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Woman's Institute Library of Cookery, Vol. 5 by Woman's Institute of Domestic Arts and Sciences

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of fish, etc., is much more palatable if a highly seasoned sauce or
another highly seasoned food or, in fact, a food of an entirely
different flavor is served with it. Apple sauce or baked apples are
usually served with roast pork for this purpose, while sour sauces or
pickles of some description are served with fish to relieve its
blandness.

65. To secure the most successful meals, the main course should be
decided upon first and the additional dishes, such as soup, salad, and
dessert, should be the second consideration. In this method of planning
meals, they can be properly balanced, for if the main course is heavy,
the others can be made light or some of them omitted altogether, while
if the main course is a light one, heavier dishes may be selected to
accompany it.

Whenever it is possible to do so, the heavy meal of the day should be
served at noon and the lighter one in the evening. This plan should
always be followed for children, and it is preferable for adults.
However, having dinner at noon is often very inconvenient and sometimes
impossible, because frequently one or more members of the family are at
business some distance from home and their coming home at noon for
dinner is impractical. In such an event, the evening meal should be the
heavy one, but it should not be made too hearty and overeating should
be avoided.

At all meals, tea and coffee should be used sparingly. Especially should
this rule be followed by persons who are nervous, or high strung, or are
troubled with indigestion and insomnia. At any rate, it is advisable not
to drink either of these beverages at night.

* * * * *

METHODS OF SECURING VARIETY IN MEALS

CARD-FILE SYSTEM OF MENU MAKING

66. With the general rules for meal planning in mind, the housewife is
well prepared to arrange menus that will be properly balanced, as well
as varied and attractive. One means of securing variety in menus, and at
the same time supplying oneself with a very convenient piece of kitchen
equipment, consists in placing the recipes used on small cards and
filing them in a card file under the headings to which they belong, as
shown in Figs. 7 and 8. For instance, a heading should be made for
soups, one for potatoes, and so on. These cards may then be rotated in
order to make up menus. When the first card of each group has been used,
it should be placed at the back of the others in that group; then each
one will come in the order in which it was originally placed in the
file. Of course, when the cards are not filed alphabetically, it is a
little more difficult to find the recipes one needs at a particular
time, and so if desired other means of using the cards for menu making
may be easily devised without changing their position.

[Illustration: FIG. 7]

In addition to serving as a basis for menus, this arrangement takes the
place of a cook book. In fact, it is much more convenient, for instead
of a book containing recipes on the table where the work is being done,
a small card, which takes up less space and is much less likely to be in
the way, may be substituted.

[Illustration: FIG. 8]

DINNER MENUS

67. To assist the housewife materially in planning dinners in great
variety, Table VII, which contains suggestions for dinner menus, is
given. As will be noted, it is intended that each dinner shall consist
of a soup, a meat, potatoes in some form, another vegetable, a salad,
and a dessert. It is not necessary, of course, to include all these
dishes when a simpler meal is desired, but a number of suggestions are
given in each group so that there may be a good selection. In order to
use this table to advantage and to secure a large variety of menus,
different combinations of the various foods may be made. Then, too, the
combinations given may be rotated so that frequent repetition of the
same combination will be avoided. This table therefore has the advantage
over meals planned for 14 or even 21 days, for these must be repeated
once in 2 or 3 weeks.

TABLE VII SUGGESTIONS FOR DINNER MENUS

SOUP
1. Tomato Bouillon
2. Rice
3. Cream of Corn
4. Noodle
5. Cream of Pea
6. Julienne
7. Clear Bouillon
8. Oxtail
9. Split-Pea Purée
10. Cream of Tomato
11. Celery
12. Cream of Onion
13. Barley Broth
14. Cream of Asparagus
15. Vegetable
16. Corn Chowder

MEAT
1. Roast Beef
2. Pork Chops
3. Macaroni and Cheese
4. Broiled Hamburg
5. Baked Fish
6. Broiled Steak
7. Kidney-Bean Loaf
8. Roast Pork
9. Lamb Chops
10. Roast Chicken
11. Baked Beans
12. Meat Loaf
13. Liver and Bacon
14. Roast Mutton
15. Broiled Ham
16. Scalloped Salmon
17. Roast Lamb
18. Lima-Bean Loaf
19. Veal Tongue
20. Fried Oysters

POTATOES
1. Boiled Potatoes with Butter and Parsley
2. Scalloped Potatoes
3. Hashed-Brown Potatoes
4. Baked Potatoes
5. Potato Puff
6. French Fried Potatoes
7. Potato Patties
8. Roast Potatoes
9. Candied Sweet Potatoes
10. Mashed Potatoes
11. Creamed Potatoes
12. Stuffed Potatoes
13. Baked Sweet Potatoes
14. Potatoes au Gratin
15. Sautéd Potatoes

VEGETABLES
1. Spinach
2. Green Peas
3. Breaded Tomatoes
4. Squash
5. Red Beets
6. Sweet Corn
7. Buttered Carrots
8. Mashed Turnips
9. Scalloped Eggplant
10. Buttered Cauliflower
11. Hot Slaw
12. Scalloped Tomatoes
13. Carrots and Peas
14. Buttered Kohlrabi
15. Baked Onions
16. Sautéd Eggplant
17. Stuffed Peppers
18. Creamed Turnips
19. Browned Parsnips
20. Sautéd Tomatoes
21. Escalloped Cabbage
22. Creamed Onions
23. String Beans
24. Asparagus
25. Succotash

SALADS
1. Apple and Celery
2. Lettuce
3. Banana
4. Orange and Coconut
5. Cabbage
6. Tomato
7. Peas and Celery
8. Apple, Date, and Orange
9. Asparagus
10. Pineapple and Nut
11. Green Pepper and Cheese
12. String Bean
13. Fruit
14. Combination
15. Cucumber
16. Waldorf
17. Cabbage and Celery
18. Pineapple and Cream Cheese
19. Humpty Dumpty

