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Women Workers in Seven Professions by Edith J. Morley

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fully qualified certificated teacher, has to act as his assistant and
receive the pay of a supplementary teacher.

During her years of service, each mistress in an elementary school
is required to contribute L2, 8s. per annum to the Government
Superannuation Fund. These contributions purchase a small annuity to
which the Government add a pension at the rate of 10s. for each year
of service. When she becomes qualified for a pension, the mistress
must surrender her certificate and cease to practise as a teacher,
so that, if we assume she has begun work at the age of twenty and
has continued teaching to the age of sixty-five, she will, after
forty-five years of recorded service, receive a pension of L22,
10s. per annum, plus the annuity which her contributions will have
purchased. It should, however, be mentioned that London and a few
other towns have established complementary schemes whereby teachers,
though contributing more, obtain pensions more commensurate with their
salaries. Under the Government scheme, the superannuation allowance
cannot become payable until the teacher has attained the age of
sixty-five years, and, even then, it can be obtained only by a teacher
whose years of recorded service are not less than half the number of
years which have elapsed since she became certificated; thus, if the
mistress, being certificated at the age of twenty, marries and, by the
regulations of the local authority, is forced to resign, she forfeits
all claim to the Government contribution, unless she has completed
twenty-two years of recorded service: nor are her contributions
returned to her.

Teachers in elementary schools are well organised for the purpose of
self-protection. The National Union of Teachers is a powerful body,
having a membership of 78,000 men and women teachers. It is directly
represented in Parliament, both on the Liberal and Labour sides, and
owes its influence largely to the voting power of its members.[8]

When the National Insurance Act of 1912 came into force, there were
85,000 elementary teachers to whom its clauses applied, and who
therefore found it advisable to join an approved society. For this
purpose the Teachers' Provident Society of the National Union of
Teachers was re-organised as an approved society under the Act. In
addition to providing protection for its members, the National Union
of Teachers, by means of its Benevolent and Orphan Fund, helps those,
who, through ill-health or other causes are in need of assistance.
It also maintains two orphanages--one for boys in London, and one for
girls in Sheffield.

At the present time there is a strong probability of a dearth of
qualified teachers for elementary schools in the near future. There
are several factors which have been influential in bringing about this
state of affairs--one is, the uncertainty of employment, even after a
long and comparatively costly training. This defect will be remedied
only when a rational method of regulating the supply of teachers
is established, so that each candidate may be certain that, if she
qualifies, she will be guaranteed employment.

Many desirable persons are debarred from entering the teaching
profession, because the rate of remuneration is low, considering
the responsibility of the work; and this drawback is still further
emphasised by the very inadequate pension which is offered at the
close of the teacher's career. This difficulty can be overcome only
when the main burden of the cost of education is removed from local
taxation and placed on the national exchequer.

Another factor which tends to make the teaching profession
unattractive, is the very strenuous life which it entails under
modern conditions. Again, so far as women are concerned, there is not
complete security of tenure, though apart from the regulation that
obtains under some local authorities, requiring women to resign on
marriage, teachers in elementary schools, owing to the efforts of
their various organisations, possess far greater security of tenure
than teachers in any other branch of the profession. Another point in
favour of the teachers in elementary schools, is their freedom from
the burden of extraneous duties, and from the nightmare of external

When schools can be more generously staffed, so that, for example,
the number of assistant teachers exceeds the number of classes to be
taught, a good deal will have been done to relieve the strain under
which teachers are at present working.

Finally, when education authorities and the public generally, become
sufficiently enlightened to realise that it is uneconomical to dismiss
a teacher when she marries _i.e._, when by her experience she is
most capable of preparing her pupils for life--then women will be
encouraged to enter the teaching profession, and to realise that they
must equip themselves as well as possible for what is to be their

[Footnote 1: In this connection, the work of the Care-Committees, now
an integral feature of the elementary education system, must not
be forgotten. It will be fully considered in a later volume of this
series. [EDITOR.]]

[Footnote 2: The conditions for registration were issued on 22nd
November 1913, after this book had gone to press. [EDITOR.]]

[Footnote 3: _Vide_ Article on Education in Ireland, by May Starkie
in _The New Statesman Supplement_ on "The Awakening of Ireland," 12th
July 1913. [EDITOR.]]

[Footnote 4: Since this paper was written, a fresh report (Code 6707)
has been published by the Board of Education. The statistical tables
do not materially differ from those given above.]

[Footnote 5: On the other hand, the Board seldom proceeds against
teachers who have broken their bond. [Editor.]]

[Footnote 6: The experiment of ending the College course for certain
students at Easter, is now being made. But the movement is too young,
and the Colleges experimenting are too few, to make it possible
to draw deductions. At any rate it looks like a move in the right

[Footnote 7: This is a matter, the investigation of which should
be included in Mr Lloyd George's Land Campaign. There is an obvious
connection between the status of the agricultural labourer and the
inefficiency of rural schools. [EDITOR.]]

[Footnote 8: The women members are in a large majority, but, being
women, do not, as yet, possess the vote. Their peculiar interests, of
course, do not obtain representation.]



The particular branch of teaching which forms the subject of this
paper--namely, that carried on in schools for mentally or physically
defective children--affords scope for a lifetime of very happy work to
women who are really fitted for it.

The qualifications required by teachers in these schools are the
ordinary certificates accepted by the Board of Education, but, in
practice, a preference is given to women who have taken up studies
which bear on their particular work. For instance, it is obvious that
a good grounding in psychology, physiology, and hygiene is especially
valuable in schools of this description, and proofs of the successful
study of these subjects undoubtedly carry weight in deciding
appointments to these schools. Also, it is unusual to appoint young
teachers, coming straight from Training Colleges, with very little
practical experience in dealing with children, though under special
circumstances such appointments are occasionally made. The large
majority of women appointed to the London mentally defective or
physically defective schools are, however, teachers of several years'
standing, who are also under the age limit of thirty-five.

The salary of assistant teachers in the London special schools is L10
a year more than the salary such assistants would be getting in the
ordinary Council schools. This extra pay only obtains until the normal
maximum salary of assistant mistresses is reached, _i.e._, L150, so
that the monetary advantage is confined to reaching the maximum a
little earlier than would otherwise be the case. With regard to head
teachers, the extra salary varies with the size of the school, L10
being allowed for a one-class centre, L20 for a two-, three-, or
four-class centre, and L30 for a five- or six-class centre. Schools of
six classes are unusual; the majority of schools contain three or
four classes. Elder mentally defective boys from several neighbouring
schools are frequently grouped together in a special centre under
masters, and there are a few schools specially for elder mentally
defective girls, naturally under mistresses. For elder physically
defective girls there are centres in London where they may be
specially trained in blousemaking and fine needlework. These centres
have, in addition to an ordinary teacher, a trade mistress duly
qualified in the particular branch of work undertaken. The age of
compulsory retirement from teaching in special schools is sixty-five,
as in the case of ordinary schools. For both branches of the service
married women are eligible. The hours of work in mentally defective
schools are from 9.30 to 12 and from 2 to 4. In physically defective
schools the hours are nominally from 9.30 to 12, and 1.30 to 3, but in
practice they are longer, as the children begin to arrive at school
in their ambulances by 8.45, and in the afternoon the last children
rarely leave till an hour after the time of stopping actual lessons.
It is usual to arrange things so that the teacher who comes "early"
one week, is free to come "late" the next, and it is also usually
taken in turns to stay late in the afternoons. The short dinner recess
is due to the fact that most of the children necessarily have their
dinner at school, so there is no reason to allow the usual two hours
for going home and coming back. During the dinner-hour the children
are in charge of the school nurse and the ambulance attendants.

Work in both sorts of special school has its own particular
difficulties. One great drawback is the impossibility of adequate
classification. In a small three-class centre, there will be
children from five years old up to sixteen years. That, of course, in
physically defective schools means that the work usually divided
among all the classes of an ordinary infant school must be done in the
lowest class, the second class must take the work of standards I. to
III., while the highest class must take that of standards IV. to
VII. It is true that the special schools have a great advantage
over ordinary schools in that the classes never contain more than
twenty-five children, but even granted the small numbers, the need for
taking several groups in a class makes the work very exhausting. The
more successful the teacher, that is to say, the more truly she draws
out the individual powers of each child, the harder does her work
become, for she tends more and more to have a class of children
working at varying stages. In the mentally defective schools it is not
possible to reach the work of the higher standards, so that there
is not the _same_ difficulty, but there is the even greater one of
dealing with different standards of defect, instead of different
standards of attainment.

