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Woman's Institute Library of Cookery, Vol. 5 by Woman's Institute of Domestic Arts and Sciences

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Wash the peaches, rub them to remove the fuzz, cut them in half, and
take out the seeds. Measure the peaches and put them with the water
into the preserving kettle, bring them to a boil, and cook until they
are thoroughly softened. Then press them through a sieve or a colander,
return the pulp to the preserving kettle, and add the sugar and the
spices. Cook slowly for 1 or 2 hours, or until it has become a rich
dark, clear color. Pour the butter into hot sterilized glasses or
crocks, cool, and seal.

84. PEAR BUTTER.--An appetizing fruit butter can be made from pears in
the same way that peach butter is made.


4 qt. pears, quartered
2 c. hot water
1 lb. sugar
2 tsp. cinnamon
1 tsp. cloves

Wash, cut, and core the pears, but do not peel them. Cut them into
quarters, and put the quarters into a preserving kettle with the water.
Bring to the boiling point, and boil until soft or mushy. Remove from
the kettle and force through a sieve or a colander. To the pulp, add the
sugar and spices, return to the kettle, and cook slowly for about 2
hours, stirring constantly to prevent scorching. If 2 hours is not
sufficient to cook the mixture dry, cook a little longer. Pour into hot
sterilized glasses or jars, cool, and seal.

85. PLUM BUTTER.--Another very good way in which to preserve plums for
future use is to make butter of them. The accompanying recipe explains
the correct procedure for butter of this kind.


4 qt. plums
1 c. hot water
3 lb. sugar
2 tsp. cinnamon
1/2 tsp. cloves

Wash the plums, cut them in half, and remove the seeds. Put the plums
with the water into a preserving kettle, and boil until they are soft.
Press them through a sieve or a colander, return to the preserving
kettle, and add the sugar and spices. Boil until the mixture is thick
and jelly-like, stirring constantly to prevent scorching. Pour into hot
sterilized crocks or glasses, cool, and seal. If very sour plums are
used, increase the amount of sugar.

* * * * *



86. PICKLING consists in preserving fruits and vegetables in vinegar or
brine. Each of these liquids acts as a preservative, so that the
receptacles, or containers, for the food do not have to be sealed
air-tight, nor does the preserved food require much care in order to
have it keep perfectly.

The effect of the pickling liquids on both fruits and vegetables is very
similar. The salt in the brine or the vinegar hardens the cellulose of
the foods to such an extent that they are impervious to the action of
bacteria. While this permits the foods to keep well, it also makes them
difficult to digest, a fact that must be remembered when pickled foods
are included in the diet.

87. The procedure in pickling is simple. After the fruit or vegetable is
cleaned and prepared in the way desired, it is merely a matter of
placing the food in sterilized jars or crocks, pouring the hot
preserving liquid over it, allowing it to cool, and then storing it. In
some cases the food is cooked, and in others it is not. As a rule,
spices of some kind or other are added, both to aid in preserving and to
impart flavor.

88. Practically all large fruits and many vegetables are pickled, as is
shown in the recipes that follow. Foods preserved by pickling are known
as either _pickles_ or _relishes_. While both products are similar in
many respects, relishes are distinguished from pickles in that, as a
rule, they are made up from more than one kind of fruit or vegetable and
usually the pieces are cut or chopped and not put up whole. Often the
foods in relishes are chopped or cut so fine as to make it almost
impossible to tell what the fruit or vegetable was originally.

The food value of both these products is not extremely high, unless a
great quantity of sugar is used in the pickling. This is sometimes the
case with pickled peaches or pears, but seldom if ever with pickled

* * * * *



89. SMALL CUCUMBER PICKLES.--Perhaps the most common pickles are small
cucumbers pickled according to the accompanying recipe. Such pickles
meet with favor and serve very well as appetizers. The cucumbers
selected should be small, so that they will be solid all the
way through.


1 gal. water
4 c. coarse salt
200 small cucumbers
1/2 gal. vinegar
1-1/2 tsp. celery seed
1 lb. light-brown sugar
1/2 tsp. mustard seed
1 tsp. salt
1 oz. stick cinnamon
1 tsp. whole cloves

Make a brine of the water and the coarse salt, pour it over the
cucumbers, and allow them to stand for 24 hours. At the end of this
time, pour off the brine, wash the pickles in cold water, and place them
into crocks. Heat the vinegar, add the celery seed, sugar, mustard seed,
salt, cinnamon, and cloves, and bring the mixture to the boiling point.
Pour this over the pickles in the crocks, cover closely while hot, and
place in storage. If the pickles are desired sweet, add more brown sugar
to the mixture.

90. SLICED-CUCUMBER PICKLES.--Large cucumbers cut into slices may be
pickled in practically the same way as small cucumbers. At times, when
small cucumbers are hard to get, large cucumbers will take their place
very well. In fact, some housewives prefer sliced cucumber pickles to
the small ones.


1 gal. sliced cucumbers
1 c. coarse salt
1-1/2 qt. vinegar
1 pt. water
1 tsp. pepper
3 tsp. mustard
1 tsp. cinnamon
1 tsp. cloves
4 onions, chopped
1 c. brown sugar
1 Tb. salt

Select rather large cucumbers. Wash and peel them and cut into 1/4-inch
slices. Sprinkle well with salt, and mix the salt among the layers of
cucumbers. Allow this to stand for 24 hours; then drain and wash in
clear cold water. To the vinegar and water add the spices, onion,
sugar, and salt. Heat this to the boiling point, pour over the sliced
cucumbers, and pack them into jars or crocks. Seal while hot and store.

91. CUCUMBERS IN BRINE.--Cucumbers may also be preserved in brine,
stored, and pickled in vinegar later in any quantity, as desired.

Pour 1 gallon of boiling water over 4 cupfuls of coarse salt. This
should make brine that is heavy enough to support an egg. Wash cucumbers
of any desired size, put them into a sterilized crock, in layers, and
pour the brine, which has been allowed to cool, over the cucumbers until
they are entirely covered. Cover the top of the crock well and store.
Cucumbers preserved in this way may be taken from the brine at any time
and pickled. To do this, soak them in fresh water to remove the salty
taste. The fresh water may have to be poured off and replaced several
times. After they have been freshened sufficiently, pickle them in
vinegar and season them in any desirable way.

92. PICKLED BEANS.--String beans that are pickled make a good relish to
serve with meals. Unlike cucumbers that are pickled, the beans are
cooked before the preserving liquid is added. The accompanying recipe is
for either wax or green beans.


4 qt. beans
1-1/2 qt. vinegar
1 c. brown sugar
1 tsp. salt
1/2 tsp. pepper
1 tsp. allspice
1 tsp. cinnamon
1 tsp. cloves

Select large, firm, tender wax or green beans. Cover them with water to
which has been added 1 level teaspoonful of salt to each quart and put
them over the fire to cook. Boil the beans until they can be pierced
with a fork, remove from the fire, drain, and pack into jars or crocks.
To the vinegar add the sugar, salt, and spices. Bring this mixture to
the boiling point, and pour it over the beans in the jars or crocks,
filling them completely or covering the beans well. Close tight
and store.

93. PICKLED BEETS.--Pickled beets meet with much favor as a relish. Like
pickled beans, they must be cooked before they can be pickled; also,
unless they are very small, they should be sliced before pickling as the
recipe points out.


4 qt. red beets
2 qt. vinegar
2 c. brown sugar
1 tsp. salt
1/2 tsp. pepper
1 tsp. cinnamon
1 tsp. cloves
1 tsp. allspice

Cut the tops from the red beets, leaving 1 inch of the stems and the
roots attached. Scrub well with a vegetable brush, and put to cook in
boiling water. Cook until the beets are tender enough to be pierced with
a fork. Pour off the hot water and run cold water over them. Remove the
roots and stems, and cut into slices of any desired thickness or into
dice, if preferred. Pack into jars or crocks. Then bring the vinegar to
a boil, and to it add the sugar, salt, and spices. Pour this hot mixture
over the beets. Seal the beets while hot, cool, and store.

94. PICKLED CAULIFLOWER.--Cauliflower is another vegetable that lends
itself well to pickling. This food must be cooked, too, before pickling;
and to have it just right for packing into the containers, it requires
particular attention in cooking.


4 qt. cauliflower broken into pieces
2 c. brown sugar
1 Tb. salt
1/2 tsp. pepper
1 qt. vinegar
1 pt. water

Select firm heads of cauliflower and break them into sections or
flowerets. Immerse these in cold water to which has been added 1
teaspoonful of salt to the quart. Allow the cauliflower to stand for 1
hour in the salt water. Remove from the water, and put over the fire to
cook in salt water of the same proportion as that used for soaking. Cook
until the cauliflower is quite tender, but not so tender as it would be
cooked to serve at the table. If this is done, the cauliflower will
darken and break into pieces. It should be firm enough not to crush or
break easily when it is packed into the jars. When properly cooked, pack
closely into jars, add the sugar, salt, and pepper to the vinegar and
water, heat to the boiling point, and pour this liquid over the
cauliflower, completely covering it. Seal while hot, allow to cool,
and store.

95. PICKLED ONIONS.--Pickled onions are well liked by many. For pickling
purposes, medium small onions of uniform size are most suitable. Owing
to their nature, onions cannot be pickled so quickly as some of the
vegetables mentioned, but, otherwise, the work is done in practically
the same way.


4 qt. onions
2 qt. spiced vinegar

Select onions that are as nearly the same size as possible. Peel them
and let them stand in fresh water for 24 hours. Pour off this water, and
over the onions pour a brine made by adding 2 cupfuls of salt to each
gallon of water. Allow them to stand in this brine for 3 days, changing
the brine once during this time. Remove the onions from the brine, and
freshen in cold water for 2 hours. Drain the onions and cook them in the
spiced vinegar for 1/2 hour. Any of the spiced vinegars given for the
other vegetables may be used. After cooking, pack the onions with the
liquid into jars, seal, cool, and store.

96. PICKLED PEACHES.--Among the fruits that may be pickled, peaches seem
to meet with great favor. They, as well as pickled pears and pickled
crab apples, make a relish that adds variety to the foods that are
served in the home from day to day. The pickling process does not differ
materially from that applied to vegetables, as the accompanying
recipe shows.


