Part 6 out of 8
* * * * *
76. NON-STIMULATING BEVERAGES are those which contain neither stimulant
nor alcohol. They are the ones usually depended on to carry nutrition
into the body and to provide the necessary refreshment. In this class of
beverages come the various cereal beverages, fruit drinks, soft drinks,
and milk-and-egg drinks. With the exception of the cereal beverages,
these drinks are of a very refreshing nature, for they are served as
cold as possible and they contain materials that make them very pleasing
to the taste. Most of them can be prepared in the home at much less cost
than they can be purchased commercially prepared or at soda fountains;
so it is well for the housewife to be familiar with their nature and
77. CEREAL BEVERAGES, as the name implies, are made from cereals. Of
these, the _cereal coffees_ are perhaps the most common. They contain
nothing that is harmful, and are slightly beneficial in that they assist
in giving the body some of the necessary liquid. However, they have
absolutely no food value and are therefore of no importance in the diet
except to take the place of stimulating beverages that are likely to
injure those who drink them. They are made of cereals to which sugar or
molasses is added, and the whole is then baked until the cereals brown
and the sugar caramelizes, the combination producing a flavor much like
that of coffee. Plain roasted wheat or bran can be used very well as a
substitute in the making of these beverages. In the parts of the country
where rye is extensively grown, it is roasted in the oven until it is an
even brown in color. It is then used almost exclusively by some persons
to make _rye coffee_, a beverage that closely resembles coffee
78. The _instantaneous cereal beverages_ are made by drawing all the
flavor possible out of the material by means of water. The water is then
evaporated and the hard substance that remains is ground until it is
almost a powder. When water is added again, this substance becomes
soluble instantly. _Instantaneous_ coffee is prepared in the same way.
The way in which to use these beverages depends, of course, on the kind
selected, but no difficulty will be experienced in their preparation,
for explicit directions are always found in or on all packages
* * * * *
INGREDIENTS FOR FRUIT BEVERAGES
79. FRUIT BEVERAGES are those which contain fruit and fruit juices for
their foundation. As there are many kinds of fruit that can be used for
this purpose, almost endless variety can be obtained in the making of
these beverages. One of the important features is that a great deal of
nourishment can be incorporated into them by the materials used. In
addition, the acids of fruits are slightly antiseptic and are
stimulating to the digestion as well as beneficial to the blood.
80. Lemon juice, when mixed with other fruit juices, seems to intensify
the flavor. Because of this fact, practically all the recipes for fruit
beverages include this juice as one of the ingredients. The combination
of pineapple and lemon yields a greater quantity of flavor for
beverages, ices, etc. than any other two fruit flavors. Juice may be
extracted from all fruits easily. To obtain lemon juice for a fruit
beverage, first soften the fruit by pressing it between the hand and a
hard surface, such as a table top, or merely soften it with the hands.
Then cut it in two, crosswise, and drill the juice out, as shown in Fig.
12, by placing each half over a drill made of glass or aluminum and
turning it around and around until all the juice is extracted. To remove
the seeds and pulp, strain the juice through a wire strainer. The juice
from oranges and grapefruit, if they are not too large, may be extracted
in the same way.
81. It is not always necessary to extract juices from fresh fruit for
fruit beverages; in fact, juice from canned fruit or juice especially
canned for beverage making is the kind most frequently employed. For
instance, in the canning of fruit there is often a large quantity of
juice left over that most persons use for jelly. It is a good plan to
can this juice just as it is and then use it with lemon juice or other
fruit juices for these beverages. Also, juices that remain after all the
fruit has been used from a can may be utilized in the same way, no
matter what the kind or the quantity. In fact, unless otherwise stated
in the recipes that follow, the fruit juices given, with the exception
of orange and lemon juice, are those taken from canned fruit or juices
canned especially for beverage making. These juices also lend themselves
admirably to various other uses, for, as has already been learned, they
are used in ices, gelatine desserts, salad dressing, pudding sauces,
etc. Therefore, no fruit juice should ever be wasted.
[Illustration: FIG. 12]
82. The clear-fruit beverages become more attractive when they are
garnished in some way. A slice of lemon, orange, or pineapple, or a
fresh strawberry put into each glass improves the flavor and makes the
beverage more appetizing. Red, yellow, and green cherries may be bought
in bottles and used for such purposes. As these are usually preserved in
wine and are artificially colored, many persons object to their use. A
good substitute for them is candied cherries. These can be bought from
any confectioner and do very well when a red decoration is desired.
PREPARATION OF FRUIT BEVERAGES
83. LEMONADE.--Next to water, no other drink is so refreshing nor
quenches the thirst to so great an extent as lemonade. Lemonade is
suitable for many occasions, and as lemons can be purchased at any time
of the year it can be made at almost any season. The lemon sirup
prepared for this beverage may be used as desired, for if it is put in a
cool place it will keep for a long time. The more the sirup is boiled
down, the better will it keep. A tablespoonful or two of glucose or corn
sirup added to such mixtures when they are boiled will help to keep them
from crystallizing when they stand.
(Sufficient to Serve Six)
1 c. sugar
1 qt. water
1/2 c. lemon juice
Make a sirup by boiling the sugar and water for a few minutes, and set
aside to cool. Add the lemon juice and then dilute with ice water to
suit the taste. Serve in glasses and garnish each one with a slice of
lemon or a red cherry.
84. ORANGEADE.--While not so acid in flavor as lemonade, orangeade is
also a delightful drink. On warm days, drinks of this kind should take
the place of the hot ones that are generally used during the
(Sufficient to Serve Six)
3/4 c. sugar
1 qt. water
1/2 c. orange juice
3 Tb. lemon juice
Make a sirup of the sugar and 1 cupful of the water. Allow this to
become cool and then add the fruit juices and the remaining water. Pour
into glasses and garnish each glass with a slice of orange, a red
cherry, or a fresh strawberry.
85. GRAPE LEMONADE.--An excellent combination in the way of a beverage
is lemonade and grape juice. Besides adding flavor to the lemonade, the
grape juice gives it a delightful color.
(Sufficient to Serve Six)
1 qt. lemonade
1 c. grape juice
Prepare the lemonade in the manner explained in Art. 83. Add the grape
juice to the lemonade and stir well. Serve ice cold in glasses.
86. PINEAPPLE LEMONADE.--Another variation of lemonade is produced when
pineapple juice is added to it. To garnish this beverage, a slice of
lemon and a spoonful of grated pineapple are generally used. This
pineapple beverage is delightful with wafers or small cakes as
refreshments for informal social affairs during hot weather.
(Sufficient to Serve Six)
1 c. water
3/4 c. sugar
3 c. ice water
1 c. juice from canned pineapple
Make a sirup of the water and sugar, and set aside to cool. Add the ice
water, the pineapple juice, and the juice of the lemons. Stir well,
strain, and serve. Garnish with a slice of lemon and a spoonful of
grated pineapple added to each glass.
87. MINT JULEP.--Mint drinks are not served so often as some of the
other fruit beverages, but those with whom they find favor will
undoubtedly be delighted with mint julep prepared according to the
(Sufficient to Serve Eight)
4 sprigs mint
1 c. sugar
1 qt. water
1 c. red cherry juice
1/2 c. pineapple juice
1/2 c. orange juice
1/4 c. lemon juice
Crush the mint with the sugar, using a potato masher or a large spoon.
Add the water and fruit juices and strain. Serve over crushed ice and
garnish the glasses with sprigs of mint. Tall, narrow glasses are
especially attractive for serving this drink.
88. FRUIT NECTAR.--The term nectar was used by the early Greeks to mean
the drink of the gods. Now it is often applied to an especially
delightful beverage. Pineapple combined with lemon is always good, but
when orange juice is also used, an excellent nectar is the result.
(Sufficient to Serve Eight)
3/4 c. sugar
2 c. water
1-1/2 c. orange juice
1 c. pineapple juice
1/2 c. lemon juice
Boil the sugar and water for 2 minutes and then cool. Add the fruit
juices, strain, and serve over cracked ice.
89. RED-RASPBERRY NECTAR.--A beverage that is pleasing to the eye, as
well as delightful to the taste, can be made by combining red-raspberry
juice and lemon juice with the required amount of sugar and water. The
juice from canned raspberries may be used for this drink.
(Sufficient to Serve Six)
1/2 c. sugar
2 c. water
1/2 c. lemon juice
1-1/2 c. red raspberry juice
Boil the sugar and water for 2 minutes and allow the sirup to become
cool. Then add the fruit juices, strain, and serve over cracked ice.
90. SPICE CUP.--Occasionally a spice drink seems to be just what is
desired. When this is the case, the directions given in the accompanying
recipe for spice cup should be followed.
(Sufficient to Serve Eight)
1-1/2 c. sugar
1-1/2 pt water
2-in. stick cinnamon
2 drops oil of wintergreen
Boil the sugar, water, and spices together for 5 minutes and allow the
sirup to become cool. Add the juice of the lemons and oranges and the
wintergreen oil and serve in glasses over cracked ice. Garnish each
glass with slices of orange and lemon or a piece of preserved ginger.
91. FRUIT PUNCH.--As fruit beverages are very often served at small
receptions, club meetings, or parties, a recipe that will make a
sufficiently large quantity is often desired. The amounts mentioned in
the following recipe will make enough fruit punch to serve thirty to
forty persons if punch glasses are used, or sixteen to twenty if
ordinary drinking glasses are used.