Another difficulty encountered in the physically defective schools
is the interrupted school-life. Children will frequently drop out for
three months, six months, or a year at a time in order to have some
operation performed in hospital, or to go to a convalescent home, or
because of an attack of illness. Both branches of the special schools
are faced with the peculiar difficulty of the "spoilt" child--the lame
girl who, by reason of her helplessness, has been indulged and waited
on by the healthy members of her family; the ill-balanced boy whose
brain-storms have been so disturbing that any opposition to his will
has been shirked. It must not be thought that these children are in
the majority at special schools, but they do form a certain proportion
of the children there; they give much trouble, and they call for a
great deal of tact and patience. Patience is so continually needed in
special-school work that women who are not particularly patient would
find themselves definitely unfit for it. Indeed, although patience
and the hopeful spirit do not figure on the list of qualifications
demanded of candidates, they might well head it, for most certainly
an irritable or despondent woman could not find any work for which she
was more unsuited, or in which she was more likely to be miserable and

A further difficulty of the special-school teacher lies in the
"all-round" demands made on her. The children she must teach, are
defective in mind or body, or both. Some will respond to one subject,
some to another; some will make poor progress with headwork, but will
do excellent handwork. The teacher must be able to help each child
along its own path, and must be familiar with the various forms
of simple handwork as well as with the more usual school subjects.
Basket-weaving, clay-modelling, raffia-work, fretwork, bent-ironwork,
strip-woodwork, rug-making, painting, and brush-work, as well as
different forms of needlework and embroidery, are all branches
of handwork helpful in different degrees to these children.
The importance of handwork to them is felt so keenly, that the
special-schools time-tables usually show a morning devoted to headwork
followed by an afternoon occupied by handwork.

But as well as the difficulties attendant on teaching in
special-schools, there are some very real advantages. Foremost,
perhaps, is the opportunity it affords of knowing and understanding
each child in a way that is not possible when the class consists of
sixty children. Very closely allied with this, is the great advantage
of freedom in the preparation of syllabuses, in the choice of subject
matter and the manner of teaching it. Time-tables must be approved by
the proper authorities, and the superintendents and inspectors must
be satisfied as to the character of a teacher's work, but, when those
conditions are fulfilled, originality on the part of teachers is
welcomed, and completely happy relations between teacher and children
are possible. It can be readily understood that with a class numbering
twenty-five, each child can take a much larger and much more active
share in the work, can be free to express his own views, ask his own
questions and work out his own ideas in a way impossible with a class
of sixty. When, in addition, it is remembered that the teacher is
free to frame her plans of work according to the actual needs of
the children, as shown to her through discussions and questions,
the reason why the work attracts women in spite of its obvious
difficulties is apparent.

The real thought and care spent by the education authorities on these
schools must have struck every one who has worked in them. If we
compare what is now done for these deficient children with what was
done some fifteen years ago, the stage of progress at which we have
arrived is nothing short of wonderful. Yet every one must also be
convinced that things are not well, so long as the supply of children
for these special schools continues to grow; those who work in them
can see two ways in which that supply might be checked. Teachers in
mentally defective schools continually mourn the sad fact that the
children under their care have been guarded from wrong, and guided to
right along happy paths of busy interest until they are sixteen, only
to be turned adrift into the world at an age when, more than ever
before in their lives, they need a kindly and wise influence "to
strengthen or control." For want of some further plan of continued
supervision, the patient work of years is too often rendered nugatory,
and the child slips back into the very slough from which the school
had hoped to save it. It must be remembered that the defect in many
children in these mentally defective schools shows itself as a lack
of self-control, a want of mental balance, a missing sense of moral
values, an incapacity for concentration--the very characteristics
which render their unhappy possessors the easiest prey to the
evil-minded. Teachers who know both the good to which the child can
attain when properly safe-guarded, and also the evil into which it
will too probably fall when left alone, are very anxious to see some
step taken which will ensure that every child who needs continued
control shall have it.[1]

Teachers in physically defective schools can also see the need for
prevention of defect rather than its mere alleviation. The more usual
forms of defect are missing limbs, tuberculous troubles (notably in
joints), heart cases, paralysis, cases of chorea, and cases of general
debility. The list must not be taken as complete, for there are, of
course, various unusual forms of defect too. It sometimes happens that
after a stay of some time in a physically defective school, a child
becomes so much better that it is able to return to the greater strain
of an ordinary school; on the other hand, it is often apparent,
that if certain children had been admitted earlier to the physically
defective school, their particular trouble might have been greatly
minimised, if not altogether avoided. What then appears to be needed
is an intermediary type of school to which children might be drafted
who are not as yet absolutely defective, but who are liable to become
so. Children of tubercular tendencies, who should be guarded
against falls or blows more carefully than normal children; those
highly-strung nervous children who, if exposed to the strain of
ordinary school life run the risk of chorea; children suffering from
the after-effects of diseases such as rheumatic or scarlet fever,
who need particularly to avoid over-exertion or too violent exercise;
children of such marked general debility that their power of resisting
disease is abnormally low--all these, if neglected, tend to become
qualified candidates for the physically defective schools. If they
could attend a school designed to suit their needs, they would in many
cases be quite able to return, after varying periods, to their places
in the ordinary schools. The open-air schools are an attempt to meet
this need on the very best lines, but there are far too many of these
border-line children for the available accommodation. If the great
expense entailed by new schools of this description be considered, it
seems not unreasonable, while waiting for them, to allow the admission
of these children to the invalid schools already working, by simply
making the term "physically defective" elastic enough to include a
latent as well as a developed defect. Whatever the apparent expense
of such measures may be, any extension of the preventive side of this
work cannot but be a real economy.[2]

There is just one other point for the consideration of women who think
of taking up work in special schools. They should be thoroughly strong
and healthy, or they will prove unequal to a strain which tells at
times even on the strongest. But to women of good health who possess
the right temperament, these schools offer a field of useful and
congenial work.

[Footnote 1: Something in this direction will be achieved by the new
Act, to which, however, there are counterbalancing grave objections
which cannot be considered here. [EDITOR.]]

[Footnote 2: Open-air schools, and school sleeping camps such as those
established experimentally in various urban slum-districts, are other
efforts to meet the needs of physically defective children. Teachers
in open-air schools in provincial towns, work under approximately
similar conditions to those described by Mrs Thomas. [Editor.]]



No school of any importance is considered properly equipped unless
the staff includes a gymnastic and games mistress. Several systems
of gymnastics are practised in England, but the Swedish system is
steadily proving its superiority; so much is this felt that a number
of teachers who have previously taken a two years' course of training
in some other system, are at the present time taking, or have just
completed, a second two years' course in the Swedish system. As long
ago as 1878 the London School Board introduced the Swedish system into
its schools, but it was not till 1885 that the first physical training
college was opened in this country, and this was for women only. In
1903 this system was adopted for the navy, and in 1906 for the army;
it has also been adopted in the Government schools and Training
Colleges, as well as in all the principal private schools and colleges
for girls, and in many boys' schools, including, among others, Eton,
Winchester, Clifton, and Repton. The following remarks, therefore,
apply only to the Swedish system.

Until 1885, the rationally trained teacher of gymnastics was unknown
in England, and the physical training of the girls in this country was
monopolised by dancing mistresses and drill sergeants, most of whom
were ignorant of the laws which govern the human body. In that
year Madame Osterberg started a Physical Training College for women
students at Hampstead, the college being removed to Dartford Heath,
Kent, in 1895. Since then similar institutions have been opened at
Bedford, Erdington, Chelsea, etc., and there is a growing army of
women qualified to teach gymnastics and games, and in many cases
dancing and swimming. These trained teachers have studied Anatomy,
Physiology, and Hygiene; they have themselves experienced what they
teach others; they have been trained to observe, and deal gently and
carefully with growing girlhood. They have also studied deformities
such as spinal curvature, round shoulders, and flat feet, and are able
to take all such cases under their special care.

The course of training lasts from two to three years, and the cost
in a residential college, is about L100 a year. To ensure success as
teachers, students should be tactful, observant, and sympathetic; they
should be medically fit, and physically suited to the work, and should
produce evidence of a good general education. The requirements of the
colleges vary as to educational qualification, some being satisfied
with a school-leaving certificate while others demand Matriculation.
This raising of the standard is a step in the right direction and may
hasten the time when the gymnastic teacher will be thought worthy of a
University degree or diploma.

The training includes theoretical as well as practical work, and the
idea which used to be prevalent, is now practically exploded, that
a girl who could not pass examinations but who was fairly good
at gymnastics or games might make a good gymnastic teacher. The
theoretical subjects include Physiology, Hygiene, Anatomy, Theory of
Movements, Psychology, and a certain amount of Pathology; whilst the
practical side includes Educational Gymnastics and Teaching, Remedial
Gymnastics and Massage, Games (hockey, cricket, lacrosse, lawn tennis,
net-ball, and gymnasium games), Swimming and Dancing. Dancing is
becoming more and more, a necessary part of the equipment for the
successful gymnastic teacher, who must be able to teach the ordinary
ball-room dances as well as Morris and country dances.

A typical week's work in the second year's course in one of the
colleges includes six hours' Gymnastics; five hours' Remedial
Gymnastics, and five hours' actual treatment under supervision, of
patients in the clinic; six hours' Anatomy, two hours' Physiology, two
hours' Hygiene, two hours' Vaulting, three and a half hours' Dancing.
In addition to this, four afternoons (from 2 to 4 P.M.) are devoted to
games; class singing-lessons are given twice a week for half an hour,
in addition to a quarter of an hour's practice every day, and each
student teaches in the elementary schools three half hours a week, and
also gets some practice in the high school. Add to all this the time
required for private study, and it will be seen that the work is
fairly strenuous and that none but strong, healthy girls should
undertake it.

