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Woman's Institute Library of Cookery, Vol. 4 by Woman's Institute of Domestic Arts and Sciences

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inch thick to fit a rectangular pan. Allow this to rise until it is
light. Peel apples, cut into halves and then into thick slices, and rub
them with lemon so they will not discolor. When the bread mixture is
light, place the apples on the top in rows. Sprinkle with sugar and
cinnamon and bake in a quick oven. Serve with butter or sugar and cream.


Roll a large piece of the mixture used for apple cake into a rectangular
shape from 1/4 to 1/2 inch thick, brush with butter, sprinkle with sugar
and cinnamon and, if desired, with raisins or chopped nuts. Roll like a
jelly roll, and place the two ends together on a cooky sheet so as to
form a ring. Try, if possible, to conceal the joining by fastening the
ends together carefully. The best way to do this is to cut a slice from
each end before joining. Then, with a scissors, cut through the edge of
the ring nearly to the center and slightly at a slant, as in Fig. 17.
Make the cuts about 1 inch apart and turn the cut slices over so as to
show the layers of dough. Brush with milk, dredge with sugar, and bake
for about 1/2 hour. When baked, this cake should appear as shown in
Fig. 18.

[Illustration: FIG. 17]

[Illustration: FIG. 18]


25. A delicious form of dessert that is usually classed with small cakes
includes cream puffs and éclairs. They are made of a special kind of
paste that, when baked, becomes hollow in the center, very much as
popovers do. The inside is then filled with a mixture similar to a
custard mixture or with sweetened and flavored whipped cream. Many
persons have an idea that these mixtures are very difficult to make, but
the fact is that they may be easily made if the directions for preparing
them are carefully followed.

[Illustration: FIG. 19]

26. After the paste has been mixed, the way it is to be treated will
depend on whether cream puffs or éclairs are to be made. For cream
puffs, which are shown in Fig. 19, it is dropped by spoonfuls on a cooky
sheet or a large pan, while in the case of éclairs, several of which are
shown in Fig. 20, it is forced through a large round pastry tube so as
to form long strips. The shapes are then baked in a hot oven, and during
this process they puff up and become hollow in the center. If, upon
attempting to fill the shells thus made, the centers are found to
contain a little moist, doughy material, this may be removed. The
filling may then be introduced either by cutting a slit in the side and
putting it in with a spoon or by inserting the end of a pastry tube into
the shell and forcing it in with a pastry bag and tube. In addition to
being filled with a filling of some kind, éclairs are covered, as here
shown, with an icing that usually corresponds in flavor with the
filling. For instance, chocolate éclairs are filled with a chocolate
filling and covered with a chocolate icing, while coffee éclairs have a
coffee filling and a coffee icing.

[Illustration: FIG. 20]

Very small cream puffs are attractive and are often served with small
cakes for an afternoon tea or a buffet luncheon. These may be made by
dropping the paste with a teaspoon on a cooky sheet, baking it until
done, and then filling the shells with any desired paste.

(Sufficient for 1 Dozen Cream Puffs)

1/2 c. butter
1 C. boiling water
1 c. flour
4 eggs

Boil the butter and water together until the butter is melted. Add the
flour by pouring it all in at one time. Stir rapidly and cook until the
mass does not stick to the sides of the pan. Continue the stirring so
that it does not burn. Remove from the fire and cool, so as not to cook
the eggs when they are added. Add one egg at a time and mix thoroughly
with the mixture before adding another. Drop by spoonfuls on a greased
cooky sheet, place close to the floor of the oven, and bake in a hot
oven for about 30 minutes or until the puffs are dry and can be lifted
from the sheet. Allow them to cool and then fill with whipped cream or a
custard filling. Before serving, sprinkle powdered sugar over the top
of each.


When éclairs are desired, make the paste as for cream puffs. Then
through a large, round pastry tube, one having a diameter of at least
1/2 inch, force this paste in strips 3-1/2 or 4 inches long, putting the
paste on a cooky sheet or some other large pan. Bake in a hot oven in
the same way as cream puffs. When cool, fill with a custard mixture of
any desired flavoring and cover with an icing of the same flavor.


Royal éclairs are especially delicious and make a very agreeable change
from the usual variety. To make these, bake éclairs in the usual shape
and set aside to cool. Cut canned peaches into pieces, add sugar to
them, and cook down until the sirup becomes thick. Fill each éclair with
several spoonfuls of this mixture and, if desired, serve with whipped
cream over the top.


1/3 c. flour
2 c. milk
1 egg
3/4 c. sugar
1/8 tsp. salt
2 tsp. butter
1 tsp. vanilla

Moisten the flour with a little cold milk. Heat the remainder of the
milk and add the moistened flour. Cook in a double boiler for 10 or 15
minutes. Beat the egg, add the sugar and salt, and pour this into the
hot mixture, stirring rapidly. Cook until the egg is thickened, and then
add the butter and vanilla. Remove from the fire, cool, and fill into
the cream puffs.


1 sq. chocolate
3/4 c. sugar
1 c. water
1/3 c. flour
1 c. milk
1 Tb. butter
1 tsp. vanilla

Cook the chocolate, sugar, and water over the flame until they are well
blended. Mix the flour and milk and add to the hot mixture. Cook until
the flour has thickened. Add the butter and vanilla. Cool and fill into
the éclairs. Cover the tops with a plain chocolate icing.


1/3 c. ground coffee
2 c. milk
1/3 c. flour
3/4 c. sugar
1 Tb. butter
1 tsp. vanilla

Steep the coffee in the milk for 15 minutes. Strain and add the flour
and sugar, which have been thoroughly mixed. Cook until the mixture is
thickened, stirring constantly to prevent lumps from forming. Add the
butter and vanilla, cool, and fill into the éclairs. Cover the top of
the éclairs with icing made by thickening a little strong coffee with
pulverized sugar.


1 c. sugar
1-1/4 c. boiling water
1/3 c. flour
1 c. milk
1 Tb. butter
1 tsp. vanilla

Caramelize 1/2 cupful of the sugar, add the water, and cook until the
caramel has dissolved. Mix the remainder of the sugar with the flour and
moisten with the milk. Add this to the caramel and cook until the flour
thickens completely, stirring constantly to prevent the formation of
lumps. Add the butter and vanilla. Cool and fill into the éclairs. Cover
the tops with a plain caramel icing.


27. NATURE OF DOUGHNUTS AND CRULLERS.--Some kinds of doughnuts and
crullers are made of bread dough, and for this reason really belong to
breakfast breads instead of to cakes. However, most of the recipes for
these two foods include sugar, shortening, milk, eggs, and leavening,
making doughnuts and crullers so similar to cake in their composition
that they are usually regarded as cake mixtures. The shortening, which
is in smaller amounts than is required for most cakes, is supplied
largely by the method of preparation peculiar to these cakes; that is,
by their being fried in deep fat. Consequently, some of the same
conditions apply in their preparation as in the making of other foods
that are cooked in this way. As has already been learned, such foods
must either contain a sufficient amount of protein material, such as
egg, for instance, or be coated with enough material of this kind to
prevent the absorption of fat. In the case of doughnuts, this material
is supplied as an ingredient.

28. SHAPING DOUGHNUTS AND CRULLERS.--The ingredients used in the making
of doughnuts are combined in much the same way as those used in other
cake mixtures. A point to remember is that the mixture, like that for
cookies, must be stiff enough to handle and roll out, but care should be
taken not to use too much flour, for then the doughnuts are likely to be
tough. Divide the dough into amounts of a convenient size, place one of
these on a well-floured board, and roll out with a rolling pin until
about 1/4 inch thick. Then, with a doughnut cutter, as shown in Fig. 21,
cut as many doughnuts as possible from the rolled dough. If a regular
doughnut cutter is not in supply, a round cookie cutter may be used and
then a thimble or some other small round cutter applied to remove the
center of the pieces thus cut. As here shown, a plate or some other
small dish containing flour should be kept handy and the cutter dipped
into this occasionally during the cutting to prevent it from sticking to
the dough and marring the appearance of the doughnuts. Collect the
centers and scraps that remain after the doughnuts have been cut from a
piece and set these aside until all the fresh dough has been used. These
may then be rolled out again and cut into doughnuts. If desired,
however, the centers may be fried.

[Illustration: FIG. 21]

29. While doughnuts are usually round and have a hole in the center,
they may, for variety, be made in other shapes. For instance, after the
dough is rolled out, it is sometimes cut with a sharp knife Into
rectangular pieces about 4 inches long and 2-1/2 inches wide and each
one of these pieces then cut lengthwise into three strips attached at
one end. When cut in this way, the strips are braided and then pinched
together at the loose end. Or, the pieces may be made 4 inches long and
2 inches wide, cut into two strips attached at one end, and the strips
then twisted around each other and pinched together at the loose end.

[Illustration: FIG. 22]

30. FRYING DOUGHNUTS AND CRULLERS.--After the doughnuts have been cut in
the desired shape, the next step is to fry them. The equipment required
for this process consists of a pan or a kettle into which the fat is
put, a long-handled frying basket into which the doughnuts are placed,
and a receptacle containing hot water into which the doughnuts can be
dipped after being fried. Put into the kettle a sufficient amount of
fat, which may be any vegetable fat or oil, to cover the doughnuts well,
allow it to become hot enough to brown an inch cube of bread in 40
seconds, place several doughnuts in the bottom of the basket, as shown
in Fig. 22, and then lower the basket into the hot fat, when it will be
found that the doughnuts will rise quickly to the top of the fat. Allow
them to brown on one side and then turn them over with a fork and let
them brown on the other side. Be careful not to let the fat become too
hot during the frying, or the doughnuts will become darker than is
desirable before the inside is cooked. If it is found that the fat is
getting too hot, turn off some of the heat or remove the deep-fat kettle
from the excessive heat.