2-1/2 c. sugar
1 qt. water
2 c. fruit juice (raspberry, strawberry, or cherry)
1 pt. can grated pineapple
1 c. strong black tea (strained)
1 qt. carbonated water
Boil the sugar and water for 2 minutes and allow the sirup to become
cool. Then add the fruit juice, the juice of the oranges and lemons, the
pineapple, and the tea. Just before serving, add the carbonated water,
which lends a sparkling appearance and a snappy taste to a beverage of
this kind. Pour over cracked ice into sherbet or punch glasses or into
tall narrow ones.
92. GINGER-ALE PUNCH.--As most persons like the flavor of ginger ale,
punch containing ginger ale is always a favorite when a large company of
persons is to be served. The quantity that the accompanying recipe makes
will serve twenty to twenty-five persons if punch glasses are used, or
ten to twelve persons if drinking glasses are used.
1-1/2 c. sugar
1 pt. water
1 pt. grape juice
4 sprigs fresh mint (crushed)
1 lemon sliced thin
1 qt. ginger ale
Boil the sugar and water for 2 minutes and allow the sirup to become
cool. Drill the juice from the lemons and oranges and add this with the
grape juice, crushed mint, and sliced lemon to the sirup. Just before
using, add the ginger ale and serve over cracked ice.
93. A class of very popular non-stimulating beverages are the SOFT
DRINKS sold at the soda fountains. Many of them can also be bought in
bottles and so may be purchased and served at home. These drinks really
consist of carbonated water and a flavoring material that is either
prepared chemically and colored or made of fruit extracts. Sometimes ice
cream is added, and the drink is then called _ice-cream soda_.
94. Soft drinks include phosphates, ginger ale, coca cola, birch beer,
root beer, and various other drinks called mashes, sours, and freezes.
While these are pleasing to the taste and have the advantage of being
ready to drink when prepared, it is advisable not to indulge in them too
frequently, because excessive use of them is liable to affect the
system. Besides, beverages that are just as satisfactory as these so far
as flavor is concerned and that are made of much better material can be
prepared at home at far less cost. With these drinks, as with other
commercially prepared articles of food, the cost of preparation and
service in addition to the cost of materials must be paid for by
95. Many times it is necessary or desirable to administer food in the
form of liquid. When this is to be done, as much nourishment as possible
should generally be incorporated into the beverage. To meet such a need,
the following recipes are presented. In each case, the quantities
mentioned make a drink sufficient for only one person, so that if more
than one are to be served the amounts should be multiplied by the number
desired. The food materials used in these drinks are easily digested,
and the beverages are comparatively high in food value.
96. At most soda fountains, these nourishing drinks are offered for
sale, so that if one does not desire the work of preparation, they may
be obtained at such places. However, as practically all the ingredients
are materials used in the home and are therefore nearly always on hand
in most households, drinks of this kind may be prepared at home at much
less cost than when purchased already made. The main thing to remember
in their preparation is that the ingredients should be as cold as
possible and that the beverage should be cold when served.
97. The beverages containing eggs may be made in more than one way. They
may be mixed in a bowl or an enamelware dish with a rounded bottom and
then beaten with a rotary egg beater, or they may be mixed in a metal
shaker designed especially for this purpose and then shaken thoroughly
in that. In drinks of this kind, the point to remember is that the eggs
should be beaten or shaken until they are light and foamy.
98. CHOCOLATE SIRUP.--While chocolate sirup is not a beverage in itself,
it is used to such an extent in beverages, as well as an accompaniment
to numerous desserts, that it is well for the housewife to know how to
prepare it. It may be kept an indefinite length of time if it is put
into a glass jar and sealed. Here, as in the preparation of other
sirups, a tablespoonful or two of corn sirup or glucose will help to
keep the sirup from crystallizing.
4 sq. chocolate
1 c. water
3/4 c. sugar
Melt the chocolate in a saucepan, stir in the water, and add the sugar.
Boil until a thick sirup is formed.
99. PLAIN MILK SHAKE.--A pleasant variation for milk is the plain milk
shake here given. Even those who are not fond of milk and find it hard
to take like it when it is prepared in this way.
PLAIN MILK SHAKE
1 c. milk
2 tsp. sugar
Few drops of vanilla
Dash of nutmeg
Beat all the ingredients together with an egg beater or shake well in a
shaker and serve in a glass with cracked ice.
100. EGG MILK SHAKE.--The simplest form of egg drink is the egg milk
shake explained in the accompanying recipe. This is an extremely
nutritious drink and is often served to invalids and persons who must
have liquid nourishment.
EGG MILK SHAKE
3/4 c. milk
1 Tb. sugar
Pinch of salt
Few drops of vanilla
Mix all the ingredients and beat the mixture with a rotary beater or
shake it in a shaker. Serve in a glass over cracked ice.
101. EGG CHOCOLATE.--The addition of chocolate to an egg milk shake
improves it very much and makes a drink called egg chocolate.
3/4 c. milk
2 Tb. chocolate sirup
Few drops of vanilla
Pinch of salt
Mix all the materials and beat with an egg beater or shake thoroughly in
a shaker. Serve in a glass with cracked ice.
102. CHOCOLATE MALTED MILK.--A preparation that is much used in
nourishing drinks and that furnishes a great deal of nutrition is malted
milk. This is made from cow's milk and is blended by a scientific
process with malted grains. It comes in powder form and may be purchased
in bottles of various sizes. It is well to keep a good brand of malted
milk on hand, as there are various uses to which it can be put.
CHOCOLATE MALTED MILK
3/4 c. milk
2 Tb. malted milk
2 Tb. chocolate sirup
Few drops of vanilla
Pinch of salt
Mix and shake in a shaker or beat with a rotary egg beater. Serve in a
glass with cracked ice.
103. ORANGE EGG NOG.--The accompanying recipe for egg nog requires
orange for its flavoring, but any fruit juice may be substituted for the
orange if desired. Pineapple and apricot juices are exceptionally good.
ORANGE EGG NOG
1/4 c. cream
1/4 c. milk
1 Tb. sugar
Mix the cream, milk, egg, and sugar, beat well with an egg beater, and
continue beating while adding the juice of the oranges. Serve in a glass
over crushed ice.
104. FOAMY EGG NOG.--An egg nog can be made foamy and light by
separating the eggs and beating the yolks and whites separately. Either
cream or milk may be used for this drink, and it may be flavored with
vanilla or fruit juice, as preferred. A small piece of red jelly beaten
into the egg white makes this drink very attractive; or, jelly may be
used as a flavoring and beaten with the ingredients.
FOAMY EGG NOG
1 Tb. sugar
1/2 c. cream or milk
2 Tb. fruit juice or 1/2 tsp. vanilla
Separate the yolks and whites of the eggs. Mix the yolks with the sugar,
cream or milk, and the fruit juice or vanilla and beat thoroughly. Beat
the whites stiff and fold into the first mixture, retaining a
tablespoonful of the beaten white. Pour into a tall glass, put the
remaining white on top, and serve.
* * * * *
(1) What is a beverage?
(2) What does boiling do to: (_a_) hard water? (_b_) impure water?
(3) What is the value of beverages in the diet?
(4) Mention and define the three classes of beverages.
(5) (_a_) What are caffeine, theine, and theobromine? (_b_) Where is
each found? (_c_) What effect do they have on the human body?
(6) (_a_) Where is tannic acid found? (_b_) What effect does it have on
the human body?
(7) Tell briefly about the preparation of coffee for the market.
(8) How should coffee be bought?
(9) What are the general proportions of coffee and liquid used in the
making of coffee?
(10) What use can be made of left-over coffee?
(11) Tell briefly about the preparation of black and green tea for the
(12) What points should be observed in the selection of tea?
(13) What general proportions of tea and water are used for the making
(14) Tell briefly about the preparation of cocoa and chocolate for the
(15) What advantage have cocoa and chocolate over tea and coffee as.
articles of food?
(16) What use can be made of left-over cocoa and chocolate?
(17) (_a_) How are cereal coffees made? (_b_) Of what value are they?
(18) Of what value are fruit beverages?
(19) What uses can be made of left-over fruit juices?
(20) What good use can be made of nourishing beverages?
* * * * *
THE PLANNING OF MEALS
* * * * *
NECESSITY FOR CAREFUL MEAL PLANNING
1. As every housewife realizes, the feeding of the members of her family
places upon her serious and important responsibilities. While she
deserves and receives credit for their good health, the blame for much
of their ill health falls upon her, too. The reason for this is that
illness is due in a greater measure to wrong food than to any other
single factor; and even if improper diet is not directly responsible for
ill health, it certainly lowers the bodily resistance and thus makes a
person susceptible to disease.
The health of her family is naturally the housewife's first and greatest
consideration, and as this depends so much on correct diet, it should be
the aim of every housewife to plan her meals in the careful, intelligent
way required to supply her household with the food each member needs.
2. As has already been learned, a knowledge of the selection, care, and
preparation of food is absolutely necessary in providing proper diet.
But correct feeding requires more than this. In addition, the housewife
must have a working knowledge of what foods contain and their effect in
the body. She must also learn what her family needs and then make every
effort to supply this need in the most economical way. The result will
be a sufficient amount of food of the right kind at a minimum
expenditure of funds.
She should keep in mind, however, that the cost of diet has no direct
relation to its food value, but that economy and proper feeding are
closely connected. For instance, an inexpensive diet may be just as
satisfactory from a food-value standpoint as an expensive one. But in
order to make the inexpensive one adequate and the expensive one
balanced, the housewife must apply her knowledge of the general
composition of food; that is, she must know whether a food predominates
in carbohydrate, fat, or protein, and whether or not it furnishes
minerals. Equipped with such knowledge, she will be able to purchase the
largest amount of nutritive material for the smallest outlay of money.
