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Woman's Institute Library of Cookery, Vol. 4 by Woman's Institute of Domestic Arts and Sciences

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CHOCOLATE NUT CAKE

1/4 c. butter
1 c. sugar
1 egg
1 c. milk
2 c. flour
4 tsp. baking powder
2 sq. chocolate
1/2 c. chopped nuts
1 tsp. vanilla

Cream the butter, add the sugar gradually, beat the egg, and add it to
the mixture. Stir in alternately the milk and the flour and baking
powder. Melt the chocolate in a double boiler and stir this into the
dough. Fold in the chopped nuts, add the vanilla, and bake in a loaf or
two rather thin layers. If baked in layers, remove them from the pans
and cool. Ice the first layer with a very thick covering of white boiled
icing almost as thick as the layer itself. Place the second layer of
cake on top of this and cover with another thick layer of icing.

65. SOUR-MILK CHOCOLATE CAKE.--A very good chocolate cake can be made
by using sour milk instead of sweet milk. In such cake, soda takes the
place of baking powder, for, as has already been learned, the leavening
is produced by the action of the soda on the acid in the milk.

SOUR-MILK CHOCOLATE CAKE

1/2 c. butter
1-1/4 c. sugar
1 egg
2 sq. chocolate
2-1/4 c. flour
3/4 tsp. soda
1 c. sour milk
1 tsp. vanilla

Cream the butter, add the sugar, and cream well together. Beat the egg
and add to the butter and sugar. Melt the chocolate. Sift the flour and
soda together, and add to the mixture alternately with the sour milk.
Beat well together and add the vanilla and melted chocolate. Pour into a
loaf-cake pan and bake.

66. DEVIL'S FOOD.--Sometimes an entirely dark cake is desired. In such
an event, devil's food, in which both chocolate and spices are used for
flavoring, should be prepared. Such a cake is baked in a thick layer and
is covered with chocolate icing.

DEVIL'S FOOD

1/4 c. butter
1-1/4 c. sugar
2 eggs
2 c. flour
4 tsp. baking powder
1 tsp. cinnamon
1/2 tsp. cloves
1/2 tsp. ginger
1/2 tsp. nutmeg
3/4 c. milk
2 sq. bitter chocolate
1 tsp. vanilla

Cream the butter, add the sugar gradually, and beat the eggs and add
them. Sift the flour, baking powder, cinnamon, cloves, ginger, and
nutmeg together, and add the milk alternately with these dry
ingredients. Melt the chocolate in a double boiler and stir into the
cake mixture. Add the vanilla. Bake in a flat pan in a thick layer. Ice
with chocolate icing and cut into 2-inch squares.

67. RAISIN SPICE CAKE.--Most persons are very fond of cake containing
raisins and spices. A good combination of spices used for such cake is
cloves, cinnamon, and nutmeg, cloves being used in the smallest quantity.

RAISIN SPICE CAKE

1/2 c. butter
3/4 c. sugar
2 eggs
2-1/4 c. flour
4 tsp. baking powder
2-1/2 tsp. spices
1 c. milk
1/2 c. raisins

Cream the butter, add the sugar gradually, and beat the eggs and add
them. Sift the flour, baking powder, and spices together, and add these
alternately with the milk, adding milk first. Fold in the raisins, pour
the mixture into a loaf-cake pan, and bake in a moderate oven. This cake
may be served with or without icing.

68. NUT SPICE CAKE.--Nuts and spices combine very well in cake, as shown
in the accompanying recipe. This cake is usually baked in a loaf pan,
and may be served with or without icing.

NUT SPICE CAKE

1/4 c. butter
1 c. sugar
2 eggs
2 c. flour
4 tsp. baking powder
1 tsp. cinnamon
1/2 tsp. cloves
1/2 tsp. ginger
3/4 c. milk
1/2 c. chopped nuts

Cream the butter, add the sugar gradually, and beat the eggs and add
them. Sift the flour, baking powder, and spices together. Add the milk
and dry ingredients alternately, fold in the nuts, pour into a loaf-cake
pan, and bake in a moderate oven.

69. WAR CAKE.--Cakes of almost every description contain eggs, but very
good cake can be made without eggs, as in the accompanying recipe. This
cake, which is known as war cake, contains only a small quantity of
butter. Raisins increase its food value and spices are used for
flavoring.

WAR CAKE

2 c. sugar
2 Tb. butter
2 c. water
1 lb. raisins
3-1/2 c. flour
1 tsp. salt
1 tsp. cinnamon
1 tsp. allspice
1 tsp. mace
1 tsp. nutmeg
1/2 tsp. cloves
1 tsp. soda

Boil the sugar, butter, water, and raisins together, and cool. Then to
the flour add the salt, spices, and soda, and sift these into the boiled
mixture. Pour into a loaf-cake pan and bake.

70. WHITE CAKE.--An ideal white cake can be made by using the whites of
five eggs with the proper proportions of butter, sugar, flour, liquid,
and leavening. Such a cake is usually baked in a large flat pan and then
cut into squares.

WHITE CAKE

1/2 c. butter
1-1/2 c. sugar
5 egg whites
2-1/2 c. flour
4 tsp. baking powder
3/4 c. milk
Powdered sugar
Shredded coconut

Cream the butter and add gradually the sugar and the beaten whites of
eggs. Sift the flour and baking powder together and add alternately with
the milk. Beat this mixture well. Pour into a sheet-cake pan, 9 inches
by 12 inches, and cover with powdered sugar and a rather thin layer of
shredded coconut. Bake for about 40 minutes in a moderate oven. Remove
from the pan, cool, and serve without icing.

71. FEATHER CAKE.--A cake that is easily made and that is a general
favorite is known as feather cake. As may be inferred from the name,
such cake is very light in weight and tender in texture.

FEATHER CAKE

1/2 c. butter
1 c. sugar
3 eggs
2 c. flour
1-1/2 tsp. baking powder
1/3 c. milk
1 tsp. flavoring

Cream the butter, add the sugar gradually, and beat the eggs and add
them. Sift the flour and baking powder together, and add alternately
with the milk to the mixture. Add the flavoring. Beat rapidly for a few
minutes, pour into a loaf-cake pan, and bake. Ice with simple
white icing.

72. GOLD CAKE.--The cake given in the accompanying recipe and known as
gold cake is very attractive in color, as well as appetizing in taste.
To produce the gold color, only the yolks of the eggs are used. Orange
extract is used for the flavoring.

GOLD CAKE

1/3 c. butter
2/3 c. sugar
4 egg yolks
1-1/4 c. flour
2 tsp. baking powder
1/2 c. milk
1 tsp. orange extract

Cream the butter, add the sugar gradually, beat the yolks of the eggs
until they are thick and lemon-colored, and add them. Sift the flour and
baking powder together, and add alternately with the milk. Add the
orange extract and bake in a loaf-cake pan. Cover with white icing
and serve.

73. ICE-CREAM CAKE.--Because of the nature of the cake here given, it
is called ice-cream cake. Only the whites of the eggs are used, and so
the cake is white in color. It is baked in layers and is frosted with
white icing.

ICE-CREAM CAKE

1/2 c. butter
2 c. sugar
1 c. milk
3 c. flour
4 tsp. baking powder
4 egg whites
1 tsp. vanilla

Cream the butter, add the sugar gradually, and pour in the milk. Sift
the flour and baking powder together and add them. Beat the egg whites
until they are stiff, fold these in, and add the vanilla. Bake in
layers, and put marshmallow filling between the layers and on top.
Chopped hickory nuts may also be put between the layers and spread on
top if a more delicious ice-cream cake is desired.

74. CORN-STARCH CAKE.--An excellent cake will result when the following
recipe is carefully worked out. It gets its name from the fact that corn
starch is used for a part of the thickening. This cake is usually baked
in a loaf-cake pan and then covered with icing.

CORN-STARCH CAKE

1/2 c. butter
1 c. sugar
1/2 c. corn starch
2 tsp. baking powder
1-1/4 c. wheat flour
1/2 c. milk
3 egg whites
1/2 tsp. vanilla
1/2 tsp. lemon extract

Cream the butter and add the sugar gradually. Sift the corn starch,
baking powder, and flour together. Add the milk and then the dry
ingredients. Beat the egg whites until they are stiff and fold them in.
Add the vanilla and lemon extract. Bake in a loaf-cake pan. Ice with
chocolate or caramel icing.

75. CINNAMON CAKE.--A cake that is inexpensive and not very rich but at
the same time favored by many persons is the cinnamon cake here given.
It is slightly dark in color, due to the cinnamon that is used in it.
Caramel icing seems to be the most suitable for cake of this kind, but
if desired white icing may be used.

CINNAMON CAKE

1/2 c. butter
1 c. sugar
2 eggs
1/2 c. milk
1-3/4 c. flour
3 tsp. baking powder
2 tsp. cinnamon

Cream the butter and add the sugar gradually. Separate the eggs, beat
the yolks, and add them to the mixture. Stir in the milk. Sift the
flour, baking powder, and cinnamon together and add these. Beat the egg
whites until they are stiff, and fold them into the cake dough. Bake in
layers or in a loaf and ice with white or caramel icing.

