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Woman's Institute Library of Cookery, Vol. 2 by Woman's Institute of Domestic Arts and Sciences

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water until they are tender, and then drain. Make a white sauce of 2
tablespoonfuls of the butter, flour, salt, and milk. Butter the crumbs
by pouring 1 tablespoonful of melted butter over them, stirring until
well blended. Place one-fourth of the crumbs in the bottom of a baking
dish, add about half of the sprouts, and place another fourth of the
crumbs over the sprouts. Add the remaining half of the sprouts and pour
the sauce over these. Sprinkle the rest of the crumbs over the top,
place in the oven, and bake until the crumbs are brown and the
ingredients thoroughly heated.

CABBAGE AND ITS PREPARATION

84. CABBAGE consists of the foliage of the cabbage plant. It is a
succulent vegetable with a high flavor; in fact, its flavor is so strong
that in many cases it disagrees with persons. However, if cabbage is
properly cooked, no apprehension need be felt about eating it, for it
can be digested by most persons. The food value of cabbage is not
high, being even less than that of string beans. The greater part of
this food value is carbohydrate in the form of sugar, but in order to
prepare cabbage so that it has any importance in the meal, considerable
quantities of protein, fat, and carbohydrate must be added. In itself,
it is valuable for its mineral salts and bulk.

Numerous varieties of cabbage can be procured, but only three are
commonly used. These include _white cabbage_, which is used the most;
_purple cabbage_, which is very dark in color and contains varying
shades of red and blue; and _Savoy cabbage_, which has a large number of
green crinkled leaves and is commonly cooked by boiling.

85. SELECTION AND CARE OF CABBAGE.--Heads of cabbage that feel firm and
solid to the touch and are rather heavy for their size are the best to
select for cooking purposes. This vegetable comes into the market early
in the summer and may be had until late in the fall. As it has excellent
keeping qualities, it may be stored for use as a winter vegetable. When
this is done, the stem and the roots should be allowed to remain on the
head, for then the cabbage is less apt to wither. If this precaution is
taken and the cabbage is stored in a cool place, no great care is
required to keep it in good condition until it is to be cooked unless,
of course, it is kept for an abnormal length of time.

86. PREPARATION AND COOKING OF CABBAGE.--To prepare cabbage for cooking,
remove the outside leaves and then cut the head that remains into pieces
of any desirable size. Whether the cabbage should be left in large
pieces or cut very fine depends on the dish that is to be prepared. For
the first cutting, be sure to cut the head down through the heart and
the stem, so that the part not used will remain intact. This may then be
used another time if it is kept cool and moist. In case the cabbage
becomes at all wilted, it may be freshened by placing it in cold water a
short time before it is to be cooked.

87. Cabbage is a vegetable that has many uses and is eaten both raw and
cooked. Numerous opinions exist about the difference in digestibility
between raw and cooked cabbage, as well as the best ways in which to
cook this vegetable. It may be true that in some cases raw cabbage does
not cause the disagreeable effect that cooked cabbage often does, but
the reason for this is that cabbage when raw has a milder flavor than
when cooked, cabbage generally developing during the cooking a strong
flavor that causes trouble. The flavor of cabbage, however, may be
dissipated if attention is given to the cooking, so that, when properly
prepared, cabbage can be eaten with little fear of indigestion.

88. When cabbage is cooked, it is usually boiled like other vegetables;
that is, it is covered well with boiling water to which 1 teaspoonful of
salt is added for each quart, and then allowed to boil until it can be
easily pierced with a fork. Its cooking differs, however, from that of
many vegetables, string beans, for instance, in that it is carried on
with the cover removed from the kettle. This plan permits of the
evaporation of much of the strong flavor, which arises in the steam and
which would otherwise be reabsorbed by the cabbage. Since it is the
retention of this flavor, together with long cooking, that causes this
vegetable to disagree with persons who eat it, both of these points
should be carefully watched. If it is cooked in an open vessel and it is
boiled just long enough to be tender, so that when done it is white and
fresh-looking and not in any way discolored, an easily digested dish
will be the result. Usually cabbage will cook sufficiently in 1/2 hour
and often in less time.

89. BOILED CABBAGE.--Although cabbage permits of numerous methods of
preparation, plain boiled cabbage finds favor with many persons.
Generally, cabbage prepared in this way is merely seasoned with butter
and served in a part of the liquid in which it is cooked, but it has a
more appetizing flavor if bacon or ham fat is used for seasoning or if a
small quantity of ham or salt pork is cooked with it.

To prepare boiled cabbage, remove the outside leaves from a head of
cabbage, cut it in half down through the heart, and then cut each half
into coarse pieces. Unless it is very fresh, allow it to stand in cold
water for at least 1 hour before cooking. Put it into a kettle or a
saucepan, cover well with boiling water, and add 1 teaspoonful of salt
for each quart of water. If ham or salt pork is to be cooked with the
cabbage, put a small piece in the kettle with the cabbage. Allow the
cabbage to cook with the cover removed until it is sufficiently tender
to be pierced with a fork. Pour off all or a part of the liquid,
depending on whether it is to be served dry or in its own liquid, and
then, in case it has been cooked alone, add butter or ham or bacon fat
for flavor. If not sufficiently seasoned, add pepper and more salt.