DESSERTS
1. Chocolate Blanc Mange
2. Brown Betty
3. Raisin Pie
4. Crackers and Cheese
5. Fruit Gelatine
6. Cake and Fruit
7. Apricot Fluff
8. Tapioca Pudding
9. Steamed Pudding
10. Short Cake
11. Prunes in Jelly
12. Rice Pudding
13. Custard Pie
14. Baked Apples
15. Peach Cobbler
16. Chocolate Bread Pudding
17. Pineapple Tapioca
18. Ice Cream
19. Jelly Tarts
20. Gingerbread and Whipped Cream
21. Indian Pudding, with Custard Sauce
22. Floating Island
23. Prune Fluff
24. Nuts and Raisins

68. In the application of Table VII, use should be made of the dishes
numbered 1 in the various groups for the first day's menu. This dinner,
then, will consist of tomato bouillon, roast beef, boiled potatoes with
butter and parsley, spinach, apple-and-celery salad, and chocolate blanc
mange. In this way, the menus should be made by going through the entire
list and combining the dishes whose numbers correspond. Upon coming to
the last of the soups, which is No. 16, and attempting to make up a
menu, it will be discovered that there are only fifteen varieties of
potato dishes. In order to obtain a menu, the rotation must be begun
again, and so No. 1 of the potato dishes is used. This menu would
therefore consist of corn chowder, scalloped salmon, boiled potatoes
with butter and parsley, sautéd eggplant, peach-and-cream-cheese salad,
and chocolate bread pudding.

In planning menus with the aid of this table, the housewife may not be
able to use a certain dish that is suggested because it is out of
season, cannot be procured, or resembles too closely some of the other
dishes in the menu. In such an event, she should select another dish to
take the place of the one that spoils the combination. Likewise, she
should not hesitate to make any change that will result in producing
properly balanced meals.

LUNCHEON MENUS

69. To aid the housewife in the preparation of suitable luncheons, a
large number of luncheon menus are here given. These menus will serve to
give variety in the preparation of meals if they are rotated properly
and changes are made every once in a while in making up combinations of
food for this important and interesting meal.

THE PLANNING OF MEALS

No. 1

Rice Croquettes
Bread and Butter
Fruit Salad
Gingerbread and Cream Cheese

No. 2

Cream-of-Corn Soup
Egg Salad
Whole-Wheat Muffins
Baked Bananas
Tea

No. 3

Creamed Chicken on Toast
Sliced Tomatoes
Rolls
Fruit Cake

No. 4

Scalloped Oysters
Apple-and-Celery Salad
Wafers
Tea

No. 5

Cream-of-Tomato Soup
Hashed-Brown Potatoes
Graham Bread and Butter
Baked Apples
Tea

No. 6

Macaroni and Cheese
Cabbage Salad
Wafers
Sugar Cookies
Coffee

No. 7

Eggs à la Goldenrod
Rice with Raisins
Bread and Jam
Tea

No. 8

Omelet
Toast
Prune Whip
Vanilla Wafers
Tea

No. 9

Consommé
Chicken Salad
Rolls
Warm Gingerbread and Whipped Cream

No. 10

Creamed Dried Beef on Toast
Lettuce Salad
Stewed Fruit
Tea

No. 11
Scalloped Corn
Brown Bread and Butter
Fruit Salad
Cheese Straws
Coffee

No. 12

Cold Ham
Potato Salad
Graham Bread and Butter
Cookies
Tea

No. 13

Oyster Stew
Wafers
Celery
Pineapple
Sponge Cake

No. 14

Cheese Soufflé
Baked Tomato on Toast
Rice Pudding
Tea

No. 15

Meat Pie
Cranberry Jelly
Table Raisins
Coffee

BREAKFAST MENUS

70. WINTER BREAKFAST MENUS.--To assist the housewife in planning
properly balanced breakfast menus for winter, a number of suggestions
are here given. These necessarily differ from breakfast menus for other
seasons because of the difference in the food that can be obtained. They
are usually of a more hearty nature and contain more heat-producing foods.

No. 1

Oranges
Rolled Oats with Cream
Soft-Cooked Eggs
Toast and Butter
Coffee

No. 2

Stewed Prunes
Cream of Wheat with Cream
Broiled Bacon
Muffins and Butter
Coffee

No. 3

Baked Apples
Griddle Cakes with Maple Sirup
Sausage Patties
Coffee

No. 4

Rolls and Butter
Corn Flakes with Hot Milk
Grapefruit
Coffee

No. 5

Vitos with Dates
French Toast and Butter
Jelly
Hot Chocolate

No. 6

Apple Sauce
Fried Cornmeal Mush with Sirup
Broiled Bacon
Coffee

No. 7
Orange Juice
Steamed Rice
Omelet
Cornmeal Muffins and Butter
Coffee

No. 8

California Grapes
Hominy Grits
Waffles and Sirup
Coffee

No. 9

Sliced Bananas
Pearl Barley
Codfish Balls
Marmalade
Toast
Coffee

No. 10

Popovers Filled with Warm Apple Sauce
White Cornmeal Mush
Baked Eggs in Cream
Toast
Coffee

71. SUMMER BREAKFAST MENUS.--During the summer season, fresh fruits of
various kinds can be obtained, and these are generally used as the first
course for breakfast. As the menus here given show, it is well to vary
the fruit course as much as possible, so that there will be no danger of
tiring the persons to be served. An uncooked breakfast food is
preferable to a cooked one for summer and so several varieties of these
are here suggested.