76. POUND CAKE.--Often a cake that will keep for some time is desired.
In such an event, pound cake should be made, for it will remain fresh
for a long period of time if it is stored in a closely covered
receptacle. It is usually served without any icing and is cut into
small, thin slices. The recipe here given makes enough cake for two
loaf-cake pans.

POUND CAKE

1/2 c. finely cut citron
5 eggs
2/3 c. butter
2 c. flour
1-1/2 c. sugar
1/2 tsp. mace

Steam the citron until it is soft, cut into thin strips, and then into
small pieces. Cream the butter until it is white, sift the sugar in
slowly, and beat the two until the sugar is dissolved. Add the eggs one
at a time without previously beating them, and beat each egg in
thoroughly before the other is added. Stir in the flour and mace and
bake in a very slow oven, in one large or two small loaf-cake pans.

77. CARAMEL CAKE.--Cake flavored with caramel affords a change from the
usual varieties of cake. The caramel used for this cake should be
prepared in the manner explained in _Cold and Frozen Desserts_.

CARAMEL CAKE

1/2 c. butter
2-1/2 c. flour
1-1/2 c. sugar
4 tsp. baking powder
3 Tb. caramel
1 tsp. vanilla
2/3 c. water
3 egg whites
2 egg yolks

Cream the butter and add the sugar gradually. Add the caramel, water,
and beaten egg yolks. Stir in the flour and baking powder sifted
together. Add the vanilla and fold in the stiffly beaten egg whites.
Bake in layers. Ice with any kind of white icing.

78. JELLY ROLL.--Many housewives do not attempt to make jelly roll,
because they consider it a difficult matter. However, no trouble will
be experienced in making excellent jelly roll if the following recipe is
carried out explicitly.

JELLY ROLL

3 eggs
1 tsp. baking powder
1 c. sugar
1/4 tsp. salt
1/2 Tb. milk
1 Tb. butter
1 c. flour

Beat the eggs until light, add the sugar gradually, and continue
beating. Stir in the milk, and then add the flour, which has been sifted
with the baking powder and salt. Melt the butter and beat into the cake
mixture. Line the bottom of a flat pan with paper, and grease the paper
and the sides of the pan. Cover the bottom of the pan with a thin layer
of the mixture spread evenly. Bake until done in a moderate oven. Remove
from the pan at once, and turn out on paper sprinkled thickly with
powdered sugar. Remove the paper from the bottom of the cake, and cut
off a thin strip as far as the crust extends in on the sides and ends of
the cake. Spread with a thick layer of jelly and roll. After the cake
has been rolled, place a piece of paper around it, wrap in a slightly
dampened napkin or towel, and allow it to stand until it cools. Unless
the rolling is done as soon as the paper has been removed from it, the
cake is likely to crack.

79. LADY BALTIMORE CAKE.--If an excellent cake for a special occasion is
desired, Lady Baltimore cake should be served. It is made in layers,
between which a filling containing fruit and nuts is spread. A white
icing of any desirable kind is used to cover the cake.

LADY BALTIMORE CAKE

1/2 c. butter
4 tsp. baking powder
1 c. sugar
3 egg whites
3/4 c. milk
1 tsp. vanilla
2 c. flour

Cream the butter, add the sugar gradually, and continue creaming. Stir
in the milk. Sift the flour and baking powder together and add them.
Fold in the stiffly beaten egg whites and add the vanilla. Bake in
square layer pans or in two thick layers in loaf-cake pans. When cold,
fill with the following filling and ice with any desirable white icing.

FILLING FOR LADY BALTIMORE CAKE

2 c. sugar
1/2 c. figs or dates, chopped
1/2 c. milk
1 c. chopped nuts
1 c. raisins, chopped

Cook the sugar and milk until it forms a soft ball when dropped in cold
water. Remove from the fire and cool. Beat until it begins to look
creamy, and then add the raisins, figs or dates, and nuts. When stiff
enough, spread a thick layer on one layer of the cake, place the other
layer of cake on top, and cover with a thin layer of white icing.

80. BRIDES CAKE.--When a bride's cake is mentioned, one naturally thinks
of a large, round cake entirely covered with thick, white icing. The
cake here given is one of this kind, and in addition may be ornamented
in any desired way. Besides being very attractive in appearance, this
cake is delicious in taste.

BRIDE'S CAKE

1/2 c. butter
3 tsp. baking powder
1-1/2 c. sugar
6 egg whites
1/2 c. milk
1/4 tsp. cream of tartar
2 and 1/2 c. flour
1 tsp. vanilla

Cream the butter, add the sugar gradually, and stir in the milk. Sift
the flour and baking powder together and add to the mixture. Beat the
egg whites until they are foamy. Add the cream of tartar to them and
beat until stiff. Fold in the egg whites, add the vanilla, and bake in a
deep, round pan. Cover with plain white frosting and ornament with icing
in any desired way.

81. FRUIT CAKE.--In the preparations for Christmas festivities, fruit
cake usually has an important place. But besides being very appropriate
cake for the holiday season, fruit cake is a splendid cake to make
because of its keeping qualities. It may be kept for a long time if it
is properly cared for. The best plan is to wrap it in oiled paper and
then put it away in a closely covered receptacle, such as a tin box. In
fact, fruit cake is much better if it is baked a month before it is to
be eaten and is moistened several times during that time by pouring over
it and allowing to soak in a few teaspoonfuls of orange juice or diluted
grape juice.

FRUIT CAKE

3/4 c. raisins
1/2 c. milk
3/4 c. currants
2 c. flour
1/2 c. finely cut citron
1/2 tsp. soda
1/2 c. butter
1 tsp. cinnamon
3/4 c. sugar
1/2 tsp. allspice
2 eggs
1/4 tsp. nutmeg
1/2 c. molasses
1/4 tsp. cloves

First prepare the fruits for the cake. Cream the butter, stir in the
sugar gradually, add the eggs unbeaten, and continue beating. Add the
molasses, milk, and flour with which the soda and spices have been
sifted, and then fold the fruits, which have been prepared, into this
mixture. Another way of adding the fruit is to pour a layer of the cake
mixture into the cake pan, sprinkle this generously with the fruit, then
another layer of dough and another layer of fruit, and finally a layer
of dough with just a little fruit sprinkled on top. Whichever plan is
followed, prepare the pan by covering the bottom with 1/2 inch of flour
and then placing a piece of greased paper over this. This heavy layer of
flour prevents the cake from burning. Put the cake in a very moderate
oven and bake for about 2 hours. If a fruit cake without a heavy crust
is desired, the mixture may be steamed for 3 hours in an ordinary
steamer and then placed in the oven just long enough to dry the surface.

82. WHITE FRUIT CAKE.--While dark fruit cake is popular with the
majority of persons, white fruit cake has been coming into favor for
some time and is now made extensively. It contains a larger variety of
fruit than the dark cake and nuts are also used. Cake of this kind may
be baked in the oven or steamed.

WHITE FRUIT CAKE

1/4 lb. citron, cut into thin slices
1/2 lb. apricots, dried, steamed, and chopped
1/2 lb. raisins, chopped
1/2 lb. candied cherries, cut into pieces
1/2 lb. dates, chopped
1/2 lb. almonds, blanched and cut into thin strips
1 c. butter
1 c. brown sugar
1 egg
1/2 c. milk
1 Tb. baking powder
1/2 tsp. cloves
1 tsp. cinnamon
1/2 tsp. nutmeg
2 c. flour

Steam the citron and apricots until they are soft, and then cut them in
the required manner. Prepare the other fruits and the almonds. Cream the
butter, add the sugar, egg, and milk, and beat thoroughly. Sift the
baking powder and spices with the flour and add these. Dredge the fruits
and nuts with flour and fold them into the mixture. Bake for 2 hours in
a slow oven in small loaf pans lined with paper and containing about a
1/2 inch layer of flour in the bottom, or steam for 3 hours and then
bake for a short time in a moderate oven.

83. WEDDING CAKE.--Fruit cake has been used so much for wedding cake
that it has come to be the established cake for this purpose. However,
when fruit cake is to be used for weddings, a richer variety is
generally made, as will be observed from the ingredients listed in the
accompanying recipe. Wedding cake is usually cut into small pieces and
presented to the guests in dainty white boxes.

WEDDING CAKE

2 lb. sultana raisins
1 lb. dates, chopped
1 lb. citron, cut into thin strips
1 lb. figs, chopped
1 lb. butter
1 lb. sugar
8 eggs
1 lb. flour
1/2 tsp. soda
2 tsp. cinnamon
1/2 tsp. nutmeg
1/2 tsp. allspice
1/2 tsp. cloves
1/2 c. grape juice

Prepare the fruits and dredge with one-third cupful of the flour. Cream
the butter, add the sugar gradually, and beat together thoroughly.
Separate the eggs, beat the yolks until they are thick and
lemon-colored, and add to the sugar and butter. Sift the flour, soda,
and spices together, and add to the mixture. Fold in the egg whites
beaten stiff, add the grape juice, and fold in the fruits. Bake in the
same way as fruit cake.