The cheapest food is not always the one that sells for the lowest price
per pound, quart, or bushel, but the one that furnishes the most
nutritive material at the lowest cost; also, food that is the wrong kind
to serve is not an economical one to purchase.
3. Many housewives regard it as unnecessary to plan beforehand and
persist in preparing meals without giving any previous thought to them.
But to begin thinking about an hour before meal time what to have for a
meal is neither wise nor economical, for then it is too late to
determine what ought to be served from a diet standpoint and there can
be prepared only those foods which the time will allow. As can well be
understood, this is both a disastrous plan for correct diet and a very
extravagant way in which to feed a family. Quickly broiled steaks and
chops, commercially canned vegetables and fruits, and prepared desserts
should be the occasional treat rather than the daily food. Instead of
using these constantly, time should be allowed for the preparation of
the less expensive meats and vegetables and the home-made desserts.
To prepare such foods successfully requires that meals should be planned
at least 24 hours before they are to be served, and in reality the main
dishes should be decided on 48 hours ahead of time. Then, sometime
between breakfast and luncheon and before the day's marketing is done,
detailed plans should be made for luncheon and dinner of that day and
for breakfast of the next. Nor should the left-overs be disregarded if
economy would be the watchword in the management of the household.
Rather, they should be included in the plans for each day and used up as
fast as possible.
* * * * *
PURCHASE OF FOODS
4. The truly economical housewife will find it necessary each day to
determine three things: (1) what is left from yesterday's meals and what
use can be made of it; (2) what is in supply that can be used for that
day; and (3) what must be added to these things to provide satisfactory
meals for the family. Having determined these points, she should make a
list of the articles that she must purchase when she does her marketing.
A pad fastened to the kitchen wall and a pencil on a string attached to
the pad are convenient for this purpose. At the same time, they serve as
a reminder that when all of any article, such as coffee, sugar, baking
powder, etc., has been used, a note should be made of this fact. To her
list of supplies that have become exhausted since her preceding
marketing day should be added the fresh fruits, vegetables, and other
perishable foods needed for the next day or preferably for the next two
days if they can be kept.
5. It is only with proper preparation that the housewife may expect her
marketing trips to be successful. If she starts to market with merely
two or three items in mind and then tries to think of what she needs as
she orders, not only does she waste the grocer's time, but her marketing
trip will be a failure. After she arrives home, she will find that there
are other things she should have purchased, and the grocer will be
forced to make an extra delivery to bring them to her. This is more than
she has a right to expect, for the grocer should not be obliged to pay
for her lack of planning.
6. To purchase economically, it is advisable, when possible, to buy at a
cash grocery and to pay cash for what is bought. When this is done, one
is not helping to pay the grocer for accounts he is unable to collect.
It is a fortunate grocer who is able to collect 80 per cent. of his
bills from his patrons when he conducts his business on the credit plan.
However, if it is desired to deal with a credit grocer, all bills
should be paid at least once a month. No customer has a right to expect
the grocer to wait longer than 30 days for his money.
In many of the cities and large towns, some credit grocers have adopted
what is called the "cash-and-carry plan." All customers, whether they
buy for cash or on credit, must pay the same price for groceries, but
those who wish their goods delivered must pay additional for delivery
and those who buy on credit must pay a certain percentage additional on
each purchase for bookkeeping. It will readily be seen that such a plan
gives the cash customers, especially if they carry their purchases, a
decided advantage over credit customers. Also, the grocer is better able
to sell his wares at a lower price than the credit grocer who makes free
deliveries and no charge for bookkeeping.
KEEPING HOUSEHOLD ACCOUNTS
7. NECESSITY FOR KEEPING ACCOUNTS.--Practically every family is limited
to a definite sum of money that may be spent for food. The first
consideration, then, while it may not be the most important one, is that
of making each dollar buy all that it possibly can in order that the
income may meet all the demands upon it. Various conditions arise that
affect the proportion of the income to be used for this purpose. For
instance, two women whose husbands have equal incomes would, under the
same conditions, have an equal amount of money to spend for food, but as
a rule there is something to cause this amount to become unequal. One
woman may have two children in her family while the other has none, a
condition that means, of course, that the woman with the children will
have less money to spend for food and with that money she must feed more
persons. Her family must be, if possible, as well nourished as the other
one. In order to accomplish this task, it will be necessary to supply
all the required food material in a form that will cost less than the
food purchased by the woman who has a smaller family to feed and clothe.
An excellent way in which to keep expenses down and consequently to live
within one's income is to keep a simple record of household expenses.
Such a record will enable every housewife to determine just what each
item of household necessities costs and whether or not the proportion of
cost to income is correct. To keep a record of expenditures will not
prove much of a task if it is done systematically, for a few minutes a
day will be sufficient time in which to keep accounts up to date.
However, if account keeping is attempted, it should not be neglected
even for a day, for it will soon assume the proportions of a large task
and will have a tendency to discourage the housewife with this part
of her work.
8. EQUIPMENT FOR HOUSEHOLD ACCOUNT KEEPING.--For convenience in keeping
household accounts, a small desk like the one shown in Fig. 1 should, if
possible, be secured and placed in an unoccupied or convenient corner of
the kitchen. Here can be kept cook books, recipes, suitable books or
cards for account keeping, the marketing pad, a file for bills from the
grocer and the butcher, labels for cans and jars, etc. Here may also be
placed an extension telephone, which, by being so convenient, will save
the housewife many steps. A white desk with a chair to match is the most
attractive kind to select for kitchen use, but a dark one may be used if
preferred. The desk illustrated was a simple wooden one that was
enameled white after it was bought, but it is possible to buy white
desks for this purpose. A small, plain table will, of course, answer
very well if no desk is available and it is desired not to buy one.
[Illustration: FIG. 1]
9. METHODS OF HOUSEHOLD ACCOUNT KEEPING.--If the housewife runs a
credit account with the grocer, she will learn that different grocers
have different ways of recording her purchases.
In some cases, she is provided with a "store book," which she takes to
the grocer each time she makes a purchase and in which he records the
date and the items bought by her. Then at the end of a stated time,
usually the end of the month, when a settlement is to be made, the
amounts for the month are totaled and a new account is started. With
such a plan, the housewife does not have to keep any record for herself.
To be certain that the grocer's account is accurate, she simply has to
check the entries each time they are made in the book by the grocer.
In other cases, the grocer merely makes out a slip, or bill, for each
purchase and at the end of the month presents his statement for the
amount due. In such an event, provided the housewife does not wish to
make entries into a suitable book, she may file the slips as she
receives them in order that she may check the grocer's monthly bill as
to accuracy. A bill file like that shown in Fig. 2 is very convenient
for the filing of bills. However, if she does not wish to save each slip
she receives, she may adopt one of two methods of account keeping,
depending on how much time she has to devote to this matter.
[Illustration: FIG. 2]
10. If she desires to be very systematic and has sufficient time, it
will prove a good plan to record each purchase in a suitable book in the
manner shown in Fig. 3. Books for this purpose can be purchased in any
store where stationery is sold and are not expensive. In this method of
recording, as a page becomes filled with items, the total is carried
forward to each new page until the bill is paid at the end of the month.
Then, for the next month, a new account may be started. This same method
may also be followed in keeping accounts for meats, milk, and such
household expenses as rent, light, heat, and laundry. All these
accounts, together with an account for clothing and one for
miscellaneous expense, make up a complete expense account.
With ___John Smith, 420 Fourth Avenue__________
10/15 | 1 pk. Apples......................| $ .45
| 1 doz. Eggs.......................| .55
| 1 lb. Butter......................| .53
| 2 lb. Sweet Potatoes..............| .15
| 2 cans Duff's Molasses............| .54
| 1 pt. Vinegar.....................| .10
10/17 | 1 cake Yeast......................| .04
| 6 lb. Crisco......................| 1.98
| 1 box Coconut.....................| .35
| 1 can Pineapple...................| .25
| 1 lb. coffee......................| .40
| 2 qt. Carrots.....................| .10
10/19 | 1 box Matches.....................| .10
| 2 bars Laundry Soap...............| .12
| 1 head Lettuce....................| .08
| 1 can Corn........................| .20
| 1 bu. Potatoes....................| 2.00
| 1 qt. Maple Sirup.................| .65
| Forwarded.......| $8.59
11. A somewhat simpler plan and one that requires less time is shown in
Fig. 4. When the slips are received, they should be checked to see
whether they are correct and then added to get the total. Only this
total, together with the date, is placed in the book kept for the
purpose, the slips then being discarded. Such a plan will prove very
satisfactory for the various household expenses if care is used in
checking the items of the slips and in adding them.
Regarding the settlement of her accounts, the housewife who buys on
credit will find it a good plan to pay her bills by check. Then
receipts will not have to be saved, for the returned check is usually
all that is required to prove that a bill has been paid.
12. The housewife who buys for cash does not necessarily have to keep a
detailed record of her purchases, for by simply filing her purchase
slips in the manner shown in Fig. 2 she can determine at any time what
her money has been used for. Still, in every well-regulated household,
it is advisable to keep a daily record of income and expenditure; that
is, to put down every day how much is spent for food, laundry, cleaning,
and, in fact, all expenditures, as well as how much cash is received.
Indeed, if such an account is kept, the tendency of money to "slip away"
will be checked and a saving of money is bound to result.