2 lb. brown sugar
1 qt. vinegar
1 oz. stick cinnamon
4 qt. peaches
2 Tb. cloves

Boil the sugar, vinegar, and cinnamon together until they begin to look
sirupy. Wash the peaches and rub off the fuzz. Stick one or two cloves
into each peach, and drop the peaches into the sirup. Cook them until
they may be easily pierced with a fork. Put them into jars, pour the
sirup over them, filling each jar, and seal while hot. Allow the jars to
cool and store. The peaches may be peeled if desired. It may also be
more convenient to cook only part of the peaches in the sirup at one
time, cooking the remainder after these have been taken out and put
into jars.

97. PICKLED PEARS.--Pears also lend themselves readily to pickling.
Specific directions are not given here, because they are pickled in
exactly the same way as peaches. The pears may be peeled or not,
as desired.

98. PICKLED CRAB APPLES.--Crab apples that are to be pickled should
preferably be of a large variety. The directions given for pickling
peaches apply also to this fruit. The crab apples should be examined
carefully to make certain that they contain no worms. Also, the stems
should be left on, and they should be washed thoroughly with the blossom
ends cut out.


99. MUSTARD PICKLES.--Among the relishes, mustard pickles are very
popular. This relish is made up of a large number of vegetables, namely,
cucumbers, string beans, green peppers, red sweet peppers, onions, green
tomatoes, cauliflower, and green Lima beans.


1 pt. small cucumbers
1 qt. string beans
4 green peppers
4 red sweet peppers
1 pt. small onions
1 pt. green tomatoes
1 pt. cauliflower
1 c. green Lima beans
3/4 c. flour
2 c. sugar
4 Tb. powdered mustard
2 tsp. tumeric
1 Tb. celery seed
1 Tb. salt
1/2 tsp. pepper
1 qt. vinegar
1 pt. water

Wash all the vegetables and prepare them by cutting them into the
desired sizes. The onions and cucumbers should be of a size that will
not require cutting. Put all the vegetables together, cover them with
salt water made by adding 1 cupful of salt to each 2 quarts of water,
and allow them to stand in this for 24 hours. At the end of this time,
drain off the brine and freshen the vegetables in clear water for about
2 hours. Mix the dry ingredients together, heat the vinegar and water,
and pour it over all. Bring this mixture to the boiling point, and pour
it over the vegetables. Fill the jars with the hot mixture, seal, cool,
and store.

100. SPANISH RELISH.--Another satisfactory relish made up of a large
number of vegetables and spices is Spanish relish. In its preparation,
however, the vegetables are not chopped very fine.


12 green sweet peppers
12 red sweet peppers
12 medium-sized onions
12 green tomatoes
2 medium-sized heads of cabbage
1 tsp. salt
1 lb. brown sugar
1/2 tsp. black pepper
1/4 tsp. Cayenne pepper
1 Tb. mustard seed
1 tsp. celery seed
1-1/2 qt. vinegar

Wash the vegetables and chop them into coarse pieces. Cover them with
salt water made by adding 1 cupful of salt to a gallon of water and
allow them to stand in this brine for 6 to 8 hours. At the end of this
time, drain off the salt water and wash with clear water. Add the salt,
sugar, and spices to the vinegar, and bring this mixture to the boiling
point. Then pour it over the mixture of vegetables, pack all into
sterilized crocks or jars, seal, cool, and store.

101. CHOW CHOW.--Still another relish in which a variety of vegetables
is used is chow chow. This relish is well and favorably known to
housewives for the zest it imparts to meals.


2 qt. small green tomatoes
6 green peppers
6 red peppers
1 small head of cabbage
2 bunches celery
1 pt. small onions
1 qt. small cucumbers
3 qt. vinegar
1 Tb. salt
2 c. brown sugar
1/2 tsp. black pepper
2 Tb. mustard seed
2 Tb. tumeric
2 Tb. allspice
1 Tb. cloves
1 Tb. cinnamon

Wash the vegetables and cut them into very small pieces. Cover them with
salt water made by adding 1 cupful of salt to a gallon of water, and let
them stand in this for 6 to 8 hours. Drain at the end of this time, and
wash with cold water. Heat the vinegar, and to it add the salt, sugar,
and spices. Add this to the vegetables and cook until they are soft.
Pack into sterilized jars, seal while hot, cool, and store.

102. BEET RELISH.--A relish in which cooked beets are the principal
ingredient may be made up from the accompanying recipe. As pickled beets
in any form are usually well liked, this relish may be put up for the
variety it offers.


1 qt. cooked beets, chopped
1 c. horseradish root, grated
1 c. vinegar
1 Tb. salt
1/2 c. sugar
1 tsp. cinnamon
1 tsp. cloves

Cook the beets in the usual way. When they are tender, remove the skins
and chop quite fine. Add the grated horseradish to the beets. To the
vinegar, add the salt, sugar, and spices and heat to the boiling point.
Pour this mixture over the vegetable mixture, pack all into hot
sterilized jars, seal, cool, and store.

103. CHILLI SAUCE.--Chilli sauce is a well-known relish in which ripe
tomatoes, red or green peppers, and onions are combined with spices and
vinegar. Although not so many vegetables are used in this relish as in
those which precede, it merits a place among the canned foods prepared
for future use.


2 qt. medium-sized ripe tomatoes
2 red or green peppers, finely chopped
2 onions, finely chopped
2 c. vinegar
1/2 c. sugar
1 Tb. salt
1 tsp. ground cloves
2 tsp. ground cinnamon
2 tsp. celery salt

Blanch the tomatoes in boiling water until the skins loosen. Then remove
the skins and stem ends, chop the tomatoes, and put them into a
preserving kettle with the chopped peppers and chopped onions. Heat
gradually to the boiling point, add the vinegar, sugar, salt, and
spices, and cook slowly until the mixture is quite thick. This will
require from 2 to 3 hours. Then put the hot sauce into sterilized
bottles or jars, seal, allow them to cool, and store.

104. GREEN-TOMATO PICKLE.--A pleasing relish may be made from green
tomatoes after the frost has come in the fall and tomatoes on the vines
will not mature.


3 qt. green tomatoes, sliced
2 qt. onions, sliced
1 qt. vinegar
1 pt. water
1 Tb. salt
1-1/2 lb. brown sugar
2 Tb. cinnamon
2 tsp. cloves
2 tsp. allspice
3 Tb. celery salt
1 Tb. mustard seed

Select firm green tomatoes, wash them, and slice them. Peel the onions,
and slice them into slices of the same thickness as the tomatoes, about
1/4 inch being perhaps the most desirable. Mix the tomatoes and onions,
sprinkle them generously with salt, and allow them to stand for 24
hours. At the end of this time, pour off any excess liquid; then pour a
small quantity of fresh water over them, and drain this off, also. To
the vinegar and water, add the salt, sugar, and spices. Heat this
mixture to the boiling point, pour it over the mixture of tomatoes and
onions, and put into jars. Seal the jars while hot, allow them to cool,
and then store.

105. RIPE-TOMATO PICKLE.--Ripe tomatoes form the basis of another relish
known as ripe-tomato pickle. Like other relishes in which tomatoes are
used, this relish is very satisfactory for meals in which pickles or
relishes may be served.


2 qt. ripe tomatoes
2 bunches celery
3 red sweet peppers
3 medium-sized onions
1 qt. vinegar
1 Tb. salt
1 c. sugar
1 Tb. mustard seed
1 Tb. ground cloves
1 Tb. ground cinnamon

Blanch the tomatoes until the skins loosen, and then peel them. Remove
the stem ends, and cut the tomatoes into quite large pieces. Chop the
celery, peppers, and onions coarsely. Cook together until they are
almost tender. Pour off the water. Mix all the vegetables together, and
pack them into a sterilized stone jar. To the vinegar, add the salt,
sugar and spices. Boil and pour this mixture over the vegetables in the
stone jar, cover, and allow this to stand at least 2 weeks before using.

106. TOMATO CATSUP.--As a condiment to be served with meats, oysters,
fish, baked beans, and other foods high in protein, catsup finds
considerable use. This relish, which is also called _catchup_ and
_ketchup_, may be made from both vegetables and fruits, but that made
from tomatoes seems to be the most desirable to the majority.


1/2 bu. ripe tomatoes
1/2 c. salt
1 lb. brown sugar
2 qt. vinegar
1 Tb. ground cinnamon
1 tsp. Cayenne pepper
2 Tb. celery salt
2 tsp. ground cloves

Remove the skins from the tomatoes by blanching and cut out the stem
ends. Then slice the tomatoes, put them into a preserving kettle over
the fire, cook them until they are soft, and force them through a sieve
to remove the seeds. Return the pulp to the preserving kettle, add the
salt, sugar, vinegar, and spices, and cook the mixture until it is
reduced at least half in quantity. Pour into sterilized bottles, seal,
cool, and store.

107. GRAPE CATSUP.--Perhaps the best-known catsup made from fruit is
grape catsup. Its uses are practically the same as those of tomato
catsup, and it is made in much the same way.


4 qt. Concord grapes
3 c. vinegar
1 lb. brown sugar
2 Tb. cinnamon
1 tsp. cloves
1 tsp. allspice

Put the grapes to cook with the vinegar. When they have cooked soft
enough, press through a sieve to remove the seeds and skins. Add the
sugar and spices, and cook until the mixture is rather thick. Stir
constantly to prevent scorching. Pour into sterilized bottles, seal,
cool, and store.

108. PICKLED WATERMELON RIND.--An unusual, though highly satisfactory,
relish may be made from the rind of melons. The accompanying recipe is
for pickled watermelon rind, but if desired muskmelon rind may be
substituted. In either case, only the white part of the rind should
be used.


4 qt. watermelon rind cut into strips or cubes
1 oz. stick cinnamon
1 Tb. cloves
1 c. water
3 lb. sugar
1 qt. vinegar

Prepare the rind by cutting off the green skin and all the pink flesh on
the inside. Cut this rind into strips 1 inch wide and 1 inch thick, and
then into cubes, if desired. Cook in water until the rind may be easily
pierced with a fork. Add the spices, water, and sugar to the vinegar,
and boil until it becomes sirupy. Add to this sirup the cooked
watermelon rind and bring to the boiling point. Then pack into
sterilized jars, seal, cool, and store.