* * * * *

CAKE ICINGS AND FILLINGS

NATURE, PURPOSE, AND APPLICATION

84. Certain varieties of cakes are served plain, but the majority of
cakes are usually covered with a sugar mixture of some description known
as _icing_. In addition, if a cake is baked in layers, a _filling_,
which may be either the same as the icing used for the covering or a
mixture resembling a custard, is put between the layers to hold them
together. These icings and fillings are used for the purpose of
improving both the taste and the appearance of the cake, as well as for
the purpose of retaining the moisture in it. Some of them are very
simple, consisting merely of powdered sugar mixed with a liquid, while
others are more elaborate and involve a number of ingredients. They may
be spread over the cake, put on thick in a level manner, or arranged in
fancy designs on a plain background of simple icing with the use of a
pastry tube or a paper cornucopia. These decorations may be made in
white or in various colors to suit the design selected for decoration.

85. It is well to understand just what cakes may be served without
icings and fillings and what ones are improved by these accompaniments.
Sponge cakes, as a rule, are not iced elaborately, for a heavy icing
does not harmonize with the light texture of this kind of cake. If
anything is desired, a simple sugar icing is used or the surface of the
cake is moistened with the white of egg and then sprinkled with sugar.
Butter cakes, especially when baked in layers, although they are often
much richer than sponge cakes, are usually iced. When they are baked in
the form of loaf cakes, they may or may not be iced, as desired. Very
rich cakes made in loaf-cake form are usually served without icing,
unless they are served whole and it is desired to make them attractive
for a special occasion.

[Illustration: FIG. 18, Plain iced cake.]

[Illustration: FIG. 19, Decorated cake.]

86. For the most part, icings are put on plain, as in Fig. 18, but
there are some occasions for which an attractively decorated cake is
desired. For instance, birthday cakes, wedding cakes, or cakes for
parties and dinners are often served whole from the table, and when this
is done, the cake should be made as attractive as possible. The work of
decorating such cakes may prove somewhat difficult at first, but just a
little practice in this direction will produce surprising results. Figs.
19 and 20 show what can be done in the way of decoration with very
little effort. The cake shown in Fig. 19 is suitable for a special
occasion, such as a party, while the one in Fig. 20 is a birthday cake.

[Illustration: FIG. 20, Birthday cake with candles.]

These cakes are first covered with a plain white icing and then
decorated in any colors desired. The candle holders on the birthday
cake, which may be purchased in various colors, correspond in color with
the decoration on the cake. Original ideas and designs may thus be
worked out in an attractive way to match a color scheme or carry out a
decorative idea. A pastry tube is the most satisfactory utensil for this
purpose, but a tiny paper cornucopia made of stiff white paper may be
used to advantage for the decoration of small cakes and even for certain
designs on large ones.

87. The cake that comes out of the pan with a smooth surface is the one
to which an icing or a filling may be applied most satisfactorily.
Unless absolutely necessary, the cake should not be cut nor broken in
any way before it is iced, as a cut surface is apt to crumble and
produce a rough appearance. If the cake must be cut, as is the case when
small fancy shapes are made out of baked cake, the pieces should be
glazed with a coating of egg white mixed with a very small quantity of
sugar and beaten just enough to incorporate the sugar. Then, if they are
allowed to dry for 4 or 5 hours before being iced, no crumbs will mix
with the icing.

CAKE ICINGS AND THEIR PREPARATION

88. VARIETIES OF ICINGS.--Icings are of two varieties: those which
require cooking and those whose ingredients are not cooked. In uncooked
icings, which are easily made, sugar, such as confectioner's, is
moistened with a liquid of some kind and then flavored in various ways.
The more common of the cooked varieties are made by beating a hot sugar
sirup into well-beaten egg whites. After being flavored, icings of this
kind may be used without the addition of other ingredients or they may
be combined with fruits, nuts, coconut, etc.

89. UNCOOKED ICINGS.--Confectioner's sugar is the most satisfactory for
uncooked icings, and it is the kind most commonly used for this purpose.
The finer this sugar can be secured, the better will the icing be, XXXX
being the most desirable. As such sugar forms very hard lumps when it is
allowed to stand, it should be rolled and sifted before it is mixed with
the other ingredients. The material used to moisten the sugar may be
lemon juice or some other fruit juice, water, milk, cream, egg white,
butter, or a combination of these. Enough liquid should be used to make
the icing thin enough to spread easily.

90. The ingredients used in uncooked icings determine to a certain
extent the utensils required to make the icings. A fine-mesh wire sifter
should be used to sift the sugar. A bowl of the proper size to mix the
materials should be selected, and a wooden spoon should also be secured
for this purpose, although a silver spoon will answer if a wooden one is
not in supply. To spread the mixture on the cake, a silver knife
produces the best results. If the icing is to be put on in ornamental
way, the equipment already mentioned, that is, a pastry bag or a paper
cornucopia, should be provided.

COLD-WATER ICING

1 c. confectioner's sugar
2 Tb. cold water
1 tsp. lemon juice

Add the sugar to the water and lemon juice, beat together thoroughly,
and spread on any desired cake.

PLAIN ICING

1 egg white
1-1/4 c. confectioner's sugar
2 tsp. cold water
1/2 tsp. vanilla

Beat the white of the egg until it is stiff. Sift in the sugar and add
a little of the water occasionally until all the water and sugar are
added. Beat together thoroughly, add the flavoring, and spread on
the cake.

ORANGE ICING

1-1/2 c. confectioner's sugar
4 Tb. orange juice
Few drops orange extract
Orange coloring for tinting

Sift the sugar into the orange juice and beat thoroughly. Add the orange
extract and just a little of the orange coloring for an even tint.
Spread on the cake.

CHOCOLATE WATER ICING

1 sq. chocolate
3 Tb. boiling water
1-1/2 c. pulverized sugar
1/2 tsp. vanilla

Melt the chocolate in a double boiler, add the boiling water and the
sugar, and stir together until smooth. Add the vanilla. Spread on
the cake.

WHITE ICING

2 egg whites
1-1/4 c. confectioner's sugar
1 tsp. vanilla

Beat the egg whites until they are stiff, sift in the powdered sugar,
add the vanilla, and beat together until the icing is of a consistency
to spread.

BUTTER ICING

1 Tb. butter
1-1/2 c. powdered sugar
1 Tb. cream
1/2 tsp. vanilla
1 egg white

Cream the butter, add the sugar, diluting it with the cream, and add the
vanilla. Beat the egg white and add to the mixture, continuing the
beating until the mixture is dry and ready to spread.

CHOCOLATE BUTTER ICING

1 Tb. butter
1-1/2 c. powdered sugar
3 Tb. milk
1/2 egg
1 oz. chocolate
Vanilla

Cream the butter and add the sugar gradually, moistening with the milk
and egg to make the mixture thin enough to spread. Melt the chocolate in
a saucepan over hot water and pour into the icing mixture. Add the
vanilla. Beat thoroughly and if more sugar or liquid is needed to make
the icing thicker or thinner, add until it is of the right consistency
to spread.

ORNAMENTAL ICING

3 egg whites
3 c. confectioner's sugar
3 tsp. lemon juice

Put the egg whites into a bowl, add a little of the sugar, and beat.
Continue adding sugar until the mixture becomes too thick to beat well,
and then add the lemon juice. Add the remainder of the sugar, and
continue beating until the icing is thick enough to spread. Spread a
thin layer over the cake and allow it to harden. When this is dry, cover
it with another layer to make a smooth surface, and add more sugar to
the remaining icing until it is of a very stiff consistency. Color and
flavor as desired, place in a pastry bag, and force through pastry tubes
to make any desired designs.

91. COOKED ICINGS.--A few cooked icings are made without egg whites, but
for the most part icings of this kind consist of a sugar sirup beaten
into egg whites that have been whipped until they are stiff. Success in
making icing of this kind depends largely on boiling the sirup to just
the right degree, for when this is done the icing will remain for a
short time in a condition to be handled. If the sirup is not cooked long
enough, the icing will not stiffen and it will have to be mixed with
powdered sugar to make it dry. In the event of its being boiled too
long, the icing will have to be applied quickly, for it is likely to
become sugary. A thermometer is a convenient utensil to use in making
icings of this kind, for with it the housewife can determine just when
the sirup is boiled to the right point. However, after the housewife has
had a little experience, excellent results can be achieved in the way of
icings without a thermometer if the mixture is tested carefully. The
beating of cooked icings also has much to do with the nature of the
finished product. They should be beaten until they are of just the
proper consistency to spread and still will not run off the surface
of the cake.

92. Because of the nature of cooked icings, it is necessary that the
work of applying them to cakes be completed as quickly as possible. A
case knife or a spatula is the best utensil for this purpose.

To ice a layer cake, pour some of the icing on the layer that is desired
for the bottom and then spread it over the layer quickly until it is
smooth and as thick as desired. If coconut or any other ingredient,
such as chopped nuts or fruit, is to be used, sprinkle it on the icing
as in Fig. 21. Then take up the second layer carefully, as shown, and
place it on the iced first layer. Pour the remainder of the icing on
this layer and spread it evenly over the top and down the sides, as
shown in Fig. 22. The cake will then be covered with a plain white icing
that will be sufficient in itself or that may serve as a basis for any
desired ornament. If coconut, fruit, or nuts have been used between the
layers, sprinkle the same over the top, as shown in Fig. 23, while the
icing is still soft.

[Illustration: FIG. 21, Assembling layer cake.]

[Illustration: FIG. 22, Icing layer cake.]

