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Woman's Institute Library of Cookery, Vol. 5 by Woman's Institute of Domestic Arts and Sciences

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This volume, the fifth of the Woman's Institute Library of Cookery,
deals with the varieties of fruits and the desserts that can be made
from them, the canning and preserving of foods, the making of
confections of every description, beverages and their place in the diet,
and every phase of the planning of meals.

With fruits becoming less seasonal and more a daily food, an
understanding of them is of great value to the housewife. In _Fruit and
Fruit Desserts_, she first learns their place in the diet, their nature,
composition, and food value. Then she proceeds with the preparation and
serving of every variety of fruit. Included in this section also are
fruit cocktails, those refreshing appetizers often used to introduce a
special meal.

To understand how to preserve perishable foods in the seasons of plenty
for the times when they are not obtainable is a valuable part of a
housewife's knowledge. _Canning and Drying_ deals with two ways of
preserving foodstuffs, treating carefully the equipment needed and all
the methods that can be employed and showing by means of excellent
illustrations, one of them in natural colors, every part of the
procedure followed. The fruits and vegetables that permit of canning, as
well as certain meats and fish, are taken up in a systematic manner.

_Jelly Making, Preserving, and Pickling_ continues a discussion of the
home preservation of foods, showing how they can be kept for long
periods of time not by sterilization, but with the aid of preservatives.
Each one of these methods is treated as to its principles, equipment,
and the procedure to be followed. After trying the numerous recipes
given, the housewife will be able to show with pride the results of her
efforts, for nothing adds more to the attractiveness and palatability of
a meal than a choice jelly, conserve, marmalade, or jam.

_Confections_ deals with that very delightful and fascinating part of
cookery--confection making. Not only are home-made confections cheaper
than commercially made ones, but they usually contain more wholesome
materials, so it is to the housewife's advantage to familiarize herself
with the making of this food. Recipes are given for all varieties of
confections, including taffies, caramels, cream candies, and the
confections related to them. Fondant making is treated in detail with
illustrations showing every step and directions for making many
unusual kinds.

Though beverages often receive only slight consideration, they are so
necessary that the body cannot exist very long without them. In
_Beverages_ is discussed the relation of beverages to meals, the classes
of beverages, and the preparation of those required by the human system,
as well as the proper way to serve them. In addition to coffee, tea,
cocoa, chocolate, and cereal beverages, fruit, soft, and nourishing
drinks receive their share of attention.

To be a successful home maker, it is not enough for a housewife to know
how to prepare food; she must also understand how to buy it, how to look
after the household accounts, what constitutes correct diet for each
member of her family, how to plan menus for her regular meals and for
special occasions, and the essentials of good table service. All these
things, and many more, she learns in _The Planning of Meals_, which
completes this volume.


Fruit in the Diet
Composition of Fruits
Food Value of Fruits
Preparing and Serving Fruits
Miscellaneous Berries
Miscellaneous Citrus Fruits
Miscellaneous Tropical Fruits
Fruit Cocktails
Dried Apples, Apricots, and Peaches

Necessity for Preserving Foods
Principles of Canning
General Equipment for Canning
Open-Kettle Method
Cold-Pack Method
Procedure in the One-Period Cold-Pack Method
Procedure in the Fractional-Sterilization Method
Steam-Pressure Methods
Canning with Tin Cans
Oven Method
Preparation for Canning
Directions for Canning Vegetables
Directions for Canning Fruits
Sirups for Canning Fruits
Canning Meat and Fish
Storing and Serving Canned Foods
Scoring Canned Foods
Principles of Drying
Drying Methods
Directions for Drying Vegetables and Fruits
Storing and Cooking Dried Foods

Value of Jellies, Preserves, and Pickles
Principles of Jelly Making
Equipment for Jelly Making
Procedure in Jelly Making
Scoring Jelly
Recipes for Jelly
Principles of Preserving
Principles of Pickling
Recipes for Pickles
Recipes for Relishes

Nature of Confections
Composition of Confections
Foundation Materials in Confections
Food Materials
Equipment for Confection Making
Cooking the Mixture
Pouring and Cooling the Mixture
Finishing Candies
Taffies and Similar Candies
Fudge and Related Candies
Fondant and Related Creams
Miscellaneous Confections
Serving Candy

Nature and Classes of Beverages
Water in Beverages
Relation of Beverages to Meals
Alcoholic Beverages
Stimulating Beverages
History and Production of Coffee
Preparation of Coffee
Serving Coffee
History and Production of Tea
Preparation of Tea
Serving Tea
Nature and Selection of Cocoa and Chocolate
Preparation of Cocoa and Chocolate
Serving Cocoa and Chocolate
Cereal Beverages
Ingredients for Fruit Beverages
Preparation of Fruit Beverages
Soft Drinks
Nourishing Beverages

Necessity for Careful Meal Planning
Successful Marketing
Keeping Household Accounts
Factors Influencing Cost of Foods
Economical Buying
Suitability of Food
Composition of Food
Balancing the Diet
Diet for Infants and Children
Diet for the Family
Proportion of Food Substances
General Rules for Menu Making
Card-File System for Menu Making
Dinner Menus
Luncheon Menus
Breakfast Menus
Menus for Special Occasions
Table Service

* * * * *



1. FRUIT, as is generally understood, is the fleshy, juicy product of
some plant or tree which, when ripe, is suitable for use as food.
Although some fruits are seedless, they generally contain the seeds of
the plants or trees that produce them. Many fruits require cooking to
make them palatable, others are never cooked, and still others may be
cooked or eaten raw, as desired.

Fruits, because they are wholesome, appetizing, and attractive, occupy a
valuable place in the diet. In fact, it is these qualities rather than
their food value that accounts for the popularity of fruits among all
people. In addition to causing fruits to appeal to the esthetic sense,
their attractiveness serves another important purpose. It is said that
Nature made them attractive in color, odor, and flavor in order that
birds might be allured to attack them for food and, by spreading the
seeds, assist in their propagation.

2. Fruits are gradually growing to be less seasonal and more a daily
food, and are thus constantly becoming more prevalent in the diet. This
condition may be attributed to the present rapid means of transportation
and the excellent methods of cold storage that exist. Through these
agencies it is possible to ship more or less perishable fruits long
distances from their native localities and at times of the year other
than the particular season in which they are at their best in the places
where they are grown. Thus, fruits that were formerly considered a
luxury may now be served regularly, even on the tables of persons having
only moderate means.

The fact that fruits are being more extensively used every day is as it
should be, for this food is entitled to an important place in the diet
of all persons. So important is fruit in the diet that it must be looked
on not as one of the things that may be taken or omitted as a person
wishes without making any difference either way, but as a food to
include in one form or another in nearly every meal. The child who is so
young that it cannot take any solid food may have fruit juices included
in its diet to decided advantage; but children who are slightly older
and adults may take the fruits cooked or raw instead of in the form
of juices.

3. As far as the composition of fruits is concerned, it is such that
most fresh fruits are not particularly high in food value. However, they
are characterized by other qualities that make up for what they lack in
this respect; then, too, what they contain in the way of heat-producing
or tissue-building material is easily digestible. Most fruits contain
considerable acid, and this food substance makes them stimulating to the
appetite. Advantage of this fact is taken when fruits are served at the
beginning of a breakfast or when several of them are combined in a fruit
cocktail and served before luncheon or dinner. This acid produces real
stimulation in the stomach, resulting in a flow of gastric juice from
the glands of the stomach walls. In addition, the delightful color, the
fragrant odor, or the pleasant taste of fruit, although a mental effect,
is just as real and just as valuable as the actual stimulation of
the acids.

4. Many fruits are eaten raw, while others are cooked either because
they require cooking to make them appetizing or because it is desired
not to use them in their raw state. The cooking of fruits has a variety
of effects on them, being sometimes advantageous and other times
detrimental. The flavor is always changed by the application of heat,
and in some cases the acid that fruit contains becomes stronger. On the
other hand, the fibrous material, or cellulose, of fruits is softened by
cooking and thus becomes more digestible. Then, too, the sugar that is
usually added to fruits in their cooking increases their food value.
Because of these facts, cooked fruits have considerable value and, like
raw fruits, should have an important place in the diet. Those fruits
which are dried and usually eaten raw, such as figs and dates, supply
much nourishment in an easily digestible form.

5. The medicinal value of fruit has long been considered to be of
importance, but this may be almost entirely disregarded, for, with the
exception of the fact that most fruits are valuable as a laxative, there
is nothing to consider. However, several fruits, such as blackberries
and bananas, have an anti-laxative effect, and large quantities of
these should for the most part be avoided, especially in the feeding
of children.

6. In general, fruits are divided into two classes, namely, food fruits
and flavor fruits. As their names imply, _food fruits_ are valuable as
food, whereas _flavor fruits_ are those distinguished by a
characteristic flavor. It should be remembered that the flavors, as well
as the odors, of fruits, are due chiefly to what is known as their
volatile, or ethereal, oils. Fruits in which these oils are very strong
are often irritating to certain persons and cause distress of some sort
after eating.

7. In this Section, it is the purpose to acquaint the housewife with the
relative value and uses of the various kinds of fruit, to teach her the
best methods of preparation, and to supply her with recipes that will
encourage her to make greater use of this valuable food in her family's
diet. In this discussion, however, the general classification of fruits
is not followed. Instead, the various fruits are arranged alphabetically
under the headings Berries, Non-Tropical Fruits, Citrus Fruits, Tropical
Fruits, Melons, and Dried Fruits, in order to simplify matters. While it
is hardly possible to use fruits too extensively, they must not be
allowed to take the place of other more nourishing foods that are
required by the body. Therefore, in order to make proper use of them,
their value in the diet should not be overlooked.