109. CRAB-APPLE RELISH.--Among the fruits, crab apples lend themselves
best to the making of relish. By the addition of oranges, raisins, and
spices, as in this recipe, crab-apple relish is made very desirable and
agreeable to the taste.


4 qt. crab apples
3 c. vinegar
4 oranges
4 lb. brown sugar
2 lb. Sultana raisins
1 Tb. powdered cinnamon
1 tsp. cloves
1 tsp. allspice

Wash the crab apples, remove the cores, and cut the apples into small
pieces. Put them into a preserving kettle, add the vinegar, the oranges,
peeled and sliced, the sugar, the raisins, and the spices. Cook all
slowly until the apples are soft. Pour into sterilized jars or glasses,
seal, cool, and store.

* * * * *



(1) (_a_) Give three reasons why the making and use of jelly has value.
(_b_) When are pickles permissible in the diet?

(2) What is necessary for the making of good jelly?

(3) Mention some important points to consider in selecting fruit for
jelly making.

(4) (_a_) What is pectin? (_b_) Why are ripe fruits not so satisfactory
for jelly making as partly green ones?

(5) Give the test for pectin.

(6) How may jelly be made from fruit juices that do not contain pectin?

(7) Give the best method of extracting fruit juice for jelly.

(8) What material is best for jelly bags? Why?

(9) What is the general proportion of sugar and juice for making: (_a_)
jelly from very sour fruits? (_b_) jelly from slightly sour fruits?

(10) Give the method for making jelly by the mean-boiling method.

(11) What is meant by: (_a_) short boiling? (_b_) long boiling?

(12) Give two tests for determining when jelly has cooked sufficiently.

(13) (_a_) How should glasses be prepared before filling them with
jelly? (_b_) How are glasses closed for storing?

(14) (_a_) What are preserves? (_b_) What kind of fruits should be
selected for preserves?

(15) Describe the best method of making preserves.

(16) How do conserves differ from preserves?

(17) How do marmalades differ from conserves?

(18) Describe jam.

(19) How does fruit butter differ from jams?

(20) What are: (_a_) pickles? (_b_) relishes?

* * * * *


* * * * *



1. CONFECTIONS are such sweetmeats as candy and similar articles, which
have for their foundation sugar, sirup, honey, and the like. As is well
known, the most important variety of confection is candy, and this is
the one that is usually meant when the term confections is mentioned.
Confections, however, are not so limited as might be imagined upon first
thought, for many delicious dishes whose main ingredient is nuts,
fruits, coconut, or pop corn are also placed in this class. To be sure,
most of these contain sweetening material of some sort in greater or
smaller quantities. Therefore, in its broadest sense, confections may be
regarded as preparations having for their chief ingredient sugar or
substances containing it, such as molasses, honey, etc., usually mixed
with other food materials, such as nuts, fruits, chocolate, starches,
and fats, to give them body and consistency, and flavored and colored in
any desired way.

2. The making of confections, and of candy in particular, is both a
useful and a delightful pastime that can be indulged in even by those
who are only slightly skilled. In fact, with a certain amount of
knowledge of the methods used and a little practice, surprising results
can be obtained by the amateur candy maker. Then, too, it is a
comparatively simple matter to copy the confectioner's work. A
considerable variety of candies can often be made from a simple
foundation material if a little originality or ingenuity is applied.

Since it is an easy matter to prepare foods of this kind and since they
can be made at home more cheaply and of more tasty and wholesome
materials, it is a decided advantage to make them rather than buy them,
particularly if they are used extensively in the home. However, not so
much fear need be felt now as formerly with regard to commercially made
candies, for much has been done in recent years to compel the use of
wholesome materials in candies, especially the cheaper ones that
children are apt to buy. The pure-food laws require that no such
adulterants as are not food materials and no harmful flavorings,
colorings, nor alcoholic beverages be used in making confections. As can
well be understood, this is a valuable protection. Consequently, at the
present time, the harm, if any, resulting from eating candy comes from
either the excessive or the wrong use of it.

3. The taste for confections of all kinds is one that is acquired, and
it is often developed to harmful extremes. Therefore, these foods, like
most others, should be indulged in only in moderation. They will then
prove not only valuable, but entirely unharmful. The greatest precaution
that should be observed in their use is in giving them to children. Very
young children should not have candy at all, it being much too
concentrated for digestive organs that are used to handling only diluted
food materials. As they grow older and their diet begins to include more
foods, a small quantity of wholesome sweets will not be harmful if it is
given at meal time. Adults with normal digestion may eat a reasonable
amount of candy and other confections without injury.

4. To assist in the making of confections in the home, the principles of
candy making, as well as those which must be understood for the making
of such other foods as are commonly called confections, are given in
this Section. In addition, there are included explicit directions for
the making of simple candies and confections and of some of the
varieties that are more difficult to make. The various operations are
not hard to perform, and good results may be expected if each step is
carried out as directed. The operations requiring skill and dexterity,
such as the coating of bonbons and chocolates, must be repeated several
times if results that approach those of the professional confectioner
are to be attained. Still, surprisingly good results may be obtained the
first time the work is done if directions are followed explicitly.


5. CARBOHYDRATE IN CONFECTIONS.--So far as their composition is
concerned, confections are largely carbohydrate in the form of sugar.
This food material may be one of several different varieties. As is well
understood, the high percentage of carbohydrate, which in some cases may
be very close to 100 per cent., greatly increases the food value of this
variety of foods. Where the percentage is very high, the candies are
necessarily hard, for all or nearly all the moisture is driven off in
the making. In this case, as in other foods, the more water there is
present, the more reduced is the total food value.

6. FAT IN CONFECTIONS.--To a certain extent, fat is found in these
high-carbohydrate foods. It is supplied largely by the use of milk,
condensed milk, cream, butter or butter substitutes, nuts, and
chocolate. While these materials are usually added to produce a certain
flavor or consistency, they form at the same time an ingredient that
greatly increases the food value of the finished product.

7. PROTEIN IN CONFECTIONS.--Protein is not found extensively in
confections unless nuts, chocolate, milk, or other foods containing it
are used in their preparation. But, even then, sweets are usually eaten
in such small quantities that the protein in them does not figure to any
great extent, so that, at best, confections are not considered as a
source of protein at any time. However, chocolate-coated nuts, as will
readily be seen, are a rather high-protein food.

8. MINERAL SALTS IN CONFECTIONS.--Refined sugar does not contain mineral
salts, so that unless other ingredients containing this food substance
are added, no mineral salts will be present in confections. It is true
that some of the ingredients used, such as milk, fruits, nuts, molasses,
honey, maple sirup, etc., contain certain minerals; but just as
confections are not taken as a source of protein, so they are not
characterized by the minerals in them.

* * * * *




9. SUGAR.--The most important ingredient used in the making of
confections is sugar. It is therefore well that the nature of this
ingredient be thoroughly understood. Its chief commercial varieties are
_cane sugar_ and _beet sugar_, both of which produce the same results in
cookery operations. When sugar is mentioned as an ingredient, plain
granulated sugar is meant unless it is otherwise stated. Whether this is
cane or beet sugar makes no difference. The fineness and the color of
sugar are due to its refinement and the manufacturing processes through
which it is put, and these are indicated by various terms and trade
names, such as _granulated, pulverized_, and _soft_ sugars.

The grading of granulated sugar is based on the size of its crystals,
this sugar coming in three qualities. The coarsest is known as _coarse
granulated_; the next finer, as _standard granulated_; and the finest,
as _fine granulated_. There is also a fourth grade known as _fancy
fine_, or _extra-fine, granulated_, and often called _fruit_, or
_berry, sugar_.

10. So far as candy is concerned, the coarseness of the sugar does not
make a great deal of difference, although the finer sugars are perhaps a
little better because they dissolve more quickly in the liquid and are a
trifle less likely to crystallize after cooking. When sugar is to be
used without cooking, however, its fineness makes a decided difference.
Sugars finer than granulated are known as _pulverized sugars_ and are
made by grinding granulated sugar in a mill that crushes the crystals.
These pulverized sugars are known on the market as _coarse powdered,
standard powdered_, and _XXXX powdered_, the last being the one that
should always be purchased for the making of confectionery where the use
of uncooked sugar is required. One of the chief characteristics of
sugars of this kind is that they lump to a great extent, the finer the
sugar the larger and harder being the lumps. Before sugar that has
become lumpy can be used, it must be reduced to its original condition
by crushing the lumps with a rolling pin and then sifting the sugar
through a fine wire sieve. As explained in _Cakes, Cookies, and
Puddings_, Part 1, sugars of this kind are not suitable for cooking
purposes, such as the preparation of cooked icings, etc. These are made
from granulated or other coarse sugar, while the uncooked ones are made
from XXXX, or _confectioners', sugar_, as it is sometimes called. Then,
too, fine sugars cost more than do the granulated sugars, so it is well
to remember that nothing is gained by their use.

11. The third variety of sugars, which are known as _soft sugars_, are
purchased by the retail dealer by number. There are fifteen grades of
this sugar, ranging from 1 to 15, and the number indicates the color of
the sugar. No. 1 is practically white, while No. 15 is very dark, and
the intervening numbers vary in color between these two shades. The
lightness of the color indicates the amount of refinement the sugars
have had. The dark-brown sugars are stronger in flavor and indicate less
refinement than the light ones. When brown sugar is required for any
purpose, it is usually advisable to use one of the lighter shades,
because they are more agreeable in taste than the very dark ones.

12. MOLASSES.--The liquid that remains after most of the sugar has been
refined out of the cane juice is known as molasses. The juice from beets
does not produce molasses; therefore, all of the molasses found on the
market is the product of cane juice. A molasses known as _sorghum
molasses_ is made by boiling the sap of sorghum, which is a stout cereal
grass, but this variety is seldom found on the general market, it being
used locally where it is manufactured. The dark color and the
characteristic flavor of molasses are due to the foreign materials that
remain in the juice after the removal of the sugar. Molasses is not so
sweet as sugar, but it is much used as an ingredient in the making of
many delicious confections. As in the case of soft sugars, the lighter
the molasses is in color, the more agreeable is the flavor of the
confections made from it.