After the course of training the gymnastic teacher usually takes a
post in a school, and having had a few years' experience, may then
become an organiser or inspector to an education committee, a trainer
in an elementary training college or physical training college, the
head of the gymnastic department of a school clinic, or she may
prefer to start a private practice, holding classes, treating cases
of deformity, and also acting as visiting gymnastic teacher or
games-coach to schools in the neighbourhood.

The rate of remuneration varies according to the kind of work
undertaken; the initial salary in schools is usually L60 to L80
per annum resident, or L100 to L120 non-resident. Organisers and
inspectors command a much higher salary; the three Government
inspectors start at L200 rising to L400 with first-class travelling
expenses, and the four woman-organisers employed by the London County
Council Education Committee start at L175, rising by L10 a year to
L240 plus actual travelling expenses. Some women do well in private
practice, making from L200 to L300 a year. The salaries of the
gymnastic teachers in the London County Council secondary schools are
fixed at L130 a year with no possibility of advancement, and, though
this may compare favourably with the initial salaries of other
teachers on the staff, it must be remembered that the teaching life of
a gymnastic teacher is shorter and there are no headmistress-ships
to which to look forward. The few "plums" of the profession are the
inspectorships of the Government and of the more important education
committees. For the latter, women have often to compete with men, and
even in cases where both men and women inspectors are employed--the
men doing the same work in the boys' schools as the women do in the
girls'--the men's salaries are considerably higher, despite the
fact that most women give up professional work on marriage, either
voluntarily or compulsorily, and have therefore a shorter time in
which to recover the cost of their training, whereas if they do not
marry, they have to make provision for old age and in many cases to
contribute to the support of others besides themselves.

With regard to this employment of women after marriage, there would
seem to be no reason why the principals or assistants of colleges or
institutes, or the women with private practices should not continue
their work; but in schools, even where the terms of the appointment
do not demand resignation on marriage, it is not customary for married
teachers to be employed.

Up to the present, the supply of trained gymnastic teachers has
scarcely satisfied the demand, and fresh openings are from time to
time created. When physical exercises were made compulsory in all the
elementary schools, the class teacher had and still has, to give this
instruction to her class, but there has been an increasing demand for
organisers to teach the elementary school teacher and superintend her
work. This has also led to specialist teachers being appointed to all
the elementary training colleges and pupil teachers' centres. Then
came medical inspection, and with it the need for school clinics,
which could not be complete without a department for treating
curvatures, flat feet, etc., and giving breathing exercises,
especially after the removal of adenoids. Though these clinics are
only in the experimental stage they are sure to expand, and it is
expected that a large number of trained gymnastic teachers will be
required for them. Further it is possible, and may be found desirable,
that specialist teachers should be appointed for groups of elementary
schools, so relieving the class teachers of this part of their work.
Large secondary and private schools often appoint two, three, or four
trained teachers who are jointly responsible for gymnastics, games,
dancing, swimming, and the treatment of deformities throughout the
school. Besides all these openings a considerable number of gymnastic
teachers find work in the colonies, especially in South Africa,
Australia, and New Zealand.

To band together the teachers of Swedish gymnastics and to guard their
interests generally, the Ling Association was founded in 1899. Though
it is open to men and women, very few men have joined, as the number
of men with the necessary qualifications is very small. Members must
have trained for at least two years at a recognised college, and it
was not till 1912 that the first training college for men was opened
in England.

With a view to standardising the training and diplomas of gymnastic
teachers, the Ling Association in 1904 started a diploma-examination.
Though the syllabus drawn up is practically the same as those used
in the different colleges, most of the colleges still grant their own
diplomas at the end of the course.

It is hardly possible at present, to specify the usual age of
retirement for gymnastic teachers, but when a woman becomes too old
for regular school teaching she can organise, supervise, and inspect,
or continue to practise remedial work which includes massage.

Most of the gymnastic teachers who come within the scope of the
Insurance Act have joined the University, Secondary and Technical
Teachers' Provident Society.



There are several reasons why instruction in the domestic arts and in
the management of a house has not until quite recently formed part of
the curriculum in girls' secondary schools. In the first years of
the existence of these schools, no handicraft was encouraged except
needlework, and this was soon almost crowded out of the time-table. It
was assumed that household management was taught by the mother. There
was a second assumption made even more confidently than the first,
that a well-informed young woman with an active brain would find no
difficulty in arranging her domestic affairs. This theory was founded
on still another assumption--that there would always be on hire a
sufficiency of servants already well trained for their work.

It is obvious nowadays that the mistresses of the first two decades
of high-school teaching, being the first college-bred women, were
suffering from a reaction against domestic interests, and the manner
in which these had absorbed the old-fashioned woman. Their best pupils
were at once destined for college; they were considered too good
for mere domestic life, and were prepared for careers, mostly for
teaching. This tendency was naturally accentuated by the fact that
all mistresses were single women, with little prospect of any but a
celibate life.

In the earlier stages of girls' education, then, it was the teacher
who urged the promising girl to have a career; but the more recent
development is that the parents, harassed by increasing economic
pressure, and encouraged by the instances they meet of successful
professional women, press more and more strongly for their girls to
be educated for professions, whether they are exceptionally gifted or
not. It is recognised in almost all grades of the middle class that
the chance of a daughter marrying, and, further, the chance of her
marriage being an assured provision for her maintenance throughout
life, is by no means a certainty.

These considerations must militate against the appearance of domestic
subjects in the school time-table, but there are others working in
exactly the opposite direction. These are the increase in house rent
and general rise in prices which make economy in domestic affairs, and
good management, more valued; the dearth of servants; and the decay of
the old traditions of housekeeping. Another factor is the new cult
of hygiene, and increased interest in diet, shown especially by
the inhabitants of large towns, who bewail their lack of energy and

If the home is to establish itself as an acknowledged success in
modern conditions, it ought to be run by women with brains. It is
now becoming acknowledged that the work needs the application of the
scientific method of thinking. It may be true that home-making in the
non-material sense is an art, but housekeeping nowadays is a science;
and so much a science that a woman who has the chance of making
herself an expert will be tempted to make housekeeping a career, and
to undertake the job on a much larger scale than is needed in the
ordinary house.

Thus, while there was practically no teaching of domestic subjects
in girls' secondary schools until about seven years ago, a demand
for teachers of the kind has sprung up very recently, and is rapidly

The headmistress anxious to undertake something of the sort has had
many difficulties to face in the immediate past. The only teachers
of domestic arts whom she could engage had received a very different
education from the other members of her staff. If their whole time
were not taken up with teaching their subject, they had few or
no subsidiary subjects to offer, nor were they prepared for those
curiously mingled clerical and pastoral duties which fall to the
lot of a form mistress. In general education they might, indeed, be
obviously below the girls in the upper forms, whose general culture
had been sedulously cultivated for years. If teachers of this kind
were, nevertheless, not to be kept for selected "stupid girls," it
was possible (1) to introduce domestic work of the simple handicraft
nature into the middle school, leaving it out of the upper school
where there was a greater pressure on the time-table, or (2) to
organise a post-school domestic course for girls who were not
preparing for a profession.

The type of woman offering herself as a teacher in domestic arts
has meanwhile been changing and developing, owing to the fact that
a marked advance has taken place in the facilities for training. The
minimum qualifications now required by most education authorities
are diplomas for cookery, laundry-work, and housewifery, granted by a
training school recognised by the Board of Education. It is advisable
to take a fuller course which includes needlework and dressmaking.
Most training schools for domestic arts provide a two or three
year-course, according to the subjects taken. The three-year course,
including cookery, laundry-work, housewifery, dressmaking, and
needlework, costs about L75. Scholarships are offered both by the
training schools and by public bodies. These cover the whole normal
period of training, and an extension course for scientific study.
The subjects included are the principles and processes involved in
cookery, laundry-work, and household management, the last comprising
such diverse matters as the selection and furnishing of various types
of houses, repairing furniture, the choice and care of household
linens, simple upholstery, management of income, first-aid,
home-nursing, and the care of infants and young children. Many
training-schools arrange for their students to gain experience in a
creche or similar institution, and to visit homes of various
types. Practical experience is gained in housekeeping and catering,
superintending the arrangements for meals, ordering stores and keeping
accounts. Voice production and blackboard drawing are also taught,
while science is studied concurrently with the above. The course in
science embraces some Theoretical and Practical Chemistry, Physics,
Physiology, Hygiene (personal and school hygiene and preventive
measures), and the Theory and Practice of Education. Domestic Science
students gain teaching experience not only in the various departments
of the training-school, but also in elementary and secondary schools;
happily the training is the same for those intending to take up either
elementary or secondary teaching.