Sometimes, after the icing has been spread, it may be found that the
surface is not so smooth as it should be. Any roughness that may occur,
however, may be removed as soon as the icing has become entirely cold by
dipping a clean silver knife into hot water and, as shown in Fig. 24,
running it gently over the entire surface. This treatment takes only a
little time and greatly improves the appearance of the cake.

CARAMEL ICING

1 1/2 c. brown sugar
3/4 c. milk
1/2 Tb. butter

Boil the ingredients together until a soft ball is formed when the
mixture is tried in cold water. Cool and beat until of the right
consistency to spread. Spread this icing rather thin. If desired chopped
nuts may be added to it while it is being beaten.

MAPLE ICING

Maple icing may be made by following the recipe given for caramel icing,
with the exception of using maple sugar in place of the brown sugar.

[Illustration: FIG. 23, Sprinkling iced cake with garnish.]

BOILED ICING

1 c. sugar
1/2 c. water
1 egg white
Pinch of cream of tartar

Put the sugar and water to cook in a saucepan. Boil until a fairly hard
ball is formed when the sirup is tried in cold water or until it threads
when dropped from a spoon, as shown in Fig. 25. If a thermometer is used
to test the sirup, it should register 240 to 242 degrees Fahrenheit when
the sirup is taken from the stove. Beat the egg white, add the cream of
tartar, and continue beating until the egg white is stiff. Then, as in
Fig. 26, pour the hot sirup over the beaten egg white very slowly, so as
not to cook the egg, beating rapidly until all the sirup has been added.

[Illustration: FIG. 24, Smoothing surface of icing with knife.]

Continue to beat with a spoon or egg whip until the icing is light and
almost stiff enough to spread on the cake, as in Fig. 27. Then place the
bowl over a vessel containing boiling water, as in Fig. 28, and beat for
3 or 4 minutes while the water boils rapidly underneath. With this
treatment, the icing will not change in consistency, but will become
easier to handle and will permit of being used for a longer period of
time without becoming hard. In fact, it may be kept until the next day
if desired by placing a moist cloth over the top of the bowl so as to
prevent a crust from forming.

[Illustration: FIG. 25, Testing hard ball stage of sirup.]

CHOCOLATE ICING

If chocolate icing is desired, a square of melted chocolate may be added
to the icing given in the preceding recipe after the sirup has been
added to the egg white.

BROWN-SUGAR BOILED ICING

1-1/4 c. brown sugar
1/4 c. white sugar
1/3 c. water
2 egg whites
Pinch of cream of tartar

Boil the sugar and the water until it threads or forms a fairly hard
ball when tried in cold water.

[Illustration: FIG. 26, Pouring hot sirup over beaten egg whites.]

Beat the egg whites until stiff, adding a pinch of cream of tartar while
beating. Pour the hot sirup over the egg whites and continue beating.
Flavor with vanilla if desired. Beat until stiff enough to spread and,
if desired, cook over boiling water as described for boiled white icing.

TIME-SAVING ICING

7/8 c. granulated sugar
3 Tb. water
1 egg white

Put the sugar, water, and egg white into the upper part of a small
double boiler. Have the water in the lower part boiling rapidly. Set
the part containing the ingredients in place and beat constantly for 7
minutes with a rotary egg beater, when a cooked frosting that will
remain in place will be ready for use. The water in the lower receptacle
must be boiling rapidly throughout the 7 minutes.

[Illustration: FIG. 27, Beating icing until light.]

[Illustration: FIG. 28, Beating over rapidly boiling water.]

CAKE FILLINGS

93. As already explained, any icing used for the top of the cake may
also be used for the filling that is put between the layers, but often,
to obtain variety, an entirely different mixture is used for this
purpose. A number of recipes for cake fillings are here given, and from
these the housewife can select the one that seems best suited to the
cake with which it is to be used. As will be noted, many of them are
similar to custard mixtures, and these, in addition to being used for
cakes, may be used for filling cream puffs and éclairs. Others contain
fruit, or nuts, or both, while still others resemble icing, with the
exception of being softer. No difficulty will be experienced in making
any of these fillings if the directions are carefully followed. They
should be applied to the cake in the same way as icings.

FRENCH FILLING

2 c. milk
1 c. sugar
1/2 c. flour
1/8 tsp. salt
2 eggs
1 tsp. vanilla
1/2 tsp. lemon extract

Heat the milk to scalding in a double boiler. Mix the sugar, flour, and
salt. Pour the hot milk over this, and stir rapidly to prevent the
formation of lumps. Return to the double boiler and cook for 15 to 20
minutes. Beat the eggs slightly and add them to the mixture. Cook for 5
minutes longer. Add the flavoring, cool, and place between layers of
cake or use for filling cream puffs or éclairs. Half of the recipe will
be sufficient for cake filling.

CHOCOLATE FILLING

If chocolate filling is desired, melt 1-1/2 squares of chocolate and add
to the French filling while it is hot.

COFFEE FILLING

A very good coffee filling may be made by scalding 2 tablespoonfuls of
coffee with the milk, straining to remove the grounds, and then adding
to French filling for flavoring.

FRUIT CREAM FILLING

2/3 c. heavy cream
1/4 c. sugar
1/2 c. crushed raspberries, strawberries, peaches,
or any desirable fresh fruit

Whip the cream until stiff, add the sugar, and fold in the crushed
fruit. Place between layers of cake.

RAISIN-AND-NUT FILLING

1/2 c. sugar
1/4 c. water
1/2 c. raisins
1/4 c. chopped nuts

Boil the sugar and water until they form a firm ball when tried in cold
water. Chop the raisins and nuts and add them to the sirup. Cook until
stiff enough not to run, and place between layers of cake.

COCONUT FILLING

1 c. milk
1/2 c. shredded coconut
1/3 c. sugar
2 Tb. corn starch
1 egg

Heat the milk to scalding with the coconut. Mix the sugar and corn
starch, pour the hot milk into it, and stir rapidly so as to prevent
lumps from forming. Cook for 15 or 20 minutes. Beat the egg slightly,
add to the mixture, and cook for 5 minutes more. Cool and spread between
layers of cake.

LEMON FILLING

2 Tb. corn starch
1/3 c. sugar
1/2 c. boiling water
1 Tb. butter
1 lemon
1 egg

Mix the corn starch and sugar, and add to this the boiling water. Put to
cook in a double boiler, add the butter, the grated rind of the lemon,
and cook for 15 or 20 minutes. Beat the egg slowly, add to the mixture,
and cook for 5 minutes more. Remove from the heat and add the juice of
the lemon. Cool and spread between layers of cake.

ORANGE FILLING

Orange filling may be made by using grated orange rind in place of the
lemon in the recipe for lemon filling and 1 tablespoonful of lemon juice
and 2 tablespoonfuls of orange juice.

MARSHMALLOW FILLING

2-1/2 c. sugar
3/4 c. hot water
1/4 tsp. cream of tartar
1 egg white

Boil the sugar, water, and cream of tartar until the sirup threads. Beat
the egg white until stiff, add the sirup slowly so as not to cook the
egg, and beat constantly until thick enough to spread on the cake
without running. This may be used for icing, as well as filling.

* * * * *

CAKES, COOKIES, AND PUDDINGS (PART 1)

EXAMINATION QUESTIONS

(1) Discuss briefly the use of cake in the diet.

(2) What leavening materials are used in cake making?

(3) (_a_) What are the two general classes of cakes? (_b_) In what way
do they differ?

(4) Of what value in cake making are pans with removable bottoms?

(5) Give the various steps up to mixing in making a cake.

(6) How should pans be prepared for: (_a_) butter cakes? (_b_) sponge
cakes?

(7) Give the general proportion of ingredients for sponge cake.

(8) Give the order necessary for combining the ingredients in sponge
cake.

(9) (_a_) Describe the baking of sponge cake. (_b_) How can you tell
when sponge cake is ready to be taken out of the oven?

(10) When and how is sponge cake taken from the pan in which it is
baked?

(11) (_a_) Give the general proportion of liquid and flour used for
butter cake. (_b_) What makes this proportion vary?

(12) Give the steps necessary for mixing the ingredients of butter cake.

(13) Describe the baking of butter cake.

(14) (_a_) How can you tell when butter cake is sufficiently baked?
(_b_) How is it removed from the pan and cooled?

(15) What is the value of cake icing?

(16) (_a_) What ingredients are used to make the simplest icings? (_b_)
What kind of sugar is best for uncooked icings?

(17) What kind of icing should be used for sponge cake? Tell why.

(18) How is the surface of a cake that is to be decorated with an
ornamental design prepared?

(19) (_a_) Describe the icing of a layer cake. (_b_) How may a rough
surface of icing be made smooth?

(20) (_a_) Tell how boiled icing is made. (_b_) What is the test for
determining when the sirup is boiled sufficiently?

CAKES, COOKIES, AND PUDDINGS (PART 2)

* * * * *

SMALL CAKES

VARIETIES OF SMALL CAKES

1. Under the heading Small Cakes are included numerous varieties of
cakes made of many different kinds of materials and baked in various
shapes and sizes. Some of them, such as meringues and kisses, contain
nothing except eggs and sugar and consequently are almost confections.
On the other hand, many of them, including cookies of all kinds, drop
cakes, ladyfingers, etc., are merely the usual sponge and butter-cake
mixtures altered in such ways as may be desired. In addition, there are
cream puffs and éclairs, the various kinds of cakes made with yeast, and
doughnuts and crullers, all of which, while not exactly cake mixtures,
are similar enough to small cakes in preparation and use to be discussed
in connection with them.