* * * * *



8. It is sometimes difficult to distinguish between vegetables and
fruits. For instance, the tomato is in reality a fruit, but it is
commonly used as a vegetable, and rhubarb is more of a vegetable than a
fruit, but it is always used as a fruit. It can therefore be seen that
the line between vegetables and fruits is not clearly drawn. It is well
to remember that fruit is usually the edible pulpy mass covering the
seeds of various plants and trees, and that it is generally cooked or
eaten raw with sugar, whereas vegetables are seldom sweetened
in cooking.

9. Great strides have been made in the cultivation of fruit. Many
varieties that formerly grew wild are now commonly cultivated. Most of
the cultivated fruits are superior to the same kind in the wild state,
at least in size and appearance, but often there seems to be a loss of
flavor. Through cultivation, some fruits that were almost inedible in
their wild state on account of containing so many seeds have been made
seedless. Also, through cross-cultivation, varieties of fruit different
from what formerly existed have been obtained. An example of such fruit
is the loganberry which is a cross between a red raspberry and a
blackberry and retains many of the qualities of each. However, some
small fruits, such as blueberries, or huckleberries, are still grown
wild and marketed only from their wild source.

10. While fruit is usually improved by cultivation, there has been a
tendency through this means to produce fruits that will stand up for
long periods of time, so that they may be marketed at great distances
from the place where they are grown. For instance, apples, especially
those found in the market in the spring, and other fruits, which look
very fine, will many times be found to have a tough skin and to be
almost tasteless.

In general, fruits of delicate flavor and texture cannot be kept very
long after they have ripened. To stand shipping, they must be picked in
their green stage; then if they are kept in the right temperature they
will ripen after picking. Bananas that are to be shipped a long distance
are picked when perfectly green, but by the time the consumer buys them
they are usually well ripened. In addition to bananas, a few other
tropical fruits are shipped out of their native climates in small
numbers and are sold at very high prices. However, many tropical fruits
cannot be shipped to the Northern States because of their
perishable nature.

* * * * *



11. The composition of fruits is a matter of considerable importance,
for on it the food value of the fruits depends. To a certain extent, the
composition of all fruits is the same, but the varieties of this food
differ in their food values almost as greatly as do vegetables. Many of
them are extremely low in this respect, while a few of them are rather
high. In order to determine the place that fruit should have in a meal,
it is necessary to obtain a definite idea of the composition as well as
the food value of the different varieties.

12. PROTEIN AND FAT IN FRUITS.--Such small quantities of protein and fat
are contained in fruits that very little attention need be given to
these substances. Exceptions are found in avocados, or alligator pears,
and in ripe olives, both of which are high in fat. Then, too, there is a
small amount of protein in grapes and some other fruits, but it is not
sufficient to merit consideration.

13. CARBOHYDRATE IN FRUIT.--Whatever food value fruits may have, whether
it be high or low, is due to the carbohydrate they contain. Some green
fruits and bananas contain a very small amount of starch, but on the
whole the carbohydrate of fruits is in the form of sugar and is in
solution in the fruit juices. The chief form of this carbohydrate is
known as _levulose_, or _fruit sugar_. However, _glucose_, another form
of sugar, is also found in nearly all fruits, grapes and dried fruits,
such as figs, raisins, etc., containing an unusually large amount. In
addition, _cane sugar_ is contained in the majority of fruits. _Pectin_
is also a carbohydrate that is found in large quantities in some fruits,
while in other fruits it is lacking. This substance is related to the
gums and to cellulose. Although it is one of the carbohydrates from
which no food value is derived, it is of considerable importance,
because it is responsible for the jelly-making properties of fruits.

14. In fruits that are not fully matured, or, in other words, green
fruits, the sugar has not developed to so great an extent as it has in
perfectly ripe fruits. Consequently, such fruits are not so high in food
value as they are when they become ripe. As is well known, it is the
sugar of fruits that accounts for their sweet taste, for the sweeter the
fruits, the more sugar and the less acid they contain. The quantity of
this substance varies from 1 per cent. in lemons to 20 per cent. in some
other fresh fruits, such as plums. In dried fruits, the amount of sugar
is much higher, reaching as high as 60 per cent. or even more in such
fruits as figs, dates, and raisins.

15. CELLULOSE IN FRUIT.--In fruits, as in vegetables, cellulose is found
in varying quantities. The larger the quantity, the lower will be the
food value of the fruit, except where the water has been evaporated, as
in the case of dried fruits. The digestibility of this cellulose,
however, is not worth considering, for, while it is possible that small
amounts of very young and tender cellulose from fruits may be digested,
on the whole this characteristic may be disregarded. The skins and seeds
of fruits, as well as the coarse material that helps to make up the
pulp, are known as refuse and are treated as such by the human digestive
tract; but it is to this waste material, or cellulose, that the laxative
quality of fruit is largely due.

In cases where there are digestive or intestinal troubles, it is often
necessary to remove the cellulose before the fruit is eaten. The coarse
material may be removed and that which is more tender may be broken up
by pressing the fruit through a sieve or a strainer of some kind. The
cooking of fruits is another means of making the cellulose in them more
easily digested, for it softens, or disintegrates, the various particles
of the indigestible material. When fruit is taken for its laxative
effect and the irritation of the cellulose needs no consideration, the
skins of the fruits may be eaten instead of being rejected. However, to
avoid any trouble, they should be well chewed.

16. Minerals in Fruit.--All fruits contain a certain percentage of
mineral salts. The quantity varies in the different kinds of fruits, but
it averages about 1 per cent. These salts have the opposite effect on
the blood from those found in meats and cereals, but they act in much
the same way as the minerals of vegetables. In other words, they have a
tendency to render the blood more alkaline and less acid. They are
therefore one of the food constituents that help to make fruit valuable
in the diet and should be retained as far as possible in its
preparation. In fact, any method that results in a loss of minerals is
not a good one to adopt in the preparation of fruits.

The minerals commonly found in fruits are iron, lime, sodium, magnesium,
potash, and phosphorus. These are in solution in the fruit juices to a
very great extent, and when the juices are extracted the minerals
remain in them.

17. Acids in Fruit.--Some fruits contain only a small amount of acid,
while others contain larger quantities. It is these acids, together with
the sugar and the volatile oils of fruits, that constitute the entire
flavor of this food. Most ripe fruits contain less acid than unripe
ones, and cooked fruits are often higher in acid than the same
fruits when raw.

Numerous kinds of acid are found in the different varieties of fruits.
For example, lemons, oranges, grapefruit, and a few other fruits
belonging to the class known as citrus fruits contain _citric acid_;
peaches, plums, apricots, and apples, _malic acid_; and grapes and many
other fruits, _tartaric acid_.



| | | | | |Food Value
Fruit |Water|Protein| Fat |Carbo- |Mineral|per Pound,
| | | |hydrate|Matter |in Calories
| | | | | |
Apples, fresh |84.6 | .4 | .5 | 14.2 | .3 | 290
Apples, dried |28.1 | 1.6 | 2.2 | 66.1 | 2.0 | 1,350
Apricots, fresh |85.0 | 1.1 | -- | 13.4 | .5 | 270
Apricots, dried |29.4 | 4.7 | 1.0 | 62.5 | 2.4 | 1,290
Bananas |75.3 | 1.3 | .6 | 22.0 | .8 | 460
Blackberries |86.3 | 1.3 | 1.0 | 10.9 | .5 | 270
Cherries |80.9 | 1.0 | .8 | 16.7 | .6 | 365
Cranberries |88.9 | .4 | .6 | 9.9 | .2 | 215
Currants |85.0 | 1.5 | -- | 12.8 | .7 | 265
Dates |15.4 | 2.1 | 2.8 | 78.4 | 1.3 | 1,615
Figs, fresh |79.1 | 1.5 | -- | 18.8 | .6 | 380
Figs, dried |18.8 | 4.3 | .3 | 74.2 | 2.4 | 1,475
Grapefruit |86.9 | .8 | .2 | 11.6 | .5 | 240
Grapes |77.4 | 1.3 | 1.6 | 19.2 | .5 | 450
Huckleberries |81.9 | .6 | .6 | 16.6 | .3 | 345
Lemons |89.3 | 1.0 | .7 | 8.5 | .5 | 205
Muskmelons |89.5 | .6 | -- | 9.3 | .6 | 185
Nectarines |82.9 | .6 | -- | 15.9 | .6 | 305
Oranges |86.9 | .8 | .2 | 11.6 | .5 | 240
Peaches |89.4 | .7 | .1 | 9.4 | .4 | 190
Pears |84.4 | .6 | .5 | 14.1 | .4 | 295
Persimmons |66.1 | .8 | .7 | 31.5 | .9 | 630
Pineapple |89.3 | .4 | .3 | 9.7 | .3 | 200
Plums |78.4 | 1.0 | -- | 20.1 | .5 | 395
Pomegranates |76.8 | 1.5 | 1.6 | 19.5 | .6 | 460
Prunes, fresh |79.6 | .9 | -- | 18.9 | .6 | 370
Prunes, dried |22.3 | 2.1 | -- | 73.3 | 2.3 | 1,400
Raisins |14.6 | 2.6 | 3.3 | 76.1 | 3.4 | 1,605
Raspberries, red |85.8 | 1.0 | -- | 12.6 | .6 | 255
Raspberries, black|84.1 | 1.7 | 1.0 | 12.6 | .6 | 310
Rhubarb |94.4 | .6 | .7 | 3.6 | .7 | 105
Strawberries |90.4 | 1.0 | .6 | 7.4 | .6 | 180
Watermelon |92.4 | .4 | .2 | 6.7 | .3 | 140

18. The juice of fruits that contain very little sugar and a large
quantity of acid, such as the lemon, may be used for the seasoning of
food in much the same way that vinegar is used. It may also be diluted
with other liquids and used for a beverage. Then, again, various kinds
of fruit juices are subjected to a process of fermentation and, through
the production of another acid, are made into vinegar and wines. When
apples are treated in this way, the fermentation produces _acetic acid_
and, in addition, a certain amount of alcohol. It is on this principle
that the making of wines depends.