Thus it is seen that the present-day teacher of household arts is
much more fitted to train the well-educated girl to organise household
matters, than was her predecessor. Not only is manipulative skill
acquired, but scientific reasons for processes and methods are
outlined, and improvements are suggested. There is, however, still the
danger that the student's training in science has been so subordinated
to the acquirement of manipulative skill that her knowledge of
scientific facts is not sufficiently based on scientific training and

Much, then, is to be urged in favour of the woman with a science
degree taking courses in domestic arts, but it is essential for her to
attain a high standard of practical work. It has sometimes been found
that a very academic and scientific method of treatment has tended
to lower the standard of manipulative skill. Nevertheless qualified
graduates find themselves, at the moment, greatly in demand. The
economical headmistress must always be on the look out for an
acquisition to her staff who will, like Count Smorltork's politics,
"surprise in herself many branches." If the headmistress can solve her
difficulty about her domestic arts teacher by engaging a college-bred
woman, with a degree to put on the prospectus, all sorts of ordinary
subjects for her odd hours and undertaking to teach cooking as well,
she will jump at the chance, and pay her L10 to L20 more salary than
the ordinary assistant-mistress. She will economise greatly by the
arrangement. If she has some amount of money to back her schemes,
and a large school to administer, she will prefer two people to
one composite one. But she will beg them to collaborate and to work
together. She will not expect the woman with the science degree and a
brief subsequent training in the arts to have the manipulative skill
of the one who has done something like one thousand hours of actual
practice, according to the prescription of the Board of Education. She
will ask the former to show the girls how modern science is connected
with the modern house, and how the scientific way of thinking helps in
keeping a house, as it does in keeping one's own health and fitness.

During the past five years one secondary school after another has
taken up Domestic Arts as a school subject. The initiative usually
comes from the headmistress, and is a matter of personal judgment, so
that the introduction is still an experiment on trial, and the method
of trial varies. Before giving some indication of the methods tried,
we must return to the demand for teachers. It will be clear from what
has been said, that a science graduate who has studied and practised
household arts and cooking, or a trained teacher of Domestic Arts
who has also some science certificate and a high standard of general
education, will at this moment command a higher salary than the
ordinary secondary schoolmistress, and is practically certain of
a post. But either of these individuals requires an unusually long
period of training, for which most people have neither the time nor
the spare capital.

One woman's college in London has started courses of its own in "Home
Science and Economics," and awards a three-year certificate to its
students; also a diploma for science graduates who take a year's
course, and a certificate to Domestic Arts teachers who take a closely
related year's course. This is King's College for Women, which has
just obtained the formal approval of London University for its three
years' curriculum. In a very short time arrangements will be made to
grant a University Diploma to the students who have taken this course,
the fee for which amounts to 30 guineas a session. A scholarship,
covering the cost of tuition, is from time to time awarded to
undergraduate students, and there is also a one-year post-graduate
Gilchrist scholarship of 50 guineas. The name of "Household and
Social Science" is recommended by the Royal Commissioners for the new
co-ordination of subjects. Various American universities and colleges
give diplomas of the same kind: and the New Zealand University has
just initiated one. The three-year course at King's College for Women
may possibly be modified by the University authorities: at present it
consists of two years' training in various branches of pure science,
and a third year in which these branches are applied to household
matters of all kinds. For instance, the usual type of academic course
of Inorganic, Organic, and Physical Chemistry gives place in the third
year to the study of food, cooking utensils and cookers, soap and
other cleansing materials, and woven materials. Biology and Physiology
give place to household Bacteriology and Hygiene. Practice in
Housewifery and Cooking occupies one day per week throughout the three
years. A very important feature in this course is the introduction of
Economics. As with the natural sciences, two years' study of ordinary
Economics, chiefly industrial, is followed by a year of Economics
applied to the household, in which an attempt is made to show the
present and past relations of the household to society. King's
College for Women is the first institution in England to see the
great importance of studying the connection of domestic life with
the outside industrial world, instead of treating it as an isolated

This is the outline of the three-year course: students are encouraged
to stay a fourth year for special work; the appointments which they
take up at the end of three or four years are not always as teachers,
but in various other vocations which need not be specified here. As
teachers, the holders of these certificates are subject, of course, to
a double fire of criticism. The science specialist thinks they do
not know enough science, and points out that, beyond a few elementary
facts in Chemistry, Physics, and Physiology soon picked up in an
elementary training in these subjects, there stretches a region of
very abstruse science which cannot be attacked except by specialists
in Organic Chemistry, in the Physiology of Nutrition, and so on.
But it is now suggested that many scientific problems connected with
domestic subjects are waiting for solution. If some of these were
solved, they would bridge the gulf between the elementary and the
abstruse, but they must show themselves of sufficient interest to
investigators. Here is a field for work eminently suited to the
scientific woman with a practical turn of mind. Meanwhile, the cookery
diplomee thinks, often justifiably, that the new teachers have not had
sufficient practice in the art of cooking. Criticism of this kind is
inevitable whenever a new co-ordination of subjects is attempted, and
it will keep the new arrangement on its trial until it can justify
itself. The question at issue in this case, as probably readers will
have divined if they are interested in the problem, is whether the
whole method and tradition of teaching housekeeping ought not to be
under revision, so that it may in a few years be a "subject" vastly
different from the traditional handing-on and practising of receipts.
Once the barrier is broken down between the scientifically trained and
the domestic woman, the whole aspect of affairs changes. It is a sign
of the change that the training-colleges and cookery-schools, besides
introducing more Chemistry, Hygiene, and Physiology into their
curricula, are definitely asking that the teachers they employ for
these subjects, shall be women with science degrees as well as some
knowledge of domestic arts. For instance, at the Gloucester School
of Cookery at least one former teacher had taken the Natural Science
Tripos at Girton as well as Domestic Science Certificates: at
Battersea Polytechnic a recent appointment is that of a Domestic
Science diplomee, who subsequently took a science degree at Armstrong
College, while at the National Training School of Cookery, one member
of Staff is at present a science graduate, who subsequently obtained
the King's College for Women Diploma in Home Science and Economics.
Again, the new Government report just issued on handwork in secondary
schools, while in many ways non-committal, distinctly prefers special
training for teachers of Domestic Subjects following on a good general
education--_i.e._, a University degree plus technical qualifications,
rather than a teaching diploma in Domestic Subjects plus a little
science. There is, then, likely to be an increasing number of openings
for women who can afford the double training. Schools of housecraft
to give all-round training to educated women, are springing up in
all parts of the United Kingdom: in those which are attached to
Polytechnics and similar institutions the fullest advantage is
taken of the pure and technical science teaching available in their

To those who look for a real advance in household science the weak
point of the present situation is the want of proper correlation and
standardisation of the work going on. The Board of Education does not
examine; it accepts the diploma given by any one of a fairly large
number of domestic science schools. In consequence, teachers from
different quarters may be using quite different processes and methods
in laundry work, cooking, or housekeeping. It is time some fundamental
things were agreed upon, and although standardising must not be
allowed to become stereotyping, at present constructive generalisation
is needed, as well as the upsetting of out-grown traditions. In this
context it would be well to discuss a question more properly to be
taken at the end of this paper--the connection between the teaching in
elementary schools and that in secondary schools. There is no reason
to introduce differentiation in the training of the teachers: it
is obvious, for instance, that the recent development of including
economics in that training, is of extraordinary value to the
elementary school teacher. But it is difficult to correlate the
instruction given in the management of a middle-class household, with
from eight to twenty rooms, and from one to a dozen servants, with
that given in the management of a workman's cottage or of a flat
without assistance. The connection which does need systematising and
establishing is between the management of a middle-class house and the
training of domestic servants, which ought naturally to form part of
the trade or technical after-school work for elementary scholars. Here
again, if training is to be followed by certificates, and the
domestic servant is to be in the smallest degree an expert, some
standardisation of training is necessary. We may, of course, find that
domestic service becomes so much a matter of expert work that it is
taken up on a large scale by middle-class girls, but that can
hardly be prophesied yet, although the "lady servant" is an existing
phenomenon. It is, of course, also possible that a modern curriculum
of "Household and Social Science" may attract a certain number of
men of the suitable type of mind. The attitude of the community is
changing so rapidly that one may hope those fears to be groundless
which speak of "relegating women back to the limited sphere of
domesticity," and thereby losing so much that has been gained with
regard to their education.

We must now return to give a few particulars which have been passed
over. Any information on this subject is, however, liable to be very
soon out of date. A secondary school that elects to teach cooking and
laundry work will want a specially fitted room, which will cost about
as much as a simple science laboratory, and will be arranged in as
close connection with the science laboratory as is convenient. This
means serious expense, and the headmistress is naturally anxious
to have considerable use made of the room. Thus she will be led to
introduce the subject into a large proportion of the classes, instead
of limiting it to one or two middle-school forms, or to a selected
part of the upper-school. She may, however, try to solve the economic
problem by making it a post-school course for which special fees are
charged. Certain schools, notably Clapham and Croydon High Schools and
Cheltenham Ladies' College are able to make a very important feature
of this type of course. To make it a success, the prestige of the
school, its influence over girls and their parents, must be great and
commanding. Otherwise, unless the girls are aiming definitely at some
professional work after the course, there is a tendency to laxness in
attendance, or to the relinquishment of the work in the middle, which
tendency is engendered by the nature of the subject. The mother's
excuse for getting her grown-up girl's company and help will naturally
be, "Gladys can boil the potatoes at home instead of at school." A
valid answer will be that Gladys is being taught to free her mind
from the eternal English boiled potato by learning many other ways of
treating it, and at the same time learning its proper place in a diet.