No. 1

Strawberries and Cream
Scrambled Eggs
Toast
Coffee

No. 2

Raspberries
Puffed Rice
Baking-Powder Biscuits and Honey
Coffee

No. 3

Blackberries
Corn Flakes
Creamed Toast
Coffee

No. 4

Blueberries
Grape Nuts and Cream
Jelly
Omelet
Toast
Coffee

No. 5

Sliced Peaches
Puffed Wheat
Clipped Eggs
Toast
Coffee

No. 6

Cantaloupe
Krumbles with Cream
French Toast and Sirup
Coffee

MENUS FOR SPECIAL OCCASIONS

72. Special occasions, such as New Year's, Easter, Fourth of July,
Thanksgiving, Christmas, etc., are usually celebrated with a dinner that
is somewhat out of the ordinary. Then, too, on such days as St.
Valentine's, St. Patrick's, Hallowe'en, etc., it is often desired to
invite friends in for a social time of some kind, when dainty,
appetizing refreshments make up a part of the entertainment. To assist
the housewife in planning menus for occasions of this kind, a number of
suggestions are here given. Suitable decorations are also mentioned in
each instance, for much of the attraction of a special dinner or
luncheon depends on the form of decoration used.

It should not be thought that elaborate, costly decorations are
necessary, for often the most effective results can be achieved with
some very simple decoration. Of course, the decorations should be
suitable for the occasion to be celebrated. Favors of various kinds are
generally on sale in confectioners' and stationers' shops, so that, if
desired, favors may be purchased. However, the ingenious housewife can,
with very little trouble, make favors that will be just as attractive as
those she can buy and that will be much less expensive. She may copy
some she sees in the shops or work out any original ideas she may have
on the most suitable decorations for the occasion.

NEW YEAR'S DINNERS

No. 1

DECORATION--Ground Pine

Cream-of-Tomato Soup
Mustard Pickles
Croutons
Baked Ham
Hot Slaw
Candied Sweet Potatoes
String Beans
Orange-and-Pineapple Salad
Maple Parfait
Macaroons
Salted Nuts
Coffee

No. 2

DECORATION--Potted Jerusalem Cherries

Crab-Flake Cocktail
Asparagus Broth
Radishes
Wafers
Roast Goose
Hot Baked Apples
Creamed Turnips
Mashed Potatoes
Peas-and-Celery Salad
Vanilla Ice Cream, Apricot Sauce
Table Raisins
Coffee

EASTER DINNERS

No. 1

DECORATION--Daffodils

Clear Tomato Soup
Mixed Pickles
Croutons
Creamed Mushrooms in Timbale Cases
Roast Spring Chicken
Mint Sauce
Potato Puff
Creamed Peas and Carrots
Grapefruit-and-Celery Salad
Milk Sherbet
Sponge Cake
Coffee

No. 2

DECORATIONS--Chinese Lilies and Iris

Fruit Cocktail
Bouillon with Whipped Cream and Pimiento
Celery Wafers
Fricassee of Chicken
Riced Potatoes Scalloped Corn
Tomato Salad
Bavarian Cream Salted Nuts
Coffee

ST. VALENTINE PARTIES

DINNER MENU

DECORATIONS--Red Hearts and Ribbons, Red Candle Shades

Heart-Shaped Canapes Olives
Clam Bouillon
Creamed Chicken and Mushrooms in Pattie Shells
Potatoes au Gratin
Grapefruit-and-California-Grape Salad
Vanilla Ice Cream Heart-Shaped Cakes
Candies

LUNCHEON MENU

DECORATIONS--Red Roses, Heart-Shaped Favors, Cupids

Tuna-Fish Salad
Heart-Shaped Brown Bread and Marmalade Sandwiches
Nut Sandwiches
Ice Cream in Heart-Shaped Cases
Small Decorated Cakes
Candies Nuts

ST. PATRICK'S DAY PARTIES

DINNER MENU

DECORATIONS--Shamrocks and Green Ribbon

Cream-of-Pea Soup
Olives Wafers
Roast Pork Loin Potatoes with Parsley Sauce
Tomatoes au Gratin
Green-Peppers-and-Cheese Salad
Lemon Ice Cakes
Coffee Green Mints

LUNCHEON MENU

DECORATIONS--White Narcissus, Green Carnations, Shamrocks

Chicken Salad
Cheese-and-Green-Pepper Sandwiches
Pistachio Ice Cream Sponge Cake
Mint Punch

FOURTH-OF-JULY LUNCHEONS

No. 1

DECORATIONS--Sweet Peas, Small Flags

Iced Tomato Bouillon
Wafers
Cold Sliced Ham
Swiss Cheese
Creamed Potatoes and Peas
Strawberry-and-Pineapple Salad
Coconut Cream Pie
Iced Tea

No. 2

DECORATIONS--Cornflowers and Daisies

Iced Watermelon with Mint
Creamed Chicken and Mushrooms on Toast
Potato Croquettes
Corn on the Cob
Sliced Cucumbers
Vanilla Ice Cream
Chocolate Sauce
Punch

HALLOWE'EN LUNCHEONS

No. 1

DECORATIONS--Pumpkin Jack o' Lantern, Black-Paper Cats and Witches

Tongue Sandwiches
Swiss-Cheese Sandwiches
Cider
Doughnuts
Pumpkin Pie
Molasses Taffy

No. 2

DECORATIONS--Tiny Paper Jack o' Lanterns

Pink Bunny
Brown-Bread-and-Marmalade Sandwiches
Nut Cookies
Gingerbread
Candies
Cider

THANKSGIVING DINNERS

No. 1

DECORATIONS--Basket of Fruit

Oyster Cocktail
Consommé with Peas
Celery
Wafers
Roast Turkey
Candied Sweet Potatoes
Asparagus with Drawn-Butter Sauce
Cranberry Frappé
Head Lettuce
Thousand-Island Dressing
Pumpkin Pie
Fruit
Coffee