2. NATURE OF MIXTURES FOR SMALL CAKES.--The mixtures used for small
cakes are made into batters and doughs of various thicknesses. For
instance, the batter used for cup cakes is as thin as that for layer
cake; that for drop cakes must be stiff enough to hold its shape when it
is dropped on a flat sheet; while cookies require a dough that is stiff
enough to be rolled out in a thin layer and then cut into various shapes
with cutters. The mixing of cakes of this kind differs in no way from
that of large cakes, the greater thickness being obtained merely by the
addition of flour.

3. BAKING SMALL CAKES.--Small cakes bake more quickly than large ones;
consequently, a hotter oven is required for them. Cookies will bake in
10 to 15 minutes. They should rise and start to brown in 1/2 of this
time, and should finish browning and shrink slightly in the remaining
half. Drop cakes require a little more time than cookies. They should
rise during the first third of the time, brown slightly during the
second, and finish browning and shrink during the last third. Cup cakes
being larger require from 15 to 25 minutes to bake, depending on their
size. They should rise and brown in the same way as drop cakes. The
baking of most of the other varieties demands special attention and is
discussed in connection with the cakes themselves.

When the majority of small cakes, including cookies, are put into the
oven to bake, they should be set on the lower rack. Then, when the
browning has started, they should be changed to the upper rack, where
they will brown more quickly. This transfer may also be necessary in the
case of the larger sized cup cakes.

Small cakes baked in muffin pans should be allowed to stand for several
minutes after being removed from the oven in order to cool. Then a knife
or a spatula should be run around the edge to loosen each cake from the
pan. If the pan is then turned upside down and tapped lightly once or
twice, the cakes will, as a rule, come out in good condition. Cookies
and drop cakes should be taken from their pans or sheets while warm and
then allowed to cool on a cake cooler or on clean towels spread on
a table.

* * * * *

PREPARATION OF SMALL CAKES

CUP AND DROP CAKES

4. NATURE OF CUP AND DROP CAKES.--CUP CAKES are a variety of small cakes
baked in muffin pans. Many of the mixtures used for large cakes may be
made into cup cakes by baking them in pans of this kind. Instead of
pouring the mixture into the pans from the bowl, as is done in the case
of large cakes, it is put into them by means of a spoon, as shown in
Fig. 1. The pans should be filled only about half full in order to give
the mixture an opportunity to rise. When the cakes are baked, they
usually reach the top of the pans.

[Illustration: FIG. 1]

5. Cup cakes may be served plain or they may be iced in any desired way.
Fig. 2 shows a group of cakes of this kind, the three on the right being
cup cakes without any icing or decoration and the rest, cup cakes iced
and then decorated in a variety of ways. As will be observed, cup cakes
lend themselves well to decoration. The materials used here for the
decorating are chiefly citron and maraschino cherries, both of which may
be cut into a variety of shapes. The cakes are first covered with a
white icing for a foundation, and the decorative materials are applied
before it becomes dry. Other materials may, of course, be used for
decorating cup cakes, and original designs may be worked out in a number
of attractive ways.

[Illustration: FIG. 2]

6. DROP CAKES differ from cup cakes in that a stiffer batter is used and
the mixture is then dropped from a spoon on a greased and floured cooky
sheet. As shown in Fig. 3, which illustrates a plate of drop cakes
ready to serve, cakes of this kind are not generally iced. However, the
mixture used for them often contains fruits and nuts.

7. RECIPES FOR CUP AND DROP CAKES.--Several recipes for cup cakes and
drop cakes are here given. No difficulty will be experienced in carrying
out any of them if the suggestions already given are applied. With each
recipe is mentioned the approximate number of cakes the recipe will
make. The exact number it will produce will depend, of course, on the
size of the cakes; the smaller they are the greater will be
their number.

[Illustration: FIG. 3]

CUP CAKES
(Sufficient for 1-1/2 Dozen Cakes)

2/3 c. butter
2 c. sugar
4 eggs
3-1/4 c. flour
4 tsp. baking powder
1/4 tsp. mace
1 c. milk
1 tsp. vanilla

Cream the butter and add the sugar. Beat the eggs and add them. Sift the
flour, baking powder, and mace together, and add alternately with the
milk. Flavor with the vanilla, put into greased and floured muffin pans,
and bake. Cover with chocolate icing and serve.

BROWNIES
(Sufficient for 1 Dozen Cakes)

1/3 c. butter
1/3 c. sugar
1/3 c. molasses
1 egg
1-1/4 c. flour
1 tsp. baking powder
1/3 tsp. soda
1/2 c. chopped nut meats

Cream the butter, add the sugar and molasses, beat the egg and add it.
Mix the flour, baking powder, and soda together, and sift into the
mixture. Fold in the chopped nut meats, put in thin layers into muffin
pans, and bake in a hot oven until done. Remove from the pans, cool,
and serve.

CINNAMON CUP CAKES
(Sufficient for 1 Dozen Cakes)

1/2 c. butter
1 c. sugar
2 eggs
4 tsp. baking powder
2 c. flour
1 Tb. cinnamon
1/2 c. milk

Cream the butter and add the sugar. Beat the eggs and add them. Sift the
baking powder, flour, and cinnamon together, and add alternately with
the milk. Put into greased and floured muffin pans and bake.

COCOA CUP CAKES
(Sufficient for 1-1/2 Dozen Cakes)

1/3 c. shortening
1-1/4 c. sugar
2 eggs
2 c. flour
1/2 c. cocoa
1/8 tsp. soda
3 tsp. baking powder
3/4 c. milk
1 tsp. vanilla

Cream the shortening and add the sugar. Beat the eggs and add them. Sift
the flour, cocoa, soda, and baking powder together and add alternately
with the milk. Flavor with the vanilla, put into greased and floured
muffin pans, and bake in a hot oven. Remove from the pans, cool, and
serve. If desired, these cakes may be iced with white icing and
sprinkled with coconut.

ROXBURY CAKES
(Sufficient for 1 Dozen Cakes)

1/4 c. butter
1/2 c. sugar
2 eggs
1/2 c. molasses
1/2 c. milk
1-3/4 c. flour
1/2 tsp. nutmeg
1/2 tsp. cinnamon
1/2 tsp. ground cloves
1-1/2 tsp. baking powder
1/2 tsp. soda
3/4 c. raisins
1/2 c. English walnut meats

Cream the butter and add the sugar gradually. Beat the eggs and add
them. Add the molasses and milk. Mix and sift the dry ingredients and
stir these into the first mixture. Fold in the finely chopped raisins
and nuts. Bake in a moderate oven and ice with white icing.

APPLE-SAUCE CAKES
(Sufficient for 1-1/2 Dozen Cakes)

1/4 c. butter
1 c. sugar
2 c. flour
1/2 tsp. soda
2 tsp. baking powder
1-1/2 tsp. cinnamon
1/4 tsp. cloves
1 tsp. nutmeg
1 c. apple sauce
1 c. raisins

Cream the butter and add the sugar gradually. Sift the dry ingredients
together and add alternately with the apple sauce made according to the
following directions. Stir in the raisins dredged with a little of the
flour. Bake in muffin pans in a moderate oven for about 15 minutes.

APPLE SAUCE

1 qt. apples
1/2 c. sugar
1 c. water

Peel and quarter the apples. Put them to cook in the water. When soft,
force through a sieve, add the sugar, and return to the fire until the
sugar is dissolved. Cool and use for the cakes.

SOUR-MILK DROP CAKES
(Sufficient for 3 Dozen Cakes)

1/3 c. butter
1 c. sugar
1 egg
1/2 c. sour milk
2-1/2 c. flour
1/2 tsp. soda
1 tsp. baking powder
1/2 c. nut meats
1/2 c. raisins

Cream the butter and add the sugar, the beaten egg, and the milk. Sift
the flour, soda, and baking powder together and add them. Fold in the
nuts and raisins. Drop by spoonfuls on a greased and floured cake sheet.
Bake rather slowly, remove from the sheet, cool, and serve.

FRUIT DROP CAKES
(Sufficient for 2 Dozen Cakes)

1/3 c. shortening
2/3 c. sugar
1 egg
1/4 c. milk
1-3/4 c. flour
2 tsp. baking powder
1 tsp. cinnamon
1/4 tsp. cloves
1/2 tsp. nutmeg
1/2 c. raisins

Cream the shortening and add the sugar, egg, and milk. Sift the flour,
baking powder, and spices together. Sift these dry ingredients into the
mixture and add the raisins. Drop by spoonfuls on a greased and floured
cake sheet and bake in a hot oven until light brown.

OAT-FLAKE DROP CAKES
(Sufficient for 2 Dozen Cakes)

1/2 c. shortening
1 c. sugar
1 egg
2 c. oat flakes
1 tsp. vanilla
2 c. flour
1/2 tsp. salt
3 tsp. baking powder
1 tsp. cinnamon
1/2 c. milk

Cream the shortening and add the sugar. Beat the egg and add to the
mixture. Add the oat flakes and vanilla. Sift the flour, salt, baking
powder, and cinnamon together and add alternately with the milk. Drop on
greased pans to bake.