Failing the post-school course, the admittance of domestic subjects to
a notable place in the general school curriculum leads to great stress
being laid on the teaching of the elements of Physical Science. The
eminently "feminine" subject, Botany, gives place to Physics and
Chemistry in the middle-school, followed by Physiology and Hygiene
in the upper-school. The subjects are to be illustrated whenever
convenient, by reference to home life. A student choosing her science
subjects at College should bear these in mind as likely to be at
present of the best market value. Though it is very true that a
practical woman who is a good teacher will nowadays connect any
science subject with home life, still a parallel course of domestic
arts will draw chiefly on the lessons given in these four.

Another fact worthy of notice is that a married woman who is anxious
to continue her former profession of science teaching will not as a
rule have to suffer the usual unfavourable handicap. That a married
woman should teach the domestic subjects is quite a reasonable
proposition to many who would exclude her from most professions:
if she be also a mother it may even count as an asset instead of a

The Delegacy for Oxford Local Examinations has been the first, as far
as we know, to set a paper in domestic science to senior candidates.
There has been a demand for it in the London Matriculation, but
objection has been raised on the score of its being a smattering and
a soft option. The Oxford Delegacy has introduced two new
headings--Domestic Science and Hygiene--and sets two papers under
each, without any practical work. The first paper is the same under
both headings--Elementary Physics and Chemistry, and the preparation
for this is intended to be made at least one school year before the
preparation for the second paper. It should be noted that the Hygiene
paper is for boys and girls; it includes a little Physiology, Personal
Hygiene, and Hygiene of Buildings. The Domestic Science paper is for
girls only; it has several details in common with that in Hygiene, but
its main features are the simple outlines of the chemistry of foods
and of cleansing substances. In a few years the suitability of these
subjects for both sexes may have impressed the community.

We may notice, lastly, the arrangements made for instruction in
Domestic Subjects in elementary schools.[1] This is given in a
specially equipped Centre attached to a public elementary school, the
girls from that and other schools attending either for a half or whole
day weekly during their last two years at school. In some cases for
about fifteen weeks before they leave school, girls give half the week
to Domestic Subjects. This experiment has been so successful, that it
is likely to be extended in the future. A carefully graded syllabus is
followed; due proportion of time is given to theory and demonstration
as well as to practical work. Each girl is required to do a certain
amount of work by herself, and much thought has been expended in order
to make the lessons as useful as possible. The care of infants and
young children is receiving increased attention, and it is hoped that
much may be done to mitigate evils of wrong feeding and treatment. As
far as possible, the teaching in the Centres is correlated with that
in the schools. Where there are science laboratories the experiments
are made on food-stuffs, changes wrought by application of heat in
various ways, the chemistry of common objects, and so on.

The opportunity for definite science training in connection with
Domestic Subjects teaching in elementary schools is still very small,
and will probably remain so while the school-leaving age is fourteen.
The problem before the teacher in some instances is to combat not only
an entire ignorance of the home arts, but also, in poor districts, an
active experience of household mismanagement and vicious habits. The
teaching in these cases has to be intensely practical, and to aim
chiefly at character-building; the manual work of the subject has been
found of the greatest educational value in this respect. Though the
training of all Domestic Subjects' teachers should reach the same
standard of scientific knowledge, yet the actual work to be done
in different types of schools is thus seen to be necessarily widely
divergent in character.

In higher elementary or "central" schools, where the pupils normally
remain until the end of the school year in which they reach the age of
fifteen, Domestic Subjects' teaching may have a much wider scope than
at the ordinary Centre, as the pupils are at a very intelligent age,
and represent the best of the elementary scholars. A special syllabus
is prepared according to the individual need of each school, by the
Domestic Subjects' teacher and the headmistress; the instruction is a
very definite part of the curriculum, and the teacher a member of the
school staff.

In London and other large towns, and with certain County Councils,
the Centre is under the general supervision of the headmistress of the
school to which it is attached, but technical details are entirely
in the hands of the teacher of Domestic Subjects and of the
superintendent who visits periodically. In some rural areas, the
conditions are not so satisfactory. Frequently one teacher has to
serve several villages, visiting them for instruction on certain days.
The accommodation in such places is often sadly deficient, and much
ingenuity and resource are needed to overcome difficulties which do
not occur when the Centre is well-equipped and in continuous use, and
the teacher, as she should be, a regular member of the school staff.

On leaving school, there are many scholarships open to the girls for
further training, (_a_)for a home course, (_b_) for domestic service,
(_c_) for the trades of laundress, needlewoman, dressmaker, and cook.
These scholarships are held at Technical Institutes, or Trade Schools,
and the training given is admirable in kind.

A qualified teacher who wishes to take up elementary school work will
have no difficulty, if physically fit, in obtaining a post under a
County Council or other educational authority at a salary of L80 per
annum, usually rising by annual increments to L120. The maximum is not
so high as that for teachers of ordinary subjects, and pensions are
not universal, though most councils make fairly adequate provision for
retirement, breakdown, and ill-health.

There is at present very little direct promotion open to the
Domestic Subjects' teacher in elementary schools. In London there are
practising-centres for students in training, and training centres for
teachers during the probationary period, the managers of which hold
very responsible posts that carry extra salary. The inspecting staff
is usually chosen from teachers of experience, but this is necessarily
limited in numbers, vacancies occurring only rarely. The salary
attached to these posts is from L150 to L300. Many good posts in
the Colonies have been obtained by Domestic Subjects' teachers in
elementary schools. Some teachers have become foreign missionaries,
Children's Care Committee visitors, or home mission workers and
visitors. Some have established model laundries, others have taken
charge of students' hostels and boarding-houses; while many have
been successful in the needle-trades, luncheon and tea-rooms, and in
lecturing and demonstrating for gas and electric companies.

Several organisations for self-protection and the advancement of the
profession are open to teachers of Domestic Subjects. The Association
of Teachers of Domestic Subjects was founded in 1896, and has done
valuable work for the members. It is affiliated to the Association of
Teachers in Technical Institutes, and is thus enabled to obtain
good legal advice. A representative has been appointed to sit on the
Council for the Registration of Teachers. The Association is helping
to educate public opinion, and to review and consider the pedagogy
of domestic subjects in all classes of schools. Domestic Subjects'
teachers are also admitted to membership of other Teachers'
Associations, which safeguard the interest of their members and offer
advantages for training and travelling. Members of the Association of
Teachers of Domestic Subjects have the right to join for the purposes
of the Insurance Act the "Approved" section of the Secondary,
Technical and University Teachers' Provident Society. The London
County Council has secured "exception" from the Act for their Domestic
Subjects' teachers, their allowance for sick leave being better than
the provisions of the Act. The Association of Teachers of Domestic
Subjects has obtained special terms for members from two assurance
companies for deferred annuities or endowment assurances. The London
Teachers' Association has also a provident section.

We have seen that Domestic Arts may now claim a position of importance
in both the elementary and secondary school curricula, and that the
teaching of these subjects may rank as a profession in which there is
a great deal of scope. The attitude of mind towards these subjects has
much changed during the last few years, largely owing to the efforts
of those who have taken them up as subjects of scientific study.
Much, however, remains to be done, both in organising the teaching in
schools, and in the training of teachers in domestic subjects. Only
those who have had scientific training, are competent to put the work
on a sound scientific basis.

[Footnote 1: An interesting sidelight on economic conditions is
afforded by the instructions issued by the London County Council for
the guidance of teachers of Domestic Subjects (Syllabus of Instruction
in Domestic Economy. Revised, March 1912). The girls are to be taught
account-keeping in order to "cultivate a well-balanced sense of
proportion in spending and saving. ... Weekly incomes suitable for
consideration in London, to begin with, are 35s., L3, and 28s. taken
in that order." The number in family is supposed to be six, _i.e.,_
parents and four children.

The obvious inference is that experts do not find it possible to deal
satisfactorily with cases in which there are, say, six children and
an income of 25s. An income of L1 a week is not even mentioned, though
many a London school-girl must know "in the last three years of
her school-life" that her mother has not more than this to spend.
Translated into concrete quantities of food, clothing, and rent,
this "living wage" is found insufficient for daily needs. The teacher
therefore is encouraged to ignore the economic conditions of most of
her pupils. [EDITOR]. ]


Cost and duration of courses for the first degree in the Faculties
of Arts and Science, together with Scholarships in those Faculties
available for Women at the Universities and University Colleges[1] of
the United Kingdom.