90. CREAMED CABBAGE.--When cabbage is to be creamed, it is cut up into
fairly fine pieces with a sharp knife. The cream sauce that is added to
it provides considerable food value and greatly improves its flavor.

CREAMED CABBAGE
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

4 c. finely cut cabbage
2 Tb. butter
2 Tb. flour
1/2 tsp. salt
Dash of pepper
1/2 c. milk or thin cream
1/2 c. liquid from cabbage

Cook the cabbage according to the directions given in Art. 89 until it
is tender and then drain the water from it. While it is cooking, melt
the butter in a double boiler, add the flour, and stir until smooth.
Pour in the heated liquid and season with the salt and pepper. Stir
until the flour is thickened and the sauce is smooth. Pour this over the
cabbage, heat together for a few minutes, and serve hot.

91. SCALLOPED CABBAGE.--Scalloped cabbage is a particularly appetizing
vegetable dish, and, on account of the ingredients used in its
preparation, it is more nutritious than some of the other dishes in
which cabbage is used.

SCALLOPED CABBAGE
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

4 c. cabbage
1 c. buttered crumbs
2 Tb. butter
2 Tb. flour
1 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
1 c. milk
1/2 c. liquid from cabbage

Cut the cabbage into very small pieces with a sharp knife or a cabbage
chopper. Cook according to the directions given in Art. 89 until nearly
tender, and then drain. Spread 1/4 cupful of the buttered crumbs in the
bottom of a baking dish, put one-half of the cabbage over this, and then
add another 1/4 cupful of the crumbs and the remaining cabbage. Over
this pour a white sauce made from the butter, flour, salt, pepper, milk,
and liquid from the cabbage. Sprinkle the rest of the crumbs over the
top. Bake in a slow oven until the cabbage is thoroughly heated through
and the crumbs are browned on top. This baking will complete the cooking
of the cabbage. Serve hot. 92. HOT SLAW.--If a slightly sour flavor is
desired in a vegetable dish, hot slaw will undoubtedly appeal to
the taste.

HOT SLAW
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

4 c. cabbage
1 c. water
2 Tb. butter
1 Tb. flour
1/2 tsp. salt
1/3 c. vinegar
1 egg

Slice the cabbage very fine with a sharp knife or a cabbage cutter. Put
it in a saucepan, add the water, and allow it to cook until the water is
about half evaporated. Melt the butter in a pan and to it add the flour,
salt, and vinegar. Then stir the beaten egg in quickly and pour this
sauce over the cabbage at once. Allow the mixture to cook until the
sauce has thickened, stirring constantly to prevent the curding of the
egg. Serve hot.

93. MAKING SAUERKRAUT.--As is well known, sauerkraut is a cabbage
preparation that is made by salting finely cut cabbage, packing it
tightly, and allowing it to ferment under pressure. This food is made
and sold commercially, so that the housewife can usually purchase it in
any quantity she desires. However, as it is not at all difficult to make
sauerkraut, and as a supply of cabbage in this form provides a valuable
article of food during the winter months in households where it is
relished, the housewife will do well to prepare enough of this kind of
cabbage to vary her meals during the winter. That she may understand how
to proceed with the making of sauerkraut and the proper cooking of it,
the accompanying directions and recipes are given.

94. For every 10 medium-sized heads of cabbage, measure 2 cupfuls of
salt. Cut the heads of cabbage into quarters and shred on a cabbage
slicer, or cutter. Place several inches of the shredded cabbage in the
bottom of a large crock, and over it sprinkle a layer of salt. Stamp
this down with a wooden potato masher or some other similar utensil.
Then add another layer of cabbage and salt and stamp this down in the
same way. Proceed in this manner until the crock is nearly full. Then
place a clean cloth over the cabbage in the crock. On this cloth place a
clean board as near the size of the crock as possible, and on the board
place a large clean stone or some other weight. When thus filled and
weighted down, place the crock in a cool place. The cabbage will then
begin to ferment, and it is this fermentation that changes the cabbage
into sauerkraut. After a time, juice will form and gradually rise over
the top of the board, and on top of this juice will form a scum. Remove
this scum at once, and do not allow any to collect at any time after the
fermentation of the cabbage ceases. Occasionally, when a supply of
sauerkraut is taken from the crock for cooking, replace the cloth by a
clean one, but always be sure to put the board and the weight back
in place.

95. SAUERKRAUT WITH SPARERIBS.--Persons who are fond of sauerkraut find
the combination of sauerkraut and spareribs very appetizing. The
spareribs give the cabbage a very pleasing flavor and at the same time
supply nourishment to the dish.

SAUERKRAUT WITH SPARERIBS
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 qt. sauerkraut
2 lb. spareribs
1 tsp. salt
3 c. water

Put the sauerkraut and the spareribs into a kettle and add the salt and
water. Allow to simmer slowly for 2 or more hours. If additional water
is necessary, add it from time to time. Just before removing from the
heat, allow the water to boil down so that what remains may be served
with the hot sauerkraut.