13. GLUCOSE.--Another substance much used in the making of confections
is glucose. It is usually manufactured from the starch of corn and is
put on the market under various trade names, but generally it is called
_corn sirup_. Many persons have long considered glucose a harmful food,
but this belief has been proved untrue. Glucose has come to be
absolutely necessary in some candy making in order to produce certain
results. The glucose that the confectioners use is a heavier, stickier
substance than the sirups that can be purchased for table use or for
cooking, but these do very well for most candy-making purposes. However,
none of the glucose preparations are so sweet as sugar, maple sirup,
or honey.

14. Glucose will not crystallize nor make a creamy substance; neither
will it permit any substance that contains more than a very little of it
to become creamy. A creamy candy containing a small amount of it will
remain soft longer than that made without it; also, it will cream
without danger of the formation of large crystals. Because of these
characteristics, which are responsible for its use in candy making, a
mixture containing glucose will not "go to sugar." Taffy-like
confections and clear candies contain a large proportion of glucose,
while any that are intended to be creamy, such as bonbons and the
centers for chocolates, have only a small amount, if any, glucose
in them.

15. MAPLE SIRUP AND MAPLE SUGAR.--Maple sirup and maple sugar, because
of their pleasing flavor, are used extensively for candy making. Maple
sirup is, of course, the basis for maple sugar, for by boiling the sirup
to evaporate the water and then stirring it, maple sugar results. When
the sirup is used for candy making, it must be boiled, but it seldom
requires any liquid other than that which it already contains. On the
other hand, maple sugar requires liquid in some form, for it must first
be dissolved in a liquid and then boiled with it.

16. HONEY.--Honey that has been pressed from the comb and is in the form
of a heavy sirup is used in the making of various confections. It
provides a delightful flavor much different from that of sugar, and when
it is cooked it acts in much the same way as glucose.


17. KINDS OF FLAVORINGS.--Flavorings are very important in the making of
confections, for it is on them that much of the appetizing effect of
these foods depends. In fact, unless good flavorings are secured and
then used discreetly, tasty results cannot be expected.

The flavorings used in candy making are in reality divided into two
classes--_natural_ and _artificial_.

18. NATURAL FLAVORINGS.--Under the head of natural flavorings come those
which are made from the fruit or the plant that produces the desired
flavor. They are known as _oils_ and _extracts_.

19. The oils are obtained by pressing out the natural flavoring
substance from the material containing it. They are usually very strong,
so that only a little is needed to flavor a comparatively large quantity
of food. Peppermint, wintergreen, and cinnamon are the oils that are
used the most.

20. EXTRACTS are prepared by using alcohol to extract the flavoring
substances from certain materials. The alcohol acts as a preservative,
so that the finished extract nearly always contains a high percentage of
this material. Vanilla and such flavorings as lemon and orange are
examples of extracts that are usually made in this way. A few companies
manufacture a product in which glycerine instead of alcohol is used as
the preservative. Flavorings so prepared are in the form of a thick,
sirupy substance rather than a liquid and are usually sold in a tube.

21. ARTIFICIAL FLAVORINGS.--Flavorings classified as artificial
flavorings are of two kinds: those having for their basis substances
extracted from coal tar and those prepared by various chemical
combinations. They are also known as _synthetic flavors_. With regard to
both healthfulness and taste, they are not so desirable as the natural

22. ADULTERATION OF FLAVORINGS.--As it is a common practice to
adulterate flavorings, every manufacturer of these materials is obliged
to state on the label of each bottle or tube of flavoring just what its
contents consist of. Therefore, when the purchase is made, the label
should be carefully examined. Without doubt, vanilla is adulterated more
often than any other flavoring, a pure extract of vanilla being seldom
found. The beans from which the flavor is extracted are very expensive,
so the Tonka bean and other cheaper flavoring substances are often
resorted to in the making of this flavoring. However, when large amounts
of such things are used, the price of the extract should be less than
that charged for the pure extract of the vanilla bean. Many chefs and
professional cooks overcome this difficulty by purchasing the vanilla
beans and using them for flavoring purposes by soaking or cooking small
pieces of them in the material that is to be flavored or grinding the
bean in a mortar and using it in the ground form.


23. COLORINGS are used in the making of confections, candy in
particular, for two purposes: to make them attractive and to indicate
certain flavors. For instance, candies flavored with wintergreen are
usually colored pink, while those containing peppermint are colored pale
green or are left white. Strawberry and rose flavors are also colored
pink; orange and lemon, their respective shades of yellow; violet,
lavender; and pistachio and almond, green.

24. The substances used for coloring confections are of two general
classes: _vegetable_ and _mineral_, or _chemical_. The vegetable
colorings, like the natural flavorings, are considered to be the most
healthful ones. Some of the chemical colorings are derivatives of coal
tar, just as are the coal-tar flavorings. Cochineal, a red color
extracted from the bodies of cochineal insects, is a coloring matter
much used in the preparation of confections. These coloring materials
may be purchased in several forms. The ones most commonly used come in
the form of liquid or paste, but frequently colorings are to be had in
powder or tablet form.

25. Discretion must always be observed in the use of colorings. Because
of their concentration, they must be greatly diluted and used in only
very small amounts. As is well known, pale colors in candies are always
more attractive than deep ones. Then, too, when candies contain much
color, most persons are likely to consider them harmful to eat. To get
the best results, only a little coloring should be added at a time, and
each amount added should be mixed in thoroughly. Then the danger of
getting too much coloring will be avoided. It should be remembered,
however, that if colored candies are kept for any length of time or are
exposed to the light, they will fade to a certain extent; consequently,
these may be colored a little more deeply than those which are to be
used at once.


26. To prevent the creaming or the crystallizing of such candy as taffy,
an acid of some kind is generally used with the cane sugar in the making
of this variety of confection. The acid, upon being boiled with the
sugar, changes a part of the cane sugar to invert sugar, and as this
does not crystallize, the candy will not become sugary. A similar effect
is obtained by adding glucose in sufficient amounts; since it does not
crystallize, the cane sugar is prevented from becoming sugary.

27. The acids most commonly used for this purpose are cream of tartar,
acetic acid, vinegar, which has acetic acid for its basis, and lemon
juice, which has citric acid for its basis. With each pound of sugar, it
will be necessary to use 1/8 teaspoonful of cream of tartar, 1 or 2
drops of acetic acid, or 1 tablespoonful of vinegar or lemon juice in
order to prevent crystallization. Lemon juice and vinegar are much more
likely to flavor the candy than are cream of tartar and acetic acid.
Often, if a fine-grained creamy candy is desired, a small amount of one
of these acids is used. Even in small quantities, they will prevent the
coarse-grained crystallization that is the natural result of the cooking
and stirring of the cane sugar when nothing is done to prevent it.


28. In addition to the ingredients already mentioned, there are a number
of materials that may be used in the making of candy to provide food
value and at the same time give variety and improve the flavor and
appearance of the candy. Chief among these materials are coconut, cocoa,
chocolate, nuts, candied and dried fruits, milk, cream, butter, etc.
Their value in candy depends on their use, so it is well to understand
their nature and the methods of using them.

29. COCONUT.--Either shredded or ground coconut is often used in candy
to give it flavor or variety. Coconut for this purpose may be secured in
a number of forms. A coconut itself may be purchased, cracked open to
remove the flesh, and then prepared either by grating it or by grinding
it. This will be found to be very delicious and preferable to any other
kind. However, if it is not desired to prepare the coconut in the home,
this material may be purchased shredded in boxes or in cans. That which
comes in boxes is usually somewhat dry and is often found to be quite
hard. The canned varieties remain soft, since the shredded coconut is
mixed with the milk of the coconut, but these have the disadvantage of
not keeping very well. Any coconut that becomes too dry for use may be
softened by steaming it.

30. COCOA AND CHOCOLATE.--In the making of confections, cocoa and
chocolate are used extensively for both flavoring and coating. Either of
them may be used for flavoring purposes, but chocolate is always
preferable, because it has a richer, deeper flavor than cocoa. Bitter
chocolate should be used in preference to any kind of sweet chocolate.
When it is to be cooked with candy for flavoring, it may be added to the
other ingredients in pieces and allowed to melt during the cooking. It
is often used without cooking, however, as when it is added to material
that is to be used as centers for bonbons or opera creams. In such an
event, it is first melted over steam or hot water and then worked into
the candy.

31. When desired for coating, chocolate that is sweetened is usually
employed, although many persons are fond of creams that have a bitter
coating. Sometimes a bitter-sweet coating, that is, a slightly sweetened
chocolate, is used, and for most purposes a coating of this kind is
preferred. Such chocolate must usually be purchased from a store where
confectioner's supplies are sold or from a candy-making establishment.
Milk chocolate and very sweet coatings may also be purchased for
coating, but the eating chocolate that is sold in bars will not produce
satisfactory results, and so should never be used for coating purposes.

32. CANDIED AND DRIED FRUITS.--Many varieties of candied or crystallized
fruits and flowers find a place in the making of confections. Sometimes
they are used as an ingredient, while other times they are added to
bonbons and chocolates merely for decorative purposes. Again, they are
often used in boxes of fancy candies that are packed to sell at some
special event or to give away. They are somewhat expensive to purchase,
but if they are properly used they add such an appetizing touch and
produce such gratifying and delightful results that the expenditure for
them is well justified. Many of these may be prepared in the home with a
certain degree of satisfaction.

33. The two candied fruits most frequently used are candied pineapple
and candied cherries, but, in addition to these candied apricots,
peaches, pears, limes, lemons, and oranges are often found in the
market. Cherries preserved in maraschino wine and creme de menthe add
attractive touches of color to candies and make delicious confections
when coated with bonbon cream or chocolate.

34. Crystallized violets, rose petals, and mint leaves are used
frequently in the preparation of confections. They are added merely for
decoration and make very attractive candies. They can usually be
purchased in confectionery stores.

