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Woman's Institute Library of Cookery, Vol. 3 by Woman's Institute of Domestic Arts and Sciences

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This volume, which is the third of the Woman's Institute Library of
Cookery, includes soups and the high-protein foods, meat, poultry, game,
and fish. It therefore contains information that is of interest to every
housewife, for these foods occupy an important place in the majority
of meals.

In her study of _Soup,_ she will come to a thorough appreciation of the
place that soup occupies in the meal, its chief purposes, and its
economic value. All the different kinds of soups are classified and
discussed, recipes for making them, as well as the stocks used in their
preparation, receiving the necessary attention. The correct serving of
soup is not overlooked; nor are the accompaniments and garnishes so
often required to make the soup course of the meal an attractive one.

In _Meat,_ Parts 1 and 2, are described the various cuts of the
different kinds of meat--beef, veal, lamb, mutton, and pork--and the
part of the animal from which they are obtained, the way in which to
judge a good piece of meat by its appearance, and what to do with it
from the time it is purchased until all of it is used. All the methods
applicable to the cooking of meats are emphasized in this section.
Supplementing the text are numerous illustrations showing the ways in
which meat cuts are obtained. Besides, many of them are so reproduced
that actual cuts of meat may be readily recognized. Equipped with this
knowledge, the housewife need give no concern to the selection, care,
and cooking of every variety of meat.

In _Poultry and Game,_ the selection and preparation of all kinds of
poultry receive attention. While such food is somewhat of a luxury in a
great many homes, it helps to relieve the monotony of the usual protein
foods, and it often supplies just what is desired for special occasions.
Familiarity with poultry and game is a decided asset to any housewife,
and success with their cooking and serving is assured through a study
of this text, for every step in their preparation is clearly explained
and illustrated.

In _Fish and Shell Fish,_ the other high-protein food is treated in full
as to its composition, food value, purchase, care, and preparation. Such
interesting processes as the boning, skinning, and filleting of fish are
not only carefully explained but clearly illustrated. In addition to
recipes for fresh, salt, smoked, and canned fish are given directions
for the preparation of all edible shell fish and recipes for the various
stuffings and sauces served with fish.

Too much cannot be said about the importance of the subjects covered in
this volume and the necessity for a thorough understanding of them on
the part of every housewife. Indeed, a mastery of them will mean for her
an acquaintance with the main part of the meal, and when she knows how
to prepare these foods, the other dishes will prove a simple matter.


Value of Soup
Classification of Soups
Uses and Varieties of Soup Stock
The Stock Pot
Principal Ingredients in Soup
Processes Involved in Making Stock
Serving Soup
Recipes for Soup and Soup Accompaniments
Stocks and Clear Soups
Heavy Thick Soups
Cream Soups
Soup Accompaniments and Garnishes

Value of Meat as Food
Structure and Composition of Meat
Purchase and Care of Meat
Purposes of Cooking Meat
Methods of Cooking Meat
Time Required for Cooking Meat
Beef--General Characteristics
Cuts of Beef
Steaks and Their Preparation
Roasts and Their Preparation
Preparation of Stews and Corned Beef
Beef Organs and Their Preparation
Making Gravy
Trying Out Suet and Other Fats
Preparation of Left-Over Beef
Cuts of Veal and Their Uses
Veal Cuts and Their Preparation
Veal Organs and Their Preparation
Preparation of Left-Over Veal
Mutton and Lamb--Comparison
Cuts of Mutton and Lamb
Preparation of Roasts, Chops, and Stews
Preparation of Left-Over Lamb and Mutton
Cuts of Pork
Fresh Pork and Its Preparation
Cured Pork and Its Preparation
Preparation of Left-Over Pork
Serving and Carving of Meat
Sausages and Meat Preparations
Principles of Deep-Fat Frying
Application of Deep-Fat Frying
Timbale Cases

Poultry as a Food
Selection of Poultry
Selection of Chicken
Selection of Poultry Other Than Chicken
Composition of Poultry
Preparation of Chicken for Cooking
Preparation of Poultry Other Than Chicken for Cooking
Cooking of Poultry
Stuffing for Roast Poultry
Boned Chicken
Dishes from Left-Over Poultry
Serving and Carving of Poultry
Recipes for Game

Fish in the Diet
Composition and Food Value of Fish
Purchase and Care of Fish
Cleaning Fish
Boning Fish
Skinning Fish
Filleting Fish
Methods of Cooking Fish
Recipes for Fish Sauces and Stuffings
Recipes for Fresh Fish
Recipes for Salt and Smoked Fish
Recipes for Canned Fish
Recipes for Left-Over Fish
Shell Fish--Nature, Varieties, and Use
Oysters and Their Preparation
Clams and Their Preparation
Scallops and Their Preparation
Lobsters and Their Preparation
Crabs and Their Preparation
Shrimp and Their Preparation




1. SOUP is a liquid food that is prepared by boiling meat or vegetables,
or both, in water and then seasoning and sometimes thickening the liquid
that is produced. It is usually served as the first course of a dinner,
but it is often included in a light meal, such as luncheon. While some
persons regard the making of soup as difficult, nothing is easier when
one knows just what is required and how to proceed. The purpose of this
Section, therefore, is to acquaint the housewife with the details of
soup making, so that she may provide her family with appetizing and
nutritious soups that make for both economy and healthfulness.

2. It is interesting to note the advancement that has been made with
this food. The origin of soup, like that of many foods, dates back to
practically the beginning of history. However, the first soup known was
probably not made with meat. For instance, the mess of pottage for which
Esau sold his birthright was soup made of red lentils. Later on meat
came to be used as the basis for soup because of the agreeable and
appetizing flavor it provides. Then, at one time in France a scarcity of
butter and other fats that had been used to produce moistness and
richness in foods, brought about such clear soups as bouillon and
consommé. These, as well as other liquid foods, found much favor, for
about the time they were devised it came to be considered vulgar to chew
food. Thus, at various periods, and because of different emergencies,
particular kinds of soup have been introduced, until now there are many
kinds from which the housewife may choose when she desires a dish that
will start a meal in the right way and at the same time appeal to
the appetite.

3. VALUE OF SOUP IN THE MEAL.--Not all persons have the same idea
regarding the value of soup as a part of a meal. Some consider it to be
of no more value than so much water, claiming that it should be fed to
none but children or sick persons who are unable to take solid food. On
the other hand, many persons believe that soup contains the very essence
of all that is nourishing and sustaining in the foods of which it is
made. This difference of opinion is well demonstrated by the ideas that
have been advanced concerning this food. Some one has said that soup is
to a meal what a portico is to a palace or an overture to an opera,
while another person, who evidently does not appreciate this food, has
said that soup is the preface to a dinner and that any work really worth
while is sufficient in itself and needs no preface. Such opinions,
however, must be reconciled if the true value of this food is to be

4. Probably the best way in which to come to a definite conclusion as to
the importance of soup is to consider the purposes it serves in a meal.
When its variety and the ingredients of which it is composed are thought
of, soup serves two purposes: first, as an appetizer taken at the
beginning of a meal to stimulate the appetite and aid in the flow of
digestive juices in the stomach; and, secondly, as an actual part of the
meal, when it must contain sufficient nutritive material to permit it to
be considered as a part of the meal instead of merely an addition. Even
in its first and minor purpose, the important part that soup plays in
many meals is not hard to realize, for it is just what is needed to
arouse the flagging appetite and create a desire for nourishing food.
But in its second purpose, the real value of soup is evident. Whenever
soup contains enough nutritive material for it to take the place of some
dish that would otherwise be necessary, its value cannot be

If soup is thought of in this way, the prejudice that exists against it
in many households will be entirely overcome. But since much of this
prejudice is due to the fact that the soup served is often unappetizing
in both flavor and appearance, sufficient attention should be given to
the making of soup to have this food attractive enough to appeal to the
appetite rather than discourage it. Soup should not be greasy nor
insipid in flavor, neither should it be served in large quantities nor
without the proper accompaniment. A small quantity of well-flavored,
attractively served soup cannot fail to meet the approval of any family
when it is served as the first course of the meal.

5. GENERAL CLASSES OF SOUP.--Soups are named in various ways, according
to material, quality, etc.; but the two purposes for which soup is used
have led to the placing of the numerous kinds into two general classes.
In the first class are grouped those which serve as appetizers, such as
bouillon, consommé, and some other broths and clear soups. In the second
class are included those eaten for their nutritive effect, such as cream
soups, purées, and bisques. From these two classes of soup, the one that
will correspond with the rest of the meal and make it balance properly
is the one to choose. For instance, a light soup that is merely an
appetizer should be served with a heavy dinner, whereas a heavy, highly
nutritious soup should be used with a luncheon or a light meal.

6. ECONOMIC VALUE OF SOUP.--Besides having an important place in the
meal of which it forms a part, soup is very often an economy, for it
affords the housewife a splendid opportunity to utilize many left-overs.
With the French people, who excel in the art of soup making chiefly
because of their clever adaptation of seasoning to foods, their
_pot-au-feu_ is a national institution and every kitchen has its stock
pot. Persons who believe in the strictest food economy use a stock pot,
since it permits left-overs to be utilized in an attractive and
palatable way. In fact, there is scarcely anything in the way of fish,
meat, fowl, vegetables, and cereals that cannot be used in soup making,
provided such ingredients are cared for in the proper way. Very often
the first glance at the large number of ingredients listed in a soup
recipe creates the impression that soup must be a very complicated
thing. Such, however, is not the case. In reality, most of the soup
ingredients are small quantities of things used for flavoring, and it is
by the proper blending of these that appetizing soups are secured.