96. BAKED SAUERKRAUT.--In the cooking of sauerkraut for the table, pork
in one form or another is generally added; in fact, one rarely thinks of
sauerkraut except in combination with pork. While boiling is the method
that is usually applied to this vegetable, many housewives prefer to
bake it, for then the odor does not escape so easily and a flavor that
most persons prefer is developed.

BAKED SAUERKRAUT
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 lb. fresh pork
1 qt. sauerkraut
1 Tb. salt
3 c. water

Cut the pork into several large chunks, and put it with the sauerkraut
into a baking dish that has a cover. Add the salt and water, cover the
dish and place in the oven. Bake slowly for 2 or 3 hours. Serve hot.

97. SAUTÉD SAUERKRAUT.--If an entirely different way of cooking
sauerkraut is desired, it may be sautéd. When nicely browned and served
with boiled frankfurters, it is very appetizing.

SAUTÉD SAUERKRAUT
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 qt. sauerkraut
4 Tb. bacon or ham fat
2 tsp. salt

Steam the sauerkraut over boiling water for about 1 hour. Then melt the
fat in an iron frying pan, add the sauerkraut and sprinkle with the
salt. Place a cover over the pan and allow the sauerkraut to sauté until
it is slightly browned on the bottom. Stir and continue to cook until
the entire amount is slightly browned. Serve hot.

CARROTS AND THEIR PREPARATION

98. CARROTS are one of the root vegetables. They are similar in
composition to beets, having practically the same total food value,
which is for the most part carbohydrate in the form of sugar. Besides
being valuable in the diet for their mineral salts and bulk, they add
variety to the menu, especially in the winter, for upon maturing they
can be kept for a long time if they are properly stored. As tiny young
carrots, they are also much used as a summer vegetable, and when cooked
whole and served in an attractive way they make a delicious
vegetable dish.

99. SELECTION AND PREPARATION.--The selection of carrots is a simple
matter, because they keep well and are not likely to be found in a
spoiled condition in the market. When small summer carrots are
purchased, they should be fresh and should have their tops on. Winter
carrots should be as nearly uniform in size as possible and should not
be extremely large. Those which are too large in circumference are
likely to have a hollow in the center and are not nearly so desirable as
thin, solid ones. Carrots of any kind should be uniform in color, and
should be without the green portion that is sometimes found on the top
near the stem and that is caused by exposure to the light in growing.

100. In preparing carrots for cooking, they should be scraped rather
than peeled, in order to avoid wasting any of the vegetable. They are
always cooked in boiling salted water, after which they can be treated
in various ways. The water in which carrots are cooked should not be
thrown away, as it may be used to flavor soup stock. If any carrots
remain after a meal, they may be utilized in vegetable salad or soup.

101. BUTTERED CARROTS.--If small, tender carrots can be obtained, they
will be found to be delicious upon being boiled and then dressed with
butter. Winter carrots may be prepared in this way too, but they will
probably require a little more cooking to make them tender.

BUTTERED CARROTS
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

3 c. diced carrots
2 Tb. butter
1/2 tsp. salt
Dash of pepper

Wash and scrape the carrots and cut into half-inch pieces. Put to cook
in enough boiling water to cover the carrots well, and add 1 teaspoonful
of salt for each quart of water. Cook in a covered kettle until they can
be easily pierced with a fork and then drain off the water. Add the
butter, salt, and pepper, heat until the butter melts, and serve.

102. CARROTS WITH PARSLEY.--The addition of parsley to carrots gives a
flavor that improves them very much. This should be chopped fine and
added after the carrots have cooked sufficiently.

CARROTS WITH PARSLEY
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

3 c. sliced carrots
3 Tb. parsley finely chopped
2 Tb. butter
1/2 tsp. salt
Dash of pepper

Wash and scrape the carrots, slice in very thin slices, and cook until
tender in boiling salted water. Drain and add the chopped parsley,
butter, salt, and pepper. Mix carefully so as not to break the slices of
carrot. Serve hot.

103. BROWNED CARROTS.--A very appetizing way in which to prepare carrots
is to cut them in slices lengthwise, boil them until tender, and then
brown them in fat. Wash and scrape the desired number of carrots, cut
into slices lengthwise, and if large-sized carrots are used, cut the
slices into halves. Cook in boiling salted water until tender and then
drain. Melt some fat in a frying pan, place the carrots in the hot fat,
and brown first on one side and then on the other, turning the slices
carefully so as not to break them. A few minutes before removing the
carrots from the frying pan, sprinkle sugar over them and allow the
sugar to melt. In removing them to a vegetable dish, pour over them the
sirup that forms. Serve hot.

CAULIFLOWER AND ITS PREPARATION

104. CAULIFLOWER grows in heads as does cabbage, but only the flower or
blossom of the plant is eaten. A head of cauliflower from which the
leaves have not been removed is shown in Fig. 8. In flavor and
composition this vegetable is similar to cabbage, but its flavor is a
little more delicate. Still, cauliflower should always be cooked in an
uncovered vessel, as are cabbage and Brussels sprouts, if a strong
disagreeable flavor would be avoided.

[Illustration: FIG. 8]

105. SELECTION AND COOKING.--Very solid heads of cauliflower that are
creamy white in color and free from the black specks or blemishes so
common to this vegetable should be selected for cooking. The only care
that cauliflower requires before cooking is to keep it in a cool place,
for it does not wilt nor decay quickly.

