly mentioned the suitability of women for much of this work.
It is therefore becoming usual all over the country to have at least
one woman school doctor, and in some districts there are several on
the staff. This work is not extremely arduous, is free from the heavy
strain of private practice, and, if the school medical officer is
allowed reasonable freedom in her work, may be made of much interest.
It is, however, somewhat monotonous, and has the great disadvantage
that at present the stimulus of promotion is largely absent, as the
higher administrative posts are almost universally in the hands of
men. This is a disadvantage which will also be gradually, perhaps
rapidly removed as the prejudice against women in authority dies down.

After having practised medicine for some years, further degrees
indicating experience are open to the medical practitioner; thus, if
she has taken the Bachelorship of Medicine she may, after the lapse of
three or four years, enter for her Doctorate. This is gained either
by a further examination or by writing a thesis on some subject of
original research. If she has taken the Diploma of the Royal Colleges,
it is open to her to sit for the Fellowship in Surgery or Membership
in Medicine. She is also open to election to the Fellowship in

It is extremely difficult to give anything like an adequate idea
of the remuneration to be obtained in medicine, as it varies

The first posts, which are taken soon after qualification, if really
first-rate in the experience which they give, seldom include any
salary at all, though board and lodging are provided. Posts which rank
as slightly inferior to these, but still give a considerable amount of
experience, are often associated with honoraria varying from about L50
to L150 a year, including board and lodging.

(a) If we turn again to our three sub-divisions we find that a
specialist or consultant cannot expect to earn her working expenses
for a good many years. She must have one room at least in a certain
specialist quarter of the town, known as the consultants' area, and
there the rents are usually high, in London about L150 a year, in the
provinces slightly less.

We have already stated that she requires some hospital post; for this
she will receive no remuneration, but if the hospital where she works
has a medical school attached to it, she may expect to get a certain
number of patients through the recommendation of students whom she
teaches at the hospital. There is generally also some teaching at
the hospitals, for which the students pay definite fees. She may also
augment her income by lectures and work of that description. She will
probably find it necessary to write papers on her special branch of
work and on the cases which come under her observation, but for this
she will very seldom be paid. It is, therefore only possible for a
girl with some monetary resources independent of her work, to take up
successfully a special branch of medicine.

If she elect to become a surgeon, a hospital post is an absolute
necessity, and her income will, as in the case of the medical
specialist, be delayed. Eventually, however, if she is successful, it
is greater than that to be obtained on the medical side. The fees are
high, and therefore money can be made more speedily in this branch of
the work. People, however, hesitate as a rule to trust a very young
surgeon, so she will at first get her work chiefly as assistant to
her seniors and must be content to wait some years for the much bigger
fees which she will get as principal. Ultimately she should make
L1,000 to L2,000 a year.

(b) If she elect to become a general practitioner, her outlay at first
is probably as great as that of the specialist, if not greater, but
the return is quicker, and a great deal depends upon the choice of a
neighbourhood. If she chooses an upper middle class district she
also, like the specialist, must be content to wait, and in fact she is
ill-advised to choose such a neighbourhood unless she can rely on some
good social introductions.

If she choose a district partly middle and partly lower middle class
her return will be infinitely quicker. She may expect to cover her
expenses in the course of two or three years. The work is, however,
incessant and rather harassing. If she select a working-class
neighbourhood and have a dispensary, her return will be still quicker,
such places frequently paying their expenses in the first or second
year. The people are nice to deal with, and the work is interesting,
but it is apt to be very distressing for two reasons--(1) that owing
to the poverty of the patients they can so seldom be attended under
conditions in which they have a fair chance of recovery, and (2) there
is apt to be an appreciable amount of dirt.