7. The two general classes of soup already mentioned permit of numerous
methods of classification. For instance, soups are sometimes named from
the principal ingredient or an imitation of it, as the names potato
soup, beef soup, macaroni soup, mock-turtle soup testify. Again, both
stimulating and nutritious soups may be divided into thin and thick
soups, thin soups usually being clear, and thick soups, because of their
nature, cloudy. When the quality of soups is considered, they are placed
in still different classes and are called broth, bisque, consommé,
purée, and so on. Another important classification of soups results from
the nationality of the people who use them. While soups are classified
in other ways, it will be sufficient for all practical purposes if the
housewife understands these three principal classes.

8. CLASSES DENOTING CONSISTENCY.--As has already been pointed out, soups
are of only two kinds when their consistency is thought of, namely,
_clear soups_ and _thick soups._

CLEAR SOUPS are those made from carefully cleared stock, or soup
foundation, and flavored or garnished with a material from which the
soup usually takes its name. There are not many soups of this kind,
_bouillon_ and _consommé_ being the two leading varieties, but in order
to be palatable, they require considerable care in making.

THICK SOUPS are also made from stock, but milk, cream, water, or any
mixture of these may also be used as a basis, and to it may be added for
thickening meat, fish, vegetables, eggs, or grain or some other starchy
material. Soups of this kind are often made too thick, and as such soups
are not appetizing, care must be taken to have them just right in

9. CLASSES DENOTING QUALITY.--When attention is given to the quality of
soup, this food divides itself into several varieties, namely, _broth,
cream soup, bisque, chowder,_ and _purée._

BROTHS have for their foundation a clear stock. They are sometimes a
thin soup, but other times they are made quite thick with vegetables,
rice, barley, or other material, when they are served as a substantial
part of a meal.

CREAM SOUPS are highly nutritious and are of great variety. They have
for their foundation a thin cream sauce, but to this are always added
vegetables, meat, fish, or grains.

BISQUES are thick, rich soups made from game, fish, or shell fish,
particularly crabs, shrimp, etc. Occasionally, vegetables are used in
soup of this kind.

CHOWDERS are soups that have sea food for their basis. Vegetables and
crackers are generally added for thickening and to impart flavor.

PURÉES are soups made thick partly or entirely by the addition of some
material obtained by boiling an article of food and then straining it to
form a pulp. When vegetables containing starch, such as beans, peas,
lentils, and potatoes, are used for this purpose, it is unnecessary to
thicken the soup with any additional starch; but when meat, fish, or
watery vegetables are used, other thickening is required. To be right, a
purée should be nearly as smooth as thick cream and of the same

10. CLASSES TYPICAL OF PARTICULAR COUNTRIES.--Certain kinds of soup have
been made so universally by the people of various countries that they
have come to be regarded as national dishes and are always thought of as
typical of the particular people by whom they are used. Among the best
known of these soups are _Borsch,_ a soup much used by the Russian
people and made from beets, leeks, and sour cream; _Daikan,_ a Japanese
soup in which radishes are the principal ingredient; _Kouskous,_ a soup
favored by the people of Abyssinia and made from vegetables; _Krishara_,
a rice soup that finds much favor in India; _Lebaba,_ an Egyptian soup
whose chief ingredients are honey, butter, and raisin water; _Minestra,_
an Italian soup in which vegetables are combined; _Mulligatawny,_ an
Indian rice soup that is flavored with curry; _Potroka,_ another kind of
Russian soup, having giblets for its foundation; _Soljinka,_ an entirely
different variety of Russian soup, being made from fish and onions; and
_Tarhonya,_ a Hungarian soup containing noodles.

* * * * *



11. MEANING AND USE OF STOCK.--In order that soup-making processes may
be readily grasped by the housewife, she should be thoroughly familiar
with what is meant by _stock,_ which forms the foundation of many soups.
In looking into the derivation of this term, it will be found that the
word stock comes from an Anglo-Saxon word meaning to stick, and that
while it has many different uses, the idea of fixedness is expressed in
every one of them. As is generally known, a stock of anything means a
reserve supply of that thing stored away for future use. When applied to
soup, stock is similar in meaning, for it refers to material stored or
prepared in such a way that it may be kept for use in the making of
certain kinds of soup. In a more definite sense, soup stock may be
regarded as a liquid containing the juices and soluble parts of meat,
bone, and vegetables, which have been extracted by long, slow cooking
and which can be utilized in the making of soups, sauces, and gravies.

12. Soups in which stock is utilized include all the varieties made from
beef, veal, mutton, and poultry. If clear stock is desired for the
making of soup, only fresh meat and bones should be used and all
material that will discolor the liquid in any way carefully avoided. For
ordinary, unclarified soups, the trimmings and bones of roast, steak, or
chops and the carcass of fowl can generally be utilized. However, very
strongly flavored meat, such as mutton, or the fat from mutton should be
used sparingly, if at all, on account of the strong flavor that
it imparts.

13. VARIETIES OF STOCK.--Several kinds of stock are utilized in the
making of soup, and the kind to employ depends on the soup desired. In
determining the kind of stock required for the foundation of a soup, the
housewife may be guided by the following classification:

FIRST STOCK is made from meat and bones and then clarified and used for
well-flavored, clear soups.

SECOND STOCK is made from the meat and the bones that remain after the
first stock is strained off. More water is added to the remaining
material, and this is then cooked with vegetables, which supply the
needed flavor. Such stock serves very well for adding flavor to a
nutritious soup made from vegetables or cereal foods.

HOUSEHOLD STOCK is made by cooking meat and bones, either fresh or
cooked, with vegetables or other material that will impart flavor and
add nutritive value. Stock of this kind is used for ordinary soups.

BONE STOCK is made from meat bones to which vegetables are added for
flavor, and it is used for making any of the ordinary soups.

VEGETABLE STOCK is made from either dried or fresh vegetables or both.
Such stock is employed in making vegetable soups.

GAME STOCK is made from the bones and trimmings of game to which
vegetables are added for flavor. This kind of stock is used for making
game soups.

FISH STOCK is made from fish or fish trimmings to which vegetables are
added for flavor. Shell fish make especially good stock of this kind.
Fish stock is employed for making chowders and fish soups.

14. ADDITIONAL USES OF STOCK.--As has already been shown, stock is used
principally as a foundation for certain varieties of soup. This
material, however, may be utilized in many other ways, being especially
valuable in the use of left-over foods. Any bits of meat or fowl that
are left over can be made into an appetizing dish by adding thickened
stock to them and serving the combination over toast or rice. In fact, a
large variety of made dishes can be devised if there is stock on hand to
add for flavor. The convenience of a supply of stock will be apparent
when it is realized that gravy or sauce for almost any purpose can be
made from the contents of the stock pot.

15. SOUP EXTRACTS.--If a housewife does not have sufficient time to go
through the various processes involved in making soup, her family need
not be deprived of this article of diet, for there are a number of
concentrated meat and vegetable extracts on the market for making soups
quickly. The _meat extracts_ are made of the same flavoring material as
that which is drawn from meat in the making of stock. Almost all the
liquid is evaporated and the result is a thick, dark substance that must
be diluted greatly with water to obtain the basis for a soup or a broth.
Some of the _vegetable extracts,_ such as Japanese soy and English
marmite, are so similar in appearance and taste to the meat extracts as
to make it quite difficult to detect any difference. Both varieties of
these extracts may be used for sauces and gravies, as well as for soups,
but it should be remembered that they are not highly nutritious and are
valuable merely for flavoring.


16. NATURE, USE, AND CARE OF STOCK POT.--Among the utensils used for
cooking there is probably none more convenient and useful than the stock
pot. It is nothing more or less than a covered crock or pot like that
shown in Fig. 1, into which materials that will make a well-flavored
stock are put from time to time. From such a supply, stock can be drawn
when it is needed for soup; then, when some is taken out, more water
and materials may be added to replenish the pot. The stock pot should be
made of either enamel or earthenware, since a metal pot of any kind is
liable to impart flavor to the food. Likewise, its lid, or cover, should
be tight-fitting, for then it will be an excellent utensil in which the
materials may be stored until they are to be heated, when they can be
poured or dipped into a saucepan or a kettle.

The stock pot, like any other utensil used for making soup, should
receive considerable care, as it must be kept scrupulously clean. No
stock pot should ever be allowed to stand from day to day without being
emptied, thoroughly washed, and then exposed to the air for a while
to dry.

[Illustration: Fig. 1]

17. FOOD SUITABLE FOR THE STOCK POT.--Some one has said that nothing
edible is out of place in the stock pot, and, to a great extent, this
statement is true. Here should be put the bones from the cooked roast,
as well as the trimmings cut from it before it went into the oven; the
tough ends and bones of beefsteak; the trimmings or bones sent home by
the butcher; the carcasses of fowls, together with any remains of
stuffing and tough or left-over bits of meat; any left-over vegetables;
the remains of the gravy or any unsweetened sauces used for meats or
vegetables; the spoonful of left-over hash, stew, or stuffing; a
left-over stuffed tomato or pepper; and the water in which rice,
macaroni, or certain vegetables have been cooked. Of course, plain water
can be used for the liquid, but the water in which such vegetables as
cauliflower, carrots, beans, peas, asparagus, celery, and potatoes have
been cooked is especially desirable, for, besides imparting flavor to
the soup, it adds valuable mineral salts. However, when such things as
left-over cereals, rice, macaroni, and green vegetables are to be
utilized in soup, they should not be put in the stock pot; rather, they
should be added to the stock after it is removed from the pot.