19. WATER IN FRUIT.--The water content of fresh fruits is very high,
reaching 94 per cent. in some varieties. Dried fruits, on the other
hand, contain much less water, their content being in some cases as low
as 15 to 20 per cent. It naturally follows that the fruits low in water
are high in food value, while those containing considerable water have
in their composition less of the material that adds food value. The high
percentage of water in fresh fruits, together with the acids they
contain, accounts for the fact that these fruits are so refreshing.
Fruits of this kind, in addition to having this refreshing quality, help
to provide the necessary liquid in the diet.

vary in their composition, so do they vary in their food value. This
fact is clearly shown in Table I, which gives the percentage of food
substances contained in different fruits and the food value per pound,
in calories, that these fruits contain. As in the table showing the
composition and food value of vegetables given in _Vegetables_, Part 1,
the figures in this table are taken from Atwater's Table of American
Food Materials and refer to the edible part of the material. Reference
to Table I, as progress is made with the study of fruits and their
preparation, will be of much assistance in learning the place that
fruits occupy in the dietary.


21. EFFECT OF RIPENESS ON FRUITS.--There is a very marked difference
between ripe and green fruits as to their composition, flavor, texture,
palatability, and digestibility. Green fruits, containing more acid than
ripe ones, serve some purposes for which ripe fruits of the same variety
cannot be used so well. For instance, a very much better jelly can be
made from grapes that are not entirely ripe than from those which have
completely ripened. Green fruits contain less sugar than do ripe ones,
and so they are more sour to the taste. In some cases, the carbohydrate
found in green fruits is partly in the form of starch, which in the
process of development is changed to sugar. The cellulose of green
fruits, especially that distributed throughout the pulp of the fruit
itself, is usually tougher and harder than that which is found in the
same fruit after it has ripened.

22. DIGESTIBILITY OF FRUITS.--The ripeness and freshness of fruits
determine their digestibility to a great extent, but the peculiarities
of each person have much to do with this matter. Many times a particular
fruit will agree with almost every one but a few exceptional persons,
and, for no apparent reason except their own peculiarities of digestion,
it disagrees very badly with them. Abnormal conditions of the alimentary
tract, however, cannot be taken into consideration in a general
discussion on the digestibility of foods, for it is a subject that
cannot be treated except from a dietetic standpoint. A safe rule to
follow when a fruit is found to disagree with a person is to omit it
from that person's diet. This need not prove a hardship, for the wide
range, or variety, of fruits makes it possible to find one or more kinds
that will agree with each person.

23. As has been explained, sugar is the food material from which the
nutritive value of fruits is obtained. With the exception of a few
predigested foods, manufactured in such a way that they can be digested
easily, this sugar is probably the most easily digested form of food
that can be obtained. This substance, being held in solution in the
fruit juices, which are encased in a cellulose covering, depends to some
extent for its digestion on the hardness of the cellulose. When this
covering is old and hard or green and tough, as the case may be, it is
difficult for the digestive juices to break through and attack the sugar
contained inside. As this difficulty is not encountered when fruit is
fresh and ripe, its freshness and ripeness become important factors in
digestibility. Cooking is also an important factor because it softens
the cellulose, but there are certain other changes made by cooking that
must be taken into consideration as well.

24. EFFECT OF COOKING ON FRUIT.--Cooking affects fruits in numerous
ways, depending on the condition of the fruit itself, the method used,
and the length of time the heat is applied. When fruits are cooked in
water or in a thin sirup, the cellulose becomes softened. On the other
hand, if they are cooked in a heavy sirup, as, for instance, in the
making of preserves, the cellulose becomes hardened and the fruit,
instead of breaking up, remains whole or nearly so and becomes tough
and hard in texture. The addition of quantities of sugar, as in the
latter case, besides helping to keep the fruit whole, increases its
food value.

25. Another change that usually takes place when fruit is cooked is in
its flavor. This change is due either to an increase in the acid
contained in the fruit or to a decrease in the amount of sugar. Some
authorities believe that cooking increases the amount of acid, while
others hold the view that, when fruit is cooked without removing the
skins and seeds, the acid contained in the seeds and skins and not
noticeable when the fruit is fresh, is released during the cooking. Such
is undoubtedly the case with plums. The change that is brought about in
the sugar by the cooking of fruits consists in changing the cane sugar
into levulose and dextrose, which are not so sweet. This change accounts
for the fact that some cooked fruits are less sweet than others, in
spite of the fact that the acid does not seem to be increased.

26. In addition to producing certain changes in fruit, cooking, if done
thoroughly, renders fruits sterile, as it does other foods; that is, it
kills any bacteria that the fruits may contain. Advantage of this fact
is taken when fruits are canned for future use. Although most persons
prefer raw fruit to that which is cooked, there are some who object to
eating this food raw, but who are not always certain as to the reason
for their objection. Like other raw foods, fruits in their fresh state
contain _vitamines_; that is, a substance that helps to keep the body in
a healthy, normal condition. These are found to some extent in cooked
fruits, but not in the same quantity as in raw ones; consequently, as
much use as possible should be made of raw fruits in the diet.

* * * * *



27. REQUIRED SANITARY CONDITIONS.--Since large quantities of fruits are
eaten raw, it is necessary that they be handled in the most sanitary
manner if disease from their use be prevented. However, they are often
in an unsanitary condition when they reach the housewife. For instance,
they become contaminated from the soiled hands of the persons who handle
them, from the dirt deposited on them during their growth, from the
fertilizer that may be used on the soil, from flies and other insects
that may crawl over them, and from being stored, displayed, or sold in
surroundings where they may be exposed to the dirt from streets and
other contaminating sources. Because of the possibility of all these
sources of contamination, it is essential that fruits that are not to be
cooked be thoroughly washed before they are eaten. It is true that a
certain amount of flavor or food material may be lost from the washing,
but this is of little importance compared with the possibility of
preventing disease.

28. WASHING FRUITS.--The manner of washing fruits depends largely on the
nature of the fruit. Fruits that have a sticky surface, such as raisins,
figs, and dates, usually have to be washed in several waters. Hard
fruits, such as pears, apples, plums, etc., should be washed with
running water. Berries and softer fruits require more careful procedure,
it usually being advisable to pour them into a pan containing water and
then, after stirring them around in the water until all dirt is removed,
take them from the water, rather than pour the water from them. In any
event, all fruits eaten raw should be properly washed.

29. SERVING FRUITS.--While the serving of fruits is a simple matter, it
should be done in as dainty a way as possible, so as not to detract from
their natural attractiveness. If the skins are to remain on the fruits
while serving, a knife, preferably a fruit knife, should be served with
them, and nothing smaller than a salad plate should be used. The
carefully washed leaves of the fruit served make an attractive garnish.
For instance, large, perfect strawberries with the stems on, when heaped
on a plate garnished with strawberry leaves and served with a small dish
of powdered sugar, are always attractive. Likewise, a bunch of grapes
served on grape leaves never fails to attract.

A mixture of a number of fruits, such as peaches, pears, and plums, or,
in winter, oranges, bananas, and apples, piled in a large bowl and
passed after salad plates have been distributed, not only makes an
excellent dessert, but permits the persons served to take their choice.

Fresh berries, sliced peaches, bananas, oranges, etc. may be served in
sauce dishes, which should be placed on a service plate. They may be
passed or served from a bowl by the hostess. Canned or stewed fruits may
be served in the same way.

* * * * *



30. BERRIES are among the most perishable fruits and begin to come into
market early in the summer season. In most localities, the berry season
begins with strawberries and ends with blackberries. Because the
numerous varieties are somewhat juicy and soft and therefore extremely
perishable, they will not stand shipping and storage for long periods of
time. The quality of berries depends much on the nature of the season,
as well as on the locality in which the berries are grown. If there is a
good supply of rain, the berries will be very moist, containing a large
amount of pulp in proportion to seeds and skins; but if the season is
very dry, the berries are likely to be less moist and consequently less
palatable. A general use of berries, and to almost every one the most
important, is the making of jams, jellies, and preserves.

In the preparation of berries for the table, they should be handled as
little as possible in order to prevent them from breaking up and losing
their shape. After being purchased, they should be kept where it is cool
until they are to be used. It is advisable not to wash them until just
before serving, as the extra handling usually bruises them and causes
them to spoil.

The different varieties of berries are here taken up in alphabetical
order so as to make the matter easy for reference. Those of which
extensive use is made contain one or more recipes that may be followed
without any hesitation. In a few instances, as in the case of currants,
recipes are not included, as the fruits are limited to only a few uses
and directions for these occur elsewhere.


31. BLACKBERRIES come late in the summer season. Good varieties of
cultivated blackberries, which are large in size and contain
comparatively few seeds, are the best for use. However, in some
localities, uncultivated blackberries grow in sufficient quantities to
be useful for food. Blackberries are used extensively for jam, as they
make an excellent kind that appeals to most persons. Their juice may be
used for jelly, but if the berries are to be utilized most successfully
in this way they must be picked before they are thoroughly ripe or some
fruit that will supply an additional quantity of pectin may have to be
combined with them. Fresh blackberries may be served for dessert with
sugar and cream. Otherwise, the use of this fruit in desserts is not
very extensive, except where the canned berries are used for pastry or
pie or are eaten for sauce or where the jam is used in making up various
dessert dishes.