1. Scholarships, etc., printed in _italics_ are available for Women only.

2. Scholarships, etc., printed in #black type# are not restricted to
graduates of any one University.

3. County Council and Borough Scholarships are included only when tenable
at a specified University or College. Particulars of others should in
each case be obtained from the respective Director or Secretary of the
Education Committee.

4. No scholarship or prize is included of which the value is less than L15.

[Footnote 1: University Colleges are those in receipt of a Government Grant
and doing work of a University standard. Thus the Polytechnics and Colleges
such as the Albert Memorial College, Exeter, are not included, although
they prepare students for degree examinations.]



Duration of Pass Course in Arts or Science: 3 years.
Duration of Honours (M.A., M.Sc.) in Arts or Science: 4 years.
Cost of Tuition in Arts: 54 guineas for the course.
Cost of Tuition in Science: From 47 guineas to L186, 2s. for
the course, according to subjects chosen.
Cost of Residence (optional): From 40 to 55 guineas per annum.

Scholarships, Bursaries, and Prizes.

Name. Value and Tenure. Remarks.
Entrance(2) Not more than L25
1 year
Fentham's Trust L75 3 years Awarded on to candidates
who have resided for 5
years in the City of
University(2) L30 1 year Science
University(2) L30 1 year Arts
University(15) Free tuition and not
more than L30
maintenance 4 years
Theodore Mander L24 2-3 years Open to sons and daughters
of burgesses of
Wolverhampton, and
awarded to those
intending to take Degree
Courses in the Faculties
of Science of Commerce
Polytechnic(2) L45 _circa_ 3 years
Ascough L36 _circa_ 1 year Chemistry
George Henry L45 3 years Classics
German L50 -- Offered each year for 5
years from 1913.
Education Committee L50 3 years
Corbett L28 _circa_ 1 year For 2nd year students.

University(4) L50 1 year Arts and Science
Research(4) L50 1 year Arts and Science
Priestley(3) L96 _circa_ 1 year Chemistry Research
1851 Exhibition L150 2 years Scientific Research


Duration of Course in Arts or Science, Pass or Honours: 3 years.
Cost of Tuition in Arts: 18 guineas per annum.
Cost of Tuition in Science: 20 guineas per annum.
Cost of Residence (optional) at Clifton Hill House: 40 guineas per annum.

Scholarships, Bursaries, and Prizes.

Name. Value and Tenure. Remarks.
Bursaries, variable Tuition fees and
in number maintenance grant
1 year Awarded (to children of
Bristol ratepayers only)
according to
Vincent Stuckey Lean Interest on Science
Scholarship L1,000 1 year

_Catherine Winkworth_ L30 1 year Arts
_Catherine Winkworth_ L30 1 year Science
Capper Pass Scholarship L25 1 year Metallurgy
Hugh Conway Scholarship L20 1 year English Literature


The only University Scholarships for which women are eligible
are the Arnold Gerstenberg Studentship (income of L2,000) for
Philosophical Research and the Benn W. Levy Studentship for
Research in Biological Chemistry (L100 a year). Scholarships at
Girton and Newnham are for women only.

The University does not grant degrees to women.


Duration of Course in Arts or Science: 3 years. (Pass candidates
are not accepted.)

Cost of Course: L105 per annum, including tuition, examinations,
and residence. For out-students the fees are L12 a term.

Scholarships, Bursaries, and Prizes.

Name. Value and Tenure. Remarks.
_Jane Agnes Chessar_ Not less than
L88 4 years Classics
_Russell Gurney_ L40 3 years History
_Sir Francis Goldsmid_ L45 3 years
_Mary Anne Leighton_ About L16 3 years
_Barbara Leigh Smith_ About L44 3 years
_Todd Memorial_ About L35 3 years
_Higgins_ L40 3 years
_Henry Tomkinson_ At least L20 3 years
_Clothworkers_ L60 3 years
_Skinners_ L50 3 years
_Gilchrist_ L50 3 years Also tenable at Newnham
_Queen's School,_ L30 3 years
_Dove_ L20 3 years For girls from St.
Leonard's School, St.
Andrew's. Classics

#For Certified Students#
_Gilchrist Studentship_ L100 1 year For Professionals. Open to
Students at Newnham and
_Old Girtonians'_ Not less than
_Studentship_ L48 1 year
_John Elliot Cairnes_ Not less than
L58 1 year For research in Political
Economy or Economic
_Sir Arthur Arnold_ L30 1 year
_Harkness_ About L70 1 year Geology. Also tenable at
Newnham. Awarded

_Pfeiffer_ L120 2 years
#Girton College# L300 Various Open to students of all

_Gamble_ Interest on L500
_Therese Montifiore_ Interest on L1,700


Duration of Course in Arts or Science: 3 years (Pass candidates
are not accepted).

Cost of Course: From L90 to L105 per annum, including tuition,
examinations, and residence. For out-students the fees are
L12 a term.

Scholarships, Bursaries, and Prizes.

Name. Value and Tenure. Remarks.
_College_(2) L50 3 years
_Clothworhers_ L50 3 years
_College_(1 or more) L35 3 years
_Classical_ L50 3 years Also tenable at Girton
_Modern Languages_ L50 3 years Also tenable at Girton
_Liverpool Clough_ L50 2-3 years For those entering the
teaching profession, only
_Gilchrist_ L50 3 years Also tenable at Girton
_Mary Ewart_ L100 3 years For students who have been
in residence three terms
_Harkness_ L70 1 year Geology. Also tenable at
Girton. Awarded

#Certificated Students#
_Arthur Hugh Clough_ L40 1 year
_Mary Ewart_ L150 1 year Travelling scholarship
_Gilchrist_ L100 1 year Tenable only by those
entering a profession.
Held alternate years at
Newnham and Girton
#Bathurst# L75 or under 1 year Awarded from time to time
for proficiency in
Natural Science. Not
restricted to Newnham
_Marion Kennedy_ L80 1 year Holder eligible for 2nd
_Studentship_ year

_Associates_(2) L100 1 year Awarded alternate years
_Mary Bateson_ L100 1 year
_"N"_ L100 1 year

_Creighton_ L15 Awarded for an essay on
_Memorial_ History or Archaeology



Duration of Course in Arts: Pass 2 years; Honours, 3 years.
Duration of Course in Science: Pass and Honours, 3 years.
Cost of Tuition, Arts and Science: L21 per annum.
Cost of Residence in Abbey House (optional): From L12 to L16 a term.

Scholarships, Bursaries, and Prizes.

Name. Value and Tenure. Remarks.

Foundation Scholarships L70 1 year May be renewed. Arts
Foundation Scholarships L40 1 year May be renewed
Foundation Scholarships L30 1 year May be renewed
Entrance Exhibitions(2) L20 1 year May be renewed
Pears Scholarship L50 3 years Arts
_Scholarships_(2) L70 1 year
_Scholarships_(2) L30 1 year
Exhibitions(2) L20 2 years Persons of limited means

Scholarships(2) L30 1 year 2nd year students
Scholarships(2) L30 1 year 2nd year students
Gisborne Scholarship L30 1 year 2nd year students
University Classical L30 1 year
University Mathematical L30 1 year
University Hebrew L20 1 year
Thorp Scholarship L20 1 year
Newby Scholarship L18 2 or 3 yrs. Arts
Scholarships(3) L20 1 year Modern B.A.

Gibson L20 Essay


Duration of Pass Course in Arts or Science: 3 years.
Duration of Honour Course in Arts or Science: 3 to 4 years.
Cost of Tuition: L20 per annum.
There is no Hall of Residence.

Scholarships, Bursaries, and Prizes.

Name. Value and Tenure. Remarks.
Exhibition L20 1-2 years Science
Exhibition L15 1-2 years Science
Exhibitions(2) L15 1-2 years Arts
Newcastle-upon-Tyne Free admission to a Open to candidates
Corporation degree course resident in Newcastle.
Exhibitions(10) 2 years Arts
Newcastle-upon-Tyne Free admission to a Open to candidates
Corporation degree course resident in Newcastle.
Exhibitions(10) 2 years Arts
Newcastle-upon-Tyne Free admission to a Open to candidates
Corporation degree course resident in Newcastle.
Exhibitions(10) 2 years Science
Gateshead Corporation Free admission to a Open to candidates
Exhibitions(10) degree course resident in Gateshead.
2 years


Junior Pemberton L30 and remission of Awarded on the results of
two-thirds of the the first B.Sc.
class fees 1 year examination
Thomas Young Hall L20 with remission of Awarded on the results
two-thirds of the of the first B.Sc.
class fees 3 years examination
Nathaniel Clerk L15 1 year Awarded on the results
of the first B.Sc.
Senior Pemberton L40 and fees 1 year Candidates must have
passed the first B.Sc.