[Illustration: FIG. 23]

31. As soon as the doughnuts have become an even brown on both sides and
have fried through thoroughly, lift the basket out of the fat and rest
it on the edge of the frying kettle. Then, as shown in Fig. 23, remove
the doughnuts one at a time from the basket with a fork and dip quickly
into the pan of boiling water and remove again at once. Dipping the
doughnuts into boiling water removes any excessive fat that may remain
on the surface. Upon taking them from the water, place them, as in Fig.
24, on a piece of paper that will absorb as much of the remaining fat as
possible. When these precautions are taken, the doughnuts will be found
to be less greasy and not so likely to disagree with the persons who eat
them. After the surface has become dried, the doughnuts may be improved
by sprinkling them with pulverized or granulated sugar.

[Illustration: FIG. 24]

32. If a large number of doughnuts are made and the hot-water method of
drying them is adopted, it will be found that considerable fat will
remain in the water. It will therefore pay to allow the fat to become
cool and remove it from the surface of the water. Fat in which doughnuts
and crullers are fried, after being poured from the dregs that collect
in the bottom and reheated, may be clarified by adding several slices of
raw potato to it and allowing these to become brown in it. This
treatment will remove any foreign taste that the fat may have and make
it possible to use the fat again for frying purposes. Fat in which
croquettes have been fried may be treated in the same way and used the
second time.

33. RECIPES FOR DOUGHNUTS.--A variety of doughnuts that are made light
by means of chemical leavening can be prepared, as the following recipes
indicate. Sometimes yeast doughnuts are preferred, so a recipe for
doughnuts of this kind is also given. If the directions previously given
are carefully applied in carrying out any of these recipes, excellent
results may be expected. Some persons are prejudiced against the use of
doughnuts, claiming that they are indigestible. While this may be true
of doughnuts improperly made, those made of good materials and by
correct methods are always a favorite and justly so.

(Sufficient for 2 Dozen Doughnuts)

3 Tb. butter
1 c. sugar
3 eggs
1 c. milk
4-1/2 c. flour
6 tsp. baking powder
1 tsp. salt
1/4 tsp. nutmeg
1/4 tsp. cinnamon

Cream the butter, add the sugar and then the eggs, and beat thoroughly.
Pour in the milk and sift the dry ingredients into this mixture. Divide
into amounts that can be handled conveniently, roll out, cut, and fry
in deep fat.

(Sufficient for 2 Dozen Doughnuts)

2 eggs
1/2 c. sugar
1/2 c. mashed potatoes
1 Tb. fat
1/3 c. sour milk
1/2 c. barley flour
1-1/2 c. wheat flour
1/2 tsp. salt
1/2 tsp. mace
1/4 tsp. soda
2 tsp. baking powder

Beat the eggs and add the sugar and mashed potatoes. If solid shortening
is used, melt it and add to the other ingredients. Pour in the sour
milk, mix and sift the barley and wheat flour, salt, mace, soda, and
baking powder, and add these to the mixture. Turn the dough out on a
board in a quantity that can be handled at one time and knead for a
little before rolling it for cutting. Cut and fry in deep fat.

(Sufficient for 3 Dozen Doughnuts)

4 c. flour
1-1/2 tsp. salt
1/2 tsp. soda
4 tsp. baking powder
1/2 tsp. grated nutmeg
1 c. sugar
1 Tb. butter
1 egg
1-1/4 c. sour milk

Mix and sift the dry ingredients and chop in the butter. Beat the egg,
add the milk, and stir these into the dry ingredients. After mixing
thoroughly, roll about 1/4 inch thick on a board, cut in the desired
shape, and fry in deep fat.

(Sufficient for 2 Dozen Doughnuts)

2 c. flour
3 tsp. baking powder
1/2 tsp. salt
1/4 tsp. nutmeg
1/4 tsp. cinnamon
1/2 c. sugar
1 egg
1/2 c. milk
1 Tb. melted fat

Mix and sift the dry ingredients. Beat the egg, add the milk to it, and
pour the liquid into the dry ingredients. Add the melted fat. Drop by
teaspoonfuls into hot fat and fry the same as for doughnuts.

(Sufficient for 3 Dozen Doughnuts)

1 c. milk
1 yeast cake
5 c. flour
2 eggs
1/2 c. sugar
1/4 c. melted butter
1/2 tsp. salt
1/2 tsp. mace

Scald the milk and cool to lukewarm. Dissolve the yeast cake and add it
to the milk and a sufficient amount of the flour to make a sponge. Allow
this to rise until double in bulk. Then add the eggs, sugar, melted
butter, salt, and mace. Beat thoroughly and add enough flour to make a
dough. Knead this until it is smooth and elastic and let it rise until
double in bulk. Roll out on a board into a sheet about 3/4 inch thick.
Cut into long strips about 3/4 inch wide, twist, stretch, and shape like
a figure 8. Let these stand on the board or in a pan until they are
light and then fry in deep fat.

* * * * *



34. Many kinds of puddings are used for desserts. Some of them closely
resemble cake mixtures, while others are similar to custards, but are
thickened with a cooked or a raw starchy material. Formerly, puddings
were always boiled in a bag, but now desserts of this kind are prepared
by boiling, steaming, or baking. To improve the flavor of puddings,
sauces of a contrasting flavor are usually served with them.

35. Puddings are often considered to be rather indigestible foods and in
many cases this is true. For this reason, it is not wise to include them
to any great extent in the diet of children. Because of the ingredients
used in them, they are a heavy food and are usually high in food value.
Consequently, some thought should be given to their selection so that
they may be suitable for the rest of the meal in which they are served.
It seems to be the custom to serve a rich dessert with a heavy meal,
but, as is well known, it is less proper with such a meal than with a
light meal. A little attention given to this matter will enable the
housewife to prepare menus that will provide the family with a properly
balanced meal.

36. The time of day and the season of the year for the serving of
puddings are also matters that should receive consideration. It is much
better to serve desserts of this kind with a noon meal than with an
evening meal. Then, too, warm puddings with sauce will be found much
more appetizing in the cool season of the year than in warm weather. On
the other hand, cool desserts or fruits served as desserts are very much
more acceptable in warm weather than during the cold seasons.


37. The sauces served with puddings deserve just as much attention as to
selection and preparation as the puddings themselves. For instance, a
sour sauce that is not rich, such as lemon sauce, should be served with
a rich, sweet pudding, while a rich, hard sauce or perhaps a chocolate
sauce is the proper kind to serve with a bland, flavorless pudding.

So that the housewife may be perfectly familiar with a variety of sauces
and thus know the nature of the sauces mentioned in connection with the
puddings themselves, a number of recipes for pudding sauces are given.
Some of these are intended to be served hot and others cold, while a few
may be served either hot or cold, as preferred. Selection may be made
from these for any pudding that is accompanied by a sauce when served.
Care should be taken to have the sauce appropriate for the pudding and
to follow explicitly the directions given for making it.


1/2 c. sugar
1 Tb. corn starch
Few grains of salt
1 c. boiling water
2 Tb. butter
2 Tb. lemon juice

Mix the sugar, corn starch, and salt, and add the water gradually,
stirring constantly. Boil 5 minutes, remove from the fire, add the
butter and lemon juice, and serve.


1/3 c.
1 c. sugar
3 egg yolks
1/3 c. boiling water
3 Tb. lemon juice
Few gratings of lemon rind

Cream the butter, add the sugar gradually, and stir in the yolks of the
eggs slightly beaten. Then add the water and cook over boiling water
until the mixture thickens. Add the lemon juice and rind and serve
at once.


1/3 c. butter
1 c. sugar
3 egg yolks
1/3 c. boiling water
Few gratings of nutmeg
1 tsp. vanilla

Cream the butter, add the sugar gradually, and stir in the egg yolks
beaten slightly. Add the water and cook over boiling water until the
mixture thickens. Add the nutmeg and vanilla and serve at once.


1/3 c. butter
1 c. powdered sugar
1/3 tsp. lemon extract
2/3 tsp. vanilla

Cream the butter, add the sugar gradually, and then add the flavoring.
Beat until the sauce is light and creamy.


1/4 c. butter
1 c. brown sugar
4 Tb. cream or milk
1 tsp. vanilla

Cream the butter and add the sugar gradually. Add the milk and
flavoring, drop by drop, to prevent separation. Beat until fluffy and
smooth. Chill and serve.


1 c. milk
1/2 sq. chocolate
1/2 c. sugar
2 Tb. flour
1 Tb. butter
1/2 tsp. vanilla

Heat the milk and in it melt the chocolate. Mix the sugar and flour and
stir into the mixture rapidly to prevent the formation of lumps. Cook
until the sauce thickens, add the butter, and cook for a few minutes
longer. Add the vanilla and serve either hot or cold, as desired.


1 c. fruit juice
1/4 c. sugar
1-1/2 Tb. corn starch
2 Tb. lemon juice

Heat the fruit juice, which may be any left-over fruit juice. Mix the
sugar and corn starch, add to the hot fruit juice, and cook until the
corn starch thickens, stirring constantly to prevent the formation of
lumps. Add the lemon juice. Remove from the heat and, if the sauce is
desired to be more acid, add lemon juice to suit the taste.