18. The making of the stock that is used in soup is the most important
of the soup-making processes; in fact, these two things--soup and
stock--may be regarded, in many instances, as one and the same. The
housewife will do well, therefore, to keep in mind that whenever
reference is made to the making of soup usually stock making is also
involved and meant. Before the actual soup-making processes are taken
up, however, the nature of the ingredients required should be well
understood; for this reason, suitable meats and vegetables, which are
the principal ingredients in soups, are first discussed.

19. MEAT USED FOR SOUP MAKING.--With the exception of pork, almost every
kind of meat, including beef, veal, mutton, lamb, game, and poultry, is
used for soup making. Occasionally, ham is employed, but most other
forms of pork are seldom used to any extent. When soup stock is made
from these meats, they may be cooked separately, or, as a combination is
often an improvement over a single variety, several kinds may be
combined. For instance, mutton used alone makes a very strongly flavored
soup, so that it is usually advisable to combine this kind of meat with
another meat that has a less distinctive flavor. On the other hand, veal
alone does not have sufficient flavor, so it must be combined with lamb,
game, fowl, or some other well-flavored meat.

20. Certain cuts of meats are preferred to others in the making of
soups, because of the difference in their texture. The tender cuts,
which are the expensive ones, should not be used for soups, as they do
not produce enough flavor. The tough cuts, which come from the muscles
that the animal uses constantly and that therefore grow hard and tough,
are usually cheaper, but they are more suitable, because they contain
the material that makes the best soup. The pieces best adapted to soup
making are the shins, the shanks, the lower part of the round, the neck,
the flank, the shoulder, the tail, and the brisket. The parts of the
animal from which these cuts are taken are clearly shown in Fig. 2.
Although beef is obtained from the animal shown, the same cuts come from
practically the same places in other animals. Stock made from one of
these cuts will be improved if a small amount of the fat of the meat is
cooked with it; but to avoid soup that is too greasy, any excess fat
that remains after cooking should be carefully removed. The marrow of
the shin bone is the best fat for soup making.

If soup is to be made from fish, a white variety should be selected. The
head and trimmings may be utilized, but these alone are not sufficient,
because soup requires some solid pieces of meat. The same is true of
meat bones; they are valuable only when they are used with meat, an
equal proportion of bone and meat being required for the best stock.

[Illustration: Fig. 2]

21. VEGETABLES USED FOR SOUP MAKING.--In soup making, the housewife has
also a large number of vegetables from which to select, for any
vegetable that has a decided flavor may be used. Among those from which
soups can be made successfully are cabbage, cauliflower, asparagus,
corn, onions, turnips, carrots, parsnips, tomatoes, beans, peas,
lentils, salsify, potatoes, spinach, celery, mushrooms, okra, and even
sweet potatoes. These vegetables are used for two purposes: to provide
flavoring and to form part of the soup itself as well as to furnish
flavor. When they are used simply for flavoring, they are cooked until
their flavor is obtained and then removed from the stock. When they are
to form part of the soup, as well as to impart flavor, they are left in
the soup in small pieces or made into a purée and eaten with the soup.

Attention, too, must be given to the condition of the vegetables that
are used in soup. The fresh vegetables that are used should be in
perfect condition. They should have no decayed places that might taint
or discolor the soups, and they should be as crisp and solid as
possible. If they are somewhat withered or faded, they can be freshened
by allowing them to stand in cold water for a short time. When dried
vegetables are to be used for soup making, they should first be soaked
well in cold water and then, before being added to the stock, either
partly cooked or entirely cooked and made into a purée.


22. Although the making of stock or soup is a simple process, it must
necessarily be a rather long one. The reason for this is that all flavor
cannot be drawn from the soup materials unless they are subjected to
long, slow cooking at a temperature lower than the boiling point. With
this point definitely understood, the actual work of soup making may
be taken up.

23. COOKING MEAT FOR SOUP.--When clear stock is to be made from fresh
meat, the required quantity of meat should be cut into small pieces
rather than large ones, so as to expose as much of the surface as
possible from which the flavor of the meat can be drawn. A little more
flavor is obtained and a brown color developed if a small part, perhaps
a fourth, of the pieces of meat are first browned in the frying pan. The
pieces thus browned, together with the pieces of fresh meat, are put
into a kettle and a quart of cold water for each pound of meat is
then added.

The reason for using cold rather than hot water will be evident when the
action of water on raw meat is understood. The fiber of meat is composed
of innumerable thread-like tubes containing the flavor that is to be
drawn out into the water in order to make the stock appetizing. When the
meat is cut, these tiny tubes are laid open. Putting the meat thus
prepared into cold water and allowing it to heat gradually tend to
extract the contents of the tubes. This material is known as
_extractives_, and it contains in its composition stimulating
substances. On the other hand, plunging the meat into hot water and
subjecting it quickly to a high temperature will coagulate the protein
in the tissue and prevent the extractives from leaving the tubes.

24. To obtain the most flavor from meat that is properly prepared, it
should be put over a slow fire and allowed to come gradually to the
boiling point. As the water approaches the boiling point, a scum
consisting of coagulated albumin, blood, and foreign material will begin
to rise to the top, but this should be skimmed off at once and the
process of skimming continued until no scum remains. When the water
begins to boil rapidly, either the fire should be lowered or the kettle
should be removed to a cooler part of the stove so that the water will
bubble only enough for a very slight motion to be observed. Throughout
the cooking, the meat should not be allowed to boil violently nor to
cease bubbling entirely.

The meat should be allowed to cook for at least 4 hours, but longer if
possible. If, during this long cooking, too much water evaporates, more
should be added to dilute the stock. The salt that is required for
seasoning may be added just a few minutes before the stock is removed
from the kettle. However, it is better to add the salt, together with
the other seasonings, after the stock has been drawn off, for salt, like
heat, has a tendency to harden the tissues of meat and to prevent the
flavor from being readily extracted.

25. Although, as has been explained, flavor is drawn from the fibers of
meat by boiling it slowly for a long time, the cooking of meat for soup
does not extract the nourishment from it to any extent. In reality, the
meat itself largely retains its original nutritive value after it has
been cooked for soup, although a small quantity of protein is drawn out
and much of the fat is removed. This meat should never be wasted;
rather, it should be used carefully with materials that will take the
place of the flavor that has been cooked from it.

26. FLAVORING STOCK.--It is the flavoring of stock that indicates real
skill in soup making, so this is an extremely important part of the
work. In fact, the large number of ingredients found in soup recipes
are, as a rule, the various flavorings, which give the distinctive
flavor and individuality to a soup. However, the housewife whose larder
will not produce all of the many things that may be called for in a
recipe should not feel that she must forego making a particular kind of
soup. Very often certain spices or certain flavoring materials may be
omitted without any appreciable difference, or something that is on hand
may be substituted for an ingredient that is lacking.

27. The flavorings used most for soup include cloves, peppercorns, red,
black, and white pepper, paprika, bay leaf, sage, marjoram, thyme,
summer savory, tarragon, celery seed, fennel, mint, and rosemary. While
all of these are not absolutely necessary, the majority of them may well
be kept on the pantry shelf. In addition, a bottle of Worcestershire
sauce should be kept on hand. Celery and parsley, which are also much
used for flavoring, can usually be purchased fresh, but as they are
scarce at times it is advisable to dry some of the leaves during the
season when they can be secured, so as to have a supply when they are
not in the market. A small amount of lemon peel often improves soup, so
some of this should be kept in store. Another group of vegetables that
lend themselves admirably to soup flavoring includes leeks, shallots,
chives, garlic, and onions, all of which belong to the same family. They
must be used judiciously, however, as a strong flavor of any of them is
offensive to most persons.

28. As many of the flavorings used for soup lose their strength when
they are exposed to the air, every effort should be made to keep them in
good condition. Many of them can be kept an indefinite length of time if
they are placed in tightly closed metal boxes or glass jars. Flavorings
and spices bought from the grocer or the druggist in paper packages
should be transferred to, and enclosed in, a receptacle that will not
allow them to deteriorate. If proper attention is given to these
materials, the supply will not have to be replenished often; likewise,
the cost of a sufficient number to produce the proper flavorings will be
very slight.

29. In the use of any of the flavorings mentioned or the strongly
flavored vegetables, care should be taken not to allow any one
particular flavor to predominate. Each should be used in such quantity
that it will blend well with the others. A very good way in which to fix
spices and herbs that are to flavor soup is to tie them in a small piece
of cheesecloth and drop the bag thus made into the soup pot. When
prepared in this way, they will remain together, so that, while the
flavor can be cooked out, they can be more readily removed from the
liquid than if they are allowed to spread through the contents of the
pot. Salt, which is, of course, always used to season soup, should be
added in the proportion of 1 teaspoonful to each quart of liquid.

30. REMOVING GREASE FROM SOUP.--A greasy soup is always unpalatable.
Therefore, a very important feature of soup making, whether a thin or a
thick soup is being made, is the removal of all grease. Various ways of
removing grease have been devised, depending on whether the soup is hot
or cold. In the case of hot or warm soup, all the grease that it is
possible to remove with a spoon may be skimmed from the top, and the
remainder then taken up with a piece of clean blotting paper,
tissue-paper, or absorbent cotton. Another plan, by which the fat may be
hardened and then collected, consists in tying a few small pieces of ice
in a piece of cloth and drawing them over the surface of the soup. A
very simple method is to allow the soup or stock to become cold, and
then remove the fat, which collects on the top and hardens, by merely
lifting off the cake that forms.