Research Studentships(2) L62, 10s 1 year
1851 Exhibition L150 2 years Science
1851 Exhibition
Probationary Bursaries L70 1 year Science Research

Johnston Chemical L60 1 year Open to Bachelors of
Science of any British
University of not more
than 3 years' standing

College L125 1 year
Pemberton L120 3 years Open to graduates in
Science of Durham
University of not more
than 6 years' standing
from their first degree


Duration of Pass Course, Arts or Science: 3 years.
Duration of Honour Course, Arts or Science: 3 to 4 years.
Cost of Tuition in Arts: L19 per annum.
Cost of Tuition in Science: L27 per annum.
Cost of Residence at University Hall (optional): From L32 to L41 per annum.

Scholarships, Bursaries, and Prizes.

Name. Value and Tenure. Remarks.
Emsley L20 2 years
Edward Baines L20 2 years
Charles Wheatley L25 3 years Arts
William Summers L35 3 years Arts
Brown L40 2 years Science
Senior City(14) L50 3 years Open to candidates of not
(renewable) less than 17 and not more
than 30 years of age
County Major L55 _circa_ 3 years Open to candidates of not
(West Riding)(14) less than 16 and not
more than 30 years of
Free Studentships Tuition Fees 3 years
(West Riding)
Major (North Riding)(4) L60 1-3 years Open to women of not less
than 16 and not more than
20 years of age
Scholarships (East L60 1-3 years
Salt L20 2 years Arts
City Council Not specified

1851 Exhibition L150 2 years Science
University (limited L25 1-2 years Awarded ordinarily on
number) Final Honours Examinations
Gilchrist L80 1 year Modern Languages
John Rutson L70 1 year Arts

University L100 1 year


Duration of Pass Course in Arts or Science: 3 years.
Duration of Honour Course in Arts: 3 to 4 years.
Duration of Honour Course in Science: 4 years.
Cost of Tuition in Arts: L19 per annum.
Cost of Tuition in Science: L25 per annum.
Cost of Residence in University Hall (optional): From 35 to 50 guineas a

Scholarships, Bursaries, and Prizes.

Name. Value and Tenure. Remarks.
Bibby(2) L20 3 years Open to candidates of not
more than 18 years of age
Morris Ranger L20 3 years
_Ladies' Educational L30 3 years Open to women of not less
Association_ than 16 and not more than
19 years of age
Elizabeth James L40 3 years Arts or Law
Tate (Arts) L35 3 years Open to candidates who
have been educated in one
of the schools of
Liverpool or the
neighbourhood and who are
not more than 18 years of
Tate (Science)(3) L35 3 years
Senior City(8) L30 and free admission Open to candidates of not
to lectures less than 16 and not more
3 years than 19 years of age
Senior City Technical(2) L50 and free admission Open to candidates of not
to lectures less than 16 and not more
than 25 years of age
3 years
Derby(2) L35 3 years One without limit of age,
one for candidates of not
more than 18 years of age
Canning L28 3 years}
Iliff L20 3 years} Arts including
Mathematics, or B.Sc.
Honours in Mathematics
William Rathbone L20 3 years}
Gossage L70 _circa_ 3 years Open to pupils of schools
in the Borough of Widnes
Lundie Memorial L15 3 years
Wallasey Borough L35 3 years Open to candidates under
Council 19 years of age
W.P. Sinclair Interest on L1,000 Arts or Honour School of
3 years Mathematics
Henry Deacon L50 3 years Open to candidates of not
more than 19 years of age
who intend studying in
the Honour School of
Sheridan Muspratt L50 2 years Chemistry
Thomas Hornby L20 1 year Greek
Korbach L20 1 year Undergraduates reading
(renewable) German in the Honour
School of Modern
Languages or graduates
wishing to proceed with
German study or research
Henry Warren Meade-King Interest on L1,000 Economics
2 years
Holt Travelling L50 1 year Architecture
Isaac Roberts(2) L50 1 year Science. Open to graduates
(renewable) and under-graduates
Sir John Willox L50 2 years Chemistry

Korbach L20 1 year __See above, undergraduate_
(renewable) _scholarship of same name_
Gilchrist L80 1 year Modern Languages
Isaac Roberts(2) L50 1 year _See above, undergraduate_
_scholarship of same name_
1851 Exhibition L150 2 years Tenable at any University
in England and abroad,
and to be used for
Science Research work
University(2) L25 1 year
1851 Exhibition Bursary L70 1 year
Derby L45 _circa_ 1 year Mathematics
Owen-Templeman Interest on L450
1 year
(renewable) Celtic
Stanley Jones Interest on L1,300 Economics
University -- 1 year
Charles Beard L75 1 year History
Oliver Lodge Interest on L2,650 Physics
1 year


The duration of the Course in Arts or Science, Pass and Honours,
is 3 years. (_See_ under separate Colleges for Fees.)

All students of the University are eligible for University Scholarships,
Exhibitions, and Prizes in accordance with the regulations
laid down in each case.

Scholarships, Bursaries, and Prizes.

Name. Value and Tenure. Remarks.
#University Undergraduate.#
Exhibitions(5) L40 2 years Arts and Science
Scholarships(19) L50 1 year Arts and Science
Mitchell Exhibitions(4) 2 of L25} 1 year For candidates from the
2 of L20}(renewable) city of London
_Si Dunstan Exhibitions_ L60 3 years For residents in London of
_for Women_(3) restricted means
_Gilchrist_ L40 2 years One in Arts, one in
_Scholarships, for_ Science (the latter may
_Women_(2) be increased by L10)

#University Post-Graduate.#
The Lindley Studentship L100 For research in Physiology
(awarded every 3rd year)
The University L50 For research
Studentship in (undergraduates are also
Physiology eligible)
George Smith Studentship L100 + L5 worth Awarded to the best
of books Internal Candidate for
B.A. Honours in English
on condition of
preparation for M.A.
_Gilchrist Studentship_ L100 For graduates in Honours
_for Women_ who undertake to prepare
for and practise some
Gilchrist Studentship in L80 For internal graduates in
Modern Languages Honours (French or
German) who undertake to
follow abroad a course of
preparation for the
profession of Modern
Language Teacher
Carpenter Medal (or its L20 Awarded every 3 years for
pecuniary equivalent) a Thesis in experimental
Psychology presented for
a Doctor's Degree
Ouseley Memorial L50 Oriental Languages, not
Scholarships(3) restricted to graduates
Gilchrist Scholarships(2)L50 Oriental Languages, not
restricted to graduates

Grants are also made from the Dixon Fund in aid of scientific


Cost of Tuition in Arts: 27 guineas per annum.
Cost of Tuition in Science: From 27 to 38 guineas per annum.
Cost of Residence in College (optional): From 58 to 68 guineas per annum.
All Scholarships at Bedford College are open to women only.

Scholarships, Bursaries, and Prizes.

Name. Value and Tenure. Remarks.
_Reid Scholarships_(2) L30 3 years Arts
_Clift Scholarship_ L30 3 years Arts
_Courtauld Scholarship_ L30 3 years Arts
_Henry Tate Scholarship_ L50 3 years Science
_Arnott Scholarship_ L50 3 years Science
_Scholarships_(2) L50 3 years
_Reid Scholarship_ L60 3 years
_Jane Benson_
_Scholarship_ L60 2 years Awarded biennially to a
student of Bedford High

_Reid Fellowship_ L50 2 years Awarded biennially either
to an Arts or a Science


Cost of Tuition in Arts or Science: L10, 10s. per annum.
There is no Hall of Residence.

Scholarships, Bursaries, and Prizes.

Name. Value and Tenure. Remarks.
Drapers' Company(2) L40 3 years Arts. Candidates must not
exceed 19 years of age
Drapers' Company(2) L40 3 years Science. Candidates must
not exceed 19 years of

Research Studentship Conditions not yet


Cost of Tuition in Arts: L25, 4s. per annum.
Cost of Tuition in Science: L31, 10s. per annum.
Cost of Residence in King's Hall (optional): From L17, 10s. to L26, 5s.
per term.
All Scholarships, etc., except the three which are specified, are open to
both men and women, and are tenable by the former at King's College,

Scholarships, Bursaries, and Prizes.

Name. Value and Tenure. Remarks.
_Skinners' Company_ L40 3 years Arts
_Merchant Taylors'_ L40 3 years Arts or Science
Sambrooke Scholarship L25 2 years Classics
Sambrooke Scholarship L25 2 years Science

Inglis Scholarship L30 1 year English or History in
alternate years
Sambrooke Exhibition L50 1 year Classics

Inglis Studentship L100 1 year Awarded on the result
of the B.A. Honours
Examination in English
and in History in
alternate years. The
selected Student is
required to prepare for
M.A. and to give some
assistance in teaching
Layton Research L150 2 years Science
Gilchrist Scholarship L52, 10S 1 year For graduates intending to
in Home Science take the Post-Graduate
Diploma in Home Science
and Economics. For women

Carter Prize L15 in books and gold English Verse
Carter Prize L15 in books and gold Botany


Cost of Residence and Tuition: L100 per annum.
Cost of Tuition for out-students: L12 per term.
All Scholarships at Royal Holloway College are for women only.

Scholarships, Bursaries, and Prizes.