No. 2

DECORATIONS--Baby Chrysanthemums

Grapefruit Cocktail
Celery Soup
Olives
Bread Sticks
Roast Chicken
Cranberry Jelly
Mashed Potatoes
Cottage-Cheese Balls
Baked Onions
Stuffed Dates
Mince Pie
Coffee

CHRISTMAS DINNERS

No. 1

DECORATIONS--Small Christmas Tree

Oyster Broth
Oyster Crackers
Small Pickles
Olives
Chicken Pie
Pickled Peaches
Baked Sweet Potatoes
Creamed Cauliflower
Fruit Salad
Christmas Pudding
Sauce
Bonbons
Salted Nuts
Coffee

No. 2

DECORATIONS--Poinsettias and Holly

Grapefruit with Grape Juice
Cream Chicken Bouillon
Stuffed Celery
Wafers
Roast Duck
Currant Jelly
Mashed Potatoes
Baked Squash
Spiced Punch
Cabbage-and-Green-Pepper Salad
Plum Pudding
Sauce
Mints
Almonds
Coffee

WEDDING BREAKFASTS

No. 1

DECORATIONS--Seasonal Flowers

Iced Fruit
Creamed Chicken on Toast
Stuffed Potato
Asparagus with Butter Sauce
Rolls
Marmalade
Butter
Ice
Cake
Coffee

No. 2

DECORATIONS--Seasonal Flowers

Orange and Grapefruit Juice
Broiled Sweetbreads
Creamed Potatoes
Lima-Bean Soufflé
Hot Biscuits
Honey
Butter
Pineapple Fritters
Milk Sherbet
Cake
Coffee

WEDDING LUNCHEONS

No. 1

DECORATIONS--Seasonal Flowers

Oyster Cocktail
Chicken Soup
Radishes
Olives
Broiled Squab
Browned Potatoes
Fresh String Beans
Fruit Salad
French Ice Cream
Cake
Candies
Coffee

No. 2

DECORATIONS--Seasonal Flowers

Grapefruit Cocktail
Bouillon
Celery
Radishes
Chicken Croquettes
Potato Puff
Stuffed Tomatoes
Bread-and-Butter Sandwiches
Hearts of Lettuce
Mayonnaise
Chocolate Nut Ice Cream
Cake
Mints
Coffee

WEDDING DINNERS

No. 1

DECORATIONS--Seasonal Flowers

Fresh Pineapple
Cream-of-Celery Soup
Ripe Olives
Radishes
Broiled Chicken
Candied Sweet Potatoes
Green Peas in Cream
Corn Fritters
Whole-Wheat Rolls
Butter
Grapefruit Salad
Individual Molds of Ice Cream
Cake
Mints
Coffee

No. 2

DECORATIONS--Seasonal Flowers

Crabflake Cocktail
Consommé Julienne
Celery
Olives
Radishes
Roast Young Duck
Mashed Potatoes
Green Lima Beans
Creamed Cauliflower
Rolls
Butter
Waldorf Salad
Vanilla Ice Cream
Chocolate Sauce
Cake
Candies
Coffee

BIRTHDAY PARTIES FOR CHILDREN

BIRTHDAY DINNER

DECORATIONS--Kewpies with Large Bows of Ribbon To be Used as Favors

Fruit Cocktail in Orange Basket
Creamed Sweetbreads on Toast
Mashed Potatoes
Asparagus Soufflé
Peach-and-Cream-Cheese Salad
Vanilla Ice Cream with Maple Sirup
Birthday Cakes
Candies
Nuts

BIRTHDAY LUNCHEON

DECORATIONS--Pink Sweet Peas, Maiden-Hair Fern, Pink Favors Filled with
Candy

Fruit Salad
Wafers
Punch
Chocolate Ice Cream with Marshmallow
Birthday Cake
Stuffed Dates

BIRTHDAY PARTIES FOR ADULTS

BIRTHDAY DINNER

DECORATIONS--Pink Roses, Pink Candle Shades

Fruit Cocktail
Cream-of-Pea Soup
Radishes
Olives
Wafers
Chicken Croquettes
Stuffed Potatoes
Asparagus Tips
Pineapple-and-Cream-Cheese Salad
Meringue Glacé
Birthday Cake
Coffee

BIRTHDAY LUNCHEON

DECORATIONS--Seasonal Flowers, Candle Shades, and Favors to Match

Lobster Cocktail
Clear Soup
Wafers
Stuffed Olives
Chicken à la King
Julienne Potatoes
Stuffed-Tomato Salad
Chocolate Parfait
Birthday Cake
Candies
Nuts
Coffee

AFTERNOON TEAS

No. 1

Ribbon Sandwiches
Date-and-Nut Sandwiches
Toasted Pound Cake
Salted Nuts
Tea

No. 2

Apricot Sandwiches
Cream-Cheese-and-Peanut Sandwiches
Marguerites
Candied Orange Peel
Tea

SUPPER PARTIES

No. 1

Welsh Rarebit
Tomato Sandwiches
Chocolate Éclairs
Coffee

No. 2

Club Sandwiches
Bisque Ice Cream
Cakes
Coffee

TABLE SERVICE

73. ESSENTIALS OF GOOD TABLE SERVICE.--Too much cannot be said of the
importance of attractive table service. The simplest kind of meal served
attractively never fails to please, while the most elaborate meal served
in an uninviting way will not appeal to the appetite. Therefore, a
housewife should try never to neglect the little points that count so
much in making her meals pleasing and inviting. It is not at all
necessary that she have expensive dishes and linen, nor, in fact,
anything out of the ordinary, in order to serve meals in a dainty,
attractive way. Some points, however, are really essential and should
receive consideration.