35. Several varieties of dried fruits, chief among which are dates,
figs, and raisins, are useful in the making of confections. They have
the advantage of not requiring complicated manipulation, and at the same
time they lend themselves to a number of delicious confections that may
often be eaten by persons who cannot eat anything so rich as candy.
Children can usually partake of confections made of these fruits without
harm when candy would disagree with them.

36. NUTS.--Nuts of various kinds probably have more extensive use in the
making of confections than any other class of foods. In fact, there are
few kinds of candy that cannot be much improved by the addition of nuts.
Halves of such nuts as English walnuts and pecans are frequently used by
being pressed into the outside of bonbons and chocolates. Then, too,
pieces of various kinds of nuts are used with a filling for coated
candies. Such nuts as almonds, filberts, walnuts, and peanuts are often
covered singly or in clusters with the same chocolate coating that is
used to coat creams. Pistachio nuts, which are light green in color, are
either chopped or used in halves on chocolates or bonbons.

37. When nuts are not desired whole for confections, they should never
be put through a food chopper; rather, they should always be broken up
by being cut or chopped with a knife. The simplest way in which to cut
them is to spread the nuts in a single layer on a board and then with a
sharp knife press down on them, having one hand on the back of the knife
near the point and the other on the handle and rocking the knife back
and forth across the nuts until they are as fine as desired. They may
also be chopped in a chopping bowl or cut one at a time with a small,
sharp knife.

38. Salted nuts, while not a confection in the true sense of the word,
are closely related to confections, since they are used for the same
purpose. For this reason, it seems advisable to give the methods of
preparing them in connection with the preparation of confections.

39. POP CORN.--An excellent confection and one that always appeals to
children may be made from pop corn. This variety of Indian corn has
small kernels with or without sharp points. To prepare it for
confections; the kernels, or grains, are removed from the ears and then
exposed to heat in a corn popper or a covered pan. When they become
sufficiently hot, they pop, or explode; that is, they rupture their
yellow coat and turn inside out. The popped kernels may be eaten in this
form by merely being salted or they may be treated with various sugar
preparations in the ways explained later.

40. MILK, CREAM, AND BUTTER.--Milk is extensively used in the making of
candy, both to obtain a certain flavor and to secure a particular
consistency. Skim milk may be used for this purpose, but the richer the
milk, the better will be the flavor of the finished candy. Cream, of
course, makes the most delicious candy, but as it is usually expensive,
it greatly increases the cost of the confection. Butter may be used with
milk to obtain a result similar to that secured by the use of cream. If
skim milk is used, butter should by all means be added, for it greatly
improves the flavor of the candy. In any recipe requiring milk,
condensed or evaporated milk may be substituted with very satisfactory
results. These milks may be diluted as much as is desired.

Besides providing flavor, milk, cream, and butter add food value to the
confections in which they are used. Most of this is in the form of fat,
a food substance that is not supplied by any other ingredients, except
perhaps chocolate and nuts. They are therefore particularly valuable and
should always be used properly in order that the most good may be
derived from them.

41. The chief problem in the use of milk is to keep it from curding and,
if curding takes place, to prevent the curds from settling and burning
during the boiling. When maple sirup, molasses, or other substances that
are liable to curdle milk are to be cooked with the milk, a little soda
should be added or, if possible, the milk should be heated well before
it is put in. When it can be done, the milk should be cooked with the
sugar before the ingredients likely to make it curdle are added.

In case the milk does curdle, the mixture should be treated at once, or
the result will be very unsatisfactory. The best plan consists in
beating the mixture rapidly with a rotary egg beater in order to break
up the curds as fine as possible, and then stirring it frequently during
the boiling to keep the milk from settling and burning. As this stirring
is a disadvantage in the making of candy, every precaution should be
taken to prevent the curding of the milk.


42. The utensils for candy making are few in number and simple in
nature. As with all of the more elaborate foods, the fancy candies
require slightly more unusual equipment, and even for the more ordinary
kinds it is possible to buy convenient utensils that will make results a
little more certain. But, as illustrated in Fig. 1, which shows the
general equipment for confection making, practically all the utensils
required are to be found in every kitchen.

[Illustration: FIG. 1]

43. To boil the confectionery ingredients, a saucepan or a kettle is
required. This may be made of copper or aluminum or of any of the
various types of enamelware that are used for cooking utensils. One
important requirement is that the surface of the pan be perfectly
smooth. A pan that has become rough from usage or an enamelware pan that
is chipped should not be used for the boiling of candy.

The size of the utensil to use depends on the kind and the amount of the
mixture to be boiled. A sugar-and-water mixture does not require a pan
much larger in size than is necessary to hold the mixture itself, for it
does not expand much in boiling. However, a mixture containing milk,
condensed milk, cream, or butter should be cooked in a pan much larger
than is needed for the same quantity of sugar and water, for such a
mixture expands greatly and is liable to boil over. The necessary size
of the pan to be used should be overestimated rather than
underestimated. In the cooking of candy, just as in the cooking of other
foods, the surface exposed to the heat and the depth of the material to
be cooked affect the rapidity of cooking and evaporation. Consequently,
if rapid evaporation and quick cooking are desired, a pan that is broad
and comparatively shallow should be used, rather than one that is
narrow and deep.

44. Measuring cups and spoons, a spoon for stirring, and a knife are, of
course, essential in making confections. Then, too, it is often
convenient to have a metal spatula and a wooden spoon or spatula. When
these utensils are made of wood, they are light in weight and
consequently excellent for stirring and beating. If egg whites are used
in the preparation of a confection, an egg whip is needed. When candy
must be poured into a pan to harden, any variety of pan may be used, but
generally one having square corners is the most satisfactory. Then if
the candy is cut into squares, none of it will be wasted in the cutting.

45. A thermometer that registers as high as 300 or 400 degrees
Fahrenheit is a valuable asset in candy making when recipes giving the
temperature to which the boiling must be carried are followed. A degree
of accuracy can be obtained in this way by the inexperienced candy maker
that cannot be matched with the usual tests. A small thermometer may be
used, but the larger the thermometer, the easier will it be to determine
the degrees on the mercury column. A new thermometer should always be
tested to determine its accuracy. To do this, stand the thermometer in a
small vessel of warm water, place the vessel over a flame, and allow the
water to boil. If the thermometer does not register 212 degrees at
boiling, the number of degrees more or less must be taken into account
whenever the thermometer is used. For instance, if the thermometer
registers 208 degrees at boiling and a recipe requires candy to be
boiled to 238 degrees, it will be necessary to boil the candy to 234
degrees because the thermometer registers 4 degrees lower than
it should.

46. The double boiler also finds a place in candy making. For melting
chocolate, coating for bonbons, or fondant for reception wafers, a
utensil of this kind is necessary. One that will answer the purpose very
well may be improvised by putting a smaller pan into a larger one
containing water. In using one of this kind, however, an effort should
be made to have the pans exactly suited to each other in size;
otherwise, the water in the lower pan will be liable to splash into the
pan containing the material that is being heated.

For the coating of bonbons, a coating fork, which is merely a thin wire
twisted to make a handle with a loop at one end, is the most convenient
utensil to use. However, this is not satisfactory for coating with
chocolate, a different method being required for this material.

47. A number of candies, such as fondant, bonbon creams, and cream
centers for chocolates, can be made much more satisfactorily if, after
they are boiled, they are poured on a flat surface to cool. Such
treatment permits them to cool as quickly as possible in a comparatively
thin layer and thus helps to prevent crystallization. When only a small
amount of candy is to be made, a large platter, which is the easiest
utensil to procure, produces fairly good results. For larger amounts,
as, for instance, when candy is being made to sell, some more convenient
arrangement must be made. The most satisfactory thing that has been
found for cooling purposes is a marble slab such as is found on an
old-fashioned table or dresser. If one of these is not available, and
the kitchen or pastry table has a vitrolite or other heavy top
resembling porcelain, this will make a very good substitute.

48. To prevent the hot candy from running off after it is poured on a
slab or any similar flat surface, a device of some kind should be
provided. A very satisfactory one consists of four metal bars about 3/4
to 1 inch in width and thickness and as long as desired to fit the slab,
but usually about 18 inches in length. They may be procured from a
factory where steel and iron work is done, or they may be purchased from
firms selling candy-making supplies. These bars are merely placed on top
of the slab or flat surface with the corners carefully fitted and the
candy is then poured in the space between the bars. When it is desired
to pour out fudge, caramels, and similar candies to harden before
cutting, the metal bars may be fitted together and then placed on the
slab in such a way as to be most convenient. Fudge, however, may be
cooled satisfactorily in the pan in which it is cooked if the cooling is
done very rapidly.

49. A satisfactory cooling slab may be improvised by fastening four
pieces of wood together so as to fit the outside edge of the slab and
extend an inch or more above the surface. If such a device is used,
plaster of Paris should be poured around the edge of the slab to fill
any space between the wood and the slab. In using a slab or similar
surface for purposes of this kind, a point that should be remembered is
that a part of it should never be greased, but should be reserved for
the cooling of fondant and certain kinds of center creams, which require
only a moistened surface.

50. Many of the candies that are turned out on a flat surface must be
worked to make them creamy. For this purpose, nothing is quite so
satisfactory as a putty knife or a wallpaper scraper. If a platter is
used, a putty knife is preferable, for it has a narrower blade than a
wallpaper scraper; but where candy is made in quantity and a large slab
is used, the larger scraper does the work better. For use with a
platter, a spoon is perhaps the best utensil when a putty knife is not
in supply.

51. Scales are valuable in candy making because they permit exact
measurements to be made. However, they are not an actual necessity, for
almost all recipes give the ingredients by measure, and even if this is
not done, they may be purchased in the desired weight or transposed into
equivalent measure. Scales, of course, are required if it is desired to
weigh out candy in small amounts or in boxes after it is made.

52. Waxed paper is a valuable addition to candy-making supplies, there
being many occasions for its use. For instance, caramels and certain
other candies must be wrapped and waxed paper is the most suitable kind
for this purpose. Then, too, chocolate-coated candies and bonbons must
be placed on a smooth surface to which they will not stick. Waxed paper
is largely used for this purpose, although candy makers often prefer
white oilcloth, because its surface is ideal and it can be cleansed and
used repeatedly. Often a candy- or cracker-box lining that has been
pressed smooth with a warm iron may be utilized. For such purposes, as
when reception wafers are to be dropped, it is necessary that the
surface of the paper used be absolutely unwrinkled.