Very little preparation is necessary in getting blackberries ready to
serve. They should simply be looked over carefully, so that all
imperfect ones and all foreign matter may be removed, and then washed in
cold water.

32. BLACKBERRY SPONGE.--One of the few desserts made from fresh
blackberries is that explained in the accompanying recipe and known as
blackberry sponge. This is very delicious, for the berries are combined
with cake and the combination then served with whipped cream.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 qt. blackberries
3/4 c. sugar
1 c. water
4 pieces plain loaf or sponge cake
Whipped cream

Heat half of the berries with the sugar and the water until they are
mushy. Then force the whole through a sieve. Cut the cake into cubes and
put them into a bowl. Pour the juice and the blackberry pulp on the
cake. Press the mixture down with a spoon until it is quite solid and
set in the refrigerator or some other cold place to cool. Turn out of
the bowl on a large plate, garnish with the remaining berries, heap with
the whipped cream, and serve.


33. BLUEBERRIES, which are not cultivated, but grow in the wild state,
are a many-seeded berry, blue or bluish-black in color. _Huckleberries_,
although belonging to a different class, are commonly regarded as
blueberries by many persons. Berries of this kind occur in many
varieties. Some grow on low bushes close to the ground, others are found
on taller bushes, and still others grow on very tall bushes. Again, some
grow in dry ground in a mountainous region, others grow in a level,
sandy soil, and other varieties succeed better on swampy soil. Berries
of this class are not so perishable as most other berries, but in many
localities they cannot be purchased at all, for, as a rule, they are
used only in the immediate vicinity in which they grow.

Blueberries have small seeds and coarse, tough skins. They contain very
little acid, but are excellent for pies and sauce. However, they will
make jelly very well if there are a few partly ripe berries among them,
and their flavor is improved if some fruit containing acid is added to
them. To prepare them for use, whether they are to be served raw or
cooked, look them over carefully in order that all green or spoiled ones
are removed and then wash them well in cold water.

34. PRESSED BLUEBERRY PUDDING.--A delicious pudding can be made by
combining blueberries with slices of bread. The accompanying recipe
gives directions for pudding of this kind.

(Sufficient to Serve Eight)

1 qt. blueberries
1 c. water
1/2 c. sugar
8 slices bread
Whipped cream

Put the blueberries, water, and sugar into a saucepan and boil for a
few minutes. Put four of the slices of bread, which should be cut about
1/2 inch thick, in the bottom of a square pan. Pour one-half of the
blueberries and the juice over the bread, and put the four remaining
slices of bread on top of the berries. Pour the rest of the blueberries
and juice over the bread. Place another square pan over the top and
weight it down so as to press the pudding. Then set the pudding in the
refrigerator until it is cool. Cut into squares, remove from the pan,
and serve with sweetened whipped cream.

35. BLUEBERRY PUDDING.--A baking-powder-biscuit dough baked with
blueberries makes a very appetizing dessert. To serve with a pudding of
this kind, a cream or a hard sauce should be made.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

Baking-powder-biscuit dough
1 qt. blueberries
1/2 c. sugar

Make a rather thin baking-powder-biscuit mixture. Spread a layer of this
in the bottom of a square pan and cover it with a layer of the
blueberries. Pour 1/4 cupful of the sugar over the berries and then
cover with another layer of the dough. Over this, pour the remainder of
the berries and sprinkle the rest of the sugar over all. Place in the
oven and bake for about 20 minutes. Remove from the oven, cut into
squares, and serve with cream or hard sauce.


36. CRANBERRIES grow wild in many localities, but most persons who use
them buy them in the market as a cultivated fruit. Their season begins
in the fall and lasts until early spring, and during this time they can
usually be obtained in the market. They contain considerable acid and
consequently require a great deal of sugar to make them sufficiently
sweet to be palatable. They are more often served as an accompaniment to
a dinner course, especially with turkey or other poultry, than eaten as
a sauce. At times they are used in the making of muffins, pudding, and
various kinds of pastry.

One of the advantages of cranberries is that they keep very well in the
raw state. However, before they are cooked, they should be looked over
carefully, freed of any stems, foreign material, and spoiled berries,
and then washed thoroughly in cold water.

37. CRANBERRY SAUCE.--One can hardly imagine a turkey dinner without
cranberry sauce as one of the accompaniments; but it may be served when
meats other than turkey are used. In fact, because of its tart flavor,
it forms a most appetizing addition to any meal.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1-1/2 c. water
2 c. sugar
4 c. cranberries

Add the water to the cranberries and place over the fire to cook in a
closely covered kettle. As soon as the skins of the berries have
cracked, add the sugar. Cook slowly for a few minutes or until the sugar
is completely dissolved. Remove from the fire and cool before serving.

38. CRANBERRY JELLY.--If the cranberries are preferred without the
skins, cranberry jelly should be tried. When cool, this solidifies and
may be served in attractive ways.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 c. water
1 qt. cranberries
2 c. sugar

Pour the water over the cranberries and cook them for 10 or 15 minutes.
Then mash them through a sieve or a colander with a wooden potato
masher. Add the sugar to the mashed cranberries. Return to the heat and
cook for 5 to 8 minutes longer. Turn into a mold and cool.


39. RASPBERRIES come in two general varieties, which are commonly known
as _red_ and _black_. There are many species of each kind, and all of
them are much favored, as they are delicious fruit. As a raw fruit,
raspberries have their most satisfactory use, but they may be made into
several excellent desserts and they are also much used for canning and
preserving. They are a perishable fruit and so do not keep well. Because
of their softness, they have to be washed very carefully to prevent
them from breaking or becoming mushy.

40. RED-RASPBERRY WHIP.--No more dainty dessert can be made than
raspberry whip, which is explained in the accompanying recipe. Cake that
is not very rich, such as ladyfingers or sponge cake, makes a very good
accompaniment for this dessert.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 qt. raspberries
1 c. powdered sugar
2 egg whites

Put the raspberries, sugar, and egg whites into a bowl. Mash the berries
before starting to whip. Beat the mixture with an egg whip until it is
reduced to a pulpy mass and is stiff and fluffy. Pile lightly into a
bowl, chill, and serve with ladyfingers or sponge cake.

41. RASPBERRY SHORTCAKE.--Either black or red raspberries make a
delicious shortcake when combined with a cake or a biscuit mixture.
Directions for making such a shortcake are given in the
accompanying recipe.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 qt. raspberries
1 c. sugar
Biscuit or plain-cake dough

Mash or chop the berries, as preferred, and add the sugar to them. Bake
the biscuit or plain-cake dough in a single, thick layer, and when it
has been removed from the pan split it into halves with a sharp knife.
Spread half the berries between the two pieces of biscuit or cake and
the remaining half on top. Cut into pieces of the desired size and serve
with plain or whipped cream.


42. STRAWBERRIES are perhaps more popular than any other kind of berry.
They are reddish in color, have a somewhat acid flavor, and range in
size from 1/2 inch to 2 inches in diameter. Strawberries are much used
for jams and preserves; they may also be used for making a delicious
jelly, but as they lack pectin this ingredient must be supplied. These
berries are eaten fresh to a great extent, but are also much used for
pastry making and for various kinds of dessert; in fact, there is
practically no limit to the number of recipes that may be given for
strawberries. Before they are used in any way, they should be washed
thoroughly in cold water and then their hulls should be removed.

[Illustration: FIG. 1]

43. STRAWBERRY SHORTCAKE.--For strawberry shortcake, either a biscuit or
a plain-cake mixture may be used, some persons preferring the one and
other persons the other. This may be made in a large cake, as shown in
Fig. 1, and then cut into pieces, or it may be made into individual
cakes, as Fig. 2 shows. Whichever plan is followed, the cakes are split
in the same way and the crushed berries inserted between the halves.
This dish may be made more attractive in appearance if a few of the
finest berries are saved and used as a garniture.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 qt. strawberries
1 c. sugar
Biscuit or plain cake dough

Mash or chop the berries, add the sugar to them, and let them stand
until the sugar has dissolved. Bake the biscuit or plain-cake dough in a
single thick layer or, if desired, bake it in individual cakes, cutting
the biscuit dough with a cookie cutter and putting the cake mixture in
muffin pans. Remove from the pan, cut in two with a sharp knife, and
spread half of the berries over the lower piece. Set the upper piece on
the berries. In the case of the large cake, sprinkle powdered sugar over
the top and then on this arrange a number of the largest and finest of
the berries, as Fig. 1 shows, as a garniture. Cut in pieces of the
desired size and serve with or without either plain or whipped cream. In
preparing the individual cakes, spread a spoonful or two of the crushed
berries over the top, as Fig. 2 shows, and serve with whipped cream.

44. STRAWBERRY WHIP.--Strawberries may be used instead of raspberries in
the recipe for red-raspberry whip. When prepared in this way and served
with fresh cake, strawberries make a very appetizing dessert.

45. OTHER STRAWBERRY DESSERTS.--If it is desired to serve strawberries
just with sugar, they can be made attractive with very little effort.
Garnish a plate with some of the strawberry leaves and on them place a
few fine large strawberries that have been washed but have not had the
hulls removed. Serve a small dish of powdered sugar with the
strawberries, so that they may be dipped into the sugar and eaten by
holding the hull of the berry in the fingers. Strawberries crushed with
sugar and served with blanc mange or custard also make a very
delicious dessert.