74. In the first place, there should be absolute cleanliness in
everything used. To make this possible, the dishes should be properly
washed and dried. The glasses should be polished so that they are not
cloudy nor covered with lint. The silver should be kept polished
brightly. The linen, no matter what kind, should be nicely laundered.
Attention given to these matters forms the basis of good table service.

[Illustration: FIG. 9]

Close in hand with these points comes a well-arranged and neatly set
table. To this may be added some attractive touches in the way of
flowers or other simple decoration. These need cost little or nothing,
especially in the spring and summer seasons, for then the fields and
woods are filled with flowers and foliage that make most artistic table
decorations. Often, too, one's own garden offers a nice selection of
flowers that may be used for table decoration if a little time and
thought are given to their arrangement. In the winter, a small fern or
some other growing plant will answer.

75. BREAKFAST, LUNCHEON, AND DINNER SERVICE.--To give an idea of proper
table service for the three meals, breakfast, luncheon, and dinner,
Figs. 9, 10, and 11 are offered. Attention should be given to the
details of each of these, for they show how to arrange meals that are
intended to be served tastily and invitingly.

76. In Fig. 9 is shown a breakfast cover for one. By a _cover_ is meant
the silver and dishes placed on the table for one person. In a simple
meal, this might consist of a knife, a fork, spoons, a plate, a glass, a
cup and saucer, and a bread-and-butter plate. Here the cover has been
arranged on a breakfast tray for service at a bedside. This meal is not
in the least unusual, but it is very dainty and pleasing. It consists of
strawberries with the stems left on so that they may be dipped into
sugar and eaten, a cereal, a roll with butter, a hot dish of some kind,
such as eggs, and a hot beverage.

[Illustration: FIG. 10]

77. A luncheon table with covers for six is shown in Fig. 10. The first
course consists of a fruit cocktail, which is placed on the table before
the persons to be served are seated. The silver required up to the
dessert course is also laid beforehand. Just before the dessert is
served, the entire table should be cleared and the silver necessary for
this course laid at each place.

A point to be remembered in the placing of silver is that the various
pieces should always be placed on the table in the order in which they
are to be used. Here the first spoon is for the cocktail, which is
already on the table, while the second spoon is for the soup, the next
course. The knife, which is the third piece of silver, with the two
forks on the opposite side will be required for the dinner course, while
the third fork is a fork for the salad course.

As will be noted, doilies have been used in place of a table cloth for
this luncheon. These, which may be as simple or as elaborate as desired,
save laundering and, if they are inexpensive, they are an economy as
well as a convenience. Since they also make a luncheon table very
attractive, they are strongly recommended for meals of this kind. The
luncheon napkin, which is smaller than that used for dinner service,
should always be placed where it is shown here, that is, at the left of
the forks. If only one beverage is to be served, as is usually the case,
the glass is placed at the tip of the knife.

[Illustration: FIG. 11]

78. An example of a correctly set dinner table is shown in Fig. 11. A
table cloth, as will be noted, is used, for a cloth is always preferable
to doilies for dinner. At this meal, the first course is soup. This,
with anything that is to be eaten with the soup, such as the wafers used
here, or a relish, should be placed before the guests are seated. The
bread-and-butter plate, which is placed just at the top of the fork,
should also be on the table. Between each two persons, it is well to
have a set of salt-and-pepper shakers.

* * * * *

THE PLANNING OF MEALS

EXAMINATION QUESTIONS

(1) What knowledge is necessary for the planning of economical and
well-balanced meals?

(2) Discuss a systematic plan for the purchasing of foods.

(3) Compare the advantages of buying foods at a cash store and a credit
store.

(4) Mention the advantages of keeping an account of household
expenditures.

(5) Tell how economy in the purchase of foods may be practiced.

(6) Discuss the training of a child's appetite.

(7) Why is a variety of food necessary in the diet?

(8) Name the factors that influence the amount and proportion of food
substances required for an adult.

(9) (_a_) Explain the meaning of calorie as applied to food. (_b_) What
is the average number of calories required by the adult?

(10) With the aid of Table V, find out how many pounds you are under
weight or over weight. Then tell how you would proceed to acquire your
correct weight.

(11) Make out menus for breakfast, dinner, and supper for 1 day for a
child 12 months old.

(12) Plan a dinner menu that contains foods suitable for both adults and
a child 4 years old, and from it select the foods you would give
the child.

(13) What does a balanced diet include?

(14) What can be done to balance the cost of foods used in a meal?

(15) Give several points of importance in selecting the dishes for a
meal.

(16) Make out menus for the seventeenth and eighteenth days from Table
VII.

(17) Plan an original menu and decorations for a dinner you can serve
for a special occasion.

(18) What are the advantages of a nicely arranged table?

(19) Give a few general rules for the correct serving of food and
setting of tables.

(20) Why is the following menu undesirable and what changes would you
suggest to make it more nearly correct?