GINGER DROP CAKES
(Sufficient for 2 Dozen Cakes)

1/2 c. shortening
1/2 c. brown sugar
1 egg
2-1/2 c. flour
1/2 tsp. soda
1/2 tsp. salt
1/2 Tb. ginger
1/2 c. sour milk
1/2 c. molasses

Cream the shortening, add the sugar, and mix well. Beat the egg and add
it. Sift the dry ingredients and add alternately with the milk and
molasses. Drop on greased sheets and bake in a moderate oven for about
15 or 20 minutes.

8. APPLYING ORNAMENTAL ICING TO CUP CAKES.--Sometimes it is desired to
put icing on cup cakes in an ornamental way. In such an event, an
uncooked icing is used and it is usually applied by means of a pastry
tube, although certain simple designs can be made with a small paper
cornucopia. When icing is to be used for this purpose, it should be of
the consistency shown in Fig. 4; that is, it should be so heavy that a
large quantity of it will cling to the spoon, and when it drops it will
fall in a mass rather than run off.

[Illustration: FIG. 4]

Have the pastry bag clean and dry, and make it ready for use by slipping
the pastry tube inside of the bag, as shown in Fig. 5. The point of the
tube should protrude from the narrow end of the bag, which is too small
to allow the top of the tube to be pushed through. The cakes to be
decorated with the aid of a pastry tube are usually prepared, as the
cake in the illustration shows, by covering it with a perfectly smooth
coating of uncooked icing of some kind.

With the tube inserted and the cake coated, the work of decorating may
be taken up. Roll the top of the bag down, as shown in Fig. 6, and into
it put as much of the icing as is desired. See that the icing is pushed
as far down into the end of the bag as possible. Then, as in Fig. 7,
hold the top of the bag shut with one hand and with the other grasp it
at the place where the contents end. When the hands have been so placed,
press down on the bag so that the icing will be forced from the point of
the tube. To make the decorations most satisfactorily, have the point of
the tube pressed tightly against the surface of the cake and raise it
very slowly as the icing comes out. Otherwise the shape of the design
will not be good, as a little experimenting will prove. The rosette tube
is used to make the decorations here shown, but if a different form of
decoration is desired, one of the other tubes may be selected.

[Illustration: FIG. 5]

[Illustration: FIG. 6]

9. With cakes of this kind, it is often desired to have a simple
decoration without first applying the foundation icing. This can be
done, as shown in Fig. 8, by pressing icing through a pastry bag
containing the rosette tube and placing the decoration merely on the
center of each cake. This is suggested as an economical use of icing
and a decoration a little out of the ordinary. The points of the pastry
tube should be bent toward the center in order to produce the rosettes
in the manner here shown. In fact, the shape of a rosette can often be
changed to some extent by opening or closing these points a trifle.

[Illustration: Fig. 7]

COOKIES

10. CLASSES OF COOKIES.--Cookies are of two general classes: those which
are made thick and are expected to be soft when they are served and
those which are made thin and are intended to be crisp and brittle when
eaten. Thin, crisp cookies are usually known as _wafers_ or _snaps_.
Soft cookies are made from a dough that contains a little more liquid
than that used for brittle cookies. The dough of which both varieties
are made should be thick enough to remove from the mixing bowl in a lump
and roll out on a board. After being rolled until it is the desired
thickness, it is cut into pieces of any desired size and shape and baked
in the oven on large flat pans.

[Illustration: Fig. 8]

11. INGREDIENTS IN COOKIES.--The ingredients used in the making of
cookies are similar to those used for drop cakes, with the exception of
the amount of flour. In fact, any cooky mixture that is made a little
more moist by omitting some of the flour may be used for drop cakes.
More flour is needed in cooky mixtures because they must be of a certain
thickness in order to be rolled out successfully. The amount of flour
needed varies with the kind that is used, more of some varieties of this
ingredient being required than of others. It is usually advisable to add
the last cup of flour with caution. If the mixture seems to be getting
stiff before all the flour is added, what is not needed should be
omitted; but if it does not become stiff enough to handle, more
should be added.

12. Considerable variety exists in the shortening that may be used in
cooky mixtures. If desired, butter may be used, but for most cookies it
is not at all necessary that the shortening consist entirely of butter,
and for some no butter at all is required. Other fats and oils, such as
lard, Crisco, lard compound, Mazola, cottoline, butterine, and any other
tasteless shortening, may be substituted for all or part of the butter.
Any of the following cooky recipes that contain butter do so because
that particular cooky or cake is better when made with butter, but, if
desired, some other fat may be used for a part or all of it. In case
merely shortening is mentioned, any fat or mixture of fats preferred
may be used.

13. PROCEDURE IN MAKING COOKIES.--The combining of the ingredients in
cooky mixtures need give the housewife very little concern, for it is
accomplished in much the same way as for cup and drop cakes. When all of
them have been combined, a dough that is stiff enough to handle and
still not so stiff that it is tough should be formed. The chief
precaution to be taken in the making of all kinds of cookies is to avoid
getting too much flour into the mixture. To produce the best results,
the mixture should be so soft that it is difficult to handle. A good
plan is to allow it to become very cold, for then it will be much
stiffer and may be handled more easily. Therefore, after the dough has
been mixed, it is well to set it in a refrigerator or some other cool
place and let it stand for several hours before attempting to roll it.
In fact, a cooky mixture may be made in the evening and allowed to stand
until the next morning before being rolled out and baked. As can readily
be understood, such procedure is possible with a stiff mixture like that
for cookies, while it would not be practicable with a thin mixture,
such as cake batter, because the gas that is formed by the leavening
agent would escape from a mixture that is not thick and the cake, after
being baked, would have no lightness.

14. With the dough ready to be rolled, divide it into amounts of a size
that can be handled conveniently at one time. Take one of these from the
mixing bowl and place it on a well-floured board. Work it with the
fingers into a flat, round piece, using a little flour on the fingers
during this process. Dust the top lightly with flour and, by means of a
rolling pin, roll the dough into a flat piece that is as nearly round as
possible. Continue rolling with a short, light stroke until the dough is
as thin as desired. Remember that light, careful handling is always
necessary when any kind of dough mixture is rolled on the board, and
that as little handling as possible is advisable. Skill in this respect
will come with practice, so the housewife need not be discouraged if she
has difficulty at first. For cookies, 1/4 inch is the usual thickness of
the dough after it is rolled; but for snaps or wafers the dough should
be rolled as thin as possible. If the dough is as moist as it should be,
it may be necessary, from time to time, to dust the top with flour as
the rolling continues. However, no more flour should be used than is
needed to keep the rolling pin from sticking; otherwise, the dough will
become too thick and the cookies will be tough and dry.

[Illustration: FIG. 9]

15. When the dough has been rolled until it is of the right thickness,
cut it in the manner shown in Fig. 9, using cooky cutters of any desired
size and shape. The four cutters shown, which are heart, round,
diamond, and star shapes, are the ones that are most commonly used. They
are merely strips of tin bent into a particular shape and attached to a
handle for convenience in using. In cutting the dough, try to cut it to
the best possible advantage, leaving as little space between the cookies
as possible. Very often, as, for instance, when diamond-shaped cookies
are being cut, the line of one may be the exact line of the one next to
it and thus no dough need be left between the cookies.

16. However, as Fig. 9 shows, a certain amount of dough necessarily
remains after all the cookies that can be made out of a piece of rolled
dough have been cut. Put these scraps together and set them aside until
all the fresh dough has been rolled. Then put them together carefully,
roll them out again, and cut the piece thus formed into cookies just as
the others were cut. Some persons are in the habit of working these
scraps in with the next piece of dough that is rolled out, but this is
not good practice, for by the time they are rolled on the board a second
time, more flour will be worked into them than into the dough with which
they were put and the texture will not be the same.

[Illustration: FIG. 10]

17. BAKING COOKIES.--Have a cooky sheet or other large shallow pan
greased and floured, and as soon as all the cookies are cut from a piece
of dough, pick them up with the aid of a spatula, as in Fig. 9, and
arrange them on the pan. Do not place them too close together, or upon
baking they will stick to one another and lose their shape. As soon as a
pan is filled, set it in the oven, either directly on the bottom or on
a low rack. If the temperature of the oven is correct, the cookies
should begin to rise within 2 or 3 minutes after they are put into the
oven. After they have baked on the bottom and have risen as much as they
will, they will appear as shown in Fig. 10. At this point, set them on a
higher rack to brown on top. In this browning, they will shrink to some
extent, so that the finished cookies will not have so smooth an
appearance as when they are placed on the top rack. When done, they
should be slightly brown, and if it is found that they are too brown on
top, it may be known that the oven temperature was a little too high or
perhaps that they should have had a little less time on this rack.
Molasses cookies require special care to prevent them from burning, for,
as is explained in _Hot Breads_, any food containing molasses burns
readily. A comparatively short time is necessary for the baking of
cookies, but they should be left in the oven long enough to be
thoroughly baked when removed. When ready to serve, properly baked
cookies should appear as in Fig. 11.