[Illustration: FIG. 2]


46. CURRANTS come in three varieties--red, white, and black. They are
not often eaten fresh, but are generally utilized for making jellies,
jams, and preserves, or for pastry and pies. When they are to be used
for jelly, it is not necessary to pick them from the stems, as they may
be washed and cooked on their stems. Some varieties of currants are
dried and these are used extensively in the making of cakes, cookies,
etc. The usefulness of this fruit as a food is not so great as many
others. No recipes are given for it because of its little use in the
fresh form.

47. GOOSEBERRIES, like currants, are somewhat limited in their variety
of uses, being seldom used except for jelly, preserves, and pies. Before
gooseberries are ripe they are light green in color and rather sour in
taste, but as they ripen the amount of acid they contain decreases, so
that they become sweet in flavor and change to brownish-purple. Green
gooseberries are often canned for pies, and when in this state or when
partly ripe they are also made up into many kinds of preserves and
jelly. In their preparation for these uses, both the stems and the
blossom ends should be removed. As a rule, berries of this kind keep
very well and stand considerable handling because their outside skin is
very tough.

48. LOGANBERRIES are a fruit produced by crossing a variety of red
raspberries with a species of blackberry. They are not very common, but
are an excellent berry and are well liked by those who can obtain them.
They may be used for any purpose for which either raspberries or
blackberries are used. Therefore, in the recipes given for these two
kinds of berries, loganberries may be substituted whenever they can
be obtained.

* * * * *



49. Besides the berries that have just been described, there are a large
number of fruits that are grown in temperate climates and are therefore
regarded as NON-TROPICAL FRUITS. Extensive use is made of these fruits
in the regions in which they are grown or in places that are within easy
shipping distances of the source of supply. All of them have a
protective covering, or skin, and consequently keep for long periods of
time if they are not too ripe when picked. Those which contain the
highest percentage of water are the most perishable.


50. APPLES, of which there are at least a thousand varieties, are
probably the best known of the non-tropical fruits. Some apples mature
early in the summer, while others do not ripen until late in the fall.
The late apples can be kept during the entire winter if they are
properly stored, but the summer varieties must generally be used
immediately, as they do not have good keeping qualities. In each
locality in which apples are grown, a few varieties seem to be
especially popular and are used to the exclusion of others. Some apples
are good for one purpose and some for another. For instance, many that
are excellent if eaten raw are not good for cooking purposes, and others
that cook well are not suitable for eating. It is therefore a good idea
for the housewife to become familiar with the varieties of apples raised
in her community and to learn the use to which each kind can be put to

Apples of all kinds may be prepared in a large variety of ways. They are
much used for sauce, pie, and numerous desserts, as well as for jelly
and, with various fruit mixtures, for jams and preserves. The juice of
apples, which upon being extracted is known as _cider_, is used in a
number of ways, but its most important use is in the manufacture
of vinegar.

51. APPLE SAUCE.--When apple sauce is to be made, apples that are
somewhat sour and that will cook soft easily should be selected. This is
a dessert that can be made all during the winter when it is often
difficult to obtain other fruits fresh. It is usually served when roast
pork is the main dish of a meal, but is just as appetizing when served
with other foods.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

10 medium-sized apples
1/2 c. water
1 c. sugar

Wash the apples, cut them in quarters, remove the cores, and, if
desired, peel them. Put them into a saucepan, add the water, and allow
them to cook until they are very soft. If the apples are inclined to be
dry, a little more water may be necessary. When done, force them through
a colander or a sieve, add the sugar to the pulp, and return to the
stove. Cook until the sugar is completely dissolved and, if necessary,
until the apple sauce is slightly thickened, stirring frequently to
prevent scorching. Remove from the heat, and season with lemon peel cut
fine, cinnamon, or nutmeg.

If there are apples in supply that do not cook well for apple sauce,
they may be peeled, quartered, and cored, and cooked with the sugar and
water. Then, instead of being forced through a sieve, they should be
allowed to remain in pieces in the sirup.

52. PORCUPINE APPLES.--A pleasing change in the way of an apple dessert
may be had by making porcupine apples.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

6 large apples
1 c. sugar
1 c. water
2 doz. almonds
Currant jelly

Wash, core, and pare the apples. Make a sirup by bringing the sugar and
water to the boiling point. Put the apples into the sirup, cook on one
side for several minutes, and then turn and cook on the other side. Do
not allow the apples to cook completely in the sirup, but when they are
still hard remove them and continue to boil the sirup down. Set the
apples in a shallow pan, stick the almonds, which should be blanched,
into them so that they will project like porcupine quills, sprinkle them
with sugar, and bake in the oven until they are soft and the almonds
slightly brown. Remove from the oven, fill the center of each with
currant jelly, pour the juice over them, and serve.

53. BAKED APPLES.--Nothing is more palatable than baked apples if a
juicy, sour variety can be secured.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

6 medium-sized sour apples
1/2 c. brown sugar
1/2 tsp. cinnamon
1 Tb. butter
1/2 c. water

Wash and core the apples, place them in a baking dish, and fill the
centers with the brown sugar mixed with the cinnamon. Put a small piece
of butter on top of each apple, pour the water in the bottom of the pan,
set in the oven, and bake until the apples are soft. Baste frequently
with the juice that collects in the bottom of the pan. Serve hot or
cold, as desired.

Apples baked in this way may be improved in flavor by serving grape
juice over them. Heat the grape juice, and then, if the apples are to be
served hot, pour about 2 tablespoonfuls over each apple just before
serving. In case the apples are to be served cold, pour the hot grape
juice over them and then allow them to cool.

54. MAPLE APPLES.--Apples cooked in maple sirup have a very pleasing
flavor. The sirup that remains in the pan is poured over the apples when
they are served.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

6 medium-sized apples
1 c. maple sirup

Wash, peel, and core the apples. Bring the maple sirup to the boiling
point in a saucepan. Drop the apples into the hot sirup, cook first on
one side, and then turn and cook on the other. As soon as they become
soft, remove from the sirup, pour the sirup over them, and serve.

55. STEAMED APPLES.--If it is desired to retain the color in apples that
have red skins, they should be steamed instead of baked, for the color
is lost in baking. Prepare apples that are to be steamed by washing them
and removing the cores. Place the apples in a pan with a perforated
bottom, put this over a pan of boiling water, cover closely, and steam
until they are soft. Serve in any desired way. They will be found to be
delicious in flavor and attractive in appearance.


56. APRICOTS, in appearance, are a cross between peaches and plums. They
are grown extensively in the western part of the United States, but they
can be grown in any climate where peaches and plums are raised. As they
contain considerable acid, they require a large quantity of sugar when
they are cooked with their skins and seeds. They are used most
frequently for canning, but they make excellent marmalades and jams.
They are also dried in large quantities and, in this form, make
delicious desserts.

57. APRICOT SOUFFL.--No more attractive as well as delicious dessert
can be prepared than apricot souffl, which is illustrated in Fig. 3.
The apricots are just tart enough to give it a very pleasing flavor.

[Illustration: Fig. 3]

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 Tb. butter
4 Tb. flour
1/3 c. sugar
Pinch of salt
1 c. scalded milk
3 eggs
1/2 tsp. vanilla
1 can apricots

Melt the butter, add the flour, sugar, and salt, and stir in the hot
milk. Bring this mixture to the boiling point. Separate the yolks and
whites of the eggs. Beat the yolks until they are thick and
lemon-colored, and then pour the hot mixture over them, stirring
constantly to prevent the eggs from curding. Beat the whites until they
are stiff, fold them into the mixture, and add the vanilla. Place the
apricots without juice in a layer on the bottom of the buttered baking
dish, pour the mixture over them, and bake for 45 to 60 minutes in a hot
oven, when it should be baked through and slightly brown on top and
should appear as in Fig. 3. Remove from the oven and serve with the
sirup from the apricots. Whipped cream may also be added if desired.


58. CHERRIES come in numerous varieties, some of which are sweet and
others sour. The method of using them in cookery depends largely on the
kind of cherry that is to be used. Any of the varieties may be canned
with varying quantities of sugar and then used for sauce. They also make
excellent preserves, especially the sour varieties. However, they do not
contain pectin in sufficient quantity for jelly, so that when cherry
jelly is desired, other fruit or material containing pectin must be used
with the cherries. When purchased in the market, cherries usually have
their stems on. They should be washed before the stems are removed. The
seeds may be taken out by hand or by means of cherry seeders made
especially for this purpose.

59. CHERRY FRITTERS.--Something different in the way of dessert can be
had by making cherry fritters according to the accompanying recipe.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. flour
2 tsp. baking powder
1/4 tsp. salt
2 Tb. sugar
1/2 c. milk
1 egg
2 Tb. butter
1/2 c. cherries cut into halves

Mix and sift the dry ingredients, add the milk and egg, and beat all
together well. Add the melted butter and fold in the cherries. Drop by
spoonfuls into hot fat and fry until brown. Remove from the fat,
sprinkle with powdered sugar, and serve.


60. GRAPES are a fruit extensively cultivated both for eating and for
the making of wines and raisins. Although found in many varieties, they
naturally divide themselves into two general classes: those which retain
their skins, such as the Malaga, Tokay, Muscat, Cornichon, Emperor,
etc., and those which slip out of their skins easily, such as the
Concord, Niagara, Delaware, Catawba, etc.

Grapes are much used as a fresh fruit. When they are to be used in this
way, the bunches should be put into a colander and washed thoroughly by
running cold water over them. Then all the imperfect ones should be
removed and the grapes kept cool until they are to be served. Clean
grape leaves make an attractive garnish for the individual plates or the
serving dish on which the grapes are placed. Grapes are also used
extensively for making jelly and grape juice, a beverage that is
well liked.