3/4 c. apricot pulp
3/4 c. whipping cream
Pulverized sugar

Prepare apricot pulp by forcing cooked apricots through a sieve. Whip
the cream and fold the apricot pulp into it. Add pulverized sugar to
suit the taste.


Half c. sugar
1-1/2 c. water
1 c. grated pineapple
1 Tb. corn starch

Add the sugar to the water and bring to the boiling point. Add the
pineapple and cook until it is tender. If canned pineapple is used, omit
1/2 cupful of the water. Moisten the corn starch with a little water and
add it. Cook until it thickens, stirring to prevent lumps.


1/4 c. orange juice
1 Tb. lemon juice
Powdered sugar

Into the fruit juices, beat the powdered sugar until the sauce is as
sweet as desired.


1/4 c. maraschino juice
1 Tb. lemon juice
6 cherries, chopped
Powdered sugar

Mix the fruit juices and chopped cherries, add the sugar, beat well, and


2 c. milk
1 Tb. corn starch
1/3 c. sugar
1/2 tsp. vanilla
1/2 tsp. lemon extract
Pinch of salt

Heat the milk in a double boiler. Mix the corn starch and sugar and add
to the milk, stirring so as to prevent the formation of lumps. Continue
stirring until the corn starch has thickened and then cook for about 15
minutes longer. Beat the egg, add it to the mixture, and cook for a few
minutes longer. Add the vanilla, lemon, and salt. Serve hot or cold.


2 c. milk
1/2 c. shredded coconut
1/3 c. sugar
1-1/2 Tb. corn starch
Pinch of salt
1 egg white
1/2 tsp. vanilla

Heat the milk in a double boiler with the coconut. Mix the sugar and
corn starch and add to the hot milk and coconut. Stir until the corn
starch has thickened and cook for 15 minutes. Add the salt to the egg
white and beat until it is stiff. Pour the hot mixture over the egg
white and continue beating until thoroughly blended. Add the vanilla and
serve either hot or cold.


2 tsp. corn starch or arrowroot
1 c. boiling water
1/2 c. jelly or jam
Juice of 1/2 lemon

Cook the corn starch or arrowroot diluted with cold water, in the
boiling water for 5 minutes. Add the jelly or jam, beaten smooth, and
let simmer for 3 or 4 minutes. Add sugar, if needed, and the lemon
juice. Strain and serve.

* * * * *



38. As has already been learned, puddings are cooked by being boiled,
steamed, or baked. No different utensils from those used in the making
of custards and cakes need be provided for the making of puddings
except, perhaps, a steamer. A utensil of this kind, which is required
for steamed puddings, consists of a large pan, which sets directly over
the flame and into which the water is poured; a second pan, which fits
closely into the first one and into which the pudding is put; and a
spout, into which the water may be poured. The steamer must be very
closely covered in order that all the steam, which does the cooking, may
be retained. An apparatus that will answer the purpose of a steamer may
be improvised, however, if there are in the supply of household utensils
a pan, a colander, and a cover that will fit tight enough to retain the
steam; or, instead of putting the pudding directly in the second pan of
the steamer, it may be put into individual molds or a pan that will hold
a sufficient quantity to serve just the desired number of persons and
these then set in the second pan to cook.

[Illustration: FIG. 25]

39. Steamed puddings ready to serve are shown in Figs. 25 and 26. The
pudding in Fig. 25 shows how a pudding that has been steamed in one
large mold will appear. The mold used may be just large enough for the
number of persons to be served or it may be larger and what remains used
for another meal. Fig. 26 shows a pudding that has been steamed in
individual molds. Whichever one of these two methods of preparing
steamed puddings is preferred may be adopted.

When puddings are cooked by steaming, it should be remembered that the
steaming process must be continuous. Therefore, if water must be added
during the cooking, boiling water should be used so as not to lower the
temperature and stop the formation of steam. After being steamed
sufficiently, puddings of this kind are often placed in the oven for a
short time in order to dry the surface.

[Illustration: FIG. 26]

40. The baking of puddings is so similar to the baking of cakes and
custards that the same directions apply. A few points, however, should
be kept well in mind if good puddings would be the result. The utensil
in which a pudding that is to be baked is put may be of any desired
shape, but it should always be greased. This also holds true in the case
of puddings that are to be steamed. Puddings that contain an
egg-and-milk mixture, as, for instance, bread pudding, must necessarily,
as with custards, be baked at a temperature low enough to prevent them
from curding.


41. In the preparation of many puddings here considered, left-over
materials, such as bread, rolls, stale cake, cookies, etc., may be
utilized to advantage. Consequently, when the housewife is making
desserts, she should endeavor to make good use of all such things in
case they cannot be used by themselves.

42. INDIAN PUDDING.--As corn meal is the chief ingredient in the pudding
given in the accompanying recipe, it is called Indian pudding, corn meal
being a product of Indian corn. For persons who like food containing
corn meal, this pudding will prove satisfactory. It has the advantage
over other puddings in that it is inexpensive.

(Sufficient to Serve Eight)

1/3 c. corn meal
5 c. milk
1/2 c. molasses
1/2 tsp. salt
1 tsp. cinnamon

Mix the corn meal with some of the milk, scald the remainder in a double
boiler, and add the moistened corn meal to it. Pour in the molasses,
salt, and cinnamon, cook for 15 or 20 minutes in a double boiler, and
then pour into a buttered baking dish. Bake in a very slow oven for
about 2 hours. Serve with cream or custard sauce.

43. BROWN BETTY.--A baked pudding that always meets with favor among
both old and young is Brown Betty. The flavor imparted by the apples and
other ingredients to the bread crumbs is delightful, especially when the
pudding is prepared according to the accompanying directions.

(Sufficient to Serve Eight)

1 qt. stale bread crumbs
1 qt. sliced apples
1/2 c. brown sugar
1/2 c. sugar
1/4 tsp. nutmeg
1 tsp. cinnamon
1/4 c. butter
1/2 to 1 c. water
Juice and rind of 1/2 lemon

Butter a baking dish. Make coarse crumbs of the stale bread and place a
layer on the bottom of the baking dish. Place on top of this a layer of
half the sliced apples and sprinkle with 1/2 of the sugar, to which have
been added the nutmeg and cinnamon. Dot with butter, sprinkle with
another layer of crumbs, add the remaining apples, sugar, and spices,
and dot again with butter. Cover with the remaining crumbs and dot this
with the remaining butter. Pour over this the water, lemon juice, and
the grated lemon rind. Bake in a moderate oven for about 45 minutes,
covering the dish for the first half of the time and removing the cover
for the latter part of the baking. Serve with cream, lemon sauce, or
hard sauce. The quantity of water necessary depends on the dryness of
the crumbs and the juiciness of the apples.

44. BREAD PUDDING.--For utilizing bits of bread that might otherwise be
wasted, there is no better plan than to make a bread pudding. This
dessert may be used with any dinner or luncheon, as jams, jellies, and
practically all kinds of sauce may be served with it to impart a
suitable flavor.

(Sufficient to Serve Eight)

1 qt. milk
2 c. stale bread crumbs
2 eggs
1/2 c. sugar
1 tsp. vanilla

Heat the milk and pour it over the bread crumbs. Allow them to soak
until they are soft. Beat the eggs, add the sugar and vanilla to them,
and stir this into the mixture of crumbs and milk. Mix thoroughly, pour
into a buttered baking dish, and bake in a moderate oven for about 45
minutes. If desired, jelly or jam may be served with the bread pudding
or any desirable sauce, such as lemon, vanilla, or custard, may be used
and the pudding may be served either hot or cold.

45. MAIZE PUDDING.--A pudding that has both corn starch and corn meal as
its basis provides variety. This pudding, called maize pudding, is
prepared in a double boiler and then turned into a mold to cool. Either
raisins or dates may be added to it to increase its palatability.

(Sufficient to Serve Eight)

3-1/2 c. milk
2 Tb. corn starch
1/2 c. white corn meal
1/2 tsp. salt
1/3 c. sugar
1/2 tsp. cinnamon
3/4 c. raisins or dates

Scald the milk in a double boiler, mix the corn starch, corn meal, salt,
sugar, and cinnamon, and add this to the hot milk, stirring rapidly to
prevent the formation of lumps. Continue to stir and cook directly over
the fire until the mixture thickens. Then return to the double boiler
and cook for about 2 hours. Fifteen minutes before removing from the
fire, add the raisins or chopped dates, turn into a mold, and serve
either hot or cold with custard sauce.

46. PIERROT PUDDING.--A steamed pudding made of simple ingredients is
often desired for serving with an elaborate meal. In such a case,
Pierrot pudding will answer very well.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1/2 c. butter
1 c. sugar
3/4 c. milk
2-1/2 c. flour
5 tsp. baking powder
2 egg whites
1 tsp. vanilla

Cream the butter and add the sugar gradually. Then add the milk
alternately with the flour, to which has been added the baking powder.
Beat the whites of the eggs until they are stiff and fold them into the
mixture. Add the vanilla. Butter baking-powder cans or other molds, fill
them half full with the mixture, adjust the covers, which should also be
buttered, and place in a kettle of boiling water. Raise them from the
bottom of the kettle by means of a rack, have the water come half way up
around the molds, and cover closely. If small molds are used, steam them
only 1 hour. If a large mold is used, steam from 1-1/2 to 2 hours, never
allowing the water to get below the boiling point. Remove from the molds
and serve with hot chocolate sauce.