To prepare this vegetable for cooking, the white head should be cut from
the leaves, which are discarded. Then the head should be placed upside
down in a pan of salt water and allowed to soak for an hour in order to
drive out the small bugs or worms that are so frequently found in this
vegetable. The cauliflower may then be cooked whole or broken apart, but
in either case it should be cooked until tender in boiling salted water
with the cover removed from the kettle.

106. CAULIFLOWER WITH TOMATO SAUCE.--Variety can be secured in the
preparation of cauliflower by serving it with a tomato sauce. Besides
being very palatable, this is an extremely attractive dish because of
the contrast in colors. Chicken gravy may be used instead of tomato
sauce, and a most delightful dish is the result.

CAULIFLOWER WITH TOMATO SAUCE
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 head cauliflower
2 Tb. butter
2 Tb. flour
1/2 tsp. salt
Dash of pepper
2 c. strained tomato

Soak the cauliflower in cold salted water, and then tie it carefully in
a piece of cheesecloth and put it to cook in boiling salted water. Cook
until tender, but not so long that it will fall to pieces. Take from the
water, remove the cheesecloth carefully, and place the cauliflower in a
vegetable dish. While the cauliflower is cooking, prepare the sauce by
melting the butter in a double boiler, adding the flour, salt, and
pepper, and stirring into this the heated strained tomato made by
forcing canned or stewed tomatoes through a sieve. Cook until the sauce
has thickened and then pour over the cauliflower in the vegetable dish.
Serve hot.

[Illustration: FIG. 9]

107. SCALLOPED CAULIFLOWER.--Another opportunity to make a delicious
scalloped dish is afforded by cauliflower. In fact, many persons prefer
scalloped cauliflower to any of the dishes made from this vegetable. The
ingredients used with the cauliflower increase its food value, which is
somewhat low.

SCALLOPED CAULIFLOWER
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 head cauliflower
2 Tb. butter
2 Tb. flour
1 c. milk
1 c. water from cauliflower
1/2 tsp. salt
Dash of pepper
1 c. buttered crumbs

Prepare and cook the cauliflower according to the directions given in
Art. 105, breaking it into flowerets before pouring the boiling water on
it. When it has cooked tender, drain the water from it. Prepare a sauce
with the butter, flour, milk, water from the cauliflower, salt, and
pepper. Butter the crumbs by pouring 1 tablespoonful of melted butter
over them. Put 1/4 cupful of the crumbs on the bottom of a baking dish,
add one-half of the cauliflower, and over this place another 1/4 cupful
of crumbs. Then add the remainder of the cauliflower, and pour the white
sauce over all. Sprinkle the remainder of the crumbs over the top. Place
in a hot oven and bake until well heated through and brown on top. Serve
from the dish.

108. CREAMED CAULIFLOWER.--A very attractive vegetable dish can be
prepared from cauliflower by cooking the head whole and then serving a
cream sauce over it, as shown in Fig. 9. In serving, a portion of the
head should be broken off for each person and served with a little of
the cream sauce.

CREAMED CAULIFLOWER
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 head cauliflower
2 Tb. butter
2 Tb. flour
1 c. milk
1/2 c. water in which cauliflower was cooked
1/2 tsp. salt
Dash of pepper

Soak a solid head of cauliflower in cold salted water for about 1 hour.
Then wash thoroughly, wrap carefully in cheesecloth, and cook in boiling
salted water until tender. When sufficiently cooked, drain, and make a
sauce of the other ingredients. Place the cauliflower in a vegetable
dish, pour the white sauce over it, and serve hot.

CELERY AND ITS PREPARATION

109. CELERY is the stem of a plant that grows in stalks, as shown in
Fig. 10. When the stalks are large, they are sold singly, but if they
are very small, several of them are tied together and sold in a bunch.
The season for celery begins in the fall and lasts until early spring.
It may be obtained in the summer, but as the price is usually high and
the quality not good, very little use should be made of it during
that time.

The chief use of celery is as a relish, when it is eaten raw, but it is
also valuable for flavoring soups and making salads, pickles, and
various other dishes. It is probably used less frequently as a cooked
vegetable than in any other way, but when it is in season and can be
purchased at a reasonable price, it should be cooked to give variety
to the diet.

The food value of celery is extremely low, being less than 100 calories
to the pound or about equal to that of 1 ounce of meat. However, in
spite of this fact, celery is valuable for its mineral salts and bulk,
as well as for the appetizing quality that it lends to various foods and
to the meals at which it is served.

[Illustration: FIG. 10]

110. CARE AND PREPARATION.--Well-bleached, firm stalks of celery should
be selected for use. After it comes into the house, it may be kept in
good condition for a long time if it is wrapped in a damp cloth and put
where it will keep cool. A good plan is to serve the hearts and tender
inside stems raw, as explained in _Soup_, and then to use the coarse
outside stems for cooking, flavoring soups, or making salads. Celery
must be cleaned carefully for dirt often clings to the ridges. After
being scrubbed thoroughly, it will become crisp and tender if it is
allowed to stand in cold water for some time before serving. When it is
to be served as a cooked vegetable, it should be cooked in boiling
salted water, as are other vegetables, and then seasoned or dressed in
any desirable way. The water in which it is cooked should be utilized in
the making of sauce or soup.