Name. Value and Tenure. Remarks.
_Founder's_ L60 3 years
_Entrance_ L50 3 years
_Martin Holloway_ L35 3 years
_Several Bursaries_ Not exceeding
L30 3 years

_Driver_(3) L30 3 years For students who have been
at least three terms in
_Christie_ L60 2 years For History

_Several_ Varying 1 year For students wishing to
_Studentships_ in amount take up post-graduate
_Christie, Esq._ L21 French literature
_Martin Holloway._ L15, 15s.


Cost of Tuition in Arts: From L24, 3s. to L42 per annum.
Cost of Tuition in Science: L35 per annum.
Cost of Residence in College Hall (optional): From L53 to L82 per annum.

Scholarships, Bursaries, and Prizes.

Name. Value and Tenure. Remarks.
Andrews Entrance L30 1 year Arts and Science. Age
Scholarships(3) limit, 18
Campbell Clarke L40 3 years English Language and
Entrance Scholarship Literature. Age limit, 18
Goldsmid L30 3 years Science. Age limit, 18
Rosa Morison L30 3 years Arts. Age limit, 18
Member's Scholarship L30 3 years Classics
West L30 1 year English and English
Morris L16 2 years
St Pancras College fees for Limited to candidates born
3 years in St Pancras
Campbell Clarke L40 2 or 3 years English Language and

Andrews Scholarships L30 1 year Arts and Science
Derby Zoological L60 2 years
Ellen Watson Memorial L15 1 year Science. Candidates must
be under 21
Fielden Research L50 1 or 2 years Research in German
_Eleanor Grove_ L30 1 year Research in German
(may be renewed)
John Oliver Hobbes L20 1 year Modern English Literature
Hollier L60 1 year Greek and Hebrew
Jews' Commemoration L15 2 years Arts or Science
Joseph Hume L20 1 year Jurisprudence and
Political Economy
Malden Medal and L20 1 year Proficiency in Greek
Mayer de Rothschild L40 1 year Pure Mathematics
John Stuart Mill L20 1 or 2 years Philosophy of Mind or
_Rosa Morison_ L30 1 year English Language and
Ricardo L20 3 years Awarded every third year
for Political Economy
Tuffnell L100 2 years Science. Candidates must
be under 24

George Jessel L50 1 year Research in Mathematics
Jevons Memorial L35 1 or 2 years Research in Political
Physics Research L60} 1 year
Studentships(2) L40}
Quain L150 3 years English. Awarded every
third year
Quain L100 3 years Biology. Awarded every
third year

Quain L50 English Essay


Cost of Residence and Tuition: L35 a term.
Cost of Tuition for Out-students: L15 a term.
All Scholarships at Westfield College are for women only.

Scholarships, Bursaries, and Prizes.

Name. Value and Tenure. Remarks.
_Draper's Company_(2) L50 3 years Candidates must be under
age of 20
_Amy Sanders Stephens_ L50 3 years
_College Scholarships_ L35 to L50 3 years
(2 or more)


Duration of Course in Arts or Science, Pass and Honours: 3 years.
Cost of Tuition in Arts: L18 per session.
Cost of Tuition in Science: Pass, from L20 to L30 per annum.
Honours, from L12, 12S. to L45 per annum.
Cost of Residence in Ashburne Hall or Langdale Hall (optional):
From L40 to L52, 10S. per annum.

Scholarships, Bursaries, and Prizes.

Name. Value and Tenure. Remarks.
Rogers L40 2 years Biennial. Classics
Seaton L40 2 years Biennial. Mathematics
Dalton L40 2 years Mathematics
Hulme L35 3 years English and History
Jones L35 2 years History
James Gaskill L35 2 years Mathematics and Chemistry
John Buckley L30 3 years Mathematics and Science
Grace Calvert L30 2 years Science. Biennial
Bleackley L15 3 years Science (not till 1915)
Theodores L15 1 year French and German
_Dora Muir_ L30 3 years
_Alice Fay_ L25 Not more than 3 years
_Ashburne Hall_ L60 3 years
_Marjory Lees_ L40 3 years
_Old Ashburnians_ L30 1-3 years
Jevons L70 1 year Economic Science (once in
six years)
Russian L60 1st year} 2 years
L25 2nd year}
Bishop Fraser L40 2 years Classics
Oliver Heywood L50 2 years Classics
Dieschfield L30 1 year
Robert Platt L50 1-2 years Zoology and Botany
Robert Platt L50 2 years Physiology
Education(2) L50 1 year Intending Teachers
Faulkner (Arts) and L100 1 year
Beyer (Science)(3)
Victoria L40 1 year Classics
Wellington L30 1 year Greek. Biennial
Walters L30 1 year French. German
Bradford L35 1 year History
Shuttleworth L45 1 year Political Economy
Dalton L35 1 year Mathematics
Derby L30 1 year Mathematics
Heginbottom L15 1 year Physics
Dalton L50 2 years Chemical
Mercer L30 1 year Chemistry

Roscoe L50 1 year History
Gilchrist L80 1 year Modern Languages
Graduate L25 1 year One in each Honours School
in Arts and Science
Travelling L60 for 1st year, Russian
and L75 for 2nd year
#1851 Exhibition# L150 2 years Science
Schuster L50 1 year Engineering or Chemistry

John Harling L125 1-2 years Physics, English
Honorary Schunk L100 1 year Chemistry
Jones L150 2 years History
John Bright L100 2 years
Public Health(2) L50 1 year

Lee Greek Testament L15
Warburton L30


Duration of Course in Arts or Science: 3 to 4 years. (Pass
candidates are not accepted at the Women's Colleges.)

Women are not eligible for any University Scholarships or Prizes.
All Scholarships at the Women's Colleges are for women only.
The University does not grant degrees to women.


Combination Fee: From L84 to L105 per annum.

Scholarships, Bursaries, and Prizes.

Name. Value and Tenure. Remarks.
_Entrance L40-L60 3 years
_Entrance L20-L30 3 years
_Shaw Lefevre_ L50 Awarded only to students
in residence

#Certificated Students.#
#Mary Ewart Travelling#
#Scholarship# L100-L200 Awarded occasionally, and
open to women graduates
of Durham and Dublin,
as well as to all
certificated students of
the Women's Colleges at
Oxford and Cambridge


Cost of Tuition: L27 per annum.
Cost of Residence (obligatory): From L65 to L75 per annum.

Scholarships, Bursaries, and Prizes.

Name. Value and Tenure. Remarks.
_Jephson Scholarship_ L50 3 years
_College Scholarship_ L40 3 years
_College Scholarship_ L35 3 years


Cost of Tuition: L26, 5s. per annum.
Cost of Residence (obligatory): L75 per annum.

Scholarships, Bursaries, and Prizes.

Name. Value and Tenure. Remarks.
_College Scholarship_ L50 3 years
_College Scholarship_ L30 3 years
_Hay Scholarship_ L25-L45 3 years
_Cheltenham Scholarship_ varies in amount Open only to pupils of
3 years Cheltenham Ladies College


Combination Fee: From L70 to L95 per annum.

Scholarships, Bursaries, and Prizes.

Name. Value and Tenure. Remarks.
__Old Students'_ L30 3 years
_College Scholarship_ L30 3 years
_College Scholarship_ L25 3 years
_Clara Evelyn Mordan_
_Scholarship_ L40 3 years Awarded every third year


Cost of Tuition: From L24 to L30 per annum.

The Society of Home Students provides for the education of
students who are not in residence at any College. It undertakes
to prepare students for pass as well as honours examinations.

Scholarships, Bursaries, and Prizes.

Name. Value and Tenure. Remarks.
_Ottley Scholarship_ L40 3 years Open only to pupils of
Worcester High School.
_Gilchrist Travelling_ L100 1 year Open to certificated women
students at Oxford


Duration of Course in Arts or Science, Pass and Honours: 3 years.
Cost of Tuition varies according to subjects chosen.
Cost of Residence in the University Hostel (optional): From
29 to 43 guineas per annum.

Scholarships, Bursaries, and Prizes.

Name. Value and Tenure. Remarks.
Fifth L30 3 years Arts, Science
Corporation L30 3 years Arts, Science
Town Trustees(2) L50 3-4 years Tenable at Sheffield,
Oxford and Cambridge
Education Committee L15, 1st year}
L20, 2nd year}3 years
L25, 3rd year}
Town Trustees(4) L50 3 years Open only to candidates
under 19 years of age
educated in Sheffield
Education Committee L50 3 years Applied Science
Earnshaw[1] L50 at least 1 year Open to inhabitants of the
or more City of Sheffield, and
tenable at any University
in the United Kingdom.
Awarded for Mathematics
or Classics.
Mechanics' Institute L50 and free admission
to lectures 1-2 years
Whitworth Exhibitions(30)L50 3 years Awarded on the results of
Examinations of the Board
of Education
Whitworth(4) L25 3 years Awarded on the results of
Examinations of the Board
of Education
Technical L20, 1st year; L25, 2nd
year; L30, 3rd year;
and free admission to
lectures 3 years
Education Committee L50 3 years Arts

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