* * * * *



53. WEATHER CONDITIONS.--If uniformly good results are desired in candy
making, certain points that determine the success or failure of many
candies, although seemingly unimportant, must be observed. Among these,
weather conditions form such a large factor that they cannot be
disregarded. A cool, clear day, when the atmosphere is fairly dry, is
the ideal time for the making of all kinds of candies. Warm weather is
not favorable, because the candy does not cool rapidly enough after
being cooked. Damp weather is very bad for the making of such candies as
the creamy ones that are made with egg white and that are desired to be
as soft as possible and still in condition to handle. In view of these
facts, candy should be made preferably on days when the weather is
favorable if the element of uncertainty, so far as results are
concerned, would be eliminated.

54. COMBINING THE SUGAR AND LIQUID.--The proportion of liquid and sugar
to use in making candy varies to some extent with the kind of
ingredients used and with the quantity of candy being made. In the
making of quantities up to several pounds, the usual proportion is
_one-third as much liquid as sugar_, but with larger amounts of sugar
the quantity of liquid may be slightly decreased.

With the quantities decided on, mix the sugar and liquid and put them
over the fire to boil. Stir at first to prevent the sugar from settling
and burning, continuing the stirring either constantly or at intervals
until the boiling begins. At this point, discontinue the stirring if
possible. Mixtures that do not contain milk usually require no further
stirring, and many times stirring is unnecessary even in those which do
contain milk; but whenever any stirring is required, as little as
possible should be done. The rule that applies in this connection is
that the sugar should be entirely dissolved before the boiling begins
and that all unnecessary agitation should then cease.

55. BOILING THE MIXTURE.--When the mixture begins to boil, wash down the
sides of the kettle with a small cloth wet with clean water. This
treatment should not be omitted if especially nice candy is desired, for
it removes all undissolved sugar and helps to prevent crystallization
later. In case merely sugar and water make up the ingredients, a cover
may be placed on the kettle; then the steam that is retained will keep
any sirup that may splash on the sides from crystallizing. This cannot
be done, however, with mixtures containing milk and butter, for they
will in all probability boil over.

56. The boiling of candy should be carried on quickly, for slow boiling
often proves a disadvantage. A sugar-and-water mixture may, of course,
be boiled more rapidly than any other kind, because there is not the
danger of its boiling over nor of burning before the water is evaporated
that there is with a mixture containing material that may settle and
burn. It should be remembered that candy does not begin to burn until
the water has entirely evaporated.

57. The length of time candy should boil is also a matter to which
attention should be given. This depends somewhat on the kind that is
being made, but largely on the rapidity with which the boiling is
carried on. Thus, to time the boiling of candy is the most uncertain way
of determining when the boiling has continued long enough. The
inaccuracy of measurement, the size and shape of the pan, and the rate
of speed in boiling cause a variation in the time required.
Consequently, it would be rather difficult for the same person to get
identical conditions twice and much more difficult for two persons to
produce the same results.

58. TESTING CANDY.--Since accurate results cannot be obtained by timing
the boiling of candy, other tests must be found that will be reliable.
As has already been stated, a thermometer is perhaps the most accurate
means that can be adopted for this purpose. However, if one is not
available, the testing of a small quantity of the hot mixture by cooling
it in cold water will be found to be fairly accurate. Ice water is not
necessary nor particularly desirable for this kind of testing. In fact,
water just as it comes from the faucet is the best, as it is quickly
obtained and its temperature will not vary greatly except in very hot or
very cold weather. Of course, to make an extremely accurate test of this
kind, it would be necessary always to have the water at the same
temperature, a condition that can be determined only by testing the
temperature, but such accuracy is not usually required.

If the thermometer is used, all that need be done is to insert it into
the candy and allow it to remain there until the temperature is
registered. In case it does not reach the right temperature the first
time, keep the mixture boiling until it registers the temperature that
is decided on as the correct one.

59. To test the mixture by the water method, allow it to boil almost
long enough to be done, and then try it at close intervals when it is
nearing the end of the boiling. Dip a little of the sirup into a spoon
and drop it slowly into a cup containing a little water. Not much sirup
is needed for the test, a few drops being sufficient. Gather the drops
together with the tips of the fingers and judge from the ball that forms
whether the candy has boiled sufficiently or not. If the ball is not of
the right consistency, boil the candy a little longer, and test again.
Be sure, however, to get fresh water for each test. When the candy is
nearing the final test, and it is thought that the mixture has boiled
enough, remove the pan from the heat while the test is being made so
that the boiling will not be continued too long.

60. To assist in making the tests for candy properly, Table I is given.
This table shows both the water test and the corresponding temperature
test for the representative variety of the leading classes of candies.
In each one of these classes there are, of course, a number of varieties
which may cause a slight variation in some of the tests, but on the
whole these tests are uniform and can be relied on for practically
all candies.



Classes Water Test Temperature Test
Degrees Fahrenheit
Center Cream......Soft ball 234 to 236
Fudge.............Firm ball 238 to 240
Caramels..........Hard ball 246 to 248
Taffies..........Brittle ball 256 to 260

When candy is cooked long enough to form a _soft ball_, it can just be
gathered together and held in the fingers. If it is held for any length
of time, the warmth of the fingers softens it greatly and causes it to
lose its form. This test is used for candies, such as soft-center
cream. It will be found that when candy boiled to this degree is
finished, it can scarcely be handled.

The _firm ball_ is the stage just following the soft ball. It will keep
its shape when held in the fingers for some time. This is the test for
fudge, bonbon creams, and similar candies that are creamed and are
expected to be hard and dry enough to handle when they are finished.

To form a _hard ball_, candy must be cooked longer than for the firm
ball. At this stage, the ball that is formed may be rolled in the finger
tips. It is not so hard, however, that an impression cannot be made in
it with the fingers. It is the test for caramels, soft butter scotch,
sea foam, and many other candies.

A _brittle ball_ is the result of any temperature beyond 256 degrees up
to the point where the sugar would begin to burn. It is hard enough to
make a sound when struck against the side of the cup or to crack when an
attempt is made to break it. This is the test that is made for taffy and
other hard candies.


61. After the testing of the mixture proves that it is boiled
sufficiently, there are several procedures that may be followed. The one
to adopt depends on the kind of candy that is being made, but every
candy that is cooked should be cooled by one of the following methods.

62. The first treatment consists in pouring the mixture at once from the
pan to be finished without cooling, as, for instance, caramels and
butter scotch, which are poured at once into a buttered pan to be cooled
and cut; or, the hot sirup may be poured upon beaten egg whites, as in
the case of sea foam or penuchie. In the making of either of these
kinds, the sirup may be allowed to drip as completely as possible from
the pan without injury to the finished product.

63. The second method by which the mixture is cooled calls for cooling
the sirup in the pan in which it was cooked, as, for instance, in the
case of fudge. When this is done, the pan should be carried from the
stove to the place where the mixture is to be cooled with as little
agitation as possible. Also, during the cooling, it should not be
disturbed in any way. Stirring it even a little is apt to start
crystallization and the candy will then be grainy instead of creamy.

64. In the third form of treatment, the sirup is poured out and then
cooled before it is stirred to make it creamy, as in opera creams or
bonbon creams. To accomplish this, the pan should be tipped quickly and
all its contents turned out at once. It should not be allowed to drip
even a few drops, for this dripping starts the crystallization. Candies
that contain milk or butter, or sticky materials, such as taffies,
should always be poured on a buttered surface. Those which are cooked
with water but are to be creamed should be poured on a surface moistened
with cold water.

65. When candy mixtures are cooled before being completed, the cooling
should be carried to the point where no heat is felt when the candy is
touched. To test it, the backs of the fingers should be laid lightly on
the surface of the candy, as they will not be so likely to stick as the
moist tips on the palm side. It should be remembered that the surface
must not be disturbed in the testing, as this is also apt to bring about

Every precaution should be taken to prevent even the smallest amount of
crystallization. Any crystals that may have formed can be easily
detected when the stirring is begun by the scraping that can be felt by
the spoon or paddle used. If a little crystallization has taken place
before the candy has cooled completely, it being easily seen in the
clear sirup, the mixture should be cooled still further, for nothing is
gained by stirring it at once.

A point that should always be kept in mind in the cooling of candy is
that it should be cooled as quickly as possible. However, a refrigerator
should not be used for cooling, for the warm mixture raises the
temperature of the refrigerator and wastes the ice and at the same time
the moist atmosphere does not bring about the best results. As has
already been learned, a platter or a slab is very satisfactory. If
either of these is used, it should be as cold as possible when the sirup
is poured on it. Cold weather, of course, simplifies this matter
greatly, but if no better way is afforded, the utensil used should be
cooled with cold water.


66. The treatment through which candy mixtures are put after being
cooled varies with the kind of candy being made. Some mixtures, as
fudge, are beaten until creamy in the pan in which they are cooked.
Others are worked on a platter or a slab with the proper kind of
utensil. These are usually treated in a rather elaborate way, being
often coated with bonbon cream or with chocolate. Still others, such as
taffy, are pulled until light in color and then cut into small pieces
with a pair of scissors. Again, certain candies, after being poured into
a pan, are allowed to become hard and then cut into squares or broken
into pieces. Usually candies made in the home are served without being
wrapped, but when certain varieties are to be packed, it is advisable to
wrap them. Directions for finishing confections in these different ways
are here given.

67. MARKING AND CUTTING CANDIES.--Much of the success of certain candies
depends on their treatment after being cooled. Those which must be
beaten in the pan until they are creamy should be beaten just as long as
possible. Then, if the surface is not smooth when they are poured out,
pat it out with the palm of the hand after the candy has hardened a
little. As soon as it has hardened sufficiently to remain as it is
marked and not run together, mark it in pieces of the desired size,
using for this purpose a thin, sharp knife. Be careful to have the lines
straight and the pieces even in size. Generally, candy that is treated
in this manner is cut into squares, although it may be cut into other
shapes if desired.