111. CREAMED CELERY.--The usual way of preparing celery when it is to be
served as a cooked vegetable is to cream it. The cream sauce that is
added to the celery increases its food value considerably and greatly
improves its flavor. This sauce may be made entirely of milk or of half
milk and half liquid from the celery.

CREAMED CELERY
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

3 c. diced celery
3 Tb. butter
3 Tb. flour
1 tsp. salt
Dash of pepper
1 c. milk
1/2 c. water in which celery was cooked

Cook the celery in boiling salted water until tender, and then drain.
When the celery has cooked, make a white sauce of the other ingredients.
Pour this sauce over the cooked celery, heat together, and serve.

112. CELERY AU GRATIN.--The food value of celery may be still further
increased by combining it with cheese and bread crumbs in addition to a
cream sauce. Such a dish, which is known as _celery au gratin_, is
prepared according to the accompanying recipe.

CELERY AU GRATIN
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

4 c. diced celery
2-1/2 Tb. butter
2-1/2 Tb. flour
1/2 tsp. salt
Dash of pepper
1 c. milk
1 c. water in which celery was cooked
1 c. buttered crumbs
1/2 c. grated cheese

Cook the celery in boiling salted water until tender and then drain.
Prepare the cream sauce in the usual manner. Butter the crumbs by
stirring them into 1 tablespoonful of melted butter. Put 1/4 cupful of
the crumbs in the bottom of a baking dish and put one-half of the celery
over them. Place another 1/4 cupful of the crumbs over the celery, and
on top of this sprinkle 1/4 cupful of the grated cheese. Add the
remainder of the celery and pour the sauce over this. Finally, add the
other 1/4 cupful of cheese and the remainder of the crumbs. Place in a
hot oven, and bake until well heated through and the crumbs are browned.
Serve hot.

CORN AND ITS PREPARATION

113. The seeds of the maize plant, or Indian corn, especially the
variety known as _sweet corn_, are eaten as a vegetable when they are
immature. They grow on a woody cob, and when they are green they are
soft and milky; but when they become ripe they are hard and are then
ground as grain. Many varieties of sweet corn are used, but some are
better in quality than others. In some varieties, the kernels, or seeds,
are yellow, while in others they are white; also, some of them are
suitable for use early in the summer, while others come later in the
season. However, in spite of this difference in quality, color, and
season, all kinds of corn used as a vegetable are called _green corn_
and may be prepared in exactly the same ways.

114. The food value of corn, which is very high, even exceeding that of
Irish potatoes, is due principally to the carbohydrate it contains. This
food substance is in the form of sugar in the green kernels, but as they
mature it changes to starch. The food value of the dry grain is
therefore higher, and the carbohydrate is in a different form.

When the contents of the kernels is still in the liquid form, the corn
is said to be at the _milk stage_, and is generally considered to be too
young for table use. On the other hand, when the liquid in the kernels
has become thickened, the corn, which is then at the _dough stage_, is
thought to be too old for use as a vegetable. To be ideal for culinary
purposes, it should be just between the milk and dough stages. Then, if
it is in good condition, a most satisfactory vegetable is the result.

115. The ear on which the corn kernels grow is entirely encased in
several layers of husks. These are not removed until just before the
corn is to be cooked; so when this vegetable is in the market the husks
are allowed to remain on the ears. The condition of the ears can be
determined by stripping the husks down a little and examining the
kernels. If they are well filled, they may be considered to be in proper
condition; otherwise, they will not be suitable for cooking. No special
care need be given to green corn, provided it is not husked. However,
when it has been husked, it should be cooked at once. In the husking of
corn, all corn silk that is found inside of the husks should be
carefully removed, for this is very annoying in the cooked vegetable and
its presence indicates carelessness.

116. CORN ON THE COB.--The simplest way in which to prepare green corn
is to cook it on the cob. When corn first comes into the market, it is
usually very tender and makes a most satisfactory dish when prepared
in this way.

To cook corn on the cob, husk the corn, remove the silk from the ears,
and place them in a kettle. Pour enough boiling water over them to cover
them well, and add 1 teaspoonful of salt for each quart of water. Boil 5
minutes, remove from the water, and serve at once. In eating corn on the
cob, most persons dress it with butter, pepper, and salt.

[Illustration: FIG. 11]

117. CORN COOKED IN MILK.--Often it is not desired to eat corn on the
cob. When this is the case, it may be cut off the ear and cooked in
various ways. A simple way to prepare it is to cook it with milk and
season it with salt, pepper, and butter, as explained in the
accompanying recipe.

Select the desired number of ears of green corn, husk them, and remove
the silk. Then, as shown in Fig. 11, cut the corn from the cob with a
sharp knife, grasping the ear by the larger end and cutting upwards.
After cutting off the kernels, scrape the ears so that nothing edible
will be wasted, drawing the knife downwards. Put the corn into a
saucepan, add milk until the corn is nearly covered, and season with
salt, pepper, and a little butter. Allow the corn to simmer for about 10
minutes, stirring frequently to prevent the milk from sticking to the
bottom of the pan and scorching. No difficulty will be experienced in
the preparation of this dish if a double boiler is used, but longer
cooking will be required. When the corn is sufficiently cooked, remove
from the fire and serve hot.