47. STEAMED GINGER PUDDING.--A steamed pudding in which the flavor of
ginger predominates is given in the accompanying recipe. This kind of
pudding is very popular among persons who like such flavor.

(Sufficient to Serve Eight)

1/2 c. shortening
1/2 c. sugar
2 eggs
2-1/2 c. flour
4 tsp. baking powder
1/4 tsp. salt
1 tsp. ginger
1 c. milk

Cream the shortening and add the sugar and the beaten eggs. Sift the dry
ingredients with the flour and add alternately with the milk. Turn into
a buttered mold and steam for about 2 hours. Remove from the mold and
serve with sweetened whipped cream or any desired sauce.

48. RAISIN PUFF.--Raisins always increase the food value of a meal, and
they are especially good when combined with the ingredients required
for the dessert known as raisin puff. This steamed pudding is rather
rich and should not, of course, be served with a meal in which the other
foods are rich.

(Sufficient to Serve Eight)

1/2 c. shortening
1/2 c. sugar
1 egg
2-1/4 c. flour
4 tsp. baking powder
1 tsp. cinnamon
1/4 tsp. salt
1 c. milk
1 c. raisins

Cream the shortening and add the sugar gradually and the beaten egg.
Sift the dry ingredients with the flour and add alternately with the
milk. Chop the raisins and fold them into the mixture. Turn into a
buttered mold, cover, and steam for 1-1/2 or 2 hours. Remove from the
mold and serve hot with whipped cream or any desired sauce.

49. SUET-FRUIT PUDDING.--Steamed puddings in which suet and fruit form
two of the ingredients are excellent cold-weather desserts. Such
puddings are usually made around the holidays, and under proper
conditions will keep for a long time. The accompanying recipe gives
directions for making an excellent pudding of this kind.

(Sufficient to Serve Eight)

3/4 c. suet
2-1/2 stale bread crumbs
2 egg yolks
1/4 c. milk
1 c. brown sugar
Grated rind of 1 lemon
1 Tb. lemon juice
1-1/2 c. raisins
1/2 c. molasses
1/2 tsp. salt
1 tsp. cinnamon
1/2 tsp. grated nutmeg
1/4 tsp. cloves
1/2 tsp. soda
1/2 c. flour
2 egg whites

Force the suet through a food chopper or chop very fine. Then work it
with the hands until it is creamy and to it add the bread crumbs. Beat
the egg yolks until they are light and add them to the suet and bread
crumbs. Add the milk. Add the sugar, grated lemon rind, lemon juice, the
raisins, cut into pieces, the molasses, and milk. Sift together the
salt, spices, soda, and flour, and sift these into the mixture. Mix
thoroughly, fold in the whites of the eggs beaten until they are stiff,
turn into a buttered mold, adjust the cover, and steam for about 3
hours. Serve with any desired sauce.

50. CHRISTMAS PUDDING.--A pudding much used during the holiday season
is Christmas pudding. The ingredients for this dessert are similar to
those for suet-fruit pudding. In fact, both may be used for the same
purpose. Christmas pudding is especially good when served with hard
sauce, although other sauce may be used with it.

(Sufficient to Serve Twelve)

2-1/2 c. stale bread crumbs
1/2 c. milk
1 c. beef suet
1/2 c. sugar
1/2 c. molasses
2 eggs
1 c. chopped raisins
1/2 c. chopped citron
1/2 c. chopped nuts
1 c. flour
1/2 tsp. soda
1 tsp. baking powder
1 tsp. salt
1/3 c. fruit juice

Soak the bread crumbs in the milk. Work the suet with the hands until it
is creamy, and to it add the sugar, molasses, and well-beaten eggs. Mix
with the milk and bread crumbs, and add the fruit and nuts. Mix the dry
ingredients and sift them into the mixture. Add the fruit juice, turn
into a buttered mold, and steam for 3 hours. Serve hot with hard sauce
or any other desired sauce.

51. POCONO PUDDING.--Directions for still another steamed pudding in
which suet is used are given in the accompanying recipe for Pocono
pudding. This dessert does not require so many ingredients as suet-fruit
or Christmas pudding, and in many cases will answer the same purpose.

(Sufficient to Serve Eight)

3/4 c. suet
2 c. apples
2 c. stale bread crumbs
3 eggs
3/4 c. brown sugar
1/2 c. milk
1 tsp. salt
Rind and juice of 1 lemon
1/2 c. raisins

Put the suet, apples, peeled and cored, and the bread crumbs through the
food chopper. Beat the yolks of the eggs and add these with the sugar,
milk, salt, and grated rind and juice of the lemon. Chop the raisins and
add to the mixture. Beat the egg whites and fold these into the mixture.
Pour the mixture into buttered molds and steam for 3 to 4 hours. Serve
with any desired sauce.

52. STEAMED FIG PUDDING.--A steamed pudding made according to the recipe
here given never fails to please. As the name, steamed fig pudding,
indicates, it is supposed to have chopped figs added to it, although
raisins will answer if figs cannot be obtained.

(Sufficient to Serve Twelve)

1/2 c. butter
1/4 c. sugar
1 c. molasses
1 c. milk
2-1/2 c. flour
1/2 tsp. cinnamon
1/4 tsp. nutmeg
1/2 tsp. soda
3 tsp. baking powder
1/2 c. chopped figs or raisins

Cream the butter and add the sugar, molasses, and milk. Mix and sift the
dry ingredients and stir these into the mixture. Fold in the chopped
figs or raisins and steam in buttered molds for 2 to 3 hours, depending
on the size of the molds. Serve hot with any desired sauce.

53. FRESH FRUIT PUDDING.--During berry or cherry season fresh-fruit
pudding is an excellent one to make. This pudding is prepared in much
the same way as a cake mixture, is combined with the fruit selected, and
is then either steamed or baked.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1/4 c. butter
1/4 c. sugar
2 c. flour
1/4 tsp. salt
3 tsp. baking powder
1-1/4 c. milk
2 egg whites
1 c. berries or stoned cherries

Cream the butter and add the sugar. Sift together the dry ingredients
and add these alternately with the milk. Beat the egg whites and fold
these in. Place a layer of dough in the bottom of a buttered baking
dish, put a layer of fruit on top of this, add dough next and then
fruit, and have a final layer of dough on top. Cover tight and steam for
1-1/2 or 2 hours or bake without the cover in a moderate oven for about
45 minutes. Serve with a fruit or a hard sauce.

54. COCONUT PUFF.--A light pudding to which shredded coconut is added to
give flavor is a satisfactory dessert for a heavy meal. As it is baked
in muffin pans, it may be served in a dainty manner.

(Sufficient to Serve Eight)

1/2 c. butter
1 c. sugar
2 eggs
2 c. flour
1/2 tsp. soda
2 tsp. baking powder
1 c. sour milk
1/2 c. shredded coconut

Cream the butter and add the sugar. Beat the yolks of the eggs and add
them. Sift the dry ingredients with the flour and add alternately with
the milk. Fold in the coconut. Beat the egg whites until stiff and fold
them in. Bake in buttered muffin pans in a quick oven for 20 minutes.
Serve with coconut or any desired sauce.

55. COTTAGE PUDDING.--When a simple baked pudding is desired, the
housewife almost instinctively turns to cottage pudding. This pudding
has been a favorite in the household for years and may be eaten by young
or old. It is not very rich, and so should be served with an
appetizing sauce.

(Sufficient to Serve Eight)

1/4 c. butter
1/2 c. sugar
1 egg, well beaten
1 1/2 c. flour
3 tsp. baking powder
1/2 c. milk
1 tsp. vanilla

Cream the butter, add the sugar, and beat the egg and add it. Sift the
flour and baking powder together and add alternately with the milk. Add
the vanilla. Bake in a loaf-cake pan and serve hot with lemon, fruit, or
chocolate sauce.

[Illustration: FIG. 27]

56. CHOCOLATE BREAD PUDDING.--To the majority of persons the flavor of
chocolate is always pleasing. In chocolate bread pudding, this flavor is
well blended with the ingredients. This pudding, when baked, may be cut
into slices, as shown in Fig. 27, and then daintily served with either
hard or custard sauce.

(Sufficient to Serve Eight)

2 c. stale bread crumbs
4 c. milk
1 sq. unsweetened chocolate
1/2 c. sugar
2 eggs
1/4 tsp. salt
1 tsp. vanilla

Soak the bread crumbs in 3 cupfuls of the milk. Melt the chocolate in a
saucepan and add the sugar and the remaining cup of milk. Cook until the
mixture is smooth and add this to the bread and milk. Beat the eggs and
add them. Add the salt and vanilla. Pour into a buttered baking dish and
bake for about 45 minutes in a moderate oven. Cut into slices and serve
with hard or custard sauce.

57. CHOCOLATE PUDDING.--Baked chocolate pudding provides another way in
which to serve a dessert in which chocolate flavor predominates. This
pudding, because of its food value and the pleasing way in which it may
be served, is sure to answer for any meal in which a pudding dessert
is desired.