With______John Smith, 420 Fourth Avenue_____
10/2 | Groceries...........................| $ 2.10
10/3 | Groceries...........................| 2.76
10/6 | Groceries...........................| .42
10/8 | Groceries...........................| 4.12
10/10 | Groceries...........................| 1.09
10/13 | Groceries...........................| .32
10/15 | Groceries...........................| 2.30
10/17 | Groceries...........................| 2.13
10/20 | Groceries...........................| 1.93
10/22 | Groceries...........................| 3.97
10/24 | Groceries...........................| 1.69
10/27 | Groceries...........................| 4.10
10/29 | Groceries...........................| 1.12
10/31 | Groceries...........................| 3.35
| Forwarded..............| $31.40
13. A simple plan for keeping such a record is illustrated in Fig. 5.
For this record it is possible to buy sheets of paper or cards already
ruled at any stationery store, but it is a simple matter to rule sheets
of blank paper that will answer the purpose very well. As will be
observed, there is a space provided for every day of the month and
columns into which may be placed the expenditures for groceries,
including fruits and vegetables, as well as for meats and fish, milk,
laundry and cleaning, and miscellaneous items, such as ice and other
necessities that are not ordinarily classed as groceries. Of course, the
number of columns to be used can be regulated by the person keeping the
account, the illustration simply showing the general procedure. However,
one column should be devoted to the daily expenditure, the figures here
being the amounts of the total money spent for the different items each
day. In the last column should be recorded the various amounts of money
received by the housewife during the month for the settlement of her
bills. At the end of the month, all of the columns should be totaled.
The total of the daily outlay should equal that of the preceding
columns. The difference between this total and that of the money
received will show the housewife just how she stands with regard to
income and expenditure for foods and kitchen supplies. In this case,
there is an excess of expenditure amounting to $10.68, and this sum
should be forwarded to the June account. On the other hand, should the
housewife find that her expenses exceed her allowance, she will know
that it will be necessary for her to curtail her expenditures in
Expenditures and Receipts for the Month of ___May___, 19___
| | Meats | |Laundry | Miscel-| |
Date| Groc- | and | Milk | and | laneous| Daily | Money
| eries | Fish | |Cleaning| Expend-| Outlay | Rec'vd
| | | | | itures | |
1 | $ 2.10| $ .60| $ .28| $ 1.50 | | $ 4.48 | $ 5.70
2 | | .40| .28| | | .58 |
3 | 2.76| 1.90| .28| | $ .35 | 5.29 | 15.00
4 | | | .28| | | .28 |
5 | | | .28| | | .28 |
6 | .42| | .28| | .35 | 1.05 |
7 | | .36| .28| | .10 | .74 |
8 | 4.12| | .28| 2.00 | .40 | 6.80 |
9 | | | .28| | | .28 |
10 | 1.09| 1.83| .28| | .38 | 3.60 | 15.00
11 | | | .28| | | .28 |
12 | | | .28| | .35 | .63 |
13 | .32| .76| .28| | | 1.36 |
14 | | | .28| | .19 | .47 |
15 | 2.30| | .28| 1.50 | .12 | 4.20 |
16 | | .53| .28| | | .81 |
17 | 2.13| 1.63| .28| | .60 | 4.64 | 15.00
18 | | | .28| | | .28 |
19 | | | .28| | .22 | .50 |
20 | 1.93| | .28| | .40 | 2.61 |
21 | | .90| .28| | | 1.18 |
22 | 3.97| | .28| 2.00 | .40 | 6.65 |
23 | 2.10| | .28| | | .28 |
24 | 2.10| 2.24| .28| | .80 | 5.01 | 15.00
25 | | | .28| | .10 | .38 |
26 | | | .28| 1.50 | | 1.78 |
27 | 4.10| | .28| | .35 | 4.73 |
28 | | .38| .28| | | .66 |
29 | 1.12| .46| .28| 1.50 | .40 | 3.76 |
30 | | | .28| | | .28 |
31 | 3.35| 1.87| .28| | .55 | 6.05 | 15.00
Total $31.40| $13.88| $ 8.68| $10.00 | $ 6.66 | $70.02 | $80.70
Such a method of record keeping could also be followed with good
results for showing the distribution of the entire income of a family.
It would simply mean the planning of suitable columns for the different
items of expenditure.
14. Too much cannot be said of the merit of following some such simple
account-keeping method as the ones here outlined, for, as has been
explained, it will enable the housewife to know with a fair degree of
accuracy what she has spent her money for. In addition to the
satisfaction this will give, it will supply a basis from which she can
apportion, or budget, her yearly income if she so desires. By giving
careful consideration to the various items of expense, she may find it
possible to reduce some of them in order to increase her savings account
or to have money for other items that require a larger expenditure.
* * * * *
COST OF FOODS
FACTORS INFLUENCING COST
15. Certain factors that enter into the production of food add so much
to the cost that they must be taken into consideration when food is
purchased. The housewife who disregards these factors fails in the
purchase of food, for she does not know so well what foods to buy nor
how to buy them in a way to keep down the cost as the woman who is
familiar with these matters. It is possible that the cost of a food may
be out of all proportion to its value because of the profits that must
necessarily be paid to each person through whose hands the food passes.
In the first place, the overhead expenses of the food dealer must be
paid by the housewife, who is regarded as the _consumer_. These expenses
include his rent, light, and heat, his hired help, such as clerks,
bookkeepers, delivery men, and the cost of delivery. In addition, the
cost of transportation figures in prominently if the foods have to be
shipped any distance, the manufacturer's profit must often be counted
in, and the cost of advertising must not be overlooked. With all such
matters, the housewife must acquaint herself if she would buy in the
most economical way.
[Illustration: FIG. 6]
16. CHART OF FOOD PROBLEM.--To assist the housewife in her mastery of
the purchasing side of the food problem, a chart, Fig. 6, is presented.
This chart shows the various routes through which foods travel before
they reach the housewife, or consumer. The lines used to connect all
dealers from the producer to the consumer represent transportation or
delivery, and the increase in cost due to overhead expense and profit is
indicated by the black spaces, which increase in size as the number of
dealers increase. The _producer_ may be the manufacturer, but in most
cases he is the farmer, the stockman, the dairyman, or the fruit
grower. The dealers handling the food between the producer and the
consumer are known as _middlemen_. They include the wholesaler, the
jobber, and the retailer. The retailer is the grocer, the butcher, or
the green grocer.
17. So that this chart may be clearly understood, several concrete
examples are given. Thus, the farmer who delivers vegetables directly to
the consumer is an example of plan No. 1. He has very little overhead
expense and consequently can sell cheaper than dealers who have a large
overhead expense. However, when the farmer delivers his vegetables to
the grocer and the grocer sells them to the consumer, an example of plan
No. 2 is afforded. Food bought in this way costs more than that bought
directly from the farmer. In plan No. 3, the farmer, for instance, sells
his vegetables to a wholesaler, who perhaps buys from other farmers and
then sells small quantities of them to the grocer for sale to the
consumer. This plan, as will readily be seen, is more involved than
either No. 1 or No. 2, but a still more roundabout route is that of plan
No. 4. In this case, for instance, the farmer sells his vegetables to a
canning factory, where they are canned and then sold to the grocer, who
sells them in this form to the consumer. Often two wholesalers, the
second one being known as a jobber, are involved in the transaction, as
in plan No. 5. In such an event, the farmer sells to the wholesaler, who
sells to the jobber, who, in turn, sells to the grocer, from whom the
consumer secures the goods. The most complicated route is that shown in
plan No. 6. This illustrates the case of the farmer who sells his cereal
products to a manufacturer, who makes them up into breakfast foods. He
then sells them in large quantities to the wholesaler, who sells them in
50- or 100-case lots to the jobber. From the jobber they go to the
grocer, who delivers them to the consumer.
From a study of this chart, it can be readily seen that the cost of food
may be reduced if the middlemen can be eliminated. For instance, the
housewife will be able to get fruits and vegetables cheaper if she buys
them from a farmer instead of a grocer, for she will not be called on to
pay any of the grocer's overhead expense or profit. Again, if she buys
her staple groceries in a store that is able to eliminate the wholesaler
or the jobber, she will get them at a lower price than if she deals
where these agencies must receive their share of the profits.
18. NATIONALLY ADVERTISED GOODS.--Much is said about the fact that the
consumer, in buying package foods that are nationally advertised, must
pay for the package and the advertising. This statement is absolutely
true; but it must be remembered that where large quantities of foods are
handled, the materials can be bought by the manufacturer or the
wholesaler at a lower price than by one who purchases only a small
amount. Then, too, if great quantities are sold, and this condition is
made possible only through advertising, the profit on each package sold
can be much smaller than that which would have to be made when less is
sold. Often, therefore, in spite of the advertising cost, a widely
advertised food can be sold for less than one that is not advertised at
all because a much greater quantity is sold.
19. CHAIN STORES.--The principle of selling great quantities of food at
a comparatively small profit on each item is put into practice in chain
stores, which are operated by different companies throughout the United
States. Such stores are a boon to the housewife who must practice
economy, for they eliminate a middleman by acting both as wholesaler and
as retailer. Because of this fact, foods that are purchased in large
quantities from the producer or manufacturer can be offered to the
consumer at a lower price than in a retail store not a part of a chain.
Therefore, if foods of the same quality are not lower in price in chain
stores, it must be because the buying is not well done or a greater
profit is made in selling them. In addition, chain stores generally
require cash for all purchases made in them and they do not usually
deliver goods. Consequently, their overhead expense is materially
reduced and they do not need to make such a large profit.