[Illustration: FIG. 11]

18. RECIPES FOR COOKIES.--With the principles of cooky making well
understood, the housewife is fully qualified to try any of the recipes
that follow. As will be noted, a number of recipes are here given and so
a pleasing variety may be had. Some of them are suitable for certain
occasions and some for others. For instance, barley-molasses cookies are
very good with coffee for breakfast, while filled cookies make an
excellent cake for picnic lunches. Cream cookies or vanilla wafers could
be served at an afternoon tea, while sand tarts make a very good
accompaniment for ice cream or some other dainty dessert. The nature of
the cooky will enable the housewife to determine when it should
be served.

GINGER SNAPS
(Sufficient for 4 Dozen Snaps)

1 c. molasses
1/3 c. lard or other shortening
1/4 c. butter
3-1/4 c. flour
1/2 tsp. soda
1 Tb. ginger
1 tsp. salt

Heat the molasses to boiling and pour over the shortening. Sift the dry
ingredients together and add these. Cool the mixture until it is stiff
and cold, roll as thin as possible, cut with a small round cutter, and
bake in a quick oven, being careful not to burn.

CREAM COOKIES
(Sufficient for 3 Dozen Cookies)

1/3 c. butter
1 c. sugar
2 eggs
1/2 c. thin cream
1 tsp. vanilla
4 tsp. baking powder
1 tsp. salt
1/2 tsp. mace
3 c. flour

Cream the butter, add the sugar, eggs, the cream, and vanilla. Sift the
baking powder, salt, mace, and flour together and add these to the
mixture. Roll about 1/4 inch thick and cut. Bake in a hot oven.

VANILLA WAFERS
(Sufficient for 6 Dozen Wafers)

1/3 c. shortening
1 c. sugar
1 egg
1/4 c. milk
2 tsp. vanilla
2 c. flour
3 tsp. baking powder
1/2 tsp. salt

Cream the shortening, add the sugar and egg, and continue beating. Pour
in the milk and add the vanilla. Sift the flour, baking powder, and salt
into the mixture. Roll out as thin as possible, cut with a small round
cutter, and bake in a hot oven. These wafers should be crisp and thin
when finished.

BARLEY-MOLASSES COOKIES
(Sufficient for 3 Dozen Cookies)

1 c. molasses
1/2 c. shortening
1/4 c. milk
2 c. wheat flour
1 c. barley flour
2 tsp. ginger
1 tsp. soda
1/2 tsp. salt

Heat the molasses, pour it over the shortening, and add the milk. Sift
the dry ingredients together, and add to the mixture. Cool, roll about
1/4 inch thick, cut, and bake in a quick oven, being careful not
to burn.

OATMEAL COOKIES
(Sufficient for 3-1/2 Dozen Cookies)

1 egg
1/2 c. sugar
1/4 c. thin cream
1/4 c. milk
1/2 c. oatmeal
2 c. flour
2 tsp. baking powder
1 tsp. salt
4 Tb. melted butter

Beat the egg and add the sugar, cream, and milk. Run the oatmeal through
a food chopper, and mix with the flour, baking powder, and salt. Stir
all into the mixture, add the melted butter, and mix thoroughly. Roll
thin, cut, and bake in a quick oven.

SAND TARTS
(Sufficient for 6 Dozen Tarts)

1/2 c. shortening
1 c. sugar
1 egg
1-3/4 c. flour
2 tsp. baking powder
1/4 tsp. cinnamon
1 egg white
Blanched almonds

Cream the shortening and add the sugar and the egg. Sift together the
flour, baking powder, and cinnamon, and add these to the mixture. Fold
in the beaten egg white. Roll as thin as possible and cut. Split
blanched almonds, and after putting the cookies on the cooky sheet,
place several halves of almonds in any desirable position on the
cookies. Bake in a quick oven until light brown.

HIGHLAND DAINTIES
(Sufficient for 3 Dozen Cookies)

2 c. flour
1/2 c. brown sugar
3/4 c. butter
1 egg yolk

Mix and sift the flour and sugar and work in the butter with the
fingers. Roll out about 1/3 inch thick and cut into any desirable shape
with small cutters. Brush with the egg yolk to which has been added 1
teaspoonful of water. Bake in a slow oven until light brown.

FILLED COOKIES
(Sufficient for 1-1/2 Dozen Cookies)

1 c. shortening
1 c. sugar
1 egg
1/2 c. milk
3 c. flour
3 tsp. baking powder
1/2 tsp. salt
2 tsp. vanilla

Cream the shortening and add the sugar gradually. Next add the beaten
egg and the milk. Sift the flour, baking powder, and salt together and
add to the mixture. Add the vanilla. Roll very thin and cut into small
round, square, or diamond shapes. Spread one cooky with the following
filling, cover with a second, press the edges together, and bake in a
quick oven.

FILLING FOR COOKIES

1 c. sugar
1 Tb. flour
1/2 c. boiling water
1-1/4 c. chopped raisins
3/4 c. nut meats

Mix the sugar and flour and stir them into the boiling water. Add the
raisins and let cook until thick enough to spread on the cookies. Remove
from the fire and add the nut meats. Cool slightly and spread. Figs or
dates may be used in place of the raisins.

If it is not desired to prepare a filling for the cookies, jam makes a
very good substitute.

SOUR-CREAM COOKIES
(Sufficient for 3 Dozen Cookies)

1/2 c. butter
1 c. sugar
2 eggs
1/2 pt. thick sour cream
1/2 tsp. soda
1 tsp. baking powder
3-1/2 c. flour
1/2 tsp. lemon extract

Cream the butter and sugar, add the eggs, and beat thoroughly. Add the
cream. Sift the soda, baking powder, and flour and add to the first
mixture. Add the lemon extract, roll out thick, and sprinkle with sugar.
Cut with a round cutter, place on greased and floured tins, and bake.

KISSES AND MACAROONS

19. NATURE OF KISSES AND MACAROONS.--The varieties of small cakes known
as kisses and macaroons are undoubtedly the daintiest ones that are
made. Composed almost entirely of sugar, egg whites, and flavoring, they
are very delicate in texture and are practically confections. Kisses do
not contain any flour, but macaroons need a small amount of this
ingredient and some varieties of them contain the yolks, as well as the
whites, of eggs. Chopped or ground nuts, coconut, and various kinds of
dried or candied fruits are added to these cakes to give them variety.

20. The mixtures of which these cakes are made are either dropped by
spoonfuls or forced through a pastry bag into little mounds or rosettes
on an inverted pan or a cooky sheet and then baked in a very slow oven.
An oven of this kind is necessary, for the mixtures must be practically
dried out in the baking. _Meringues_, although made of a mixture similar
to that used for kisses, are usually made in rather large, round, flat
shapes, whereas kisses are smaller and are for the most part made in the
shape of rosettes. Fig. 12 shows a plate of kisses ready to serve.

21. _Marguerites_, while not exactly the same as either kisses or
macaroons, are given in this connection because the mixture used for
them is similar to that for kisses. These, as shown in Fig. 13, are in
reality saltines covered with a mixture of egg and sugar to which nuts,
coconut, flavoring, etc. may be added for variety. After the sugar
covering has been applied, the saltines are set in the oven and baked
until slightly brown on top. This variety of small cakes, as well as
kisses and meringues, is excellent for serving with afternoon tea, or
with ice cream at a party that is to be very dainty.

[Illustration: FIG. 12]

22. RECIPES FOR KISSES AND MACAROONS.--One recipe for kisses, several
recipes for macaroons, and directions for the preparation of marguerites
follow. If meringues are desired, the recipe for kisses may be followed
and the mixture then dropped by spoonfuls, instead of being forced
through a pastry tube.

[Illustration: FIG. 13]

KISSES OR MERINGUES
(Sufficient for 1 to 2 Dozen Cakes)

1/2 c. fine granulated sugar, or 1/2 c. and 2 Tb. powdered sugar
2 egg whites
1/2 tsp. vanilla

Fine granulated or powdered sugar may be used for these cakes. If
powdered sugar is selected, a little more will be required than of
granulated. Only fresh eggs should be employed. Separate them and beat
the whites with an egg whip, beating slowly at first and more rapidly as
the eggs grow stiff. When they have become very stiff, add a
tablespoonful of the sugar and continue the beating. When this has been
beaten thoroughly, add another tablespoonful, and continue to add sugar
in small amounts and to beat until all has been worked in. Add the
vanilla. Moisten with cold water a board that is about 1 inch thick,
place over it some heavy white paper, and force the mixture through a
pastry bag or drop by spoonfuls on the paper. Place the board containing
the kisses in a very slow oven, one so slow that instead of baking the
kisses it will really dry them. If the oven is too warm, open the oven
door slightly to prevent the temperature from rising too high. Bake
until the kisses are dry and then remove them from the oven.

If desired, the inside of the meringues, which is soft, may be removed
and the shell filled with a filling of some kind. Plain whipped cream or
whipped cream to which fresh strawberries and sugar are added makes an
excellent filling for this purpose. In fact, meringues filled and
garnished with whipped cream make a very delightful dessert.