31. CLEARING SOUP.--Sometimes it is desired to improve the appearance of
soup stock, particularly a small amount of soup that is to be served at
a very dainty luncheon or dinner. In order to do this, the stock may be
treated by a certain process that will cause it to become clear. After
being cleared, it may be served as a thin soup or, if it is heavy
enough, it may be made into a clear, sparkling jelly into which many
desirable things may be molded for salad or for a dish to accompany a
heavy course. Clearing soup is rather extravagant; however, while it
does not improve the taste, it does improve the appearance.

A very satisfactory way in which to clear stock is to use egg whites and
crushed egg shell. To each quart of cold stock should be added the
crushed shell and a slightly beaten egg white. These should be mixed
well, placed on the fire, and the mixture stirred constantly until it
boils. As the egg coagulates, some of the floating particles in the
stock are caught and carried to the top, while others are carried to the
bottom by the particles of shell as they settle. After the mixture has
boiled for 5 or 10 minutes, the top should be skimmed carefully and the
stock then strained through a fine cloth. When it has been reheated, the
cleared stock will be ready to serve.

32. THICKENING SOUP.--Although thin, clear soups are preferred by some
and are particularly desirable for their stimulating effect, thick soups
find much favor when they are used to form a substantial part of a meal.
Besides giving consistency to soup, thickening usually improves the
flavor, but its chief purpose is to give nutritive value to this food.
In fact, whenever a soup is thickened, its food value is increased by
the ingredient thus added. For this reason, it is advisable to thicken
soups when they are desired for any other purpose than their
stimulating effect.

33. The substance used to thicken soups may be either a starchy material
or food or a purée of some food. The starchy materials generally used
for this purpose are plain flour, browned flour, corn starch, and
arrowroot flour. Any one of these should be moistened with enough cold
water to make a mixture that will pour easily, and then added to the hot
liquid while the soup is stirred constantly to prevent the formation of
lumps. A sufficient amount of this thickening material should be used to
make a soup of the consistency of heavy cream.

The starchy foods that are used for thickening include rice, barley,
oatmeal, noodles, tapioca, sago, and macaroni. Many unusual and fancy
forms of macaroni can be secured, or the plain varieties of Italian
pastes may be broken into small pieces and cooked with the soup. When
any of these foods are used, they should be added long enough before the
soup is removed to be cooked thoroughly.

Purées of beans, peas, lentils, potatoes, and other vegetables are
especially desirable for the thickening of soups, for they not only give
consistency, but add nutritive value and flavor as well. Another
excellent thickening may be obtained by beating raw eggs and then adding
them carefully to the soup just before it is to be served. After eggs
have been added for thickening, the soup should not be allowed to boil,
as it is liable to curdle.

34. KEEPING STOCK.--Soup stock, like many other foods, spoils quite
readily. Therefore, in order to keep it for at least a few days, it must
receive proper attention. At all times, the vessel containing stock
should be tightly closed and, especially in warm weather, the stock
should be kept as cold as possible. Stock that is heavy enough to
solidify into a jellylike consistency when it is cold will keep better
than stock that remains liquid. The addition of salt or any spicy
flavoring also helps to keep stock from deteriorating, because these
materials act as preservatives and prevent the action of bacteria that
cause spoiling. Bacteria may be kept from entering soup if, instead of
removing the grease, it is allowed to form in a solid cake over the
top. No matter which of these precautions is taken to prevent stock from
spoiling, it should be heated to boiling point once a day when it is to
be kept for several days.


35. Soup may be correctly served in several different ways, the method
to adopt usually depending on the kind of soup. Thin, clear soups are
generally served in bouillon cups, as shown in Fig. 3, which may be
placed on the table immediately before the family assembles or passed
after the members are seated. Heavier soups may be served at the table
from a soup tureen, or each person's portion may be served before the
family comes to the table. For soups of this kind, the flat soup plate,
like that shown in Fig. 4, is found preferable.

[Illustration: FIG. 3]

The spoon to be served with soup also depends on the kind of soup, but a
larger spoon than a teaspoon is always necessary. When soup is served in
a soup plate, a dessert spoon is used, as will be observed in Fig. 4. A
bouillon spoon is the best kind to use with any thin soup served in
bouillon cups. Such a spoon, as shown in Fig. 3, is about the length of
a teaspoon, but has a round bowl.

36. To increase the attractiveness of soup and at the same time make it
more appetizing and nutritious, various accompaniments and relishes are
served with it. When the accompaniment is in the form of crackers,
croutons, or bread sticks, they may be passed after the soup is served,
or, as shown in Figs. 3 and 4, a few of them may be placed on the
bread-and-butter plate at each person's place. The relishes should be
passed while the soup is being eaten. Plain whipped cream or whipped
cream into which a little mashed pimiento has been stirred adds much to
the flavor and appearance of soup when served on the top of any hot or
cold variety. Then, too, many soups, especially vegetable soups, are
improved in flavor by the addition of a spoonful of grated cheese, which
should be sprinkled into the dish at the time of serving. For this
purpose, a hard, dry cheese, such as Parmesan, which can often be
purchased already grated in bottles, is the most satisfactory.

[Illustration: FIG. 4]

37. In summer, clear soups are sometimes served cold, as cold soups are
found more desirable for warm weather than hot ones. However, when a
soup is intended to be hot, it should be hot when it is ready to be
eaten, and every effort should be made to have it in this condition if
an appetizing soup is desired. This can be accomplished if the soup is
thoroughly heated before it is removed from the stove and the dishes in
which it is to be served are warmed before the soup is put into them.

* * * * *



38. So that the housewife may put into practice the knowledge she has
gained about soup making, there are here given recipes for various kinds
of soup. As will be observed, these recipes are classified according to
the consistency and nature of the soups, all those of one class being
placed in the same group. As it is important, too, for the housewife to
know how to prepare the various accompaniments and garnishes that are
generally served with soup, directions for the making of these are also
given and they follow the soup recipes.

39. In carrying out these recipes, it will be well to note that
exactness in fulfilling the requirements and care in working out the
details of the recipes are essential. These points cannot be ignored in
the making of soup any more than in other parts of cookery, provided
successful results and excellent appearance are desired. It is therefore
wise to form habits of exactness. For instance, when vegetables are to
be cut for soups, they should be cut into pieces of equal size, or, if
they are to be diced, they should be cut so that the dice are alike. All
the pieces must be of the same thickness in order to insure uniform
cooking; if this precaution is not observed, some of the pieces are
likely to overcook and fall to pieces before the others are done.

Strict attention should also be given to the preparation of other
ingredients and the accompaniments. The meat used must be cut very
carefully rather than in ragged, uneven pieces. Noodles, which are often
used in soup, may be of various widths; but all those used at one time
should be uniform in width--that is, all wide or all narrow. If
different widths are used, an impression of careless cutting will be
given. Croutons and bread sticks, to be most satisfactory, should be cut
straight and even, and, in order to toast uniformly, all those made at
one time should be of the same size.


40. Stock for Clear Soup or Bouillon.--A plain, but well-flavored, beef
stock may be made according to the accompanying recipe and used as a
basis for any clear soup served as bouillon without the addition of
anything else. However, as the addition of rice, barley, chopped
macaroni, or any other such food will increase the food value of the
soup, any of them may be supplied to produce a more nutritious soup.
When this stock is served clear, it should be used as the first course
in a comparatively heavy meal.


4 lb. beef
4 qt. cold water
1 medium-sized onion
1 stalk celery
2 sprigs parsley

6 whole cloves
12 peppercorns
1 bay leaf

Cut the meat into small pieces. Pour the cold water over it, place on a
slow fire, and let it come to a boil. Skim off all scum that rises to
the top. Cover tightly and keep at the simmering point for 6 to 8 hours.
Then strain and remove the fat. Add the onion and celery cut into
pieces, the parsley, cloves, peppercorns, and bay leaf. Simmer gently
for about 20 minutes. Add salt and pepper to taste. Strain through
a cloth.

41. Household Stock.--If it is desired to make a stock that may be kept
on hand constantly and that may be used as a foundation for various
kinds of soups, sauces, and gravies, or as a broth for making casserole
dishes, household stock will be found very satisfactory. Such stock made
in quantity and kept in a sufficiently cool place may be used for
several days before it spoils. Since most of the materials used in this
stock cannot be put to any other particularly good use, and since the
labor required in making it is slight, this may be regarded as an
extremely economical stock.


3 qt. cold water
3 lb. meat (trimmings of fresh
meat, bones, and tough pieces
from roasts, steaks, etc.)
1 medium-sized onion
4 cloves
6 peppercorns

Pour the cold water over the meat and bones and put them on the fire to
cook. When they come to a boil skim well. Then cover and simmer 4 to 6
hours. Add the onion, cloves, peppercorns, and herbs and cook for
another hour. Add salt and pepper to taste. Strain and set aside to
cool. Remove the fat.

42. White Stock.--An especially nice broth having a delicate flavor and
generally used for special functions when an attractive meal is being
served to a large number of persons is made from veal and fowl and known
as white stock. If allowed to remain in a cool place, this stock will
solidify, and then it may be used as the basis for a jellied meat
dish or salad.


5 lb. veal
1 fowl, 3 or 4 lb.
8 qt. cold water
2 medium-sized onions
2 Tb. butter
2 stalks celery
1 blade mace

Cut the veal and fowl into pieces and add the cold water. Place on a
slow fire, and let come gradually to the boiling point. Skim carefully
and place where it will simmer gently for 6 hours. Slice the onions,
brown slightly in the butter, and add to the stock with the celery and
mace. Salt and pepper to suit taste. Cook 1 hour longer and then strain
and cool. Remove the fat before using.

43. Consommé.--One of the most delicious of the thin, clear broths is
consommé. This is usually served plain, but any material that will not
cloud it, such as finely diced vegetables, green peas, tiny pieces of
fowl or meat, may, if desired, be added to it before it is served. As a
rule, only a very small quantity of such material is used for
each serving.