20. APPORTIONMENT OF INCOME.--When the housewife thoroughly understands
the qualities of foods as well as their comparative food values and is
familiar with the factors that govern food prices, she is well equipped
to do economical buying for her family. Then it remains for her to
purchase the right kind of food and at the same time keep within her
means. A good plan is to apportion the household expenses according to a
_budget_; that is, to prepare a statement of the financial plans for the
year. Then the amount of money that can be used for this part of the
household expenses will be known and the housewife will be able to plan
definitely on what she can buy. If necessary, this amount may be reduced
through the housewife's giving careful attention to the details of
buying, or if she is not obliged to lower her expenses, she may
occasionally purchase more expensive foods, which might be considered
luxuries, to give variety to the diet. The amount of money that may be
spent for food depends, of course, on the income, and the greater the
income, the lower will be the proportion of money required for this item
of the household expense.
21. To throw some light on the proper proportion of the family income to
spend for food, Table I is given. As the basis of this table, a family
of five is taken and the proportion that may be spent for food has been
worked out for incomes ranging from $600 to $2,400 a year. As will be
noted, an income of $600 permits an expenditure of only 19 cents a day
for each person. When food prices are high, it will be a difficult
matter to feed one person for that amount, and still if the income is
only $600 it will be necessary to do this. To increase the food cost
over 39 cents a day per person, which is the amount allotted for an
income of $2,400, would denote extravagance or at least would provide
more luxury than is warranted.
PROPORTION OF FAMILY INCOME FOR FOOD
Income Per Cent. of Amount Spent Amount Spent Amount Spent
per Income Spent per year for per Day for per Day per
Year for Food Food Five Persons Person
$ 600 60 $360 $ .98 $ .19
800 55 500 1.36 .27
1,000 50 576 1.57 .31
1,200 48 576 1.57 .31
1,500 44 660 1.80 .36
1,800 39 702 1.92 .38
2,400 30 720 1.97 .39
Various conditions greatly affect this proportion. One of these is the
rise and fall of the food cost. Theoretically, the buyer should adjust
this difference in the food cost rather than increase her expenditures.
For instance, if in a certain year, the general cost of food is 20 per
cent. greater than it was in the preceding year, the housewife should
adjust her plan of buying so that for the same amount of money spent in
the previous year she will be able to supply her family with what they
need. Of course, if there is an increase in the income, it will not be
so necessary to work out such an adjustment.
22. ECONOMIES IN PURCHASING FOOD.--Through her study of the preceding
lessons, the student has had an opportunity to learn how to care for
food in order to avoid loss and waste, how to prepare it so that it may
be easily digested and assimilated, and how to make it appetizing and
attractive so that as little as possible is left over and none is
wasted. She should therefore be thoroughly acquainted with the methods
of procedure in regard to all such matters and should have worked out to
her satisfaction the best ways of accomplishing these things to suit her
individual needs. But, in addition to these matters, she must give
strict attention to her food purchases if she would secure for her
family the most wholesome and nourishing foods for the least
expenditure of money.
23. To purchase food that will provide the necessary food value for a
small outlay is possible to a certain extent, but it cannot be done
without the required knowledge. In the first place, it means that fewer
luxuries can be indulged in and that the family dietary will have to be
reduced to necessities. It may also mean that there will probably be a
difference in the quality of the food purchased. For instance, it may be
necessary to practice such economies as buying broken rice at a few
cents a pound less than whole rice or purchasing smaller prunes with a
greater number to the pound at a lower price than the larger, more
desirable ones. The housewife need not hesitate in the least to adopt
such economies as these, for they are undoubtedly the easiest ways in
which to reduce the food expenses without causing detriment to any one.
24. Further economy can be practiced if a little extra attention is
given in the purchase of certain foods. As is well known, the packages
and cans containing food are labeled with the contents and the weight of
the contents. These should be carefully observed, as should also the
number of servings that may be obtained from the package or can. For
instance, the housewife should know the weight per package of the
various kinds of prepared cereals she uses and the number of servings
she is able to procure from each package.
Let it be assumed that she buys two packages of different cereals at
the same time, which, for convenience, may be called package No. 1 and
package No. 2. She finds that No. 1 contains 16 ounces and No. 2, only
12 ounces; so she knows that No. 1 furnishes the greater amount of food
by weight for the money spent. But, on the other hand, No. 2 may go
farther; that is, it may serve a greater number of persons. This, in all
probability, means that the cereals are similar in character, but that
the food value of the servings from No. 2 is greater than that of the
servings from No. 1. No. 2 is therefore the more economical of the two.
Matters of this kind must not be overlooked, especially in the feeding
Then, too, the housewife should work out carefully which she can use to
greater advantage, prepared or unprepared cereals. If she finds that
unprepared cereals are the more economical and if she can depend on
their food value as being as high as that of the prepared ones, she
should by all means give them the preference. Of course, she may use
prepared cereals for convenience or for varying the diet, but the more
economical ones should be used with greater regularity.
25. Canned goods should be carefully observed. A certain brand of
tomatoes, for instance, may have 16 ounces to the can, whereas another
brand that can be bought for the same price may have 24 ounces. There
may be, however, and there probably is, a great difference in the
quality of the tomatoes. The 24-ounce can may have a much greater
proportion of water than the 16-ounce can, and for this reason will not
serve to the same advantage. As it is with canned tomatoes, so is it
with canned corn, peas, and other canned vegetables, for the price
depends altogether on the quality. Therefore, several brands should be
compared and the one should be purchased which seems to furnish the most
food or the best quality of food for the least money, provided the
26. In the preparation of meat, there is always some waste, and as waste
is a factor that has much to do with the increasing of costs, it should
be taken into consideration each time a piece of meat is purchased. If
there is time for some experimenting, it makes an interesting study to
weigh the meat before and after preparation, for then the amount of
shrinkage in cookery, as well as the waste in bone, skin, and other
inedible material, can be determined.
An actual experiment made with a 4-pound chicken showed that there was
a loss of 2-3/4 pounds; that is, the weight of the edible meat after
deducting the waste was only 1-1/4 pounds. The following shows how this
weight was determined:
Weight of chicken, including head, feet, and entrails 4
Weight of head, feet, and entrails 1-1/4
Weight of bones after cooking 7/8
Weight of skin after cooking 1/4
Shrinkage in cooking 3/8
Total amount of waste 2-3/4
Actual weight of edible meat 1-1/4
It will readily be seen that chicken at 40 cents a pound would make the
cost per pound of edible meat amount to exactly $1.28, a rather
startling result. It is true, of course, that the busy housewife with a
family can hardly spare the time for the extra labor such experiments
require; still the greater the number of persons to be fed, the more
essential is the need for economy and the greater are the possibilities
for waste and loss.
27. The home production of foods does not belong strictly to economical
buying, still it is a matter that offers so many advantages to the
economical housewife that she cannot afford to overlook it. A small
garden carefully prepared and well cultivated will often produce the
summer's supply of fresh vegetables, with sufficient overproduction to
permit much to be canned for winter. Not only do foods produced in a
home garden keep down the cost of both summer and winter foods, but they
add considerably to the variety of menus.
* * * * *
SUITABILITY OF FOOD
28. At the same time the housewife is making a study of economy and
trying to procure as nearly as possible the best quality and the largest
quantity of food for the amount of money she has to spend, she must
consider the suitability of this food for the persons to whom it is to
be served. This matter is undoubtedly of greater importance than
economy, for, regardless of the amount of money that is to be spent,
suitable foods for the nourishment of all the members of the family must
be supplied to them. For instance, a family of two may have $10 a week
to spend for food, whereas one of five may perhaps have no more; but the
larger family must have nourishing food just as the one of two must
have. Therefore, whether the housewife has much or little to spend, her
money must purchase food suited to the needs of her family. Unless she
is able to accomplish this, she fails in the most important part of her
work as a housewife, and as a result, the members of her family are not
29. It has long been an established fact that correct diet is the
greatest factor in maintaining bodily health. Food is responsible for
the growth and maintenance of the body tissues, as well as for their
repair. In addition, it supplies the body with heat and energy.
Consequently, taking the right food into the body assists in keeping a
person in a healthy condition and makes work and exercise possible.
Because so much depends on the diet, the housewife, while considering
what can be bought with the money she has to spend, must also decide
whether the foods she plans to buy are suitable for the needs of her
family. In fact, she should be so certain of this matter that she will
automatically plan her menus in such a way that they will contain all
that is necessary for each person to be fed. But, as every housewife
knows, the appetites of her family must also be taken into
consideration. Theoretically, she should feed her family what the
various members need, regardless of their likes and dislikes. However,
very few persons are willing to be fed in this way; in truth, it would
be quite useless to serve a dish for which no one in the family cared
and in addition it would be one of the sources of waste.
30. To make the work of the housewife less difficult, children should be
taught as far as possible to eat all kinds of food. Too often this
matter is disregarded, and too often, also, are the kinds of food
presented, to a family regulated by the likes and dislikes of the person
preparing the food. Because she is not fond of certain foods, she never
prepares them; consequently, the children do not learn to like them. On
the other hand, many children develop a habit of complaining about foods
that are served and often refuse to eat what is set before them. Such a
state of affairs should not be permitted. Indeed, every effort should be
made to prevent a spirit of complaint. If the housewife is certain that
she is providing the members of her family with the best that she can
purchase with the money she has to spend and that she is giving them
what they need, complaining on their part should be discouraged.
31. With a little effort, children can be taught to like a large variety
of foods, especially if these foods are given to them while they are
still young. It is a decided advantage for every one to form a liking
for a large number of foods. The person who can say that he cares for
everything in the way of food is indeed fortunate, for he has a great
variety from which to choose and is not so likely to have served to him
a meal in which there are one or more dishes that he cannot eat because
of a distaste for them.