61. It will be found that through proper care grapes can be kept a long
time in the fall after they are removed from the vines, provided perfect
bunches are obtained and they are picked before they have become too
ripe. To preserve such grapes, dip the ends of the stems into melted
sealing wax in order to prevent the evaporation of moisture through the
stems. Then, in a cool, dry place, lay the bunches out on racks in a
single layer, taking care not to crush nor bruise them.

62. UNFERMENTED GRAPE JUICE WITH WATER.--Grape juice may be made either
with or without water. That in which water is used in the making usually
requires no diluting when it is served as a beverage. Concord grapes are
perhaps used more commonly for the making of grape juice than any other
variety, but other kinds, particularly Catawbas and Niagaras, may be
used as well.


12 qt. grapes
2 qt. water
4 lb. sugar

Wash the grapes and remove them from the stems. Put them with the water
into a preserving kettle, and heat gradually until the skins of the
grapes burst. Dip off as much juice as possible, and put it into a jelly
bag. Continue to heat and dip off the juice in this way until the pulp
is comparatively dry. Then add a little more water to the pulp and put
it in the bag to drip. When all the juice has dripped through the bag,
pour it back into the preserving kettle, add the sugar, and bring to the
boiling point. Stir frequently, so that the sugar will be well
dissolved. Pour into jars or bottles, seal, and sterilize by cooking for
about 5 minutes in hot water that nearly covers the bottles. Any large
receptacle that will hold sufficient water may be used as a sterilizer.

63. UNFERMENTED GRAPE JUICE WITHOUT WATER.--When grape juice is made
without water, it is both thick and rich. Consequently, it should
usually be diluted with water when it is served as a beverage.


12 qt. grapes
3 lb. sugar

Wash the grapes, remove them from the stems, and put them into a
preserving kettle. Heat very slowly and mash with a spoon, so that
enough juice will be pressed out and thus prevent the grapes from
scorching. Remove the juice as it forms and put it into a jelly bag.
When all of it has been taken from the grapes and strained through the
jelly bag, strain the pulp and put all the juice into a preserving
kettle, add the sugar, and bring to the boiling point. Pour into bottles
or jars, seal, and sterilize in a water bath for about 5 minutes.


64. PEACHES may be divided into two general classes: those having a
yellow skin and those having a white skin. In each of these classes are
found both _clingstone_ and _freestone_ peaches; that is, peaches whose
pulp adheres tightly to the seed, or stone, and those in which the pulp
can be separated easily from the stone. When peaches are purchased for
canning or for any use in which it is necessary to remove the seeds,
freestones should be selected. Clingstones may be used when the stones
are allowed to remain in the fruit, as in pickled peaches, and for jams,
preserves, or butters, in which small pieces may be used or the entire
peach mashed. Whether to select yellow or white peaches, however, is
merely a matter of taste, as some persons prefer one kind and some
the other.

65. Peaches are not satisfactory for jelly making, because they do not
contain pectin. However, the juice of peaches makes a very good sirup if
it is sweetened and cooked until it is thick. Such sirup is really just
as delicious as maple sirup with griddle cakes. Peaches are used to a
large extent for canning and are also made into preserves, jams, and
butters. In addition, they are much used without cooking, for they are
favored by most persons. When they are to be served whole, they should
be washed and then wiped with a damp cloth to remove the fuzz. The skins
may be removed by blanching the peaches in boiling water or peeling them
with a sharp knife. If they are then sliced or cut in any desirable way
and served with cream and sugar, they make a delicious dessert.

66. STEWED PEACHES.--Fresh stewed peaches make a very desirable dessert
to serve with simple cake or cookies. Children may very readily eat such
dessert without danger of digestive disturbances. Adding a tablespoonful
of butter to the hot stewed peaches and then serving them over freshly
made toast makes a delightful breakfast dish. The cooked peaches may
also be run through a sieve, reheated with a little flour or corn starch
to thicken them slightly, and then served hot on buttered toast.

(Sufficient to Serve Eight)

1-1/2 qt. peaches
1 lb. sugar
1 c. water

Peel the peaches, cut into halves, and remove the seeds. Put the sugar
and water over the fire to cook in a saucepan and bring to a rapid boil.
Add the peaches and cook until they may be easily pierced with a fork.

67. BAKED PEACHES.--When peaches are to be baked, select large firm
ones. Wash them thoroughly and cut them into halves, removing the
stones. Place the peaches in a shallow pan, fill the cavities with
sugar, and dot the top of each half with butter. Set in the oven and
bake until the peaches become soft. Serve hot or cold, either with or
without cream, as desired.


68. PEARS, like apples, come in summer and winter varieties. The summer
varieties must be utilized during the summer and early fall or must be
canned at this time to preserve them for future use. Winter pears,
however, may be stored, for they keep like apples. A number of the small
varieties of pears are much used for pickling. Pears are most valuable
when they are canned and used for sauce. They cannot be used for jelly,
because they do not contain sufficient acid nor pectin. The juice from
canned pears, because of its mild flavor, is often found to be valuable
in the feeding of invalids or persons who have gastric troubles. It is
usually advisable to pick pears before they are entirely ripe, for then
they may be kept for a considerable length of time and will
ripen slowly.

69. BAKED PEARS.--Although pears are rather mild in flavor, they are
delicious when baked if lemon is added. Wash thoroughly pears that are
to be baked, cut them into halves, and remove the cores. Place them in a
shallow pan, fill the holes in the center with sugar, dot with butter,
and place a thin slice of lemon over each piece. Pour a few spoonfuls of
water into the pan, set in the oven, and bake until the pears can be
easily pierced with a fork. Remove from the oven and serve hot or cold.


70. PLUMS are among the very strong acid fruits. Some varieties of them
seem to be more tart after they are cooked than before, but, as already
explained, this condition is due to the fact that the acid contained in
the skin and around the seeds is liberated during the cooking. This
fruit, of which there are numerous varieties, is generally used for
canning, preserving, etc. It does not make jelly successfully in all
cases unless some material containing pectin is added. Very firm plums
may have the skins removed by blanching if it seems advisable to
take them off.

71. STEWED PLUMS.--Because of the many varieties of plums with their
varying degrees of acidity, it is difficult to make a recipe with a
quantity of sugar that will suit all kinds. The recipe given here is
suitable for medium sour plums, such as egg plums and the common red and
yellow varieties. Damsons and green gages will probably require more
sugar, while prune plums may require less.

(Sufficient to Serve Eight)

1-1/2 qt. plums
1 lb. sugar
3/4 c. water

Wash the plums and prick each one two or three times with a fork. Bring
the sugar and water to the boiling point and, when rapidly boiling, add
the plums. Cook until they are tender, remove from the fire, cool,
and serve.


72. QUINCES are one of the non-perishable fruits. They mature late in
the fall and may be kept during the winter in much the same way as
apples. While quinces are not used so extensively as most other fruits,
there are many uses to which they may be put and much can be done with a
small quantity. For instance, various kinds of preserves and marmalades
may be made entirely of quinces or of a combination of quinces and some
other fruit. They also make excellent jelly. As their flavor is very
strong, a small quantity of quince pulp used with apples or some other
fruit will give the typical flavor of quinces. When combined with sweet
apples, they make a very delicious sauce.

The skin of quinces is covered with a thick fuzz, which can be removed
by wiping the fruit with a damp cloth. A point that should be remembered
about quinces is that they are extremely hard and require long cooking
to make them tender and palatable.

73. STEWED QUINCES AND APPLES.--The combination of quinces and apples is
very delicious. Sweet apples, which are difficult to use as a cooked
fruit because of a lack of flavor, may be combined very satisfactorily
with quinces, for the quinces impart a certain amount of their strong
flavor to the bland apples and thus the flavor of both is improved.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 qt. sweet apples
1 pt. quinces
1 lb. sugar
1 c. water

Wash, peel, core, and quarter the fruit. Add the sugar to the water and
place over the fire until it conies to a rapid boil. Then add the
quinces and cook until they are partly softened. Add the sweet apples
and continue the cooking until both are tender. Remove from the fire,
cool, and serve.


74. RHUBARB is in reality not a fruit, but it is always considered as
such because it is cooked with sugar and served as a fruit. It has the
advantage of coming early in the spring before there are many fruits in
the market. As it contains a large quantity of oxalic acid, it is very
sour and must be cooked with considerable sugar to become palatable, the
addition of which makes the food value of cooked rhubarb very high.
Rhubarb is much used for pies and is frequently canned for sauce. It is
also used as a cheap filler with a more expensive fruit in the making of
marmalades, conserves, and jams.

The stems of some varieties of rhubarb are characterized by a great deal
of red color, while others are entirely green. The red rhubarb makes a
more attractive dish when it is cooked and served than the green, but it
has no better flavor. The outside of the stem has a skin that may be
removed by catching hold of it at one end with a knife and stripping it
off the remainder of the stem. It is not necessary to remove the skin
from young and tender rhubarb, but it is often an advantage to remove it
from rhubarb that is old. It should be remembered that the stems of
rhubarb contain considerable water and so require very little liquid in
their cooking.

75. STEWED RHUBARB.--Two methods of stewing rhubarb are in practice, the
one to select depending on the way it is preferred. In one method, which
keeps the pieces whole, the sugar and water are brought to the boiling
point before the rhubarb is added, while in the other, the rhubarb is
cooked with water until it is soft and the sugar then added.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 c. sugar
1/2 c. water
1 qt. cut rhubarb

Mix the sugar and water in a saucepan and bring to the boiling point.
Wash the stems of the rhubarb and cut into inch lengths. Add the rhubarb
to the sirup and cook until it is tender enough to be pierced with a
fork. If desired, a flavoring of lemon peel may be added. Turn into a
dish, allow to cool, and serve.