(Sufficient to Serve Eight)

1/4 c. butter
3/4 c. sugar
2 eggs
1-1/2 c. milk
1-1/2 c. flour
3 tsp. baking powder
1/4 tsp. soda
1-1/4 sq. unsweetened chocolate
1-1/2 tsp. vanilla

Cream the butter, add the sugar, and beat the yolks of the eggs and add
them. Add the milk alternately with the flour, which has been mixed and
sifted with the baking powder and soda. Melt the chocolate in a saucepan
and add. Beat the whites of the eggs until stiff and fold them into the
mixture. Flavor with the vanilla. Bake in a pan that will leave a space
in the center. It will require about 45 minutes to 1 hour for the
baking. Remove from the pan, fill the center with whipped cream, and
serve with chocolate sauce.

58. BOSTON CREAM PIE.--Boston cream pie is a dessert that can be made up
with some of the recipes already given. It is a favorite dessert with
many people and is very high in food value.

To make Boston cream pie, first bake two layers, each about 1 inch
thick, in round pans, using the plain-cake or cottage-pudding recipe.
Then, between these layers, put a filling about 1/2 inch thick. This
filling should preferably be the one used for cream puffs, although any
similar filling stiff enough to stand up well may be used instead. Cover
the top layer with 1/2 to 1 inch of slightly sweetened and flavored
whipped cream. The cake should not be put together until both the layers
and the filling have cooled.


(1) In what general way does the thickness of the dough mixture for
large cakes differ from that for small cakes other than cup cakes?

(2) (a) In baking small cakes, how does the oven temperature required
compare with that required for large cakes? (b) How does the length of
time required for baking large and small cakes differ?

(3) If the time for baking small cakes is divided into halves, what
should occur in the second half?

(4) Where should the pans for the baking of small cakes be placed in the

(5) Describe an original way of decorating cup cakes.

(6) Describe two classes of cookies.

(7) What precaution must be taken with regard to the flour used in the
mixing of cakes?

(8) How thick should the dough be rolled for: (a) cookies? (b) ginger

(9) Describe the baking of cookies.

(10) Describe the frying of doughnuts and crullers.

(11) Describe a method of removing the excess fat from the surface of
doughnuts after they are fried.

(12) By what methods may puddings be cooked?

(13) With what kind of meal and during what kind of weather should
heavy, rich pudding be served?

(J4) Of what value are pudding sauces?

(15) (a) Describe the method of steaming pudding. (b) How may the
surface of steamed puddings be made dry?


* * * * *



1. Pastry is a shortened dough that is made of flour, water, salt, and
fat and used in the preparation of desserts. Chief among these deserts
are pies. These are made by baking foods between two crusts of pastry or
with a single crust, which may be an upper or a lower one. Originally
pies were not intended for desserts. Rather, they were used as the main
dish of the meal, as they contained a filling of meat or fish and
vegetables. Such pies are still made, but they are not usually the ones
intended when pastry for pies is mentioned. It should therefore be
understood that the pastry considered in this Section is that which is
used with sweet fillings and employed particularly in the making of pies
and similar foods that are used for desserts.

Some cooks, especially the French ones, regard as pastry such foods as
certain small cakes, the paste used for cream puffs and éclairs, and the
sweetened breads made with yeast, such as brioche. In reality, such
desserts resemble cakes in use more than they do pastry, and for this
reason are discussed in connection with them.

2. Pastry desserts may be made in various fancy shapes for individual
servings or in pies that will serve five or six persons. Pies having one
crust usually contain a filling that consists of a custard mixture, a
mixture thickened with corn starch or flour, or occasionally a fruit
mixture. Some pies also have a top crust covering the filling, and when
this is the case a fruit filling, either fresh or cooked, is the kind
that is generally used.

3. Because of the nature of the materials used in the preparation of
pastry desserts, the finished product is necessarily high in food
value. For instance, starchy material is provided by the flour, fat by
the shortening, and sugar in comparatively large amounts by the filling,
whether it be fruit of some kind or a material resembling custard. This
fact, rather than the taste or the appetite, should aid in determining
whether or not pastry desserts should be included in a meal. While the
popularity of such desserts causes them to be used somewhat
indiscriminately, their use should always be governed by the nature of
the rest of the meal. Thus, if the other dishes served provide enough
food value, then a dessert lighter than pie should be chosen; but if the
rest of the meal is not sufficiently high in this respect, a wholesome
pastry dessert will generally prove to be a wise selection.

4. It is true, of course, that every person must determine for himself
whether or not pastry desserts are wholesome enough to be eaten by him.
Indigestion is almost sure to result from heavy, soggy, imperfectly
baked pastry, because the quantities of fat it contains may be slow to
digest and much of the starchy material may be imperfectly cooked.
Consequently, it is often not the pie itself but the way in which it is
made that is responsible for the bad reputation that this very
attractive dessert has acquired. If the correct method of making pastry
and pies is followed and the ingredients are handled properly in the
making, the digestibility of the finished product need give the
housewife very little concern. As a rule, a little experience is needed
in order that good results in the making of pastry dishes may be
attained, but one who becomes efficient in the other phases of cookery
should have no difficulty with foods of this kind.

5. Detailed instructions regarding the making of pastry desserts are
given throughout this Section, but if the greatest degree of success is
to be attained, it will be well from the very beginning to understand a
few general rules that apply to this work. In the first place, the
ingredients must be of the right sort and as cold as possible; then they
must be handled and combined with dexterity; and, finally, a hot oven
must be provided in order that these foods may be properly baked.


6. The ingredients used in pastry making are neither numerous nor
complicated, usually including only flour, salt, shortening, and liquid.
If these are correctly combined, they will be all that is required to
make a pastry that is light, flaky, and crisp. Occasionally a recipe
requiring baking powder will be found and sometimes eggs are called for
in mixtures of this kind, but neither of these ingredients is required
for successful pastry making. Baking powder may be an advantage when it
is used by one who is not experienced in the handling of pastry
mixtures, for it helps to make pastry lighter. However, only a small
quantity of this ingredient should be used, as a very little will bring
about the desired result.

7. FLOUR FOR PASTRY.--Pastry flour is the most desirable for pastry
making. It is made from winter wheat, which, as has already been
explained, contains less gluten and therefore lacks the gummy
consistency of bread flour. For puff paste, which is prepared so as to
hold air between thin layers of pastry, bread flour is often used
because it retains air better. Flours made of other cereals may also be
used. Pastry made of such flours is more difficult to handle, but good
results may be obtained if patience and care are exercised. When corn
flour, rice flour, and barley flour are used as part of the flour for
pastry, it will be found that less shortening is needed than when wheat
flour alone is used. The dark flours, such as barley, produce a pastry
that is dark in color, but this is no particular disadvantage so long as
the quality is not impaired.

No matter what kind of flour is used for the pastry, it should be as dry
as possible. At times, putting the flour in a warm oven and allowing it
to dry will prove to be advantageous. However, flour so treated should
be cooled before it is used, since the cooler the ingredients are the
better will be the pastry.

Cereal products of different kinds, such as corn meal, for instance, may
be moistened, spread into pans in thin layers, and then baked. The
shells thus produced may be filled with various kinds of filling and
used very successfully. Such shells, however, can scarcely be considered
as real pastry.

8. SHORTENING FOR PASTRY.--A solid fat, that is, one that will remain
solid at ordinary room temperature, is the best shortening for pastry
making. Oils of various kinds may be used, but in most cases the results
are not so successful. If pastry is to have the desired flakiness, the
shortening must not be broken into such minute particles and the flour
must not be saturated with fat, as is more likely to be the case if oil
is used in place of solid fat. In addition to being solid, the fat
should be just as cold as possible.

Butter is the fat that is used for puff paste, but for other varieties
of pastry almost any desirable fat may be utilized. Lard has always been
a particular favorite for pastry making; still, for ordinary pastry
making, there are various combinations of fat of both animal and
vegetable origin which serve the purpose.

Certain fats left over from various cooking processes in the home can be
utilized to advantage in the making of pastry. Chicken fat is a very
satisfactory one. A mixture of lard and tried-out beef suet also makes
an ideal fat for pastry, the hard flakiness of the suet being
particularly desirable. In fact, almost any fat without a disagreeable
odor or flavor may be used as all or part of the fat required. As has
already been learned, fats may be clarified and freed of their odor by
first heating them and then allowing a few slices of raw potato to
become hot in them.

9. LIQUID FOR PASTRY.--Water is the only liquid used in pastry making.
Water in which small pieces of ice are allowed to melt is especially
desirable for this purpose, but if ice cannot be obtained, the water
used should be as cold as possible.

10. PROPORTION OF INGREDIENTS.--The proportion of ingredients for the
making of pastry varies with the kinds of flour used and the kinds of
pastry desired. Some varieties can be made with a comparatively small
amount of fat, while others require a large amount. The use to which the
paste is to be put will determine the proportion of fat to be used. It
varies from the minimum amount of one-sixth as much fat as flour, by
measure, or one-third, by weight, which is the proportion for economy
paste, to one-half, by measure, or an equal amount by weight, which is
the proportion used in the making of puff paste. For the ordinary
preparation of pies, an amount midway between the two extremes is
usually sufficient, while oftentimes less may be used to advantage. It
should be remembered that fat is the most expensive ingredient in pastry
making and should be used with discretion.