[Illustration: FIG. 12] 118. CORN PULP.--Some persons are unable to
digest the coarse hulls of green corn, but can eat the corn if the hulls
are removed. Such persons need not be deprived of the delights of this
vegetable, for it may be prepared in the form of pulp, which will not
disagree with them.

To prepare corn pulp, first cut a slit down each row of kernels with a
sharp knife as shown in Fig. 12; then, in the manner shown in Fig. 13,
scrape out the contents of the kernels with the dull edge of the knife,
drawing the knife downwards. When all the pulp has been removed, season
it with salt, pepper, and butter, and heat it thoroughly in a double
boiler. Serve hot.

[Illustration: FIG. 13]

If it is not desirable to serve the corn pulp in this manner, it may be
used in various ways, as the following recipes indicate. A good
substitute for corn pulp is canned corn, but this must be chopped in
order to break up the hulls.

119. CORN SOUFFLÉ.--No more delightful corn dish can be prepared than
corn soufflé, for in addition to its being appetizing and nutritious, it
is extremely dainty. It may be cooked in a baking dish, but it is more
attractive when baked in individual baking dishes. A point to remember
about its preparation is that it should be served immediately upon being
taken from the oven, for soufflé always shrinks as it cools.

CORN SOUFFLÉ
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 c. green corn pulp
1 tsp. salt
Dash of pepper
2 Tb. melted butter
2 Tb. flour
1/4 c. milk
2 eggs

Mix the corn pulp, salt, pepper, and melted butter, stir in the flour,
and add the milk. Separate the eggs, beat the yolks, and add them to the
mixture. Then beat the whites stiff and fold them in. Pour into a
buttered baking dish or into individual baking dishes, set in a pan of
hot water, and bake until brown. Serve at once.

120. CORN OYSTERS.--Variety can be secured in the use of corn by making
corn oysters. These get their name from the fact that they resemble
oysters in both size and shape. They may be served as a garnish for a
meat dish or as a vegetable dish.

CORN OYSTERS
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. corn pulp
1 egg
1/4 c. flour
1/2 tsp. salt
Dash of pepper
1/2 tsp. baking powder

Prepare the corn pulp according to the directions given in Art. 118. To
this add the beaten egg, flour, salt, pepper, and baking powder. Drop in
tablespoonfuls on a well-greased griddle. When brown on one side, turn
and brown on the other side. Then fold through the center, doubling one
side over the other. Serve hot.

[Illustration: FIG. 14]

121. CORN FRITTERS.--The popularity of corn fritters, which have corn
pulp as their foundation, is undoubtedly due both to their flavor and to
the variety they afford in the diet. After being fried, corn fritters
should appear as shown in Fig. 14. They may be served plain, but most
persons prefer them with a sauce of some kind or with maple sirup.

CORN FRITTERS
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 c. corn pulp, or 1 can corn, chopped
1 c. flour
1 tsp. baking powder
1 tsp. salt
2 eggs

If canned corn is used, drain off the liquid before using it. To the
corn, add the flour, baking powder, and salt. Separate the eggs and stir
in the beaten yolks. Beat the whites stiff and fold them into the
mixture. Drop with a spoon into deep fat, fry until brown, remove from
the fat, and drain on paper. Serve plain, with a desired sauce, or with
maple sirup.

CUCUMBERS AND THEIR PREPARATION

122. The hard-rinded fruit of the cucumber plant has been used from time
immemorial as a vegetable. In food value, cucumbers are very low,
comparing closely with celery in this respect; however, as they contain
a large amount of cellulose, or bulk, and mineral salts, they should not
be disregarded in the diet. They have a rather strong flavor due to
their volatile oils, which so frequently disagree with persons and which
give cucumbers a reputation for being difficult to digest. However, when
they are properly prepared, they can be eaten by most persons
without harm.

[Illustration: FIG. 15]

123. Formerly it was the custom to soak slices of cucumber in salt water
before serving them. This procedure, however, has been found to be poor
policy, for nothing is gained by it and the salt toughens the cellulose
and makes the cucumbers limp and rubbery in texture. A much more
satisfactory way to prepare cucumbers is to slice them and then soak
them for some time before serving in ice water or water as cold as can
be obtained. They will then become crisp and delicious, and, besides
being more appetizing and agreeable, they will be no less digestible.
After being sliced and chilled, cucumbers are often combined with sliced
onions and eaten with vinegar, salt, and pepper, or they are eaten alone
or on lettuce, dressed with mayonnaise dressing.

124. STUFFED CUCUMBERS.--Possibly the only recipe for cooked cucumbers
that is used to any extent is the accompanying one for stuffed
cucumbers. Cucumbers prepared in this way are very palatable, and
because of the ingredients used are much higher in food value than when
eaten alone. Such a dish is attractive, too, as Fig. 15 shows.