Cream Soup
Potatoes
Roast Pork
Greens
Bread and Butter
Pudding
Hard Sauce

* * * * *

INDEX

A

Absinthe,
Accounts, Equipment for keeping household,
Keeping of household,
Methods of keeping household,
Acids in confections, Use of,
in fruit,
Adulteration of coffee,
of flavorings,
Adults, Birthday parties for,
Advertised goods, Nationally,
After-dinner coffee,
Afternoon tea,
teas,
Age on children's diet, Effect of,
on diet, Effect of,
Alcoholic beverages,
beverages, Harmful effects of,
beverages, Kinds of,
Alligator pear, or avocado,
Apple butter,
sauce,
Apples,
apricots, and peaches, Dried,
Composition and food value of,
Drying of,
Maple,
Porcupine,
Steamed,
Stewed quinces and,
Apportionment of income,
Apricot soufflé,
Apricots,
Drying of,
Food value and composition of,
peaches, and apples, Dried,
Artificial flavorings,
Asparagus, Canning of,
Automatic seal tops,
Avocado, or alligator pear,

B

Baked apples,
bananas,
peaches,
pears,
Balancing the diet,
Banana fritters,
Bananas,
Baked,
Food value and composition of,
Beans, Canning of lima and other shelled,
Canning of string,
Drying of string,
Pickled,
Roasting the coffee,
Beer,
Beet relish,
sugar,
Beets, Canning of,
Pickled,
Berries, Miscellaneous,
Nature and care of,
Berry, or fruit, sugar,
Beverage, Definition of,
Beverages, Alcoholic,
Cereal,
Fruit,
Harmful effects of alcoholic,
in the diet,
Ingredients for fruit,
Instantaneous cereal,
Kinds of alcoholic,
Nature and classes of,
Nature of stimulating,
Non-stimulating,
Nourishing,
Preparation of fruit,
Stimulating,
Table showing stimulant and tannic acid in stimulating,
Beverages to meals, Relation of,
Water in,
Birthday-party menus,
Bitter chocolate,
Black tea,
Blackberries,
Composition and food value of,
Blackberry jam,
sponge,
Blanching and scalding foods to be canned,
Blend coffee,
Blueberries,
Blueberry pudding,
pudding, Pressed,
Bohea tea,
Boiled coffee,
Boiling fruit juice and sugar in jelly making,
the confection mixture,
Bonbon cream, Coating candies with,
Bonbons,
Brandy,
Breakfast cocoa,
luncheon and dinner service,
menus,
menus, Summer,
menus, Wedding-,
menus, Winter,
Brown-sugar fudge,
Brussels sprouts, Canning of,
Budget, Household,
Butter, Apple,
Cocoa,
milk, and cream in confections,
Peach,
Pear,
Plum,
scotch,
scotch, Marshmallows coated with,
taffy,
Butters, Fruit,
Buying, Economical,