Every mother should therefore train her children during their childhood
to care for all the cereals, vegetables, and fruits. Besides affording
the children a well-balanced diet, these foods, particularly vegetables
and fruits, when served in their season, offer the housewife a means of
planning economical menus, for, as every one knows, their price is then
much lower than at any other time and is less than that of most other
foods. During the winter, turnips, carrots, onions, and other winter
vegetables are more economical foods than summer vegetables that must be
canned or otherwise prepared to preserve them for winter use or the
fresh summer vegetables purchased out of season. However, it is
advisable to vary the diet occasionally with such foods.
COMPOSITION OF FOOD
32. To feed her family properly, the housewife should understand that
the daily food must include the five food substances--protein, fat,
carbohydrate, mineral matter, and water. As these are discussed in
_Essentials of Cookery_, Part 1, they should be clear to the housewife,
but if they are not fully understood, a careful review should be made of
the discussions given there. The ways in which these food principles
contribute to the growth and health of the body, as well as the ordinary
foods that supply them in the greatest number, are tabulated in Table II
for easy reference. This information will assist the housewife
materially in the selection and preparation of food for her family;
consequently, close attention should be given to it and constant
application made of it.
33. As has already been learned and as will be noted here, a food
substance often has more than one use in the body. For instance, protein
builds tissue and also yields energy, but its chief work is that of
building tissue, and so it is classed first as a tissue-building food
substance. The fats and carbohydrates also have a double use in the
body, that of producing heat and energy and of building fatty tissue.
However, as their chief use is to produce heat and energy, they are
known principally as heat-producing foods. Mineral matter not only is
necessary for the building of bone and muscle, but also enters into the
composition of the blood and all the fluids in the body. Growth and
development are not ideal without an adequate supply of the many kinds
of these salts, which go to make up the tissues, nerves, blood, and
other fluids in the body.
34. The body regulators must be included in the food given, for they
assist in all processes carried on in the body. Some are necessary to
aid in the stimulation required to carry on the processes of digestion
and in some cases make up a part of the digestive fluids. Consequently,
vegetables and fruits that supply these body regulators and foods that
supply vitamines should be provided.
Water, the chief body regulator, not only is essential to life itself,
but forms by far a greater proportion of the body than any other single
substance. The largest part of the water required in the body is
supplied as a beverage and the remainder is taken in with the foods that
FOOD SUBSTANCES AND THEIR RELATION TO GROWTH AND HEALTH
I Body-building materials
Fish and shell fish
Poultry and game
Milk and milk products
Legumes (dried beans, peas, lentils)
Wheat and wheat products, as corn starch
Mineral matter, or ash
II Heat-producing materials
Butter and cream
Cereals and cereal products
Irish and sweet potatoes
Cane sugar and molasses
Maple sugar and sirup
Corn sirup and other manufactured sirups
Same as in I
III Body regulators
Mineral matter, or ash
Same as in I
Covering of cereals and nuts
Sour fruits--citric and malic
Fat soluble A
Water soluble B
Green vegetables, as spinach, chard, lettuce, beet greens
Asparagus and stem vegetables, as celery
Fruit vegetables, as tomatoes, peppers, okra
The importance of bulk in foods cannot be emphasized too much. The
indigestible cellulose of fruits, vegetables, and cereals is of such
importance in the body that some of these foods should be supplied with
every meal. Therefore, their incorporation into the diet should be
considered as a definite part of the menu-making plan.
The acids of fruits are valuable as stimulants both to the appetite and
to the digestion. Then, too, they give a touch of variety to a menu
otherwise composed of rather bland foods. The stimulation they produce
is much more healthful than that of condiments, drugs, or alcoholic
beverages and should receive the preference.
_Vitamines_ are substances necessary for both growth and health. A child
deprived of the foods containing them is usually not well and does not
grow nor develop normally. These substances are also required in the
diet of adults in order to maintain the body in a healthy condition. The
leafy vegetables and milk are the foods that yield the greatest supply
of vitamines. In fact, it is claimed by those who have experimented most
with this matter that these two sources will supply the required amount
of vitamines under all conditions.
* * * * *
BALANCING THE DIET
QUANTITY AND PROPORTION OF FOODS
35. FACTORS INFLUENCING FOOD.--Numerous factors affect the kind and
quantity of food necessary for an individual. Chief among these are age,
size, sex, climate, and work or exercise. In addition to determining the
amount of food that must be taken into the body, these factors regulate
largely the suitability of the foods to be eaten. It is true, of course,
that all the food substances mentioned in Table II must be included in
every person's diet after the first few years of his life, but the
quantity and the proportion of the various substances given vary with
the age, sex, size, and work or exercise of the person and the climate
in which he lives. Merely to provide dishes that supply sufficient food
value is not enough. This food material must be given in forms that can
be properly digested and assimilated and it must be in the right
proportion for the person's needs. The aim should therefore be to
provide a _balanced diet_, by which is meant one that includes the
correct proportion of the various food substances to supply the needs of
36. QUANTITY OF FOOD IN CALORIES.--Without doubt, the most intelligent
way in which to feed people is to compute the number of calories
required daily. As will be remembered, the calorie is the unit employed
to measure the amount of work that the food does in the body, either as
a tissue builder or a producer of energy. The composition and food value
of practically all foods are fairly well known, and with this
information it is a simple matter to tell fairly accurately the amount
of food that each person requires.
As has been stated, the number of calories per day required by a person
varies with the age, size, sex, and occupation of the person, as well as
with the climate in which he lives. For the adult, this will vary from
1,800 to 3,000, except in cases of extremely hard labor, when it may be
necessary to have as high as 4,500 calories. The average number of
calories for the adult, without taking into consideration the particular
conditions under which he lives or works, is about 2,500. Still a small
woman who is inactive might be sufficiently fed by taking 1,800 calories
a day, whereas a large man doing heavy, muscular work might require
3,500 to 4,000 daily.
37. IMPORTANCE OF PROPER AMOUNT OF FOOD.--Most authorities agree that it
is advisable for adults and children well past the age of infancy to
take all the food required in three meals. The taking of two meals a day
is sometimes advocated, but the possibility of securing in two meals the
same quantity of food that would ordinarily be taken in three is rather
doubtful, since it is assumed that large amounts of food are not so
easily disposed of as are smaller ones.
On the other hand, to overeat is always a disadvantage in more respects
than one. Taking food that is not required not only is an extravagance
in the matter of food, but overtaxes the digestive organs. In addition,
it supplies the body with material that must be disposed of, so that
extra work on the part of certain organs is required for this activity.
Finally, overeating results in the development of excessive fatty
tissue, which not only makes the body ponderous and inactive, but also
deadens the quickness of the mind and often predisposes a person to
disease or, in extreme cases, is the actual cause of illness.
38. EFFECT OF WEIGHT ON DIET.--An idea of the way in which the weight of
a person affects the amount of food required can be obtained by a study
of Tables III and IV. As will be observed, Table III gives the number
of calories per pound of body weight required each day by adults engaged
in the various normal activities that might be carried on within 24 hours.
It deals only with activity, the various factors that might alter the
amounts given being taken up later. The figures given are for adults
and the factors mentioned are those which affect the intake of food
to the greatest extent.
The lowest food requirement during the entire 24 hours is during the
time of sleep, when there is no activity and food is required for only
the bodily functions that go on during sleep. Sitting requires more food
than sleeping, standing, a still greater amount, and walking, still
more, because of the increase in energy needed for these activities.
In a rough way, the various occupations for both men and women are
classified under three different heads: Light Work, Moderate Work, and
Heavy Work. It is necessary that these be understood in examining
CALORIES PER POUND FOR 24 HOURS FOR ADULTS
Light work............................. 22
Moderate work.......................... 24
Heavy work............................. 27
Those considered as doing light work are persons who sit or stand at
their employment without any great degree of activity. They include
stenographers, dressmakers, milliners, teachers, clerks, shoemakers,
tailors, machine operators, elevator operators, and conductors.
Moderate work involves a little more activity than light work, but not
so much as heavy work. Professional cooks, professional housekeepers,
housekeepers in their own homes, professional chambermaids, waitresses,
masons, drivers, chauffeurs, plumbers, electricians, and machinists come
under this class.
Persons doing heavy work are the most active of all. They include
farmers, laundresses, excavators, lumbermen, miners, metal workers, and
soldiers on forced march.
39. To show the variation in the amount of food required according to
body weight, Table IV is given. The scale here presented has been worked
out for two persons who are normal and whose weight is correct, but
different, one weighing 130 pounds and the other 180 pounds. It is
assumed, however, that they are occupied in 24 hours with activities
that are identical, each one sleeping 8 hours, working at moderate labor
for 8 hours, walking 2 hours, standing 2 hours, and sitting 4 hours.