11. The amount of liquid in proportion to the amount of flour is about
one-fourth, by measure, for, as is explained in _Hot Breads_, pie crust
is an example of a stiff dough, and such dough requires four times as
much flour as liquid. However, liquid should be added to the other
ingredients until the correct consistency is obtained, regardless of the
quantity used. The consistency is not right until the flour and the fat
cling together in such a way that the mixture may be rolled out to form
the crust for a pie. The less liquid used to accomplish this condition,
the flakier will be the crust when it is baked. More skill is required
in the handling of pastry when the smallest amount of water that can
possibly be used is added, but the results achieved usually justify the
care that is taken.


12. The utensils needed for pastry making are few in number and simple
in use. They consist of a mixing bowl, two case knives, a spatula, a
rolling pin, a flour sieve, two measuring cups, two measuring spoons,
and pie tins. Fig. 1 shows the way in which these necessary utensils as
well as the required ingredients for pastry should be placed so as to be
handy for the person who is to use them. It will be well to observe the
placing of these, for much depends on their convenient arrangement. The
kind of utensils to use requires consideration, also.

[Illustration: FIG. 1]

13. A bowl of any description may be used for the mixing, the usual
cake-making bowl being very satisfactory. As the illustration shows,
this utensil should have a round bottom, as the ingredients may be kept
together better in such a bowl than in a pan of another kind. The two
case knives are needed for mixing the ingredients in the bowl, and the
spatula is used in handling the paste. The rolling pin, which is used
for rolling out the dough to the required thickness, may be made of any
material, but it should be one that will revolve while the handles
remain stationary. With such a utensil it is possible to procure a
lighter touch than with one that has fixed handles. The flour sieve is
an absolute necessity, because the flour for pastry must be made as
light as possible by sifting. One of the measuring cups is needed for
the flour, or dry ingredient, and the other for the water, or wet
ingredient. The two measuring spoons, which should be of different
sizes, are used for measuring the salt and the shortening.

The kind of pans to use for pies depends largely on the opinion of the
person making the pies. Ordinary tin pans will answer the purpose, but
aluminum, baking-glass, or earthenware pans will prove to be more
satisfactory because they retain the heat longer than do pans made of
other materials. If desired, enamelware pans may be used, but this
material chips easily and consequently is not very satisfactory.

The enamel top of a pastry table or the zinc-covered or vitrolite top of
a kitchen cabinet will be satisfactory for the rolling out of the
pastry, as will also a hardwood molding board. Whichever one of these is
used should, of course, be perfectly clean and dry.

* * * * *



14. Several methods of mixing the ingredients used in pastry are
followed, each one producing a different effect in the finished product.
The method employed in the making of plain pastry, such as is commonly
used for pies, consists in first mixing the shortening and the flour and
then adding the liquid.

Another method is adopted for pastries that are intended to be somewhat
flakier and of a little better quality than plain pastry. In this
method, half of the fat is mixed with the flour and the water is then
added to the mixture. With this done, the dough that is formed is rolled
out, the remaining fat placed on it, and the pastry then folded and
rolled repeatedly in such a way as to incorporate all the fat.

Still another method is followed when puff paste or fancy pastry dishes
are desired. Only a very small quantity of fat is mixed with the flour
or flour alone is prepared. Water is then added and the mixture is
kneaded until it becomes smooth and elastic. When the kneading is done,
the dough is rolled out in a certain shape, the fat is placed on it,
and, after it is folded over the fat, it is put through a series of
foldings and rollings until all the fat is incorporated.

The first and the third of these methods are explained and illustrated
here in detail, so that the housewife ought not have any difficulty in
producing splendid results. As the second method is practically a
combination of the other two, familiarity with them will insure
success with it.

Pastry ingredients may be mixed by methods that differ from the three
just mentioned. One of these is illustrated in the method given later
for the making of easy pastry. This seems to be a complete reversal of
the rules observed in making pastry in the usual ways. The water is hot
and the fat is melted in it. The flour is added to the liquid and the
fat instead of the liquid being added to the flour and the fat. In spite
of the fact that all this appears to be contrary, the results obtained
by this method are satisfactory.

* * * * *



15. PROCEDURE IN MAKING PLAIN PASTRY.--The first step in the making of
plain pastry consists in sifting the flour with the salt into the mixing
bowl. After this has been done, the fat should be worked into the flour,
an operation that may be accomplished in three ways.

The method most commonly adopted is to work in the fat with the fingers;
but this plan has its disadvantages in that it is not a very agreeable
way and the fat becomes so warmed by the higher temperature of the
fingers that it is liable to impair the finished product.

Again, some persons mix the fat with the flour by means of a fork, using
this utensil to crush the lumps of fat against the sides of the bowl.

[Illustration: FIG. 2]

By far the most satisfactory method and the one that produces the best
results is that shown in Fig. 2. Put the required amount of fat into the
bowl containing the flour and the salt, and then, with two knives, as
shown, cut the fat into the flour until the particles of fat are about
the size of a small pea. As can readily be seen, this method, which is
perhaps as speedy as any method that may be adopted, has the advantage
of being entirely sanitary.

16. The next step is that of adding the liquid to the mixture of flour
and fat. Heap the particles up in the center of the bowl, make a
depression in the mixture, and, as shown in Fig. 3, pour the water into
this in a thin stream, stirring the mixture all the time with a knife or
a spatula. Be careful to add just enough water to make the mass of fat
and flour barely cling together. As soon as the water has been added,
gather the mixture into a mass preparatory to rolling it out on
the board.

17. At this point, flour the molding board or other surface slightly,
shape enough of the dough mixture to cover a pie pan into a rounded
mass, and place it on the floured space. Then, as shown in Fig. 4, roll
it out with the rolling pin until it is about 1/8 inch in thickness,
using a light, careful motion and keeping the piece of dough as nearly
round as possible, so that it will fit the pan it is intended to cover.

[Illustration: FIG. 3]

When the rolling has been completed, roll the edge of the pastry over
the rolling pin, hold it carefully over the pie pan, and, as shown in
Fig. 5, unroll it gradually so that it will fall in the right place and
cover the pan properly. With the paste in the pan, press it lightly with
the fingers in order to make it cling closely to the bottom and the
sides. Then, as shown in Fig. 6, trim the paste evenly by running a
knife around the edge of the pan. When this is done, the pan is properly
covered with paste for a one-crust pie or with the bottom crust for a
pie that is to have two crusts.

[Illustration: FIG. 4]

[Illustration: FIG. 5]

18. In case a one-crust pie is to be made, the kind of filling to be
used determines whether the crust should be baked first or not. For pies
that require comparatively long baking, such as pumpkin pie, for
instance, the raw crust is filled with the mixture and the two, crust
and mixture, are then baked in the oven together. However, if the
filling is one that does not require baking for any length of time, that
is, time sufficient to bake the pastry, or if the filling requires a
temperature that would be too low to bake the pastry, the crust should
be baked first. In such an event, it is necessary to prick very
thoroughly the bottom and the sides of the crust with a fork, as shown
in Fig. 7, so that the air that is confined in the pastry will not make
bubbles by pushing the pastry up as it expands in baking. A perforated
pie tin is an advantage in the baking of shells or single-crust pies,
for it prevents the air from becoming confined between the pan and the
crust and producing air spaces that would cause blisters to form as the
pie is baked. If desired, the crust may be placed over the back of the
pan and baked, thus forming a shell that may be filled with a cooked
filling and served.

[Illustration: FIG. 6]

19. When a double-crust pie is to be made, place the filling, which is
usually fruit, on the bottom crust, but do not prick the crust in the
manner just described. With this done, roll out the top crust and, as
shown in Fig. 8, mark it with a knife in any design. The design serves
as an outlet for the steam that generally forms inside of the pie as the
filling cooks; if no provision is made for the steam to pass out, it
will push up the crust and thus spoil the appearance of the pie. Next
moisten the edge of the lower crust with a little water, putting it on
with the finger, as shown in Fig. 9. Then carefully pick up the marked
crust, place it over the filling, and press it down so that the edges of
the bottom and the top crust cling together well. In applying the top
crust, be careful not to stretch it. If it is put on loosely and pressed
down on the edge of the lower crust without being pulled, the contents
will not be so apt to cook out of the pie. Trim off the uneven edge with
a knife and finish the edges of the top and bottom crusts in any desired
way. This may be done by fluting the edge with the fingers or, as shown
in Fig. 10, making marks with the tines of a fork. When this has been
completed, the pie is ready to bake.

[Illustration: FIG. 7]

[Illustration: FIG. 8]

20. BAKING THE PLAIN-PASTRY MIXTURE.--As soon as the pie or other pastry
dessert has been prepared, the next step is to bake it. To produce the
best results, the pastry should be baked as quickly as possible;
consequently, a hot oven is necessary. The baking can be accomplished
most successfully in the case of a single crust baked without the
filling or a pie containing a mixture that does not require long
cooking. Otherwise, the temperature must be sufficiently low to cook the
filling so that it will be palatable, and for this reason the pastry is
not baked under entirely ideal conditions. The correct temperature for
most pastry is from 500 to 600 degrees; that is, the oven should be just
about as hot as it can be made. The length of time required for the
baking depends entirely on the heat of the oven and the contents of the
pie. It should be remembered, however, that to be properly baked, the
crust should be neither burned nor pale looking when taken from the
oven, but should be a golden brown. Fig. 11 shows a two-crust pie that
has had just the right amount of baking.