If the other method is preferred, cook the rhubarb with the water until
it is soft and then add the sugar.

* * * * *



76. Fruits that contain citric acid are grouped together and are known
as CITRUS FRUITS. All of these are similar in structure, although they
differ in size, as will be observed from Fig. 4. Here the citrus fruits
most commonly used are illustrated, the large one in the center being a
grapefruit; the two to the left, oranges; the two to the right, lemons;
and the two in the front, tangerines.

[Illustration: FIG. 4]

All varieties of these fruits are tropical or semitropical and are
shipped to the North in boxes that contain various numbers, the number
that can be packed in a box depending on the size of the fruit. The
south, southeastern, and western parts of the United States supply
practically all of these fruits that are found in the northern markets.
They stand storage well and keep for long periods of time if they are
packed before they are too ripe. These characteristics, together with
the fact that they are at their prime at different times in different
localities, make it possible to market such fruits during the entire
year, although they are much better at certain seasons than at others.

77. The majority of citrus fruits contain a fair amount of sugar and a
great deal of water; consequently, they are very juicy and refreshing. A
few of them, however, such as lemons and limes, contain very little
sugar and considerable acid and are therefore extremely sour. In the use
of such varieties, sugar must be added to make them palatable.

The greatest use made of citrus fruits is that of serving them raw.
However, they are also used in the making of marmalades, conserves, and
such confections as candied fruits. Then, too, the juice of a number of
them, such as lemons, oranges, and limes, makes very refreshing
beverages, so these varieties are much used for this purpose.


78. Grapefruit, also known as _shaddock_, is a large, pale-yellow fruit
belonging to the citrus group. One variety, known as the _pomelo_, is
the kind that is commonly found in the market. It is slightly flattened
on both the blossom and stem ends.

Grapefruit has a typical flavor and a slightly bitter taste and contains
neither a great deal of sugar nor a large amount of acid. Because of its
refreshing, somewhat acid pulp and juice, it is highly prized as a fruit
to be eaten at breakfast or as an appetizer for a fruit cocktail. It is
also much used in the making of fruit salads.

79. SELECTION OF GRAPEFRUIT.--Grapefruit should be selected with care in
order that fruit of good quality may be obtained. Some persons think
that to be good grapefruit should be large, but it should be remembered
that size is not the factor by which to judge the quality. The fruit
should be heavy for its size and the skin should be fine-grained and
even. Coarse-grained skin, as a rule, is thick and indicates that the
pulp is rather pithy and without juice.

[Illustration: FIG. 5]

80. PREPARATION OF GRAPEFRUIT.--Different ways of serving grapefruit are
in practice, and it is well that these be understood. This is generally
considered a rather difficult fruit to eat, but if care is exercised in
its preparation for the table it can be eaten with comfort. For
preparing grapefruit, a narrow, sharp-bladed paring knife may be used.
As is well known, a grapefruit is always cut apart half way between the
stem and the blossom ends and a half served to each person.

[Illustration: FIG. 6]

81. One method of preparing grapefruit consists in cutting the skin in
such a way that the seeds can be taken out and the pulp then easily
removed with a spoon. To prepare it in this way, cut the grapefruit into
halves, and then, with a sharp knife, cut around the pithy core in the
center, cutting off the smallest possible end of each of the sections.
With this done, remove the seeds, which will be found firmly lodged near
the core and which can be readily pushed out with the point of the
knife. Then cut down each side of the skin between the sections so as
to separate the pulp from the skin. Around the edge next to the outside
skin, cut the pulp in each section with a single jab of the knife,
taking care not to cut the skin between the sections. The entire pulp of
each section, which will be found to be loose on both sides and ends if
the cutting is correctly done, can then be readily removed with a spoon.

[Illustration: FIG. 7]

82. In another method of preparing this fruit for the table, all the
skin inside of the fruit is removed and nothing but the pulp is left.
This method, which is illustrated in Figs. 5 to 10, inclusive, requires
a little more time and care than the previous one, but the result
justifies the effort. After cutting the grapefruit into halves, remove
the seeds with a sharp knife, as shown in Fig. 5. Then, with the same
knife, cut the grapefruit from the skin all the way around the edge, as
in Fig. 6; also, cut down each side of the skin between the sections, so
as to separate the pulp from the skin, as in Fig. 7. With the pulp
loosened, insert a pair of scissors along the outside edge, as in Fig.
8, and make a slanting cut toward the core.

[Illustration: FIG. 8]

Then, as in Fig. 9, cut the core loose from the outside skin. Repeat
this operation for each section. If the cutting has been properly done,
the core and skin enclosing the sections may be lifted out of the
grapefruit, and, as shown in Fig. 10, will then be in the form of a
many-pointed star. As only the pulp remains in the outside skin, the
grapefruit can be eaten without difficulty.

[Illustration: FIG. 9]

83. SERVING GRAPEFRUIT.--When grapefruit has been properly ripened, it
is rather sweet, so that many persons prefer it without sugar; but when
sugar is desired, the fruit is very much more delicious if it is
prepared some time before it is to be served, the sugar added to it, and
the fruit placed in a cool place. If this is done in the evening and the
grapefruit is served for breakfast, a large amount of very delicious
juice will have collected through the night. At any rate, grapefruit is
best if it is sweetened long enough before it is served to give the
sugar a chance to penetrate.

[Illustration: FIG. 10]


84. LEMONS are a citrus fruit raised in tropical regions. They are
shipped to other climates in cases that hold from 180 to 540, depending
on the size of the lemons, 300 to the case being a medium and commonly
used size. Their quality is judged like that of grapefruit; that is, by
their weight, the texture of their skin, and their general color
and shape.

Lemons contain very little sugar, but they are characterized by a large
amount of acid. Because of this fact, their juice is used to season
foods in much the same way as vinegar is used. In fact, their chief
uses are in making desserts and in seasoning such foods as custards,
pudding sauces, etc. However, their juice is also much used in the
making of beverages, such as lemonade and fruit punch.


85. ORANGES belong to the group of citrus fruits, but they differ from
both lemons and grapefruit in that they contain more sugar and less
acid. Two kinds of oranges supply the demands for this fruit, Florida
and California oranges. _Florida oranges_ have a skin more the color of
lemons and grapefruit and contain seeds, but they are considered to be
the finest both as to flavor and quality. _California oranges_, which
have a bright-yellow or orange skin, are seedless and are known as
_navel oranges_. As soon as the Florida season ends, the California
season begins; consequently, the market season for this fruit is a
lengthy one. The russet of oranges is caused by the bite of an insect on
the skin. To be shipped, oranges are packed in cases that will contain
from 48 to 400 to the case.

Probably no citrus fruit is used so extensively as oranges. Because of
their refreshing subacid flavor, they are much eaten in their fresh
state, both alone and in combination with other foods in numerous salads
and desserts.

[Illustration: FIG. 11]

86. PREPARATION OF ORANGES.--Several attractive ways of preparing
oranges for the table when they are to be eaten raw are shown in
Fig. 11.

To prepare them in the way shown at the left, cut the orange into two
parts, cutting half way between the stem and blossom ends, and loosen
the pulp in each half in the manner explained in Art. 81 for the
preparation of grapefruit. Then the pulp may be eaten from the orange
with a spoon.

[Illustration: FIG. 12]

If an orange is to be eaten in sections, the skin may be cut from the
stem to the blossom end about six times and then loosened from the one
end and turned in toward the orange in the manner shown in the central
figure of the group. It will then be easy to remove the skin.

[Illustration: FIG. 13]

Sometimes it is desired to serve sliced oranges, as shown at the right.
To prepare oranges in this way, remove the skin from the orange, cut it
in halves lengthwise, and then slice it in thin slices crosswise.
Arrange the slices on a plate and serve as desired.

87. When oranges are to be used for salads, or for any purpose in which
merely the pulp is desired, as, for instance, orange custard, all the
skin between the sections must be removed, as it makes any warm mixture
bitter. To secure the pulp without any of the skin, first peel the
orange, as shown in Fig. 12, in the same way an apple is peeled,
beginning at one end and peeling around and around deeply enough to
remove with the skin all the white pithy material under it. If the knife
is a sharp one and the peeling is carefully done, there will be little
waste of the pulp. When the orange is entirely peeled, cut each section
from the skin by passing the knife as closely as possible between the
pulp and the skin, as shown in Fig. 13. The sections thus obtained may
be used whole or cut into pieces of any desired size.


88. In addition to grapefruit, lemons, and oranges, the three principal
varieties of citrus fruits, this group also includes kumquats, limes,
mandarins, and tangerines. These fruits are not of so much importance in
the diet as the other varieties, but when they are used as foods they
have a food value about equal to that of apples the same in size. They
are not in such common use as the citrus fruits already discussed, but
it is well for every housewife to know what they are and to what use
they can be put.

89. KUMQUATS are an acid fruit resembling oranges in color but being
about the size and shape of small plums. They are used principally for
the making of marmalades and jams, and in this use both the skin and the
pulp are included.

90. LIMES look like small lemons. They are very sour and do not contain
sugar in any quantity. They are valued chiefly for their juice, which is
utilized in the making of drinks, confections, etc.

91. MANDARINS and TANGERINES are really varieties of oranges and are
used in much the same way. They have a very sweet flavor. Their skin
does not cling so closely as the skin of oranges. For this reason they
are known as _glove oranges_ and are very easily peeled.