4 lb. lower round of beef
4 lb. shin of veal
1/4 c. butter
8 qt. cold water
1 small carrot
1 large onion
2 stalks celery
12 peppercorns
5 cloves
4 sprigs parsley
Pinch summer savory
Pinch thyme
2 bay leaves

Cut the beef and veal into small pieces. Put the butter and meat into
the stock kettle, and stir over the fire until the meat begins to brown.
Add the cold water, and let come to the boiling point. Skim carefully
and let simmer for 6 hours. Cut the vegetables into small pieces and
add to the stock with the spices and herbs. Cook for 1 hour, adding salt
and pepper to suit taste. Strain and cool. Remove the fat and clear
according to directions previously given.

44. Tomato Bouillon.--It is possible to make a clear tomato soup without
meat stock, but the recipe here given, which is made with meat stock,
has the advantage of possessing a better flavor. The tomato in this
bouillon lends an agreeable color and flavor and affords a change from
the usual clear soup. Cooked rice, macaroni, spaghetti, or vermicelli
may be added to tomato bouillon to provide an additional quantity of
nutrition and vary the plain soup.

(Sufficient to Serve Eight)

1 qt, meat stock
1 tsp. salt
1 Tb. sugar

1/4 tsp. pepper
1 can tomatoes

Heat the stock, and to it add the salt, sugar, and pepper. Rub the
tomatoes through a fine sieve, and add them to the stock. Cook together
for a few minutes and serve.


45. Julienne Soup.--A very good way in which to utilize any small
quantities of vegetables that may be in supply but are not sufficient to
serve alone is to use them in julienne soup. For soup of this kind,
vegetables are often cut into fancy shapes, but this is a more or less
wasteful practice and should not be followed, as tiny strips or dice cut
finely and carefully are quite as agreeable. The vegetables do not add a
large amount of nutriment to this soup, but they introduce into the soup
mineral salts that the soups would otherwise not have and they also add
a variety of flavor.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 pt. mixed vegetables
1/2 tsp. salt
1 qt. stock
1/4 tsp. pepper

Cut into tiny dice or into strips such vegetables as celery, carrots,
and turnips, making them as nearly the same size and shape as possible.
Put them on to cook in enough boiling salted water to cover well. Cook
until they are soft enough to be pierced with a fork, but do not lose
their shape. Drain off the water and put the vegetables into the stock.
Bring to the boiling point, season with the pepper, and serve.

46. Ox-Tail Soup.--The use of ox tails for soup helps to utilize a part
of the beef that would ordinarily be wasted, and, as a rule, ox tails
are comparatively cheap. Usually the little bits of meat that cook off
the bones are allowed to remain in the soup. Variety may be obtained by
the addition of different kinds of vegetables.

(Sufficient to Serve Eight)

2 ox tails
1 large onion
1 Tb. beef drippings
4 qt. cold water
1 Tb. mixed herbs
4 peppercorns
1 Tb. salt

Wash and cut up the ox tails, separating them at the joints. Slice the
onion and brown it and half of the ox tails in the beef drippings. When
they are browned, put them and the remainder of the ox tails into a
kettle. Add the water and the herbs and peppercorns tied in a little
piece of cheesecloth. Bring to the boiling point, and then simmer for 3
to 4 hours or until the meat separates from the bones. Add the salt an
hour before serving the soup. Remove the fat and serve some of the
nicest joints with the soup. If vegetables are desired, they should be
diced and added 20 minutes before serving, so that they will be
cooked soft.

47. Mulligatawny Soup.--If a highly seasoned soup is desired,
mulligatawny, although not a particularly cheap soup, will be found very
satisfactory. The curry powder that is used adds an unusual flavor that
is pleasing to many people, but if it is not desired, it may be omitted.

(Sufficient to Serve Eight)

3 lb. chicken
1 lb. veal
4 qt. cold water
2 onions
1 Tb. butter
4 peppercorns
4 cloves
1 stalk celery
1 Tb. curry powder
1 tsp. salt
1/4 tsp. pepper
1 lemon

Cut up the chicken and veal, add the cold water to them, and place over
a slow fire. Slice the onions and brown them in the butter. Add them and
the peppercorns, cloves, chopped celery, and curry powder stirred to a
smooth paste with a little water to the meat. Simmer together slowly
until the chicken is tender. Remove the meat from the bones and cut it
into small pieces. Put the bones into the kettle and simmer for another
hour. Strain the liquid from the veal and bones and remove the fat. Add
the salt, pepper, chicken, and the juice of the lemon. Return to the
fire and cook for a few minutes. Serve with a tablespoonful or two of
cooked rice in each soup dish.

[Illustration: FIG. 5]

48. Noodle Soup.--The addition of noodles to soup increases its food
value to a considerable extent by providing carbohydrate from the flour
and protein from the egg and flour. Noodle soup is a very attractive
dish if the noodles are properly made, for then they will not cause the
soup to become cloudy when they are put into it. Little difficulty will
be experienced if the directions here given for making noodles are
followed explicitly.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 egg
1 Tb. milk
1/2 tsp. salt
1 qt. household stock
3 sprigs parsley
1 small onion

To make noodles, beat the egg slightly, add to it the milk, and stir in
the salt and enough flour to make a stiff dough. Toss upon a floured
board and roll very thin. Allow the dough to dry for hour or more, and
then, as shown in Fig. 5, cut it into strips about 4 inches wide. Place
several strips together, one on top of the other, and roll them up
tight, in the manner indicated. Cut each roll into thin slices with a
sharp knife, as shown in Fig. 6. When the slices are separated the
noodles should appear as shown in the pile at the right. If it is
desired not to follow this plan, the dough may be rolled into a thin
sheet and cut into strips with a noodle cutter.

[Illustration: FIG. 6]

Such a supply of noodles may be used at once, or they may be dried
thoroughly and sealed tightly in a jar for future use. The very dry
ones, however, require a little longer cooking than those which are
freshly made. With the noodles prepared, heat the stock with the parsley
and onion chopped very fine. Add the noodles and cook for 15 or 20
minutes or until the noodles are thoroughly cooked.

Rice, barley, macaroni, and other starchy materials may be added to
stock in the same way as the noodles.

49. Vegetable Soup With Noodles.--The combination of noodles and
vegetables in soup is a very excellent one, since the vegetables add
flavor and the noodles add nutritive value. If the vegetables given in
the accompanying recipe cannot be readily obtained, others may be

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 carrot
1 onion
1 turnip
1 stalk celery
1 c. boiling water
1/2 tsp. salt
1/2 c. noodles
2 sprigs parsley
1/8 tsp. pepper
1 qt. household stock

Dice the vegetables and put them on to cook with the boiling water and
the salt. Cook for a few minutes or until partly soft. Add the noodles,
parsley, pepper, and stock and cook for 15 minutes longer. Serve.

[Illustration: Fig. 7]


50. Soups classed as cream soups consist of a thin white sauce to which
is added a vegetable in the form of a purée or cut into small pieces.
Because of their nature, cream soups are usually high in food value; but
they are not highly flavored, so their use is that of supplying
nutrition rather than stimulating the appetite. Considerable variety can
be secured in cream soups, for there are scarcely any vegetables that
cannot be used in the making of them. Potatoes, corn, asparagus,
spinach, peas, tomatoes, and onions are the vegetables that are used
oftenest, but cream soups may also be made of vegetable oysters, okra,
carrots, watercress, celery, cabbage, cauliflower, beans, lentils, and
dried peas. The vegetables may be cooked especially for the soup, or
left-over or canned vegetables may be utilized. It is an excellent plan
to cook more than enough of some vegetables for one day, so that some
will be left over and ready for soup the next day.

If the vegetable is not cut up into small pieces, it must be put through
a sieve and made into the form of a purée before it can be added to the
liquid. Two kinds of sieves for this purpose are shown in Fig. 7. It
will be observed that with the large, round sieve, a potato masher must
be used to mash the vegetables, the pulp of which is caught by the
utensil in which the sieve is held. In making use of the smaller sieve,
or ricer, the vegetable is placed in it and then mashed by pressing the
top down over the contents with the aid of the handles.

51. THIN WHITE SAUCE.--The liquid for cream soups should be thin white
sauce made entirely of milk or of milk and cream. The flavor of the soup
will be improved, however, by using with the milk some meat stock, or
the stock that remains from cooking celery, asparagus, or any vegetables
that will lend a good flavor to the soup. The recipe here given makes a
sauce that may be used for any kind of cream soup.


1 pt. milk, or milk and cream or stock
1 tsp. salt
2 Tb. butter
2 Tb. flour

Heat the liquid, salt, and butter in a double boiler. Stir the flour and
some of the cold liquid that has been reserved to a perfectly smooth,
thin paste and add to the hot liquid. Stir constantly after adding the
flour, so that no lumps will form. When the sauce becomes thick, it is
ready for the addition of any flavoring material that will make a
palatable soup. If thick material, such as any vegetable in the form of
a purée, rice, or potato, is used without additional liquid, only half
as much flour will be required to thicken the sauce.

52. CREAM-OF-POTATO SOUP.--Because of the large quantity of carbohydrate
derived from the potato, cream-of-potato soup is high in food value. For
persons who are fond of the flavor of the potato, this makes a delicious
soup and one that may be served as the main dish in a light meal.

(Sufficient to Serve Four)

2 slices of onion
1 sprig parsley
2 medium-sized potatoes
1 c. milk
1 c. potato water
1 Tb. flour
2 Tb. butter
1 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper

Cook the onion and parsley with the potatoes, and, when cooked soft,
drain and mash. Make a sauce of the milk, potato water, flour, and
butter. Season with the salt and pepper, add the mashed potato,
and serve.