[Illustration: FIG. 9]

21. When the filling of the pie does not require so much baking as the
crust, it is well to bake the crust partly before putting the filling
in. This is particularly advisable in the case of custard pie, for the
custard is put in as an uncooked mixture and requires the low
temperature necessary for solidifying eggs without causing them to curd.
On the other hand, pies containing certain kinds of filling must be
baked slowly. When this condition exists, it is advisable to start the
baking in a very hot oven, so that the crusts will have the benefit of
the high temperature. Then the heat should be gradually reduced until
the filling will cook and the crust will not burn.

[Illustration: FIG. 10]

[Illustration: FIG. 11]

22. Often, especially in the baking of fresh berry or cherry pie, the
juice that forms inside the pie cooks out. This is a condition that must
be overcome if satisfactory pies are to be the result. Various means of
preventing it have been suggested, but one of the successful ones
consists in rolling a small piece of paper into a funnel shape, leaving
both ends open, and inserting the small end in one of the openings in
the top crust. This arrangement provides a vent for the steam, and so
the juice is less likely to cook out of the crust while the pie
is baking.


23. In making pies, it is well to mix only the quantity of paste that is
desired for the number of pies to be made. Usually, 1-1/2 cupfuls of
flour will make sufficient paste for one double-crust pie, provided the
pan in which it is made is not too large. In case it is necessary to
make fresh pie on two consecutive days, a good plan is to make at one
time enough paste for both days, for what remains after the first pie is
made may be allowed to stand in the refrigerator or some other cool
place. Then it may be rolled out on the second day and used in exactly
the same way as on the first. However, it is a rather difficult matter
to make the exact amount of paste for the pies needed. If nothing more
remains, there are usually small scraps left over from the trimming of
the edge. These should by all means be put to some good use, for the
material is equally as good as that which has been used in the pie and
there is no reason why it should be wasted.

24. TARTS.-A very good way in which to utilize these scraps is to make
tarts of various kinds and shapes out of them. There are a number of
attractive ways in which jam, jelly, marmalade, fruit butter, fresh
fruits, apple sauce, stewed prunes, or other cooked or canned fruit may
be utilized for the making of tarts. These little pastry desserts are
the delight of children, most of whom may be permitted occasionally to
eat such a satisfactory delicacy.

25. Before attempting to use the pastry scraps, work them together with
the hands. Then roll the piece out with the rolling pin until it is the
required thickness and cut it out in the shape desired. To make a simple
variety of tart, cut two rounds of the paste with a cooky cutter. In one
of these, whichever is to be used for the top, make three or four small
holes, using a thimble or some other small cutter. Bake these shapes in
the oven separately, and after baking spread the whole one with jelly or
jam and over this place the one containing the holes.

[Illustration: FIG. 12]

26. Another attractive way in which to make tarts is to cut rounds of
the paste, as shown in Fig. 12, cover small pans with these rounds, and
then bake them. Upon taking them from the oven, remove them from the
pans and fill them with any desired filling in the form of stewed fruit,
jam, custards, etc. If canned or stewed fruit is used, cook it down
until it is somewhat thick. These little tarts are delicious when they
have had a spoonful of meringue baked on the fruit or are served with a
spoonful of whipped cream.

27. Still another variety of tart may be made with very little trouble.
Cut the rolled paste into pieces about 4 inches square, and, on a
triangular half of the square, place several spoonfuls of fruit with
additional sugar, if necessary, and add a little flour to thicken the
juice that forms. Fold the other triangular half over the fruit to cover
it, turn the edges of the bottom half over the edges of the top, and
press them down to keep the fruit from running out. Set in the oven and
bake until the paste is brown and the filling of the tart is cooked.

28. SMALL PIES.--Sometimes there may be enough paste remaining to make
one crust for a small pie. In such an event, cover the pan with the
paste, add a fruit filling of some kind, such as cranberries, apple
sauce, marmalade, or fruit butter, and then, out of the scraps that
remain, cut several narrow strips and place them over the filling. Such
an arrangement makes an agreeable change in the appearance of
this dessert.

29. CHEESE STRAWS.--Small pieces of pastry that are left over may also
be used to make cheese straws, which are one of the accompaniments often
served with salads. To make them, roll grated cheese into the mixture
until it is well blended. Then roll out the paste until it is about 1/4
inch thick, cut into narrow strips of the desired length, and bake in
a hot oven.

* * * * *



30. Several recipes for pastry that may be used in pie making are here
given. These recipes differ as regards the ingredients used and will
serve to offer variety in the making of pie crust. With the exception of
the recipe for easy pastry, the principles of pastry making already set
forth apply to all these recipes alike.

31. PLAIN PASTRY.--Pastry made according to the accompanying directions
is the kind that is most frequently used. It requires only a medium
amount of shortening, and wheat flour is used in its preparation. It is
very satisfactory for any kind of pie desired.


1-1/2 c. flour
1 tsp. salt
1/3 c. shortening
1/4 to 3/8 c. water

Sift the flour and salt into a mixing bowl. Chop the shortening into the
flour with knives. When the fat has been chopped into pieces the size
of a small pea, add sufficient cold water to make all the particles
adhere, mixing them together with a case knife. There should not be
enough water added to make the paste stick to either the bowl or the
knife. Divide the mass into halves and press each into a round piece
with the fingers. Flour the board slightly and roll out about 1/8 inch
thick for the pie crust.

32. ECONOMY PASTE.--When both wheat flour and fat must be saved, economy
paste should be tried. Barley flour is substituted for part of the wheat
flour, and this with the wheat makes an excellent combination.


1 c. wheat flour
1/2 c. barley flour
1/2 tsp. salt
1/4 c. shortening
1/4 to 3/8 c. water

Sift the flour and salt into a mixing bowl. Chop in the shortening until
it is in particles about the size of a small pea. Add water until the
mass will cling together. Roll into sheets about 1/8 inch thick for
pie crust.

33. QUALITY PASTE.--The accompanying recipe gives directions for a very
good quality of paste. As will be noted, the lard, which is used for
part of the shortening, is added to the flour, and the butter, which
forms the other part, is worked into the dough. If the directions here
given are carefully followed, excellent results can be expected.


2 c. flour
1/4 tsp. salt
1/4 c. lard
1/3 to 1/2 c. water
1/2 c. butter

Sift the flour and salt into a mixing bowl. Add the lard and chop very
fine. Add enough water to make a stiff dough. This will require just a
little more water than the pastes previously given. Roll the paste in a
rectangular form, spread the butter evenly over the paste, and fold so
as to make three layers. Turn half way round and roll out so as to make
a rectangle in the opposite direction. Fold, turn, and roll in this way
four times, handling the rolling pin and paste as lightly as possible.
Use to cover the pan and bake in a quick oven.

34. SOUR-CREAM PASTRY.--A slightly different kind of pastry can be made
by using sour cream for the liquid and adding a small quantity of soda
to neutralize the acid in the cream. Besides providing a means of using
up cream that has become sour, this recipe makes a pastry that appeals
to most persons.


1 1/4 c. flour
1/3 tsp. salt
1/4 tsp. soda
3 Tb. shortening
1/4 to 3/4 c. thick sour cream

Sift the flour, salt, and soda together in a mixing bowl. Chop in the
shortening and add the cream. Knead the paste slightly and after taking
it out on the board, divide it into halves. Proceed in the usual manner
for making pastry.

35. EASY PASTRY.--A departure from the usual kind of pastry is easy
pastry, directions for which are given in the accompanying recipe. It is
more moist and a little more difficult to handle than pastry made in the
usual way; consequently, it is more ideal for single-crust pies than for
double-crust ones. Besides being easy to make, pastry of this kind will
stand a great deal more handling without injury than any other kind. It
may be placed on the pan and patted out where it seems too thick or
patched where it pulls apart. The amounts given here will make one
double-crust pie or two single-crust pies of medium size.


1/2 c. fat
1/4 c. boiling water
1 3/4 c. flour
1/4 tsp. baking powder
1/2 tsp. salt

Measure the fat into a mixing bowl, pour the boiling water over it, and
stir until all the fat is softened and melted. Sift together the flour,
baking powder, and salt, and stir into the water and fat. Divide into
two portions and roll for crusts. If the crusts are to be baked before
they are filled, prick them well with a fork to prevent the formation
of bubbles.


36. As has already been learned, double-crust pies are pies that have
both a bottom and a top crust and contain a filling of some kind. The
amounts given in the recipes for pastry are sufficient to make the two
crusts required for pies of this kind. Any of these recipes may be
followed, depending on the variety of pastry desired.

37. APPLE PIE NO. 1.--To make the best possible apple pie, tart apples
should be used, for besides giving a good flavor they cook soft inside
the pie much more readily than do apples that are more nearly sweet. If
sour apples cannot be obtained, lemon juice sprinkled over the apples
after they are placed in the crust will help to make them tender. The
amount of lemon juice depends, of course, on the sourness of the apples.
Any desirable spices may be used for flavoring, cinnamon and nutmeg
being the most popular ones. If the apples are very juicy, a little
flour mixed with the sugar and sprinkled over them will help to thicken
the juice, but usually this is not necessary. A little butter dotted
over the apples before the top crust is put on also helps to improve
the flavor.

For pie, the apples may be cut in as large or as small pieces as
desired. However, it is best to cut them into thick slices or about
sixteenths, that is, to cut each quarter into four pieces.