DIFFERENCE IN FOOD REQUIREMENTS THROUGH VARIATION IN WEIGHT
Number of Calories for 130 Pounds
8 hours, sleeping ....... 520
4 hours, sitting ........ 303
2 hours, standing ....... 184
2 hours, walking ........ 216
8 hours, moderate work 1,040
Number of Calories for 180 Pounds
8 hours, sleeping ....... 720
4 hours, sitting ........ 430
2 hours, walking ........ 300
2 hours, standing ....... 238
8 hours, moderate work 1,440
To find the total number of calories required for these activities, the
weight, in pounds, is multiplied by the calories per pound for 24 hours
for a certain activity. Thus, as in Table IV, if a person weighing 130
pounds sleeps for 24 hours, the number of pounds of weight, or 130,
would be multiplied by 12, which is the number of calories required per
pound in 24 hours for sleeping. However, since only 8 hours is occupied
by sleep and 8 is 1/3 of 24, the required number of calories would be
only 1/3 of this number. In this way each item is worked out in the
table, as is clearly shown by the following figures:
For sleeping .............. 130 X 12 X 1/3 = 520
For sitting ............... 130 X 14 X 1/6 = 303
For standing .............. 130 X 17 X 1/12 = 184
For walking ............... 130 X 20 X 1/12 = 216
For moderate work ......... 130 X 24 X 1/3 = 1,040
Total, as in Table IV ..................... 2,263
40. In this connection, it may be interesting to know the ideal weight
for persons of a given height. Table V shows the various heights for
both men and women, in inches, and then gives, in pounds, the correct
weight for each height. When, from this table, a person determines how
far he is above or below the ideal weight, he can tell whether he should
increase or decrease the number of calories he takes a day. For persons
who are under weight, the calories should be increased over the number
given in Table III for the normal individual if the ideal weight would
be attained. On the other hand, persons who are overweight should
decrease the number of calories until there is sufficient loss of weight
to reach the ideal. Of course, an adjustment of this kind should be
gradual, unless the case is so extreme as to require stringent measures.
In most cases, a slight decrease or increase in the quantity of food
taken each day will bring about the desired increase or decrease
CORRECT WEIGHT FOR CERTAIN HEIGHTS
Men | Women
Height | Weight | Height | Weight
Inches | Pounds | Inches | Pounds
61 | 131 | 59 | 119
62 | 133 | 60 | 122
63 | 136 | 61 | 124
64 | 140 | 62 | 127
65 | 143 | 63 | 131
66 | 147 | 64 | 134
67 | 152 | 65 | 139
68 | 157 | 66 | 143
69 | 162 | 67 | 147
70 | 167 | 68 | 151
71 | 173 | 69 | 155
72 | 179 | 70 | 159
73 | 185 | |
74 | 192 | |
75 | 200 | |
41. EFFECT OF SEX ON DIET.--The difference in sex does not affect the
diet to any great extent. Authorities claim that persons of opposite sex
but of the same weight and engaged in the same work require equal
quantities of food. But, in most cases, the work of women is lighter
than that of men, and even when this is not the case women seem to
require less food, probably because of a difference in temperament. That
taken by women is usually computed to be about four-fifths of the amount
necessary for a man. The proportion of food substances does not differ,
however, and when individual peculiarities are taken into consideration,
no definite rules can be made concerning it.
In the case of boys and girls up to the age of young manhood and
womanhood, the same amount of food is required, except for the
difference in activity, boys usually being more active than girls.
42. EFFECT OF CLIMATE ON DIET.--The climate in which a person lives has
much to do with the kind of diet he requires. In the extreme North, the
lack of vegetation makes it necessary for the inhabitants to live almost
entirely upon animal food except during the very short warm season.
Consequently, their diet consists largely of protein and fat. Under some
circumstances, a diet of this kind would be very unfavorable, but it
seems to be correct for the people who live in these regions, for
generations of them have accustomed themselves to it and they have
suffered no hardship by doing so. It is true, however, that races of
people who do not live on a well-balanced diet are not physically such
fine specimens as the majority of persons found in countries where it is
possible to obtain a diet that includes a sufficient supply of all the
43. In hot countries, the diet consists much more largely of vegetables
than any other class of foods. This means that it is very high in
carbohydrate and comparatively low in protein and fat. As can well be
understood, a diet of this kind is much more ideal for a warm climate
than a diet composed to a great extent of animal foods.
44. In temperate zones, the diet for both summer and winter seasons
varies according to the appetite of the inhabitants themselves. Usually
a light diet consisting of fruits, vegetables, cereals, and a small
amount of meat is found the most desirable for summer weather, while a
similar one with a larger proportion of meat is the usual winter diet.
On the whole, the desire for food, which, to a certain extent, is
regulated by the climate, can be trusted to vary the diet fairly well
for the existing conditions.
45. EFFECT OF AGE ON DIET.--The proper diet for infancy and childhood is
a matter that must be discussed by itself, for it has practically no
connection with other diet. It is also well understood that up to
maturity there is a difference in the diet because of a difference in
the needs of the body. However, from maturity up to 60 years of age, the
diet is altered by the conditions already mentioned, namely weight,
size, sex, climate, and work or exercise. At the age of 60, the amount
of food required begins to decrease, for as a person grows older, the
body and all of its organs become less active. Then, too, there is a
reduced amount of physical exercise, which correspondingly reduces the
necessity for food. At this time, an oversupply of food merely serves to
overwork the organs, which being scarcely able to handle the normal
quantity of food certainly keep in better condition if the amount of
work they are called upon to do is decreased rather than increased.
It has been estimated that persons 60 years of age require 10 per cent.
less food than they formerly did; those 70 years old, 20 per cent. less;
and those 80 years old, 30 per cent. less. Usually the appetite
regulates this decrease in food, for the less active a person is, the
less likely is the appetite to be stimulated. However, the fact that
there is also a great difference in persons must not be lost sight of.
Some men and women at 70 years of age are as young and just as active as
others at 50 years. For such persons, the decrease in quantity of food
should not begin so soon, nor should it be so great as that given for
the more usual cases.
46. As there is a decrease in quantity with advancing years, so should
there be a difference in the quality of the food taken. That which is
easily digested and assimilated is preferable to food that is rich or
highly concentrated. Usually, it is necessary to increase the laxative
food in the diet at this time of life, but this matter is one of the
abnormalities of diet and therefore belongs properly to medical
dietetics rather than to a lesson on normal diet.
DIET FOR INFANTS AND CHILDREN
47. From birth until a child has attained full growth, the food
requirement is high in proportion to the size of the child. This is due
to the fact that energy must be supplied for a great deal of activity,
and at the same time new tissue must be manufactured from the food
taken. It should be remembered, too, that all body processes during
growth are extremely rapid. At birth, the average child weighs about 7
pounds, and for several days after birth there is a normal loss of
weight. In a few days, however, if the diet is correct, the child begins
to increase in weight and should gain about 1/2 pound a week until it is
3 months old. From this time on, its weekly gain should be slightly
less, but it should be constant. If the weight remains the same or there
is a decrease for a number of consecutive days or weeks, it is certain
that the diet is incorrect, that the quantity of food is insufficient,
or that the child is ill. The reason for the loss should be determined
at once and the trouble then corrected.
Normal diet for the infant is the mother's milk, but if this cannot be
supplied, the next best diet is modified cow's milk, which for the young
child must be greatly diluted. If it is found necessary to give
proprietary, or manufactured, foods, raw food of some kind should be
used in addition, the best way to supply this being with a little orange
juice or other fruit juice. At the age of 3 months, this may be given in
small quantity if it is diluted, and then the amount may be gradually
increased as the child grows older.
48. EFFECT OF WEIGHT ON CHILDREN'S DIET.--The food requirement in the
case of children is determined by weight. To decide on the proper
amount, it is necessary to know the normal weight at certain ages. At
birth, as has been stated, the normal weight is 7 pounds; at 6 months,
15 pounds; at 1 year, 21 pounds; at 2 years, 30 pounds. The food
requirement for 24 hours per pound of weight is as follows:
Children up to 1 year.......................... 45
Children from 1 to 2 years..................... 40
Children from 2 to 5 years..................... 36
From a study of these figures, it will be noted that there is a gradual
decrease in the required number of calories per pound as the child
grows older. The decrease continues until maturity is reached, and then
the scale for adults applies.
49. EFFECT OF AGE ON CHILDREN'S DIET.--A child should not be kept
exclusively on milk for more than 6 or 8 months, and then only in case
it is fed on the mother's milk. Fruit juice, which has already been
mentioned as an additional food, is recommended if the diet requires raw
food or if it is necessary to make the child's food more laxative. When
the child reaches the age of 6 months, it should be taught to take foods
from a spoon or a cup; then when it must be weaned, the task of weaning
will be much easier. At the age of 8 or 9 months, depending on the
condition of the child, small amounts of well-cooked, strained cereals
may be added to the diet, and these may gradually be decreased as the
food is increased in variety. Up to 1-1/2 years of age, a child should
have 8 ounces of milk three times a day, which amounts to 1-1/2 pints.
At this age, half of a soft-cooked egg or a spoonful or two of tender
meat chopped very fine, may be given, and for each such addition 4
ounces of milk should be taken out of the day's feeding. But from 1-1/2
years up to 5 years, at least 1 pint of milk a day should be included
in the diet.
At a little past 1 year of age, a normal child may begin taking a few
well-cooked vegetables, such as a bit of baked potato, a spoonful of
spinach, carrot, celery, green peas, or other vegetables that have been
forced through a sieve or chopped very fine. At 1-1/2 years, the normal
child should be taking each day one vegetable, a cereal, buttered bread
or toast softened with milk, eggs, fruit juice, a little jelly, and
plain custards. However, each of these foods should be added to the diet
with caution and in small amounts, and if it appears to disagree with
the child in any way, it should be discontinued until such time as it
can be tolerated.
In case a child is being raised on a formula of cow's milk and it is a
strong, normal child, it should be taking whole milk at the age of 8 or
10 months. If the child is not strong, the milk may still be diluted
with a small amount of sterile water, but this should be gradually
decreased until the child is able to tolerate whole milk.
50. FEEDING SCALE FOR INFANTS.--It is, of course, a difficult matter to
make definite rules for the feeding of all children, for conditions
arise with many children that call for special plans. However, for
children that are normal, a feeding scale may be followed quite closely,
and so the one given in Table VI is suggested.