STUFFED CUCUMBERS
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

3 cucumbers
2 Tb. butter
1 small onion, chopped
1 tsp. salt
Dash of pepper
1-1/2 c. steamed rice
1 c. stewed tomatoes
Bread crumbs

Select medium-sized cucumbers, wash and peel them, and cut them in half
lengthwise. Hollow out the center so that the cucumbers will have the
shape of boats. Then melt the butter in a frying pan, add the chopped
onion, salt, and pepper, and heat together for a few minutes. Next add
the rice, tomatoes, and sufficient bread crumbs to take up any excess of
moisture. Fill the cucumbers with this mixture and bake until they are
soft enough to be easily pierced with a fork. During the first part of
the cooking, pour a small amount of hot water into the pan in which the
cucumbers are baked. Serve hot.

EGGPLANT AND ITS PREPARATION

125. EGGPLANT belongs to the class of fruit vegetables, and is closely
related to the tomato in structure and composition. It grows rather
large in size, is covered with a smooth brownish-purple skin, and is
made up of material that is close and firm in texture and creamy white
in color. Because of the nature of its structure, eggplant would seem to
be high in food value, but, on the contrary, this vegetable has very
little. In this respect, it is about equal to cabbage and cauliflower
and slightly less than string beans.

126. Eggplant is found in the market from early summer until the
beginning of winter. Because it is protected by a heavy skin, it keeps
well and needs no special care in storage. The strong flavor of the
pulp is disagreeable to many persons. However, it has been found that
much of this flavor may be removed by soaking the eggplant in strong
salt water or by sprinkling it with salt after it has been sliced and
then allowing it to stand for some time. It may be prepared in a variety
of ways; so, if the members of the family care for it, the housewife
will find it of great assistance in planning and preparing meals.

127. SAUTÉD EGGPLANT.--The usual way of preparing eggplant is to cut it
into slices and then sauté it. As the slices are dipped into beaten egg
and then into crumbs before sautéing, the food value of this vegetable
is increased and its flavor improved.

Peel the eggplant and then cut it into 1/4-inch slices. Sprinkle salt
over the slices and let them stand for 1 hour or more; then pour off the
juice that has collected. Beat an egg slightly, and to it add a few
tablespoonfuls of milk or water. Dip the slices of eggplant first into
the beaten egg and then into crumbs. When sufficiently coated, sauté in
shallow fat, browning first on one side and then on the other.
Serve hot.

[Illustration: FIG. 16]

128. BAKED EGGPLANT.--An attractive dish can be made by removing the
contents from an eggplant, filling the cavity with a well-seasoned
stuffing, and then baking the stuffed eggplant. When an eggplant is
prepared in this way, it will appear as in Fig. 16.

BAKED EGGPLANT
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 medium-sized eggplant
2 c. dried bread crumbs
1/2 c. milk
2 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
1 small onion, chopped
1 Tb. parsley
2 Tb. butter

Wash the eggplant and cook in boiling water for about 10 minutes. Remove
from the water, cut off the top, scoop out the contents, and chop it
into small pieces. With this finely chopped pulp, mix the bread crumbs,
milk, salt, pepper, onion, parsley, and melted butter. When the whole is
thoroughly blended, pack it into the shell of the eggplant and place in
the oven. Bake for about 30 minutes or until the stuffing is thoroughly
cooked and the top is brown. Serve hot.

129. SCALLOPED EGGPLANT.--If it is desired to increase the food value of
eggplant and improve its flavor too, this vegetable should be scalloped.
The accompanying recipe carefully followed will produce a most
appetizing dish.

SCALLOPED EGGPLANT
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 medium-sized eggplant
1 c. dried crumbs
2 Tb. butter
2 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
1-1/2 c. milk

Peel the eggplant and cut it into 1/2-inch pieces. Put into a saucepan,
cover with boiling salted water, cook until tender, and then drain.
Grease a baking dish, spread 1/4 cupful of crumbs on the bottom, and add
one-half of the eggplant. Dot with butter and then sprinkle with salt
and pepper. Add another 1/4 cupful of crumbs and the remaining eggplant,
dot again with butter, and sprinkle with salt and pepper. Pour the milk
over the whole and sprinkle the remaining 1/2 cupful of crumbs on the
top. Place in the oven and bake for 1/2 hour or more. Serve hot.

FRENCH ARTICHOKES AND THEIR PREPARATION

130. FRENCH ARTICHOKES, sometimes known as _globe artichokes, California
artichokes_, and _cardoons_, are related to the family of thistles. They
are grown for the sake of their large flower-heads, or buds, which are
shown in Fig. 17 and which are much used as a food. These plants stand
storage and shipment very well and may be kept for long periods of time
without spoiling. It is therefore possible to transport them
considerable distances, a very gratifying fact, since most persons
consider artichokes a great delicacy.

131. Not all of the artichoke plant is eaten. The portions of the flower
that develop in the center of the base are removed before the base is
eaten. After the artichokes are cooked, the scales, or leaves, are
pulled from the cooked head with the fingers and the lower part of each
one is dipped into sauce and eaten. The inner scales are much more
tender and edible than the coarse outside ones. Although artichokes
find favor with many and are considered somewhat of a delicacy, they are
low in food value, being about equal to asparagus in this respect. To
add food material, a dressing, such as drawn-butter sauce or mayonnaise
dressing, is usually served.