C

Cabbage, Canning of,
Cafe au lait, Iced,
noir,
Caffeine,
Caffeol,
California oranges,
Calories, Quantity of foods in,
Candied and dried fruits in confections,
peel,
Candies, Cream,
Finishing,
Marking and cutting,
Nature of cream,
with bonbon cream, Coating,
with chocolate, Coating,
Wrapping,
Candy, Serving,
Table showing tests for,
Testing,
Cane sugar,
Canned food, Flavor of,
food, General appearance of,
food, Proportion of food to liquid,
food, Score card for,
food, Texture of,
foods from spoiling, Preventing,
foods, Method of sealing,
foods, Scoring,
foods, Spoiling of,
Preparation of food to be,
Canning and drying,
Cold-pack method of,
Commercial,
Definition of,
Equipment for,
fruit juices for jelly,
fruits, Directions for,
fruits, Table of sirups for,
greens,
Measuring devices for,
method, Fractional-sterilization,
method, Oven,
methods,
methods for fruits,
methods, Steam-pressure,
of asparagus,
of beets,
of Brussels sprouts,
of cabbage,
of carrots,
of cauliflower,
of eggplant,
of fish,
of fruits,
of green corn,
of green peppers,
of lima and other shelled beans,
of meat,
of okra,
of parsnips,
of peas,
of pumpkin,
of root and tuber vegetables,
of squash,
of string beans,
of succotash,
of summer squash,
of tomatoes,
of tomatoes and corn,
of tomatoes for soup,
of turnips,
of vegetables,
Canning, Open-kettle method of,
Oven method of,
Preparation of fruits and vegetables for,
preservatives,
Principles of,
Sealing the jars when,
Selection of food for,
Sirups for,
Steam-pressure method of,
Tin cans for,
Utensils for,
Utensils required for open-kettle method of,
vegetables, Directions for,
Vessels for,
with a pressure cooker,
with the water-seal outfit,
with tin cans,
Cans for canning, Tin,
Cantaloupes and muskmelons,
Serving,
Caramels,
Chocolate,
Nature of,
Plain,
Caravan tea,
Carbohydrate in confections,
in fruit,
Carbonated water,
Card-file system for menu making,
Carrot conserve,
Carrots, Canning of,
Casaba melons,
Cash-and-carry plan of marketing,
Catsup, Grape,
Tomato,
Cauliflower, Canning of,
Pickled,
Cellulose in fruit,
Center cream,
Cereal beverages,
beverages, Instantaneous,
coffees,
Chain stores,
Chemical or mineral colorings,
Cherries,
Composition and food value of,
Sour,
Cherry-and-pineapple conserve,
fritters,
preserve,
Chewing taffy,
Children and infants, Diet for,
Children's birthday parties, Menus for,
diet, Effect of age on,
diet, Effect of weight on,
Chilli sauce,
China congou tea,
Chocolate and cocoa,
and cocoa in confections,
and cocoa, Left-over,
and cocoa, Preparation of,
and cocoa, Production of,
and cocoa, Selection of,
and cocoa, Serving,
and cocoa, Source of,
Bitter,
caramels,
Coating candies with,
Egg,
Hot,
malted milk,
or cocoa, Iced,
sirup,
Sweet,
Table showing tannic acid and stimulant in,
Chow chow,
Christmas dinners,
Citric acid,
Citrus fruits,
Classification of fruits,
of tea,
of vegetables,
Climate on diet, Effect of,
Clingstone peaches,
Closing and storing jelly,
Coarse granulated sugar,
powdered sugar,
Coating candies with bonbon cream,
candies with chocolate,
Cocktail, Fruit,
Grapefruit,
Summer,
Cocoa and chocolate,
and chocolate in confections,
and chocolate, Left-over,
and chocolate, Preparation of,
and chocolate, Production of,
and chocolate, Selection of,
and chocolate, Serving,
and chocolate, Source of,
Breakfast,
butter,
Commercial,
Creamy,
Milling of,
nibs,
Plain,
or chocolate, Iced,
Rich,
Table showing tannic acid and stimulant in,
Theobroma,
Coconut in confections,
Coffee, Adulteration of,
After-dinner,
beans, Grinding,
Coffee beans, Roasting,
biggin,
Blend,
Boiled,
Filtered,
History and production of,
Iced,
Instantaneous,
Java,
Left-over,
Mocha,
Percolated,
percolators,
pot,
Preparation of,
Rio,
Rye,
seeds, Obtaining,
Selection of,
Serving,
Table showing stimulant and tannic acid in,
Vienna,
Coffees, Cereal,
Colander and wire strainer for canning,
Cold-dipping,
-pack method of canning,
-pack method, Procedure in one-period,
-pack method, Utensils for,
Color of jelly,
Colorings for confections,
Mineral, or chemical,
Vegetable,
Combination drying methods,
Combining sugar and liquid in confection making,
Commercial canning,
cocoa,
Composition and food value of bananas,
and food value of black raspberries,
and food value of blackberries,
and food value of cherries,
and food value of cranberries,
and food value of currants,
and food value of dates,
and food value of dried apples,
and food value of dried apricots,
and food value of dried figs,
and food value of dried prunes,
and food value of fresh apples,
and food value of fresh apricots,
and food value of fresh figs,
and food value of fresh prunes,
and food value of fruits,
and food value of grapefruit,
and food value of grapes,
Composition and food value of huckleberries,
and food value of lemons,
and food value of muskmelon,
and food value of nectarines,
and food value of oranges,
and food value of peaches,
and food value of pears,
and food value of persimmons,
and food value of pineapple,
and food value of plums,
and food value of pomegranates,
and food value of raisins,
and food value of red raspberries,
and food value of rhubarb,
and food value of strawberries,
and food value of watermelon,
of confections,
of food,
of fruits,
Confection making,
making, Combining sugar and liquid in,
making, Effect of weather on,
making, Equipment for,
making, Procedure in,
mixture, Boiling,
mixture, Pouring and cooling,
Confectioners', or XXXX, sugar,
Confections,
Candied and dried fruits in,
Carbohydrate in,
Chocolate and cocoa in,
Coconut in,
Composition of,
Cooking,
Definition of,
Fat in,
Food materials in,
Ingredients used in,
Milk, cream, and butter in,
Mineral salts in,
Miscellaneous,
Nature of,
Nuts in,
Pop-corn in,
Protein in,
Use of acids in,
Varieties and preparations of,
Congou tea,
tea, China,
Conservation of foods,
Conserve, Carrot,
Cherry-and-pineapple,
Crab-apple-and-orange,
Definition of,
Pineapple-and-apricot,
Plum,
Red-raspberry-and-currant,
Conserve, strawberry-and-pineapple
strawberry-and-rhubarb
Containers for jelly
Cooking and storing of dried foods
confections
fruit in jelly-making
on fruit, effect of
Cooling and pouring the confection mixture
Cordials
Corn, canning of green
Canning of tomatoes and
Drying of
sirup
Correct diet
weights for certain heights, table showing,
Cost of foods
Covers, jar tops, or
Crab-apple-and-orange conserve
-apple jelly
-apple relish
-apples, pickled
Cracker jack
Cranberries
Composition and food value of
Cranberry jelly
sauce
Cream candies
Center
milk, and butter in confections
Opera
Creamy cocoa
Cucumber pickles, Sliced
pickles, small
Cucumbers in brine
Currant jelly
Currants
Food value and composition of
Cutting and marking candies

D

Dates
Food value and composition of
Stuffed
Density of sirup for canning
Desserts, fruit
Devices for canning, measuring
for drying
Diet, balancing the
Beverages in the
Correct
Effect of age on
Effect of age on children's
Effect of climate on
Effect of sex on
Effect of weight on
Effect of weight on children's
for infants and children
Diet, Fruit in the
Pickles in the
Preserves and jellies in the
Digestibility of fruits
Dinner, breakfast, and luncheon service
menus
menus, suggestions for
Dinners, Christmas
Easter
New Year's
Thanksgiving
Wedding
Distilled water
Divinity
Dried and candied fruits in confections
apples
apricots
foods, cooking and storing
fruits, varieties of
peaches
Drip pot
Drying and canning
devices for
method, electric-fan
method, stove
method, sun
methods, combination
of apples
of apricots
of corn
of food
of greens
of peaches
of pears
of quinces
of small fruits
of string beans
of tuber and root vegetables
preparation of foods for
vegetables and fruits, directions for

E

Easter dinners
Economical food buying
Economies in purchasing food
Economy of food preservation
of jelly making and preserving
Egg chocolate
milk shake
nog, foamy
nog, orange
Eggplant and summer squash, canning of,
Electric-fan drying method
English breakfast tea
Equipment for canning
for confection making
for household accounts
Equipment for jelly making,
Exhausting in canning, Meaning of,
Extra fine, or fancy fine, granulated sugar,
Extracting fruit juice in jelly making,
Extracts, Flavoring,