The most varying reports are given as to the incomes to be made in
private practice and it is almost impossible to get at the truth,
because it is obviously to everybody's interest to make them appear
as high as possible. A woman's practice also is admittedly rather a
specialist one. She does not get the general local practice of the
ordinary practitioner, but instead certain selected women who want to
consult a member of their own sex. These often live at considerable
distances, thus making the work more difficult to arrange and the
travelling more expensive than in the case of the ordinary medical
man. It is rare for a woman to be able to buy a practice. She must
generally build it up for herself, as it is of little or no use for
her to buy a man's practice, and there are only very few women's

Generally, it may be stated that a woman covers her expenses by about
the third or fourth year after starting, and she may ultimately make,
according to the district and her success, anything between L400 and
L1,500 a year. Frequently two medical women settle together, which
seems to be a very good arrangement.

(c) If she elect to enter the public service her outlay is very small.
Beyond equipping herself for this work in certain special branches
already described, all that is necessary is that she should be able to
keep herself until she obtains a suitable post. The salary given for
whole time work in the public service should not be less than L250 a
year rising to L400 or L500 a year. In most cases the school doctor
gets the school holidays, including the whole of every Saturday.

English women who go to India, do so generally in connection with

(1) a missionary society, or
(2) a hospital under the Dufferin Fund.

(1) Many missionary societies engage medical women to treat the native
women. Salaries, of course, differ, but are, on the whole, low, as the
aim of a missionary is not supposed, primarily, to be financial gain.
Generally somewhere about L110 in English money is given, with
an allowance for carriage and house including the chief items of
furniture. Leave is also granted with second class return fare every
five years--in some missions every three years. The medical experience
is excellent, the opportunities of doing good professional work are
practically unlimited, and the professional position of the doctor
quite untrammelled. She is assisted, usually, by good nurses, under a
proper scheme, these being Indian girls superintended by fully trained
English sisters.

(2) Under the Dufferin Fund[2] things are very different. It is
somewhat difficult to speak of this branch of the work, as it is, at
the present time, the subject of enquiry, and it may be legitimately
expected that it will, before long, be put on a more satisfactory
basis. The fund was originally started by Lady Dufferin as the direct
result of a command by the late Queen Victoria, and it was intended
to provide the services of medical women for the Purdah women of India
who, owing to the strictness of their rules, were not infrequently
debarred from the full benefit of medical treatment by men.
Unfortunately, however, the doctor in charge of most of the Dufferin
Hospitals is under the local senior civil surgeon, who is a man. As
he has the right, if he wishes to exercise it, of seeing any of
the patients, and doing any of the operations or other treatment
necessary, it is obvious that the hospitals are of little or no use to
Purdah women, as they have no guarantee against treatment by a man.

There is also no security of tenure for the doctor who is not allowed
to be present at the meetings of the governing body, and may find
herself dismissed or transferred from a good post to a bad one at
short notice.

The remuneration varies roughly between L250 and L500 a year, with
house but no carriage allowance. The doctor is entitled to add to her
salary by private practice. In some towns this is a considerable
item, whereas in others it is quite negligible. There is no definite
furlough allowance, and the doctor may be removed from her post and
required to keep herself on very little for a considerable period of
time before being appointed to another hospital. All this causes a
severe drain on the resources of doctors without private means. The
staff is also frequently inefficient, and the nursing is sometimes
very indifferent, being undertaken by Eurasian girls under partly
trained women who have never been "home."

In the practice of medicine as in all other branches of women's
labour, the question of the effect of marriage upon work is a very
important and difficult one. In its general aspect it lies at the very
heart of the whole question of the working woman. Its effect on the
medical woman varies according to the branch of her profession which
she selects. If she wishes to become _(a)_ a specialist or _(b)_ a
general practitioner, she has perfect freedom of choice as to what she
will do in the event of marriage; and some women retire while others
continue their work. The latter is a much more desirable course from
the point of view of medical women as a whole. The medical woman who
is married can, better than any one else, render to society certain
services in her profession, and it is desirable that these should not
be lost. In any event no woman need retire from her work on marriage,
though it is, of course, most important that the married medical woman
should not deny to herself and to her husband the normal healthy joy
of having children. To continue in practice, however, while bearing a
child requires a certain amount of expenditure, as such a doctor
will need to retire from practice for at least two or three months,
probably longer, and is therefore put to the expense of engaging a
_locum tenens._ This ought, however, to be possible when both husband
and wife are earning incomes.

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