PECAN MACAROONS
(Sufficient for 1-1/2 Dozen Cakes)

1 egg white
1 c. brown sugar
1 c. pecan meats
1/4 tsp. salt

Beat the egg white until stiff and add the sugar gradually, beating
constantly. Fold in the nut meats, add the salt, and then drop from the
tip of a spoon 1 or 2 inches apart on a cooky sheet covered with
buttered paper. Bake in a moderate oven until delicately browned.

ALMOND MACAROONS
(Sufficient for 1-1/2 Dozen Cakes)

1/2 lb. almonds
1 c. powdered sugar
2 egg whites

Blanch the almonds and force them through a food chopper. Mix the ground
almonds and powdered sugar, and gradually add the beaten egg whites
until a mixture of the consistency of a stiff dough is formed. Force
through a pastry bag or drop with a spoon on a cooky sheet covered with
buttered paper. The macaroon mixture spreads during the baking, so space
will have to be left between the cakes. Bake in a very slow oven. After
removing from the oven, cover for a few minutes with a moist cloth in
order to loosen the macaroons.

COCONUT MACAROONS
(Sufficient for 1-1/2 Dozen Cakes)

1 c. powdered sugar
1 c. shredded coconut
2 egg whites

Mix the sugar and coconut. Beat the egg whites and fold into the coconut
and sugar. Drop by spoonfuls on a cooky sheet covered with waxed paper
and bake in a slow oven.

OATMEAL-FRUIT MACAROONS
(Sufficient for 3 Dozen Cakes)

2 eggs
1/2 c. sugar
1/4 c. corn sirup
1 Tb. melted shortening
1/2 c. raisins, cut in small pieces
2-1/2 c. rolled oats
1/2 tsp. salt

Beat the eggs, add the sugar, sirup, and shortening. Fold in the fruit,
rolled oats, and salt. Drop by spoonfuls on a greased cooky sheet and
bake in a moderate oven.

MARGUERITES
(Sufficient for 3 Dozen Cakes)

3/4 c. sugar
1/3 c. water
1 egg white
1/4 c. shredded coconut
1/4 c. chopped nuts

Cook the sugar and water until it forms a hard ball when tested in cold
water or threads from a spoon. Beat the egg white until stiff, pour the
hot sirup into it, and continue beating until the mixture is stiff
enough not to run. Add the coconut and chopped nuts and spread a thick
layer on saltines. Place in a moderate oven and bake until
slightly browned.

LADYFINGERS AND SPONGE DROPS

23. The mixture used for ladyfingers is in reality a sponge-cake
mixture, but it is baked in a certain oblong shape known as a ladyfinger
shape. Shallow pans that will bake the mixture in the required shape can
be purchased, but these need not be secured, for much more satisfactory
results can be obtained with a pastry bag and tube after a little
practice. The same mixture may be dropped by spoonfuls and baked in
small round cakes known as sponge drops. Both ladyfingers and sponge
drops, after being baked, are put together in twos by means of a simple
sugar icing. Care should be exercised in their baking to prevent them
from burning.

Small cakes of these varieties are very satisfactory to serve with a
rich gelatine or cream dessert. Then, again, such cakes, especially
ladyfingers, are sometimes molded into a frozen dessert or placed in a
mold in which a gelatine dessert is solidified. Often they are served
with sweetened and flavored whipped cream; in fact, no matter how stale
or fresh they may be, they help to make very delicious desserts.

LADYFINGERS No. 1
(Sufficient for 1-1/2 Dozen Cakes)

3 egg whites
1/3 c. powdered sugar
2 egg yolks
1/4 tsp. vanilla
1/3 c. flour
1/8 tsp. salt

[Illustration: FIG. 14]

Beat the egg whites until they are stiff and dry. Add the sugar
gradually and continue beating. Beat the two egg yolks until they are
thick and lemon-colored and add them. Add the flavoring and fold in the
flour mixed and sifted with the salt. Cover a cooky sheet with light
wrapping paper that is perfectly smooth and marked into spaces 4-1/2 in.
long by 1-1/2 in. wide, as shown in Fig. 14. With the aid of a spoon,
as illustrated, fill the ladyfinger mixture into a pastry bag containing
a plain pastry tube. Then, from the pastry tube, squeeze the cake
mixture onto the marked spaces, as shown in Fig. 15, making the mass
slightly narrower in the center than at the ends. When all the spaces
have been filled, set the pan containing the sheet in a slow oven and
bake until dry. Remove from the oven and take from the paper by slipping
a sharp knife under each ladyfinger. If the ladyfingers are to be used
for cake, they must be put together in pairs with the following simple
filling, and they will then appear as in Fig. 16.

[Illustration: FIG. 15]

[Illustration: FIG. 16]

FILLING FOR LADYFINGERS

Juice of 1 orange
Sufficient sugar to spread

Beat the orange juice and sugar together until smooth. Place a layer of
the mixture between each two ladyfingers.

LADYFINGERS No. 2
(Sufficient for 3 Dozen Cakes)

6 eggs
1-1/4 c. powdered sugar
1 c. flour
Juice of half a lemon

Separate the eggs and beat the whites with an egg whip until stiff. Sift
the sugar and flour together several times, add a little to the eggs,
and continue beating. Continue to add the sugar and flour, a little at a
time, until all has been added. Beat the egg yolks until they are light
and lemon-colored and then beat them into the mixture. Add the lemon
juice and force the mixture through a pastry tube in the same way as
described in the preceding recipe. Bake in a slow oven. When cool, put
together with the orange filling.

CAKES MADE WITH YEAST

24. A few varieties of cake are made light by means of yeast instead of
being leavened with eggs or chemical leavening agents. These cakes are,
of course, similar to bread in many respects, but they are sweeter and
richer than bread and contain eggs. For this reason they are not
economical mixtures and should not be made if economy must be practiced.
Because of the sugar, butter, and eggs used in them, the action of the
yeast is slow; consequently, the processes involved in making these
mixtures are neither short nor simple. Often, after they have been baked
in a mold, the center is removed and the shells are then filled with
different mixtures to make a variety of desserts.

BRIOCHE

1 c. milk
1-1/2 yeast cakes
1/2 c. sugar
2/3 c. butter
4-1/2 c. flour
3 egg yolks
3 whole eggs
1/2 tsp. lemon extract

Scald the milk, cool until lukewarm, and then add the yeast cakes. When
they are thoroughly dissolved, add the sugar, the butter, which has been
softened but not melted, and half of the flour. Add the egg yolks and
beat with the hands. Add the eggs one at a time and when all have been
beaten in thoroughly, continue to add more flour. After all of the flour
and also the lemon extract have been added and the mixture is of a
consistency to knead, allow it to rise for 6 hours. Punch down and place
in the ice box or some other cool place overnight. In the morning, the
mixture will be ready to bake in whatever shape is desirable.

The four recipes that follow show various ways in which the brioche may
be used to make attractive as well as appetizing desserts.

COFFEE CAKES

Roll the brioche mixture into a long rectangular piece about 1/4 inch
thick. Spread with softened butter, fold one-third of the side over the
center and the opposite side on top of that, making three layers. Cut
this into strips about 3/4 inch wide, cover, and let rise. When light,
twist the ends of each piece in the opposite direction, coil, and bring
the ends together on the top of the cake. Let rise in pans for 20
minutes, and bake in a moderate oven for about 20 minutes. Upon removing
from the oven, brush with confectioner's sugar moistened with enough
water to allow it to spread.

BRIOCHE BUNS

Work 1/2 cupful of raisins and 1/2 cupful of chopped nut meats into half
of the brioche mixture. Shape into balls about the size of a walnut, and
then place close together in a buttered pan. Brush over the top with 1
tablespoonful of sugar dissolved in 2 tablespoonfuls of milk. Bake in a
moderate oven for about 25 minutes. Brush a second time with the
sugar-and-milk mixture and allow the buns to remain in the oven until
they are well browned.

BRIOCHE DESSERT

Fill muffin pans about 1/2 full with the brioche mixture. Allow it to
rise nearly to the top, bake in a slow oven, remove when sufficiently
baked, and cool. Remove the center from each mold, leaving a shell. The
centers may be toasted and served separately. Put a teaspoonful or two
of any desirable preserves or marmalade into the shells, fill with
sweetened and flavored whipped cream, and over the top sprinkle chopped
nuts. This dessert should be prepared just before serving.

BRIOCHE PUDDING

Take enough of the brioche sponge to fill a good-sized mold two-thirds
full. Work into this 1/2 cupful of raisins cut into small pieces, 1/4
cupful of candied cherries, 1/2 cupful of chopped nuts, and 1/4 cupful
of coconut. Place in a mold and allow it to rise until the mold is
nearly full. Bake from 45 minutes to 1 hour, turn out of the mold, and
allow to become cold. Cut into thick slices with a knife that has been
heated in the flame, and serve with apricot or pineapple sauce.

APPLE CAKE
(Sufficient for Three Good-Sized Cakes)

2 c. milk
1 yeast cake
1 tsp. salt
1/2 c. sugar
3/4 c. butter
8-1/2 c. flour
3 eggs
Apples

Scald the milk and cool it to lukewarm. Add the yeast, salt, sugar, and
butter, which has been softened but not melted. Add half of the flour
and beat in the eggs. When all has been mixed thoroughly, add sufficient
flour to make a stiff dough. Knead for a short time and place in a bowl
to rise. When risen until double in bulk, roll a piece of the dough 1/2

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