F

Factors influencing cost of foods,
influencing foods,
Family income for food, Table showing proportion of,
Fancy fine, or extra fine, granulated sugar,
Fat in confections,
in fruits, Protein and,
Feeding scale for infants,
Fermentation of fruit juices,
Figs,;
Composition and food value of dried,
Composition and food value of fresh,
Pressed,
Pulled,
Steamed,
Stewed,
Filtered coffee,
Fine granulated sugar,
Fish and meat, Canning of,
Flat sour in canning,
Flavor fruits,
of canned food,
of jelly,
Flavoring extracts,
oils,
Flavorings, Adulteration of,
Artificial,
Natural,
Flavors, Synthetic,
Florida oranges,
Flowery pekoe tea,
Foamy egg nog,
Fondant,
and related creams,
Nature of,
Uncooked,
Food, Composition of,
cost, Chart of factors in,
Drying of,
Economies in purchasing,
Factors influencing,
Factors influencing cost of,
for canning, Selection of,
fruits,
Importance of proper amount of,
in calories, Quantity of,
materials in confections,
Preparation of fruits as,
Food preservation, Economy of,
Principles of drying,
Sterile,
substances to growth and health, Relation of,
Suitability of,
Table showing proportion of family income for,
to be canned, Preparation of,
value and composition of apples,
value and composition of apricots,
value and composition of bananas,
value and composition of black raspberries,
value and composition of blackberries,
value and composition of cherries,
value and composition of cranberries,
value and composition of currants,
value and composition of dates,
value and composition of figs,
value and composition of fruits,
value and composition of grapefruit,
value and composition of grapes,
value and composition of huckleberries,
value and composition of lemons,
value and composition of muskmelon,
value and composition of nectarines,
value and composition of oranges,
value and composition of peaches,
value and composition of pears,
value and composition of persimmons,
value and composition of pineapple,
value and composition of plums,
value and composition of pomegranates,
value and composition of prunes,
value and composition of raisins,
value and composition of red raspberries,
value and composition of rhubarb,
value and composition of strawberries,
value and composition of watermelon,
value of fruits,
Foods, Conservation of,
Cost of,
for drying, Preparation of,
from spoiling, Preventing canned,
Methods for preserving,
Necessity for preserving,
Purchase of,
Quantity and proportion of,
Foods, Scoring canned
Spoiling of canned
Storing and serving canned
Formosa tea
Fourth-of-July luncheons
Fractional-sterilization method of canning
Freestone peaches
Fritters, Banana
Cherry
Fruit, Acids in
and fruit desserts
as food, Preparation of
beverages
beverages, Ingredients for
beverages, Preparation of
butters
Carbohydrate in
Cellulose in
cocktails
cultivation, Advance in
Definition of
desserts, Fruit and
Effect of cooking on
for preserving, Selection of
in jars, Packing
in jelly making, Cooking
in the diet
juice and sugar in jelly making, Boiling the
juice and sugar in jelly making, Combining the
juice for pectin in jelly making, Testing the
juice lacking in pectin in jelly making
Using
Minerals in
nectar
or berry, sugar
Preparing and serving
punch
sugar, or levulose
Water in
Fruits and vegetables, Directions for drying
and vegetables for canning, Preparation of
Canning methods for
Canning vegetables and
Citrus
Classification of
Composition and food value of
Composition of
Digestibility of
Directions for canning
Dried
Drying of small
Effect of ripeness on
Flavor
Food
Fruits, Food value of
Hard
in confections, Candied and dried
Miscellaneous citrus
Miscellaneous tropical
Nature of
Non-tropical
Protein and fat in
Serving
Soft
Sour soft
Special
Sweet soft
Table showing composition and food value of
Tropical
Varieties of dried
Varieties of tropical
Very sour soft
Washing
Fudge, Brown-sugar
recipes
Two-layer
Fudges and related candies

G

General appearance of canned food
Gin
Ginger-ale punch
Glacé nuts and fruits
Glass jars
Glasses, Closing and storing jelly
Filling jelly
Glove oranges
Glucose
Goods, Nationally advertised
Gooseberries
Green
Gooseberry jam
Graining of sugar in candy making
Granulated sugar
sugar, Coarse
sugar, Fancy fine, or extra fine
sugar, Fine
sugar, Standard
Grape catsup
jelly
juice, Unfermented
lemonade
marmalade
Grapefruit cocktail
Composition and food value of
or shaddock
Preparation of
Selection of
Serving
Grapes
Food value and composition of
Green corn, Canning of
-gage jam
Green gooseberries
peppers, Canning of okra and
tea
-tomato pickle
Greens
Canning
Drying of
Growth and health, Relation of food substances to
Guavas
Red
White
Gunpowder tea

H

Hallowe'en luncheons
Hard fruits
water
Heavy sirup
Honey
Hot chocolate
Household accounts, Equipment for
accounts, Keeping of
accounts, Methods of keeping
budget
Huckleberries
Composition and food value of
Hydrometer, or sirup gauge
Hyson tea

I

Ice-cream soda
Iced café au lait
cocoa or chocolate
coffee
tea
Income, Apportionment of
Infants and children, Diet for
Feeding scale for
Ingredients used in confections
Instantaneous cereal beverages
coffee

J

Jam
Blackberry
Definition of
Gooseberry
Green-gage
Raspberry
Strawberry
Japan tea
Jar covers or tops
rubbers
tops or covers
Jars, Glass
Wrapping and labeling
Java coffee
Jellies and preserves in the diet
preserves, and pickles, Value of
Jelly bag
Jelly, Canning fruit juices for
Color of
Containers for
Crab-apple
Cranberry
Currant
Flavor of
glasses, Closing and storing
glasses, Filling
Grape
making
making and preserving, Economy of
making, Cooking fruit in
making, Extracting fruit juice in
making, Kettles for
making, Necessary equipment for
making, preserving, and pickling
making, Principles of
making, Procedure in
making, Proportion of sugar in
making, Sheeting in
making, Utensils for
Method of sealing
mixture, Testing the
Peach

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