68. COATING CANDIES WITH BONBON CREAM.--When especially nice candy is
desired for a special occasion, it is often made into small pieces and
then coated with bonbon cream. A large number of the centers to be
coated should be made up before the coating is begun. In fact, if it is
possible, all the centers should be made first and then the coating can
proceed without interruption. The cream to be used for coating may be
flavored or colored in any desirable way. Any flavoring or coloring that
is to be used, however, should be added while the cream is melting.

69. To coat with bonbon cream, put the cream in a double boiler without
any water and allow it to melt with as little stirring as possible. It
is best to use a small double boiler for this purpose and not to melt
too much of the cream at one time, as it is apt to become grainy if it
is used too long for dipping. When it has melted to the extent that the
coating will not be too thick after it has cooled, the dipping of the
candies may begin. As soon as it is found that no more centers can be
dipped in the cream, melt some fresh cream for the remaining centers,
but do not add it to that which has been used before. Instead, use the
first up as closely as possible and then drop the remainder by spoonfuls
on waxed paper. With all of it used, wash and dry the inner pan of the
double boiler and start again with a fresh lot of the cream.

70. To coat the centers, drop one at a time into the melted cream and
turn over with a coating fork or an ordinary table fork. When the
surface is entirely covered, lift out of the cream with the fork and
allow any superfluous coating to drip off. Then drop the coated bonbons
on waxed paper, to cool. While this work may prove a little difficult at
first, it can be done with dexterity after a little practice. If an
effort is made to have the centers uniform in size and shape, the
finished candies will have the same appearance. While the cream is soft,
tiny pieces of candied fruit or nuts may be pressed into the coating to
decorate the bonbons.

71. COATING WITH CHOCOLATE.--Candies coated with chocolate are always
desirable; so it is well for any one who aspires toward confection
making to become proficient in this phase of the work. The centers
should, of course, be prepared first and put in a convenient place on
the table where the coating is to be done. They may be made in any
desired size and shape.

If it is possible to secure a regular coating chocolate, this should be
obtained, for it produces better results than does a chocolate that can
be prepared. However, unless one lives in a place where confectioner's
supplies are on sale, it is almost impossible to purchase a chocolate of
this kind. In such an event, a substitute that will prove very
satisfactory for candy to be eaten in the home and not to be sold may be
made as follows:


4 oz. milk chocolate
2 oz. bitter chocolate
1/2 oz. paraffin

To prepare the chocolate, put all the ingredients in a double boiler and
allow them to melt, being careful that not a single drop of water nor
other foreign substance falls into the mixture. Do not cover the boiler,
for then the steam will condense on the inside of the cover and fall
into the chocolate. As this will spoil the chocolate so that it cannot
be used for coating, the pan in which the chocolate is melted should
always be allowed to remain open. The paraffin used helps to harden the
chocolate after it is put on the centers; this is a particular
advantage at any time, but especially when chocolates are made in
warm weather.

72. When the chocolate HAS COMPLETELY MELTED, dip some of it into a
small bowl or other dish or utensil having a round bottom and keep the
rest over the heat so that it will not harden. With a spoon, beat that
which is put into the bowl until it is cool enough to permit the fingers
being put into it. Then work it with the fingers until all the heat is
out of it and it begins to thicken. It may be tested at this point by
putting one of the centers into it. If it is found to be too thin, it
will run off the candy and make large, flat edges on the bottom. In such
an event, work it and cool it a little more. When it is of the proper
thickness, put the centers in, one at a time, and, as shown in Fig. 2,
cover them completely with the chocolate and place them on waxed paper
or white oilcloth to harden. As they harden, it will be found that they
will gradually grow dull. No attempt whatever should be made to pick up
these candies until they are entirely cold. This process is sometimes
considered objectionable because of the use of the bare hands, but
chocolate coating cannot be so successfully done in any other way as
with the fingers. Therefore, any aversion to this method should be
overcome if good results are desired.

[Illustration: FIG. 2]

73. When the chocolate begins to harden in the bowl and consequently is
difficult to work with, add more of the hot chocolate from the double
boiler to it. It will be necessary, however, to beat the chocolate and
work it with the fingers each time some is added, for otherwise the
coating will not be desirable. So as to overcome the necessity of doing
this often, a fairly large amount may be cooled and worked at one time.
Care should be taken to cover each center completely or its quality will
deteriorate upon standing. With conditions right, the centers of
chocolates and bonbons should soften and improve for a short time after
being made, but chocolate-coated candies will keep longer than bonbons,
as the coating does not deteriorate.

[Illustration: FIG. 3]

[Illustration: FIG. 4]

74. WRAPPING CANDIES.--Such candies as caramels, certain kinds of
taffies, and even chocolates are often wrapped in waxed paper,
especially if they are to be packed in boxes. When this is to be done,
cut the paper into pieces of the proper size and then wrap each piece
separately. The best way to prepare the paper is to fold several sheets
until they are the desired size and then, as in Fig. 3, cut them with a
sharp knife. If a pair of scissors is used for this purpose, they are
apt to slip and cut the paper crooked. The method of wrapping depends on
the candy itself. Caramels are wrapped in square pieces whose ends are
folded in neatly, as in Fig. 4, while taffy in the form of kisses is
rolled in the paper and the ends are twisted to fasten the wrapping.

* * * * *




75. TAFFY is probably one of the simplest candies that can be made.
Indeed, if candy of this kind is boiled long enough, it is almost
impossible to have unsatisfactory results. Taffies are usually made from
white sugar, but a variety of flavors may be obtained by the use of
different ingredients and flavors. For instance, molasses is used for
some taffies, maple sirup for others, and brown sugar for others, and
all of these offer an opportunity for variety. Then, again, taffy made
from white sugar may be varied by means of many delightful colors and
flavors. Melted chocolate or cocoa also makes a delightful
chocolate-flavored taffy. Recipes for all of these varieties are here
given, together with a number of recipes for closely related
confections, such as butter scotch, glacé nuts and fruits, peanut
brittle, and nut bars.

76. METHODS OF TREATING TAFFY.--Taffy may be poured out in a pan,
allowed to become entirely cold, and then broken into irregular pieces
for serving, or it may be pulled and then cut in small pieces with a
pair of scissors. If it is to be pulled, it should be poured from the
pan in which it is cooked into flat pans or plates and set aside to
cool. As soon as it is cool enough to handle, it may be taken from the
pans and pulled. It will be found that the edges will cool and harden
first. These should be pulled toward the center and folded so that they
will warm against the center and form a new edge. If this is done two or
three times during the cooling, the candy will cool evenly and be ready
to take up into the hands. The pulling may then begin at once. If it has
been cooked enough, it will not stick to the hands during the pulling.
It is usually wise, however, to take the precaution of dusting the hands
with corn starch before starting to pull the candy. Grease should never
be used for this purpose. When taffy is made in quantities, the work of
pulling it is greatly lessened by stretching it over a large hook
fastened securely to a wall.


77. VANILLA TAFFY.--The taffy explained in the accompanying recipe is
flavored with vanilla and when pulled is white in color. However, it may
be made in different colors and flavors by merely substituting the
desired flavor for the vanilla and using the coloring preferred. This
recipe may also be used for chocolate taffy by adding melted chocolate
just before the taffy has finished boiling.


4 c. sugar
1/4 tsp. cream of tartar
1 Tb. vinegar
1 c. boiling water
2 Tb. butter
1 tsp. vanilla

To the sugar, add the cream of tartar, vinegar, and boiling water. Place
over the fire and boil until it will form a brittle ball when tested in
cold water or will register at least 260 degrees on a thermometer. Just
before the boiling is completed, add the butter. Remove from the fire,
add the vanilla, pour in a shallow layer in a buttered pan or plate.
Cool and pull. When the taffy has been pulled until it is perfectly
white and is hard enough to retain its shape, twist it into a long, thin
rope and cut with a pair of scissors into inch lengths.

78. BUTTER TAFFY.--Another variety of taffy flavored with vanilla is the
one given in the accompanying recipe. It is called butter taffy because
butter is used in a rather large amount for flavoring. It will be noted,
also, that brown sugar and corn sirup are two of the ingredients. These,
with the butter, give the taffy a very delightful flavor.


2 c. light-brown sugar
1 c. white sugar
1/2 c. corn sirup
1 Tb. vinegar
3/4 c. boiling water
1/4 butter
1 tsp. vanilla

Mix all the ingredients except the butter and vanilla. Place over the
fire and boil until a brittle ball will form in cold water or a
temperature of 260 degrees is reached. Just before the boiling has been
completed, add the butter. Remove from the fire, add the vanilla, and
pour in a thin layer into greased pans or plates. Cool, pull, and cut.

79. MOLASSES TAFFY.--Of all the taffies, that made with molasses is
nearly always the favorite. A light cane molasses that is not very
strong in flavor is the preferred kind for this candy. When cut into
round flat pieces and wrapped in waxed paper, molasses taffy appeals to
both old and young.


2 c. light cane molasses
1 c. sugar
2 Tb. vinegar
1/2 c. boiling water
2 Tb. butter

Mix all the ingredients except the butter. Cook until a brittle ball
will form or a temperature of 264 degrees is reached on the thermometer.
Add the butter just before the boiling is completed. Remove from the
fire, pour into greased pans or plates, and allow it to become cool
enough to handle. Then pull and cut.

80. CHEWING TAFFY.--A taffy that is hard enough not to be sticky and
still soft enough to chew easily is often desired. Chewing taffy, which
is explained in the accompanying recipe, is a candy of this kind. After
being pulled, it may be cut as other taffy is cut or it may be piled in
a mass and chopped into pieces.


1/2 Tb. unflavored gelatine
2 c. sugar
1-1/2 c. corn sirup
1-1/4 c. milk
2 Tb. butter
Vanilla and lemon

Put the gelatine to soak in a few tablespoonfuls of cold water. Cook the
sugar, sirup, and milk until the mixture will form a hard ball that may
be dented with the fingers or it reaches a temperature of 252 degrees.
Stir the mixture gently to prevent burning. Remove from the fire and add
the butter. Take the gelatine from the water, squeeze it as dry as
possible, and add it to the hot mixture, stirring until it is entirely
dissolved. Pour on a greased surface, cool, and pull until it is a
light-cream color. While pulling, flavor with vanilla and a few drops of
lemon. Stretch into a long thin rope and cut into inch lengths or pile
in a mass and chop into pieces.