53. CREAM-OF-CORN SOUP.--The flavor of corn is excellent in a cream
soup, the basis of the soup being milk, butter, and flour. Then, too,
the addition of the corn, which is comparatively high in food value,
makes a very nutritious soup.

(Sufficient to Serve Four)

1 pt. milk
1 Tb. butter
1 Tb. flour
1 c. canned corn
1 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper

Make a white sauce of the milk, butter, and flour. Force the corn
through a colander or a sieve, and add the purée to the white sauce.
Season with the salt and pepper, and serve.

54. Cream-of-Asparagus Soup.--The asparagus used in cream-of-asparagus
soup adds very little besides flavor, but this is of sufficient value to
warrant its use. If a pinch of soda is used in asparagus soup, there is
less danger of the curdling that sometimes occurs. In making this soup,
the asparagus should be combined with the white sauce just
before serving.

(Sufficient to Serve Four)

1 pt. milk
2 Tb. flour
2 Tb. butter
1 c. asparagus purée
1 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper

Make white sauce of the milk, flour, and butter. Add to it the cup of
purée made by forcing freshly cooked or canned asparagus through a
sieve. Season with the salt and pepper, and serve.

55. Cream-of-Spinach Soup.--Although cream-of-spinach soup is not
especially attractive in appearance, most persons enjoy its flavor, and
the soup serves as another way of adding an iron-containing food to the
diet. Children may often be induced to take the soup when they would
refuse the spinach as a vegetable.

(Sufficient to Serve Four)

1 pt. milk
2 Tb. flour
2 Tb. butter
1/2 c. spinach purée
1 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper

Make white sauce of the milk, flour, and butter. Add the spinach purée,
made by forcing freshly cooked or canned spinach through a sieve. Season
with the salt and pepper, heat thoroughly, and serve.

56. Cream-of-Pea Soup.--Either dried peas or canned green peas may be
used to make cream-of-pea soup. If dried peas are used, they must first
be cooked soft enough to pass through a sieve. The flavor is quite
different from that of green peas. With the use of green peas, a fair
amount of both protein and carbohydrate is added to the soup, but more
protein is provided when dried peas are used.

(Sufficient to Serve Four)

1 pt. milk
1 Tb. flour
2 Tb. butter
1/2 c. pea purée
1 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper

Make white sauce of the milk, flour, and butter. Put enough freshly
cooked or canned peas through a sieve to make 1/2 cupful of purée. Then
add the pea purée, the salt, and the pepper to the white sauce. Heat
thoroughly and serve.

57. CREAM-OF-TOMATO SOUP.--As a rule, cream-of-tomato soup is popular
with every one. Besides being pleasing to the taste, it is comparatively
high in food value, because its basis is cream sauce. However, the
tomatoes themselves add very little else besides flavor and
mineral salts.

(Sufficient to Serve Four)

1 c. canned tomatoes
1 pt. milk
3 Tb. flour
3 Tb. butter
1/8 tsp. soda
1 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper

Force the tomatoes through a sieve and heat them. Make white sauce of
the milk, flour, and butter. Add the soda to the tomatoes, and pour them
slowly into the white sauce, stirring rapidly. If the sauce begins to
curdle, beat the soup quickly with a rotary egg beater. Add the salt and
pepper and serve.

58. CREAM-OF-ONION SOUP.--Many persons who are not fond of onions can
often eat soup made of this vegetable. This is probably due to the fact
that the browning of the onions before they are used in the soup
improves the flavor very decidedly. In addition, this treatment of the
onions gives just a little color to the soup.

(Sufficient to Serve Four)

4 medium-sized onions
4 Tb. butter
2 Tb. flour
2-1/2 c. milk
1 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper

Slice the onions and brown them in a frying pan with 2 tablespoonfuls of
the butter. Make white sauce of the flour, the remaining butter, and the
milk. Add to this the browned onions, salt, and pepper. Heat thoroughly
and serve.


59. CHESTNUT PURÉE.--There are many recipes for the use of chestnuts in
the making of foods, but probably none is any more popular than that for
chestnut purée. The chestnuts develop a light-tan color in the soup. The
very large ones should be purchased for this purpose, since chestnuts of
ordinary size are very tedious to work with.

(Sufficient to Serve Four)

1 c. mashed chestnuts
1 c. milk
2 Tb. flour
2 Tb. butter
1 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
1/8 tsp. celery salt
1 c. white stock

Cook Spanish chestnuts for 10 minutes; then remove the shells and skins
and mash the chestnuts. Make white sauce of the milk, flour, and butter.
Add to this the mashed chestnuts, salt, pepper, celery salt, and stock.
Heat thoroughly and serve.

60. SPLIT-PEA PURÉE.--Dried peas or split peas are extremely high in
food value, and their addition to soup stock makes a highly nutritious
soup of very delightful flavor. Such a purée served in quantity does
nicely for the main dish in a light meal. Instead of the peas, dried
beans or lentils may be used if they are preferred.

(Sufficient to Serve Four)

3/4 c. split peas
1 pt. white stock
1 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
2 Tb. butter
2 Tb. flour

Soak the peas overnight, and cook in sufficient water to cover well
until they are soft. When thoroughly soft, drain the water from the peas
and put them through a colander. Heat the stock and add to it the pea
purée, salt, and pepper. Rub the butter and flour together, moisten with
some of the warm liquid, and add to the soup. Cook for a few minutes
and serve.


61. CLAM CHOWDER.--The flavor of clams, like that of oysters and other
kinds of sea food, is offensive to some persons, but where this is not
the case, clam chowder is a popular dish of high food value. This kind
of soup is much used in localities where clams are plentiful.

(Sufficient to Serve Eight)

1 c. water
1 qt. clams
1 small onion
1 c. sliced potatoes
1/2 c. stewed tomatoes
1/2 c. diced carrots
1/2 c. diced celery
1-1/2 c. milk
2 Tb. butter
1-1/2 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper

Add the water to the clams, and pick them over carefully to remove any
shell. Strain the liquid through cheesecloth, and then scald the clams
in it. Remove the clams and cook the vegetables in the liquid until they
are soft. Add the milk, butter, salt, and pepper and return the clams.
Heat thoroughly and serve over crackers.

62. FISH CHOWDER.--An excellent way in which to utilize a small quantity
of fish is afforded by fish chowder. In addition, this dish is quite
high in food value, so that when it is served with crackers, little of
anything else need be served with it to make an entire meal if it be
luncheon or supper. Cod, haddock, or fresh-water fish may be used in the
accompanying recipe.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 lb. fish
1 small onion
1 c. sliced potatoes
1/2 c. stewed tomatoes
1-1/2 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
2 Tb. butter
1-1/2 c. milk

Skin the fish, remove the flesh, and cut it into small pieces. Simmer
the head, bones, and skin of the fish and the onion in water for 1/2
hour. Strain, and add to this stock the fish, potatoes, tomatoes, salt,
and pepper. Simmer together until the potatoes are soft. Add the butter
and milk. Serve over crackers.

63. POTATO CHOWDER.--A vegetable mixture such as the one suggested in
the accompanying recipe is in reality not a chowder, for this form of
soup requires sea food for its basis. However, when it is impossible to
procure the sea food, potato chowder does nicely as a change from the
usual soup. This chowder differs in no material way from soup stock in
this form.

(Sufficient to Serve Four)

1-1/2 c. sliced potatoes
1 small onion, sliced
1 c. water
1-1/2 c. milk
1 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
2 Tb. butter

Cook the potatoes and onion in the water until they are soft, but not
soft enough to fall to pieces. Rub half of the potatoes through a sieve
and return to the sliced ones. Add the milk, salt, pepper, and butter.
Cook together for a few minutes and serve.

64. CORN CHOWDER.--The addition of corn to potato chowder adds variety
of flavor and makes a delicious mixture of vegetables. This dish is
rather high in food value, especially if the soup is served over
crackers. A small amount of tomato, although not mentioned in the
recipe, may be added to this combination to improve the flavor.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. sliced potatoes
1 small onion, sliced
1 c. water
1 c. canned corn
1-1/2 c. milk
2 Tb. butter
1 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper

Cook the potatoes and onions in the water until they are soft. Add the
corn, milk, butter, salt, and pepper, and cook together for a few
minutes. Serve over crackers.


[Illustration: FIG. 8]

65. The soup course of a meal is a more or less unattractive one, but it
may be improved considerably if some tempting thing in the way of a
garnish or an accompaniment is served with it. But whatever is selected
to accompany soup should be, in a great measure, a contrast to it in
both consistency and color. The reason why a difference in consistency
is necessary is due to the nature of soup, which, being liquid in form,
is merely swallowed and does not stimulate the flow of the gastric
juices by mastication. Therefore, the accompaniment should be something
that requires chewing and that will consequently cause the digestive
juices, which respond to the mechanical action of chewing, to flow. The
garnish may add the color that is needed to make soup attractive. The
green and red of olives and radishes or of celery and radishes make a
decided contrast, so that when any of these things are served with soup,
an appetizing first course is the result. It is not necessary to serve
more than one of them, but if celery and radishes or celery, radishes,
and olives can be combined in the same relish dish, they become more
attractive than when each is served by itself.