FEEDING SCALE FOR INFANTS
First Three Months
Same as for preceding months and orange juice and cereal waters.
Same as for preceding months and well-cooked and strained cereal.
Same as for preceding months and beef juice, beef broth, and yolk of
Same as for preceding months and unstrained cereal, half of
soft-cooked egg, both white and yolk, chopped or strained cooked
vegetables, such as spinach and other greens, asparagus, carrots,
celery, and squash, stale bread, crackers, toast and butter.
Same as for preceding months and well-cooked rice, baked potato,
jelly, plain custard, corn-starch custard, and junket.
Same as for preceding months and whole egg, a tablespoonful of
tender meat, string beans, peas, turnips, onions, chopped or
strained applesauce, stewed prunes, and other fruits.
Same as for preceding months and home-made ice cream, plain sponge
cake, milk soups, and cereal puddings.
This scale is to be used by adding to the diet for one month the foods
suggested for the next month, giving them at the time the child reaches
the age for which they are mentioned. For instance, a child of 8 months
may have everything included in the first three, four, and six months
and, in addition, beef juice, beef broth, and the yolk of a soft-cooked
egg, which is the diet suggested for the eighth month. Then at the tenth
month it may have all of these things together with those given for
51. When any of these foods is first added to the diet, much care is
necessary. Each new food should be given cautiously, a teaspoonful or
two at a time being sufficient at first, and its effect should be
carefully observed before more is given. If it is found to disagree, it
should not be repeated. If at any time a child is subject to an attack
of indigestion, its diet should be reduced to simple foods and when it
has recovered, new foods should be added slowly again. In the case of
any of the ordinary illnesses to which children are subject, such as
colds, etc., the diet should be restricted to very simple food, and
preferably to liquids, until the illness has passed. The diet of a baby
still being fed on milk should be reduced to barley water or a very
little skim milk diluted with a large amount of sterile water. When the
illness is over, the child may be gradually brought back to its
DIET FOR THE FAMILY
52. One of the difficulties of every housewife having a family composed
of persons of widely different tastes and ages is the preparation of
meals that will contain sufficient food of the correct kind for all of
them. Children up to 6 years of age usually require something especially
prepared for their meals, except breakfast, but, as a rule, the
selection of the diet for children from 6 years up to 15 or 16 years of
age is merely a matter of taking from the meal prepared for the
remainder of the family the right amount of the various foods. Tea and
coffee should not be included in the diet of growing children, and
should under no circumstances be given to small children. If the proper
method is followed in this matter, no difficulty will result, but where
children expect to eat the food served to the others at the table and
are not content with what is given to them, it is better not to feed
them at the same table with the adults.
53. The most satisfactory way in which to arrange meals that are to be
served to persons of different ages is to include several foods that may
be fed to all members of the family and then to select certain others
proper only for adults and still others suitable for the children. A
sample of such a menu for supper is the one here given. It is assumed
that the children that are to eat this meal are not infants.
Rice Croquettes with Cheese Sauce
Bread, Butter, Jelly
Bread, Butter, Jelly
A menu of this kind is not difficult to prepare, and still it meets the
needs of both the children and the adults of the family. The main dish
for each has the same foundation--rice. Enough to serve the entire
family may be steamed. Then some may be retained for the children and
the rest made up into croquettes and served with cheese sauce to the
adults. The remainder of the menu, bread, butter, jelly, baked apples,
and plain cookies, may be eaten by every one. Tea will probably be
preferred by the adults, but milk should be served to the children.
Other suitable menus may be planned without any extra trouble if just a
little thought is given to the matter.
PROPORTION OF FOOD SUBSTANCES
54. The proportion of food substances necessary for building and
repairing the body and for providing it with material necessary for its
various functions is a matter to which much discussion has been given.
Formerly, it was not understood that the protein should be limited to
exactly what the body needed and that its requirements were
comparatively low regardless of conditions or exercise. The standard for
diet very often allowed as much as 25 per cent. in protein. This
percentage has been gradually reduced by the discovery of the actual
body needs, so that now it is believed by the most dependable
authorities that only about 10 per cent. of the entire day's rations for
the adult should be protein. The growing child needs a greater
proportion than this because he is building up muscle tissue. The adult
whose muscles have been entirely constructed requires protein only for
repair, and 10 per cent. of the day's food in protein is sufficient for
this. This means that if the total calories for the day are 2,500, only
250 of them need be protein.
55. The remainder of the calories are largely made up by fat and
carbohydrate. These, however, need not be in such exact proportion as
the protein, for no real danger lies in having either one in a greater
amount than the ideal proportion. This is usually three-tenths fat and
six-tenths carbohydrate or in a diet of 2,500 calories, 750 fat and
1,500 carbohydrate. The carbohydrate is very much in preponderance
because of its easy digestion and assimilation. As may be imagined, it
is not a simple matter to figure a diet as closely and carefully as
this, and it is only in extreme cases where such planning is necessary.
56. The required amount of protein for the ordinary daily diet can be
had with about 3 ounces of meat, together with that which is found in
the bread, vegetables, and cereals taken each day. At any rate, the menu
should be planned so as to supply a protein dish for at least one meal
in the day. The fat is supplied largely by the butter taken and the fat
used in the cooking of foods. The carbohydrate is provided by the starch
found in cereals, bread, and vegetables and by the sugar contained in
fruits, as well as that used in the preparation of various foods and in
the sweetening of beverages, cereals, and fruits.
In addition to providing these food substances, each meal should include
at least one food, and for dinner preferably two foods, that will supply
a large amount of mineral salts, cellulose, and vitamines. As will be
remembered, fruits and vegetables are the foods to be used for
57. This method of menu planning may seem somewhat difficult at first
thought, but in reality it is not different from that which the
intelligent housewife follows who attempts to provide her family with a
variety of foods and who appreciates the value of that variety. If she
plans her menu in this manner, prepares the food so that it will be
wholesome, easily digested, and given in the proper proportion, and at
the same time watches the weights of the members of the family in the
manner suggested, she need have no fear about the general health of her
family, for it will be well maintained.
* * * * *
MENU MAKING AND TABLE SERVICE
GENERAL RULES FOR MENU MAKING
58. Perhaps the greatest problem in the planning of menus for a family
is that of securing sufficient variety. A housewife who uses the same
recipes and the same combinations of food repeatedly is apt to get into
a rut and the members of her family will undoubtedly lose interest in
their meals. This condition results even with the dishes of which those
of the family are extremely fond. However, they will not tire so quickly
of the foods they care for if such foods are served to them less often.
Then, too, there is more chance to practice economy when a larger
variety of food is used.
The importance of planning menus systematically should not be
overlooked, either, no matter how simple they may be. Even if breakfast
consists of only two or more dishes, luncheon of three or four, and
dinner of no more than four or five, a certain amount of planning should
be done in order that the meal may be properly balanced. If the
suggestions for meal planning already given are applied to this work,
very little difficulty will be experienced in providing meals that are
both attractive and properly balanced. In addition to these suggestions,
a few general rules for menu making ought to be observed. Most of these
are simple and can be followed with very little effort.
59. Unless the menu is planned for a special occasion, the cost of the
various dishes should be made to balance. For instance, if an expensive
meat is to be served, the vegetables and the salad selected to accompany
it should be of moderate cost. On the other hand, if an expensive salad
is to be served, a dessert of moderate cost, such as a simple rice
pudding, should be used to offset the price of the other dish. Planning
meals in this way is urged for the sake of economy, and if it is
carefully followed, all the meals may be made to average about the
60. Another important point in successful meal planning is the avoidance
of two dishes in the same meal made from the same food. For instance,
tomato soup and tomato salad should not be served in the same meal, for
the combination is undesirable. Corn soup contrasts much better with
tomato salad than does the tomato soup, for it has the bland flavor that
is needed to offset the acid salad. Some housewives, it is true, object
to such planning on the ground that it does not give them opportunity to
utilize all the materials they may have on hand at the same time. But in
nearly every instance the materials can be used to excellent advantage
in meals that are to follow and, in addition, the gain in variety is
sufficient to warrant the adoption of such a method.
61. As there should be variety in the materials used to make up the
dishes of a meal, so should there be variety in the flavor of the foods
selected. Rice, macaroni, and potato, for instance, make an undesirable
combination. They are too similar because they are all high in starch;
besides, they resemble one another too closely in consistency and they
are all bland in flavor. If a meal contains one or two bland dishes, a
special effort should be made to supply some highly flavored dish in
order to relieve the monotony. The same thing may be said of acid foods;
that is, an oversupply of these is just as distasteful as too many
62. To have fresh fruit for the daily breakfast would be very
delightful, but such fruit cannot always be secured. When fresh fruit
cannot be had every day, it is better to alternate it with canned fruit
or stewed dried fruit than to have it for several days in succession and
then have to serve the alternative for a number of days. The same is
true of cereals. If use is to be made of both cooked and uncooked
cereals, it is much better to alternate them than to serve the cooked
ones for breakfast for an entire week and then uncooked ones the
63. When two vegetables are used in the same meal, they should be
different. Sweet potatoes and white potatoes, although often served
together, do not belong in the same meal. In fact, for most seasons of
the year, two vegetables dissimilar in consistency should be supplied.
For instance, if spinach is included in a meal, some contrasting
vegetable, such as carrots, shell beans, etc., should be served with it.
Beets and carrots would not make a good combination, nor should cabbage
be combined with spinach, especially if both vegetables are prepared
with a sour dressing.
64. A bland food or one high in fat, such as roast pork, certain kinds