* * * * *



92. Besides the citrus fruits, which may also be regarded as tropical
fruits because they grow in tropical regions, there are a number of
other fruits that may be conveniently grouped under the heading Tropical
Fruits. The best known of these are bananas and pineapples, but numerous
others, such as avocados, guavas, nectarines, pomegranates, tamarinds,
and mangoes, are also raised in the tropical countries and should be
included in this class. The majority of these fruits stand shipment
well, but if they are to be shipped to far distant places they must be
picked before they become too ripe and must be packed well. As bananas
and pineapples are used more extensively than the other tropical fruits,
they are discussed here in greater detail; however, enough information
is given about the others to enable the housewife to become familiar
with them.


93. BANANAS are a tropical fruit that have become very popular with the
people in the North. As they are usually picked and shipped green and
then ripened by a process of heating when they are ready to be put on
the market, it is possible to obtain them in a very good condition. It
should be remembered, however, that they are not ripe enough to eat
until all the green color has left the skin. The stem of the bunch may
be green, but the bananas themselves should be perfectly yellow. Black
spots, which are sometimes found on the skins, indicate overripeness or
bruises. When the spots come from overripeness, however, they do not
injure the quality of the fruit, unless there are a great many of them;
in fact, many persons consider that bananas are better when the skins
are black than at any other time.

94. Just under the skin of the banana is some pithy material that clings
to the outside of the fruit and that has a pungent, disagreeable taste.
This objectionable taste may be done away with by scraping the surface
of the banana slightly, as shown in Fig. 14, after the skin is removed.

The strong, typical flavor that characterizes bananas is due to the
volatile oil they contain. It is this oil that causes bananas to
disagree with some persons. The common yellow variety has a milder
flavor than red bananas and certain other kinds and, consequently, is
more popular. If the oil of bananas does not prove irritating, much use
should be made of this fruit, because its food value is high, being
about double that of apples and oranges.

[Illustration: FIG. 14]

95. Bananas are eaten raw more often than in any other way, but many
persons find cooked bananas very agreeable. Then, too, it is sometimes
claimed that cooked bananas are more digestible than raw ones because of
the starch that bananas contain. However, this argument may be
discounted, for a well-ripened banana contains such a small quantity of
starch that no consideration need be given to it.

[Illustration: FIG. 15]

96. BAKED BANANAS.--If bananas are to be cooked, they can be made very
appetizing by baking them with a sirup made of vinegar, sugar, and
butter. When prepared in this way, they should be cut in two
lengthwise, and then baked in a shallow pan, as Fig. 15 shows.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

6 bananas
2 Tb. butter
1/3 c. sugar
3 Tb. vinegar

Remove the skins from the bananas, scrape the surface as in Fig. 14, and
cut them in half lengthwise. Arrange the halves in a shallow pan. Melt
the butter and mix it with the sugar and the vinegar. Pour a spoonful of
the mixture over each banana and then set the pan in the oven. Bake in a
slow oven for about 20 minutes, basting frequently with the remainder of
the sirup during the baking. Remove from the oven and serve hot.

97. Banana Fritters.--Delicious fritters can be made with bananas as a
foundation. The accompanying recipe, if carefully followed, will result
in a dish that will be appetizing, especially to those who are fond of
this fruit.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

4 bananas
1 Tb. lemon juice
1/2 c. flour
2 Tb. sugar
1/4 tsp. salt
1/3 c. milk
1 egg
1 Tb. butter, melted
Powdered sugar

Remove the skins from the bananas, scrape them, and cut them once
lengthwise and once crosswise. Sprinkle the pieces with the lemon juice.
Make a batter by mixing and sifting the flour, sugar, and salt. Stir in
the milk gradually, and add the yolk of the beaten egg and the melted
butter. Lastly, fold in the beaten egg white. Sprinkle the bananas with
powdered sugar, dip them into the batter, and fry in deep fat until
brown. Sprinkle again with powdered sugar and serve.


98. Pineapples are grown in the southern part of the United States, on
the islands off the southeastern coast, and in Hawaii. They vary in size
according to the age of the plants. It requires from 18 to 20 months for
the fruit to develop, and the plants yield only four or five crops. Much
of this fruit is canned where it is grown, but as it is covered with a
heavy skin it will tolerate shipping long distances very well. It is
shipped to the market in cases that contain from 24 to 48 pineapples to
the case. Usually, for a few weeks during the summer, the price of fresh
pineapples is reasonable enough to warrant canning them.

[Illustration: FIG. 16]

99. The food value of pineapples is slightly lower than that of oranges
and apples. However, pineapples have a great deal of flavor, and for
this reason they are very valuable in the making of desserts, preserves,
marmalades, and beverages of various kinds. It is said that the
combination of pineapple and lemon will flavor a greater amount of food
than any other fruit combined. Another characteristic of pineapples is
that they contain a ferment that acts upon protein material and
therefore is sometimes thought to aid considerably in the digestion of
food. The probabilities are that this ferment really produces very
little action in the stomach, but its effect upon protein material can
readily be observed by attempting to use raw pineapple in the making of
a gelatine dessert. If the pineapple is put in raw, the gelatine will
not solidify; but if the pineapple is heated sufficiently to kill this
ferment, it has no effect whatsoever upon the gelatine.

[Illustration: FIG. 17]

100. SELECTING PINEAPPLES.--When pineapples are to be selected, care
should be exercised to see that they are ripe. The most certain way of
determining this fact is to pull out the center leaves of each pineapple
that is chosen. As shown in Fig. 16, grasp the pineapple with one hand
and then with the other pull out, one at a time, several of the center
leaves of the tuft at the top. If the fruit is ripe a sharp jerk will
usually remove each leaf readily, but the harder the leaves pull, the
greener the pineapple is.

[Illustration: FIG. 18]

An overripe pineapple is just as unsatisfactory as one that is not ripe
enough. When a pineapple becomes too ripe, rotten spots begin to develop
around the base. Such spots can be easily detected by the discoloration
of the skin and such a pineapple should not be selected.

[Illustration: FIG. 19]

101. PREPARATION OF PINEAPPLE.--Some persons consider pineapple a
difficult fruit to prepare, but no trouble will be experienced if the
method illustrated in Figs. 17 to 19 is followed. Place the pineapple on
a hard surface, such as a wooden cutting board, and with a large sharp
knife cut off the tuft of leaves at the top. Then, as shown in Fig. 17,
cut the pineapple into 1/2-inch slices crosswise of the head. When the
entire pineapple has been sliced, peel each slice with a sharp paring
knife, as in Fig. 18. With the peeling removed, it will be observed that
each slice contains a number of eyes. Remove these with the point of a
knife, as Fig. 19 shows. After cutting out the core from the center of
each slice, the slices may be allowed to remain whole or may be cut into
pieces of any desirable size or shape. Pineapple prepared in this way is
ready either for canning or for desserts in which it is used fresh.

102. PINEAPPLE PUDDING.--One of the most satisfactory desserts made from
pineapple is the pudding given here. It is in reality a corn-starch
pudding in which grated pineapple is used for the flavoring.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2-1/2 c. scalded milk
1/3 c. corn starch
1/2 c. sugar
1/4 tsp. salt
1/4 c. cold milk
1-1/2 c. grated pineapple, canned or fresh
2 egg whites

Scald the milk by heating it over the fire in a double boiler. Mix the
corn starch, sugar, and salt, and dissolve in the cold milk. Add to the
scalded milk in the double boiler and cook for about 15 or 20 minutes.
Remove from the fire and add the grated pineapple from which all juice
has been drained. Then fold in the whites of the eggs beaten stiff. Pour
into molds previously dipped in cold water, allow to cool, and serve
with cream.


103. AVOCADOS.--The avocado, which is also known as the _alligator
pear_, is a large pear-shaped, pulpy fruit raised principally in the
West Indies. It has a purplish-brown skin and contains just one very
large seed in the center. The flesh contains considerable fat, and so
the food value of this fruit is rather high, being fully twice as great
as a like quantity of apples or oranges.

This fruit, which is gaining in popularity in the Northern States, is
very perishable and does not stand shipment well. As a rule, it reaches
the northern market green and is ripened after its arrival. It is an
expensive fruit and is used almost entirely for salads. As its flavor is
somewhat peculiar, a taste for it must usually be cultivated.

104. GUAVAS.--The guava is a tropical fruit that is extensively grown in
the southern part of the United States. Guavas come in two varieties:
_red guava_, which resembles the apple, and _white guava_, which
resembles the pear. The fruit, which has a pleasant acid pulp, is
characterized by a more or less peculiar flavor for which a liking must
be cultivated. It can be canned and preserved in much the same way as
peaches are.

Because guavas are very perishable, they cannot be shipped to northern
markets, but various products are made from them and sent to every
market. Preserved and pickled guavas and confections made from what is
known as guava paste are common, but guava jelly made from the pulp is
probably the best known product.

105. NECTARINES.--The tropical fruit called the nectarine is really a
variety of peach, but it differs from the common peach in that it has a
smooth, waxy skin. Also, the flesh of the nectarine is firmer and has a
stronger flavor than that of the peach. Nectarines are not shipped to
the northern markets to any extent, but they are canned in exactly the
same way as peaches are and can be secured in this form.

106. PERSIMMONS.--The persimmon is a semitropical plum-like fruit,
globular in shape and an orange-red or yellow in color. It comes in many
varieties, but few of them find their way into the northern markets. The
Japanese persimmon, which resembles a tomato in color, is the variety
most frequently purchased. Persimmons are characterized by a great deal
of very pungent acid, which has a puckery effect until the fruit is made
sweet and edible by exposure to the frost. In localities where they are
plentiful, persimmons are extensively used and are preserved for use
during the winter season.

107. POMEGRANATES.--The pomegranate is about as large as a full-sized
apple and has a hard reddish-yellow rind. Most varieties contain many
seeds and a comparatively small amount of red edible pulp. Pomegranates
of various kinds are grown in the southern part of the United States and

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