1 qt. apples
1/2 to 3/4 c. sugar
1/2 tsp. cinnamon or 1/4 tsp. nutmeg
Lemon juice

After the pan has been covered with the paste, peel the apples, cut them
into pieces of the desired size, and place them into the paste in
sufficient quantity to heap the pan. In the process of cooking, there
will be a certain amount of shrinkage caused by the apple juice filling
in the spaces as the apples cook and soften; therefore, in order to have
a pie thick enough when it is baked, the apples must be heaped in the
pan before baking. Sprinkle the apples with the sugar, to which has been
added the nutmeg or the cinnamon. Sprinkle lightly with salt, add 1
teaspoonful of lemon juice, and, if the apples seem dry, a few
tablespoonfuls of water. Dot with butter, wet the edges of the under
crust, and place the top crust in position. Bake for about 45 minutes in
a moderate oven.

38. APPLE PIE NO. 2.--Another variety of apple pie is made by cooking
the apples, putting them between crusts, and then baking the whole. This
pie does not require so much time in the oven, but it needs a hot oven.
It has a somewhat richer flavor than the preceding pie, due to the brown
sugar used in making it.


1/3 c. water
2/3 c. brown sugar

Prepare the required number of apples for one pie, place in a baking
dish with the water and brown sugar, and bake in the oven until the
apples are tender and the water has sufficiently evaporated. This should
be done in a slow oven, so as not to burn the apples and to give them
rather long cooking. Remove from the oven, place on the lower crust,
sprinkle with cinnamon, and cover with the upper crust. Bake in a hot
oven until the crusts are sufficiently baked and brown.

39. BERRY PIE.--Blackberries, blueberries or huckleberries, and red and
black raspberries may be used for pie in the same way by merely varying
the amount of sugar with the sourness of the berries. For instance,
blackberries will probably require a little more sugar than raspberries,
while blueberries will require the least.


3 to 4 c. berries
1/2 to 3/4 c. sugar
3 Tb. flour
Pinch of salt

Look the berries over carefully and remove any spoiled ones, leaves, and
stems. Wash thoroughly and fill the lower crust. Add the sugar mixed
with the flour and salt. Cover with the top crust and bake for about 30
minutes in a moderately hot oven.

40. CHERRY PIE.--Both sweet and sour cherries may be used for making
pie, but sour cherries are by far the more desirable. Their only
disadvantage is that they require a rather large amount of sugar.
Cherries used for pies should always be seeded. Canned cherries may be
used for this purpose as well as fresh ones, but they are not so
delicious. The proportion of sugar used for making cherry pie will, of
course, need to be varied according to the sourness of the
cherries used.


4 c. seeded cherries
1 1/4 c. sugar
4 Tb. flour
Pinch of salt

Fill the lower crust of the pie with the cherries. Mix the sugar, flour,
and salt and sprinkle over the top. Moisten the edge of the lower crust,
place the top crust in position, and bake in a moderately hot oven for
about 30 or 35 minutes.

41. PEACH PIE.--Fresh peaches make a very delicious pie. Canned peaches
may be used as well, but they do not make so good a pie. Less sugar will
be needed if canned peaches are used instead of fresh ones because they
are usually canned with sugar. Clingstone peaches may be used rather
advantageously for making pie because the fact that they cannot be cut
from the stones in uniform pieces makes less difference for pie than
for serving in almost any other way.


1 qt. sliced peaches
3/4 c. sugar
Pinch of salt
3 Tb. flour

Fill the lower crust with the sliced peaches and sprinkle with the
sugar, salt, and flour, which have been previously mixed. Moisten the
edge of the lower crust, cover with the top crust, and bake in a
moderately hot oven for 30 to 40 minutes. Peach pie served hot with
whipped cream makes a very delicious dessert.

42. THICKENING JUICY FRUITS FOR PIES.--When particularly juicy fruit,
such as berries, cherries, peaches, etc., is used for pie, flour or
other starchy material must necessarily be used to thicken the juice and
thus prevent it from running out when the pie is served. If the fruit is
very sour, a proportionately larger quantity of flour will be necessary.
This is due to the fact that the acid of the fruit reduces the starch in
the flour to dextrine, and this form of carbohydrate does not have so
much thickening power as the starch in its original form had.

The same thing takes place when browned flour is used in making sauce or
gravy. As experience will prove, browned flour must be used in greater
quantity than white flour or a thinner sauce will be the result. The
browned flour and the flour cooked with the acid of fruits are similar
so far as their thickening power is concerned, for the one is reduced to
dextrine by the application of dry heat or hot fat and the other by
moist heat and the presence of acid.

43. RHUBARB PIE.--Rhubarb is practically the first fresh material for
pie that can be purchased in the spring and is therefore very much
appreciated. The most popular form in which it is served is probably in
pie. It requires considerable sugar in order to make it palatable and
should be thickened with starchy material so that it will not be too
juicy when it is served.


1 qt. rhubarb
1-1/2 c. sugar
2 Tb. corn starch
Pinch of salt

Cut the rhubarb into inch lengths without removing the skin and place in
the lower crust. Mix the sugar, corn starch, and salt, and sprinkle over
the top. Cover with a top crust and bake in a moderately hot oven for
about 35 minutes. If desired, some lemon rind may be grated into the pie
to give additional flavor.

44. MINCE PIE.--Mince meat, which is much used for pies during the fall
and winter season, is a concoction that finds favor with most people. It
may be comparatively simple or it may contain a large variety of
ingredients, and in accordance with this variation it may be cheap or
expensive. However, the ingredients generally used in this mixture are
apples, dried fruits, sugar, molasses, cider, and chopped beef and suet.
Other fruits, such as quinces, oranges, and citron, and various spices
are also often used for flavoring. The cheaper cuts of meat, such as the
neck, shoulder, brisket, etc., are suitable for this purpose, because
the meat is ground so fine in making the mince meat that the fact that
it was at all tough can be very readily concealed. Such expensive
material as citron can be omitted altogether if desired and greater
quantities of apples, which are the cheapest ingredient, used. A slight
variation in the ingredients does not make any material difference in
this mixture and the recipes given are submitted merely as a basis from
which to work. If used just as they are given, they will be found to be
excellent; but if it is necessary to practice greater economy or if it
is not possible to secure all the ingredients called for, they may be
varied to suit conditions. The juice from pickled fruits, jelly, or the
juice from preserves or canned cherries may be used in any desired
proportion in the making of mince meat to replace some of the cider.

45. Mince pie is most palatable when served warm, but it is entirely
permissible to make several pies at a time and then warm them in the
oven before serving. In this way they may be kept over for several days.
Pie of this kind made with the usual ingredients is a heavy dessert, for
it contains a certain amount of protein material and is high in fat and
carbohydrate. This fact should be taken into consideration in meal
planning, so that the dessert may balance properly with the other food.


4 lb. beef
15 medium-size apples
4 quinces, chopped
1/2 lb. citron
3 lb. raisins, seeded
6 oranges
2 c. suet
1 lb. sugar
1 c. vinegar
3 c. cider
1-1/2 c. molasses
2 Tb. cinnamon
2 tsp. cloves
2 tsp. nutmeg

Let the beef simmer in sufficient water to cover it well until it is
tender, and then allow it to cool in the water in which it was cooked.
This broth may be used as part of the liquid in the mince meat if
desired. Chop the meat very fine with a chopping knife and bowl or put
it through a food chopper. Chop the apples and quinces, cut the citron,
and wash the raisins. Squeeze the juice from the oranges and grate the
rinds. Force the suet through a food chopper or chop it with a chopping
knife. Mix all these ingredients, add the sugar, liquids, and spices,
and place in a large vessel. Simmer slowly for 1 hour. Stir frequently
to prevent scorching. If the mince meat is cooked in the oven, it is
less likely to scorch. Seal in fruit jars the same as for canned fruit
and store for future use.

To bake mince pie, fill the lower crust with the mince-meat mixture,
place the upper crust in position, and put the pie into a hot oven.
Gradually reduce the heat, baking the pie for about 45 minutes.

46. MOCK MINCE PIE.--If a slightly more economical mince pie than the
preceding one is desired, the recipe here given for mock mince pie may
be followed. The various ingredients in the quantities mentioned will
make enough for four or five pies of regular size. To make up more than
this is not advisable because the material will not keep so well, nor is
it intended to be stored for future use.


2 c. suet
8 apples
8 crackers
1 c. sugar
1 c. molasses
1-1/2 c. corn sirup
2 c. cider
1/2 c. vinegar
1 lb. raisins
1 Tb. cinnamon
1 tsp. cloves
1 tsp. nutmeg
1 tsp. salt

Force the suet and apples through a food chopper or chop them in a
chopping bowl. Crush the crackers with a rolling pin and add them. Add
the sugar, molasses, corn sirup, cider, vinegar, raisins, spices, and
salt. Cook together very slowly for about 1 hour, stirring to prevent
burning. If more liquid is required, add cider or some other fruit
juice, or, if these are not available, add plain water. Fill the lower
crust of the pie with this mixture, cover with the top crust, and start
baking in a hot oven, gradually lowering the temperature and continuing
to bake for 40 to 50 minutes.

47. MOCK CHERRY PIE.--A pie that closely resembles cherry pie in both
flavor and appearance may be had by combining cranberries and raisins.
This is an excellent substitute for cherry pie and may be made at times
when fresh cherries cannot be obtained and canned cherries are not
in supply.


2 c. cranberries
3/4 c. sultana raisins
3/4 c. water
1 c. sugar
2 Tb. flour
1 Tb. butter

Wash the cranberries and cut them in half. Wash the raisins and mix them
with the cranberries. Add the water and cook until the fruit is soft.

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