[Illustration: FIG. 9]

66. RADISHES AND CELERY.--Before radishes and celery are used on the
table, whether with soup or some other part of a meal, they should be
put into cold water and allowed to stand for some time, so that they
will be perfectly crisp when they are served. In the case of radishes,
the tops and roots should first be cut from them, and the radishes then
scrubbed thoroughly. They may be served without any further treatment,
or they may be prepared to resemble flowers, as is shown in Fig. 8. This
may be done by peeling the red skin back to show the white inside, and
then cutting the sections to look like the petals of a flower. Little
difficulty will be experienced in preparing radishes in this artistic
way if a sharp knife is used, for, with a little practice, the work can
be done quickly and skilfully.

67. Celery that is to be served with soup may be prepared in two ways,
as Fig. 9 illustrates. The stems may be pulled from the stalk and served
separately, as in the group on the right, or the stalk may be cut down
through the center with a knife into four or more pieces, as shown at
the left of the illustration. The first of these methods is not so good
as the second, for by it one person gets all of the tender heart and the
coarse outside stems are left for all the others. By the second method,
every piece consists of some of the heart and some of the outside stems
attached to the root and makes a similar serving for each person.
Whichever way is adopted, however, the celery should be scrubbed and
cleansed thoroughly. This is often a difficult task, because the dirt
sticks tightly between the stems. Still, an effort should be made to
have the celery entirely free from dirt before it goes to the table. A
few tender yellow leaves may be left on the pieces to improve the
appearance of the celery.

68. CRACKERS.--Various kinds of wafers and crackers can be purchased to
serve with soup, and the selection, as well as the serving of them, is
entirely a matter of individual taste. One point, however, that must not
be overlooked is that crackers of any kind must be crisp in order to be
appetizing. Dry foods of this sort absorb moisture from the air when
they are exposed to it and consequently become tough. As heat drives off
this moisture and restores the original crispness, crackers should
always be heated before they are served. Their flavor can be improved by
toasting them until they are light brown in color.

69. CROUTONS.--As has already been learned, croutons are small pieces of
bread that have been fried or toasted to serve with soup. These are
usually made in the form of cubes, or dice, as is shown in the front
group in Fig. 10; but they may be cut into triangles, circles, ovals,
hearts, or, in fact, any fancy shape, by means of small cutters that can
be purchased for such purposes. The bread used for croutons should not
be fresh bread, as such bread does not toast nor fry very well;
left-over toast, stale bread, or slices of bread that have been cut from
the loaf and not eaten are usually found more satisfactory. If the
croutons are not made from slices already cut, the bread should be cut
into slices 1/4 to 1/2 inch thick, and, after the crusts have been
closely trimmed, the slices should be cut into cubes. When the cubes
have been obtained, they may be put into a shallow pan and toasted on
all sides quickly, placed in a frying basket and browned in deep fat, or
put into a frying pan and sautéd in butter. If toast is used, it should
merely be cut in the desired shape.

Various methods of serving croutons are in practice. Some housewives
prefer to place them in the soup tureen and pour the soup over them,
while others like to put a few in each individual serving of soup. A
better plan, however, and one that is much followed, is to serve a
number of croutons on a small plate or dish at each person's place, as
shown in Figs. 3 and 4, for then every one may eat them in the way

[Illustration: FIG. 10]

70. BREAD STICKS.--A soup accompaniment similar in nature to croutons,
and known as _bread sticks_, is made of pieces of bread 1/2 inch wide,
1/2 inch thick, and several inches long. These are toasted on each side
and are served in place of crackers. A number of them are shown in the
back row in Fig. 10. Variety in bread sticks may be secured by spreading
butter over them before the toasting is begun or by sprinkling grated
cheese over them a few minutes before they are removed from the oven.
Bread sticks are usually served on a bread-and-butter plate to the left
of each person's place at the table.

71. PASTRY STRIPS.--A very appetizing addition to soup may be made by
cutting pastry into narrow strips and then baking these strips in the
oven until they are brown or frying them in deep fat and draining them.
Strips prepared in this way may be served in place of crackers,
croutons, or bread sticks, and are considered delicious by those who are
fond of pastry. Details regarding pastry are given in another Section.

72. SOUP FRITTERS.--If an entirely different kind of soup accompaniment
from those already mentioned is desired, soup fritters will no doubt
find favor. These are made by combining certain ingredients to form a
batter and then dropping small amounts of this into hot fat and frying
them until they are crisp and brown. The accompanying recipe, provided
it is followed carefully, will produce good results.


1 egg
2 Tb. milk
3/4 tsp. salt
1/2 c. flour

Beat the egg, and to it add the milk, salt, and flour. Drop the batter
in tiny drops into hot fat, and fry until brown and crisp. Drain on
paper and serve with the soup.

73. EGG BALLS.--To serve with a soup that is well flavored but not
highly nutritious, egg balls are very satisfactory. In addition to
supplying nutrition, these balls are extremely appetizing, and so they
greatly improve a course that is often unattractive. Careful attention
given to the ingredients and the directions in the accompanying recipe
will produce good results.


3 yolks of hard-cooked eggs
1/2 tsp. melted butter
Salt and pepper
1 uncooked yolk

Mash the cooked yolks, and to them add the butter, salt, and pepper, and
enough of the uncooked yolk to make the mixture of a consistency to
handle easily. Shape into tiny balls. Roll in the white of egg and then
in flour and sauté in butter. Serve in the individual dishes of soup.

74. FORCEMEAT BALLS.--Another delicious form of accompaniment that
improves certain soups by adding nutrition is forcemeat balls. These
contain various nutritious ingredients combined into small balls, and
the balls are then either sautéd or fried in deep fat. They may be
placed in the soup tureen or in each person's soup.


1/2 c. fine stale-bread crumbs
1/2 c. milk
2 Tb. butter
White of 1 egg
1/4 tsp. salt
Few grains of pepper
2/3 c. breast of raw chicken or raw fish

Cook the bread crumbs and milk to form a paste, and to this add the
butter, beaten egg white, and seasonings. Pound the chicken or fish to a
pulp, or force it through a food chopper and then through a purée
strainer. Add this to the first mixture. Form into tiny balls. Roll in
flour and either sauté or fry in deep fat. Serve hot.

75. AMERICAN FORCEMEAT BALLS.--A simple kind of forcemeat balls may be
made according to the accompanying recipe. The meat used may be sausage
provided especially for the purpose or some that is left over from a
previous meal. If it is not possible to obtain sausage, some other
highly seasoned meat, such as ham first ground very fine and then
pounded to a pulp, may be substituted.


1 Tb. butter
1 small onion
1-1/2 c. bread, without crusts
1 egg
1 tsp. salt
1/2 tsp. pepper
Dash of nutmeg
1 Tb. chopped parsley
1/2 c. sausage meat

Melt the butter in a saucepan and add the onion finely chopped. Fry for
several minutes over the fire. Soak the bread in water until thoroughly
softened and then squeeze out all the water. Mix with the bread the egg,
salt, pepper, nutmeg, parsley, and meat, and to this add also the butter
and fried onion. Form small balls of this mixture and sauté them in
shallow fat, fry them in deep fat, or, after brushing them over with
fat, bake them in the oven. Place a few in each serving of soup.



(1) (_a_) Mention the two purposes that soups serve in a meal, (_b_)
What are the qualities of a good soup?

(2) (_a_) Mention the two general classes of soup. (_b_) Explain and
illustrate how to choose a soup.

(3) Why is soup an economical dish?

(4) (_a_) Explain in full the meaning of stock as applied to soup. (_b_)
For what purposes other than soup making is stock used?

(5) (_a_) What is the value of the stock pot? (_b_) What care should be
given to it?

(6) Mention some of the materials that may be put into the stock pot.

(7) (_a_) Why are the tough cuts of meat more suitable for soup than the
tender ones? (_b_) Name the pieces that are best adapted to soup making.

(8) (_a_) What proportion of bone to meat should be used in making soup
from fresh meat? (_b_) For what two purposes are vegetables used
in soup?

(9) Explain briefly the making of stock from meat.

(10) (_a_) Why should the cooking of the meat for stock be started with
cold water rather than with hot water? (_b_) What disposal should be
made of meat from which stock is made?

(11) (_a_) Of what value are flavorings in the making of soups? (_b_)
What precaution should be taken in the use of flavorings?

(12) Explain how grease may be removed from soup.

(13) How may soup be cleared?

(14) (_a_) For what purposes is thickening used in soups? (_b_) Mention
the materials most used to thicken soups.

(15) What precaution should be taken to keep soup or stock from

(16) What point about the serving of soup should be observed if an
appetizing soup is desired?

(17) What kind of dish is used for serving: (_a_) thin soup? (_b_) thick

(18) (_a_) What is a cream soup? (_b_) Give the general directions for
making soup of this kind.

(19) (_a_) How may the soup course of a meal be made more attractive?
(_b_) In what ways should soup accompaniments be a contrast to the soup?

(20) (_a_) Explain the making of croutons. (_b_) What is the most
satisfactory way in which to prepare celery that is to be served
with soup?


Plan and prepare a dinner menu from the recipes given in the lessons
that you have studied. Submit the menu for this dinner and give the
order in which you prepared the dishes. In addition, tell the number of
persons you served, as well as what remained after the meal and whether
or not you made use of it for another meal. Send this information with
your answers to the Examination Questions.