81. BUTTER SCOTCH.--Closely related to taffies so far as ingredients are
concerned is candy known as butter scotch. This variety, however, is
not pulled as are the taffies, but is allowed to become cool and then
marked in squares which are broken apart when the candy is
entirely cold.


2 c. white sugar
2 c. brown sugar
1/4 c. corn sirup
1 Tb. vinegar
1/4 tsp. cream of tartar
1/4 c. butter
1 tsp. lemon extract

Mix all the ingredients except the butter and the lemon extract. Boil
until a hard ball will form or 256 degrees register on the thermometer.
Just before the boiling is completed, add the butter, and when the
mixture has been removed from the fire, add the lemon extract. Pour into
a greased pan, and before it has entirely cooled, cut into squares with
a knife. When cold and desired for serving, remove from the pan and
break the squares apart. If desired, candy of this kind may be allowed
to become entirely cold without cutting and then broken into irregular
pieces just before being served.

82. MARSHMALLOWS COATED WITH BUTTER SCOTCH.--A delightful confection may
be made by covering marshmallows with hot butter scotch. To accomplish
this, drop the marshmallows with a coating fork or an ordinary table
fork into hot butter scotch that has just finished cooking. Remove them
quickly, but see that the marshmallows are entirely covered. Drop on a
buttered pan or plate and set aside to cool.

83. GLACÉ NUTS AND FRUITS.--Nuts and fruits covered with a clear, hard
candy are known as glacé nuts and fruits. These are a very delightful
confection, and can easily be made if the accompanying directions are
carefully followed. Nuts of any variety may be used for this purpose,
and such nuts as almonds need not be blanched. Candied cherries, candied
pineapple, pressed figs, dates, and raisins are the fruits that are
usually glacéd. Confections of this kind should be eaten while fresh or
kept in a closed receptacle in a dry place.


Fruits and nuts
2 c. granulated sugar
1/8 tsp. cream of tartar
3/4 c. water
1 tsp. vanilla

Prepare the nuts by shelling them and, if necessary, roasting them, and
the fruits by cutting them into small strips or cubes. Mix the sugar and
cream of tartar and add the water. Cook until it will form a very
brittle ball in water, will spin hair-like threads when drops of it fall
from the spoon, or registers 290 degrees on the thermometer. Remove from
the fire and put in a convenient place for the dipping of the fruit and
nuts. Drop these into the hot sirup, one at a time, with a coating fork
or an ordinary table fork. When entirely covered with the sirup, remove
and drop on greased plates or pans.

84. PEANUT BRITTLE.--Peanuts are often used in confection making and are
very much liked by the majority of persons. They come in two general
varieties, which may be roasted before use or used unroasted, and it is
well for the housewife to understand the difference between them. One
variety is the large, oblong peanut generally sold at peanut stands and
used for the salted peanuts sold in confectionery stores. The other is
the variety known as Spanish peanuts, which are small and round. For
some candies, it is necessary that the peanuts be roasted and the skins
removed, while for others unroasted peanuts with the skins on are
desirable. To remove the skins from unroasted peanuts, they must be
blanched by immersing them in boiling water until the skins will slip
off easily, but in the case of roasted peanuts, the skins may be removed
without blanching.

85. Peanut brittle is one of the candies in which peanuts are used. As
its name implies, it is very thin and brittle and it usually contains a
great many peanuts. Two recipes for candy of this kind are here given,
one requiring peanuts that are roasted and blanched and the other,
peanuts that are unroasted and not blanched.


2 c. sugar
1/2 lb. shelled, roasted peanuts

Put the sugar in a saucepan without any water. Place it over a slow fire
and allow it to melt gradually until a clear, reddish-brown liquid is
formed, taking care not to allow it to burn. Have a pan greased and
covered with a thick layer of a large variety of roasted peanuts. Pour
the melted sugar over them and allow it to become hard. Then break into
pieces and serve.


3 c. sugar
1 c. corn sirup
1 c. water
1/4 c. butter
1 lb. raw Spanish peanuts
1 tsp. vanilla
1 Tb. soda

Mix the sugar, sirup, and water and place it over the fire. Boil until
a hard ball will form or a temperature of 250 degrees is reached on the
thermometer. Add the butter and the peanuts without removing their brown
skins. Allow to cook, stirring all the time, until the mixture begins to
turn a light brown and the skins of the peanuts pop open, showing that
the peanuts are roasted. Remove from the fire, add the vanilla and the
soda and stir rapidly. Then pour the mixture, which will become thick
upon the addition of the soda, on a flat, greased surface. A slab is
better for this purpose than anything else, but if this cannot be
obtained a metal or other hard table top may be used. When the candy
begins to get stiff, loosen it from the surface on which it was poured,
cut it into two pieces, and turn each over; or, if it can be handled
without cutting, turn the entire piece over. Then stretch the candy
until it is just as thin as possible, beginning around the edge. As it
becomes colder, stretch even thinner. When entirely cool, break into
pieces and serve.

86. NUT BARS.--Another excellent nut candy can be made by pouring a
sirup made of sugar, corn sirup, and water over a thick layer of nuts.
Such fruits as dates and figs or coconut, or a combination of these, may
be used with the nuts, if desired.


2 c. sugar
3/4 c. corn sirup
1/4 c. water
1-1/2 c. shelled nuts

Put the sugar, sirup, and water over the fire and stir until it boils.
Cover and cook until a hard ball will form or a temperature of 254 or
256 degrees is reached. Spread the nuts on a buttered slab or pan, and
to them add fruit or coconut if it is desired to use either of these.
Pour the hot sirup over this until it is about 1 inch in thickness. When
sufficiently cool, cut in pieces of any desirable size, using a quick,
sliding motion of the knife and pressing down at the same time. Break
into pieces when entirely cold and serve.


87. NATURE OF CARAMELS.--Caramels are included among the popular
candies, and they may be made in many varieties. To plain vanilla
caramels, which are the simplest kind to make, may be added any
desirable color or flavor at the time they are removed from the fire. To
keep caramels from crystallizing after they are boiled, glucose in some
form must be used, and the most convenient kind to secure is corn sirup.
Then, too, caramels will cut more easily and will have less of a sticky
consistency if a small piece of paraffin is boiled with the mixture. The
addition of this material or any wax that is not a food is contrary to
the pure-food laws, and such candy cannot be sold. However, paraffin is
not harmful, but is merely a substance that is not digested, so that the
small amount taken by eating candy in which it is used cannot possibly
cause any injury.

88. In the making of caramels, it should be remembered that good results
depend on boiling the mixture to just the right point. If they are not
boiled enough, they will be too soft to retain their shape when cut, and
if they are cooked too long, they will be brittle. Neither of these
conditions is the proper consistency for caramels. To be right, they
must be boiled until a temperature of 246 to 248 degrees is reached.
However, chocolate caramels need not be boiled so long, as the chocolate
helps to harden them.

89. PLAIN CARAMELS.--The accompanying recipe for plain caramels may be
made just as it is given, or to it may be added any flavoring or
coloring desired. A pink color and strawberry flavor are very often
found in caramels and are considered to be a delicious combination. As
will be noted, white sugar is called for, but if more of a caramel
flavor is preferred, brown sugar may be used instead of white. Maple
sugar may also be used in candy of this kind. Nuts, fruits, or coconut,
or any mixture of these materials, improves plain caramels wonderfully.
If they are used, they should be stirred into the mixture at the time it
is removed from the fire.


3 c. milk
3 c. sugar
1-1/2 c. corn sirup

The milk used for making caramels should be as rich as possible; in
fact, if cream can be used, the candy will be very much better. Add half
of the milk to the sugar and sirup and put over the fire to cook. Allow
this mixture to boil until a soft ball will form when dropped in water,
stirring when necessary to prevent burning. Then gradually add the
remaining milk without stopping the boiling if possible. Cook again
until a temperature of 248 degrees will register on the thermometer or a
fairly hard ball will form when tried in water. In the water test, the
ball, when thoroughly cold, should have exactly the same consistency as
the finished caramels. Toward the end of the boiling, it is necessary to
stir the mixture almost constantly to prevent it from burning. When
done, pour it out on a buttered slab or some other flat surface and
allow it to become cool. Then cut the candy into squares from 3/4 to 1
inch in size, cutting with a sliding pressure, that is, bearing down and
away from you at the same time.

If the caramels are to be packed or kept for any length of time, it is
well to wrap them in waxed paper. Before attempting to use caramels,
however, they should be allowed to stand overnight in a cool, dry place,
but not in a refrigerator.

90. CHOCOLATE CARAMELS.--When chocolate caramels are made, the chocolate
should be added just before the cooking is finished. The amount of
chocolate to be used may be varied to suit the taste, but 2 squares are
usually considered sufficient for the quantities given in the
accompanying recipe.


1 c. molasses or 1 c. maple sirup
1/2 c. corn sirup
2 c. sugar
1 pt. milk
2 Tb. butter
2 sq. chocolate
Pinch of salt
1 tsp. vanilla

Cook the molasses or maple sirup, the corn sirup, and the sugar with 1
cupful of the milk until the mixture will form a soft ball in cold
water. Then add the remainder of the milk and cook until the mixture is
thick. Add the butter, chocolate, and salt, and cook until a hard ball
will form in cold water or a temperature of 248 degrees is reached,
stirring constantly to prevent burning. Add the vanilla, pour on a
buttered surface, cool, cut, and serve.

* * * * *



91. There are numerous varieties of cream candies, some of which must be
made with great care while others may be made quickly and easily. For
instance, fudge, penuchie, divinity, and sea foam are examples of cream
candies that do not require long preparation, but these must generally
be used up quickly, as they do not stay soft upon exposure to the air
unless it is very moist. On the other hand, such cream candies as opera
cream, fondant, center cream, and orientals require both care and time
in their preparation. If these are properly looked after, they may be
kept for some time. In fact, it is necessary that some of them stand for
several days before they can be made into the numerous varieties to
which they lend themselves.

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