* * * * *


* * * * *



1. In its broadest sense, MEAT may be considered as "any clean, sound,
dressed or properly prepared edible part of animals that are in good
health at the time of slaughter." However, the flesh of carnivorous
animals--that is, animals that eat the flesh of other animals--is so
seldom eaten by man, that the term meat is usually restricted to the
flesh of all animals except these. But even this meaning of meat is too
broad; indeed, as the term is generally used it refers particularly to
the flesh of the so-called domestic animals, and does not include
poultry, game, fish, and the like. It is in this limited sense that meat
is considered in these Sections, and the kinds to which attention is
given are beef, veal, lamb, mutton, and pork. Meat, including these
varieties, forms one of the principal sources of the family's food
supply. As such, it is valuable chiefly as a food; but, in the form of
broths and extracts made from it, meat stimulates the appetite and
actually assists the flow of gastric juice. Therefore, so that the
outlay for meat will not be greater than it should be and this food will
provide the greatest amount of nourishment, every housewife should be
thoroughly familiar with the place it occupies in the dietary.

2. In the first place, it should be remembered that the food eaten by
human beings comes from two sources--animal and vegetable. The foods of
animal origin, which include milk, eggs, and meat, have a certain
similarity that causes them to be classed together and this is the fact
that they are high-protein foods. Milk is the first protein food fed to
the young, but a little later it is partly replaced by eggs, and,
finally, or in adult life, meat largely takes the place of both. For
this reason, meat has considerable importance in the dietary. In
reality, from this food is obtained the greatest amount of protein that
the average person eats. However, it will be well to note that milk and
eggs, as well as cheese and even cereals and vegetables, can be made to
take the place of meat when the use of less of this food is deemed

3. As the work of protein foods is to build and repair tissue, it is on
them that the human race largely depends. Of course, protein also yields
energy; but the amount is so small that if one variety of protein food,
such as meat, were eaten simply to supply energy to the body, huge
quantities of it would be needed to do the same work that a small amount
of less expensive food would accomplish. Some persons have an idea that
meat produces the necessary strength and energy of those who perform
hard work. This is entirely erroneous, because fats and carbohydrates
are the food substances that produce the energy required to do work.
Some kind of protein is, of course, absolutely necessary to the health
of every normal person, but a fact that cannot be emphasized too
strongly is that an oversupply of it does more harm than good.

Scientists have been trying for a long time to determine just how much
of these tissue-building foods is necessary for individuals, but they
have found this a difficult matter. Nevertheless, it is generally
conceded that most persons are likely to use too much rather than too
little of them. It is essential then, not only from the standpoint of
economy, but from the far more important principle of health, that the
modern housewife should know the nutritive value of meats.

4. In her efforts to familiarize herself with these matters, the
housewife should ever remember that meat is the most expensive of the
daily foods of a family. Hence, to get the greatest value for the money
expended, meat must be bought judiciously, cared for properly, and
prepared carefully. Too many housewives trust the not over-scrupulous
butcher to give them the kind of meat they should have, and very often
they do not have a clear idea as to whether it is the best piece that
can be purchased for the desired purpose and for the price that is
asked. Every housewife ought to be so familiar with the various cuts of
meat that she need not depend on any one except herself in the purchase
of this food. She will find that both the buying and the preparation of
meats will be a simple matter for her if she learns these three
important things: (1) From what part of the animal the particular piece
she desires is cut and how to ask for that piece; (2) how to judge a
good piece of meat by its appearance; and (3) what to do with it from
the moment it is purchased until the last bit of it is used.

5. Of these three things, the cooking of meat is the one that demands
the most attention, because it has a decided effect on the quality and
digestibility of this food. Proper cooking is just as essential in the
case of meat as for any other food, for a tender, digestible piece of
meat may be made tough and indigestible by improper preparation, while a
tough piece may be made tender and very appetizing by careful,
intelligent preparation. The cheaper cuts of meat, which are often
scorned as being too tough for use, may be converted into delicious
dishes by the skilful cook who understands how to apply the various
methods of cookery and knows what their effect will be on the
meat tissues.

6. Unfortunately, thorough cooking affects the digestibility of meat
unfavorably; but it is doubtless a wise procedure in some cases because,
as is definitely known, some of the parasites that attack man find their
way into the system through the meat that is eaten. These are carried to
meat from external sources, such as dust, flies, and the soiled hands of
persons handling it, and they multiply and thrive. It is known, too,
that some of the germs that cause disease in the animal remain in its
flesh and are thus transmitted to human beings that eat such meat. If
there is any question as to its good condition, meat must be thoroughly
cooked, because long cooking completely eliminates the danger from
such sources.


7. An understanding of the physical structure of meat is essential to
its successful cooking. Meat consists of muscular tissue, or lean;
varying quantities of visible fat that lie between and within the
membranes and tendons; and also particles of fat that are too small to
be distinguished except with the aid of a microscope. The general nature
of the lean part of meat can be determined by examining a piece of it
with merely the unaided eye. On close observation, it will be noted
that, especially in the case of meat that has been cooked, innumerable
thread-like fibers make up the structure. With a microscope, it can be
observed that these visible fibers are made up of still smaller ones,
the length of which varies in different parts of the animal. It is to
the length of these fibers that the tenderness of meat is due. Short
fibers are much easier to chew than long ones; consequently, the pieces
containing them are the most tender. These muscle fibers, which are in
the form of tiny tubes, are filled with a protein substance. They are
held together with a tough, stringy material called _connective tissue_.
As the animal grows older and its muscles are used more, the walls of
these tubes or fibers become dense and tough; likewise, the amount of
connective tissue increases and becomes tougher. Among the muscle fibers
are embedded layers and particles of fat, the quantity of which varies
greatly in different animals and depends largely on the age of the
animal. For instance, lamb and veal usually have very little fat in the
tissues, mutton and beef always contain more, while pork contains a
greater amount of fat than the meat of any other domestic animal.

8. The composition of meat depends to a large extent on the breed of the
animal, the degree to which it has been fattened, and the particular cut
of meat in question. However, the muscle fibers are made up of protein
and contain more protein, mineral salts, or ash, and certain substances
called _extractives_, all of which are held in solution by water. The
younger the animal, the greater is the proportion of water and the lower
the nutritive value of meat. It should be understood, however, that not
all of meat is edible material; indeed, a large part of it is made up of
gristle, bones, cartilage, nerves, blood vessels, and connective tissue.
The amount of these indigestible materials also varies in different
animals and different cuts, but the average proportion in a piece of
meat is usually considered to be 15 per cent. of the whole. Because of
the variation of both the edible and inedible material of meat, a
standard composition for this food cannot readily be given. However, an
idea of the average composition of the various kinds can be obtained
from Fig. 1.

[Illustration: Fig 1.]

BEEF Fuel value per pound
Chuck, medium fat 735
Loin, medium fat 1040
Ribs, medium fat 1155
Round, very lean 475
Round, medium fat 895
Round, very fat 1275
Rump, medium fat 1110

Breast, medium fat 740
Leg, medium fat 620
Loin, medium fat 690

Leg, medium fat 870

Leg, medium fat 900

Ham, fresh, medium fat 1345
Ham, smoked 1675
Loin 1455
Bacon, medium fat 2795

9. PROTEIN IN MEAT.--The value of meat as food is due to the proteins
that it contains. Numerous kinds of protein occur in meat, but the
chief varieties are myosin and muscle albumin. The _myosin_, which is
the most important protein and occurs in the greatest quantity, hardens
after the animal has been killed and the muscles have become cold. The
tissues then become tough and hard, a condition known as _rigor
mortis_. As meat in this condition is not desirable, it should be used
before rigor mortis sets in, or else it should be put aside until this
condition of toughness disappears. The length of time necessary for this
to occur varies with the size of the animal that is killed. It may be
from 24 hours to 3 or 4 days. The disappearance is due to the
development of certain acids that cause the softening of the tissues.
The _albumin_, which is contained in solution in the muscle fibers, is
similar in composition to the albumen of eggs and milk, and it is
affected by the application of heat in the cooking processes in much
the same way.

10. GELATINE IN MEAT.--The gelatine that is found in meat is a substance
very similar in composition to protein, but it has less value as food.
It is contained in the connective tissue and can be extracted by
boiling, being apparent as a jellylike substance after the water in
which meat has been cooked has cooled. Use is made of this material in
the preparation of pressed meats and fowl and in various salads and
other cold-meat dishes. Some kinds of commercial gelatine are also made
from it, being first extracted from the meat and then evaporated to form
a dry substance.

11. FAT IN MEAT.--All meat, no matter how lean it appears, contains some
fat. As already explained, a part of the fat contained in meat occurs in
small particles so embedded in the muscle fibers as not to be readily
seen, while the other part occurs in sufficient amounts to be visible.
In the flesh of some animals, such as veal and rabbit, there is almost
no visible fat, but in very fat hogs or fowls, one-third or one-half of
the weight may be fat. Meats that are very fat are higher in nutritive
value than meats that contain only a small amount of this substance, as
will be observed on referring to the table of meat compositions in Fig.
1. However, an excessive amount of fat prevents the protein materials
from digesting normally.

The quality of fat varies greatly, there being two distinct kinds of
this material in animals. That which covers or lies between the muscles
or occurs on the outside of the body just beneath the skin has a lower
melting point, is less firm, and is of a poorer grade for most purposes
than that which is found inside the bony structure and surrounds the
internal organs. The suet of beef is an example of this internal fat.

Fat is a valuable constituent of food, for it is the most concentrated
form in which the fuel elements of food are found. In supplying the body
with fuel, it serves to maintain the body temperature and to yield
energy in the form of muscular and other power. Since this is such a
valuable food material, it is important that the best possible use be
made of all drippings and left-over fats and that not even the smallest
amount of any kind be wasted.

12. CARBOHYDRATE IN MEAT.--In the liver and all muscle fibers of animals
is stored a small supply of carbohydrate in a form that is called
_glycogen_, or _muscle sugar_. However, there is not enough of this
substance to be of any appreciable value, and, so far as the methods of
cookery and the uses of meat as food are concerned, it is of no

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