[Illustration: FIG. 17]

132. ARTICHOKES WITH HOLLANDAISE SAUCE.--The usual method of preparing
artichokes is to boil them and then serve them with melted butter or a
sauce. Hollandaise dressing is used with the artichokes shown in Fig.
18. Boiled artichokes may also be cooled and then served with a
salad dressing.

Secure the desired number of artichokes and prepare them for boiling by
pulling off the coarse outside leaves, cutting off the top of the bud,
and removing the stem close to the bud. Cover well with boiling water,
add 1 teaspoonful of salt to each quart, and boil until tender, or for
about 45 minutes. Remove from the water and serve hot with melted butter
or Hollandaise sauce. If it is desired to use them for a salad, allow
them to cool before adding the salad dressing.

[Illustration: FIG. 18]

VEGETABLES (PART 1)

EXAMINATION QUESTIONS

(1) (_a_) To what is the flavor of vegetables largely due? (_b_) How
does cookery affect this?

(2) Describe the structure of vegetables.

(3) What food substances do vegetables as a class supply to the diet?

(4) (_a_) What are the legumes? (_b_) What food substance do they supply
in quantity to the diet?

(5) Name the classes of vegetables and give examples of each class.

(6) (_a_) When is soaking vegetables in salt water necessary? (_b_) What
proportions of salt and water are used?

(7) What effect has the application of heat on vegetables?

(8) Give an example of a method of cooking vegetables that: (_a_) wastes
food material; (_b_) conserves food material.

(9) Give the reason for the use of soda in cooking vegetables.

(10) How should salt be used in the cooking of: (_a_) tender vegetables?
(_b_) tough vegetables?

(11) Why should care be taken not to overcook cabbage, cauliflower, and
Brussels sprouts?

(12) What is a good general rule to follow for the length of time
necessary for cooking vegetables?

(13) Of what value are the sauces used to dress vegetables?

(14) Mention some methods of preparing vegetables that greatly increase
their food value.

(15) What value has the addition of salt pork or bacon in the
preparation of dried beans?

(16) (_a_) Why should the cover be left off the kettle during the
cooking of cabbage? (_b_) What other vegetables are cooked in this way?

(17) Explain why old carrots and beets require longer cooking than young
ones.

(18) (_a_) At what stage is green corn best for table use? (_b_) How may
this be recognized?

(19) What value have corn pulp and bean purée?

(20) (_a_) How should cucumbers be prepared before serving raw? (_b_)
How may the strong flavor of eggplant be improved?

* * * * *

VEGETABLES (PART 2)
* * * * *

PREPARATION OF VEGETABLES AS FOOD (Continued)

GREENS AND THEIR PREPARATION

VARIETIES AND FOOD VALUE

1. Varieties of Greens.--The leaves and stems of many young plants in
either their wild or their cultivated form are used for food. All of
them are similar in composition, but many of them differ in flavor and
appearance. The cultivated ones include beet tops, endive, spinach, and
kale, as well as lettuce, collards, Swiss chard, sorrel, mustard greens,
turnip tops, parsley, and cultivated cress and dandelion. The four
greens mentioned first are illustrated in Fig. 1, beet tops being shown
in the lower right corner; endive, in the upper right corner; spinach,
in the lower left corner; and kale, in the upper left corner. Commonest
among the wild greens are dandelion, cress, wild mustard, dock, pokeweed
sprouts, milkweed sprouts, and lamb's-quarters. Most of these wild
varieties are excellent in the spring when they are young and tender,
but it is not advisable to use them for food unless one is perfectly
familiar with their appearance.

2. Food Value of Greens.--The food value of all greens with the
exception of dandelion is very low, being just about equal to that of
celery and cucumbers. This may be increased in their preparation by the
addition of other food materials. However, the chief use of greens in
the diet is not to supply food value, but mineral salts, the most
important one being iron in a form that is necessary for building up
the blood.

GENERAL DIRECTIONS FOR COOKING GREENS

3. The cooking of greens, both wild and cultivated, is not only simple
but practically the same for all varieties. When they are not used as a
salad vegetable, they are merely boiled until tender and then dressed in
any desired way. Some kinds admit of special preparation, and wherever
this is the case specific directions are given under the particular
variety, but even in such an event the preliminary preparation is
the same.

[Illustration: FIG. 1]

To prepare greens, look them over carefully, remove any decayed or
withered parts, cut off the leaves, and wash in fresh cold water. Remove
from the water and wash again, and do this as many times as seems
necessary to remove all the sand and grit that the stalks contain. An
important point to remember is that the greens should not be cleansed by
pouring the water off, as the sand will then remain in the pan and is
likely to mix with the greens again. When they are thoroughly washed,
put them on to cook in a saucepan or a similar utensil. If they are
young and tender, they should be cooked as much as possible in their own
juice in order to retain all the valuable mineral salts they contain,
only enough water being added to start the cooking without burning. In
the case of greens that are very strong in flavor, it will be necessary
to cook them in a larger quantity of water and then pour off what
remains after cooking. When they have cooked until they are tender,
season them if necessary, and add butter to give them flavor and
increase their food value. Vinegar or a slice of lemon adds much to the
flavor of greens.

BEET TOPS

4. The tops of beets include the leaves and the stems of this vegetable,
as Fig. 1 shows. They are at their best when the beets are very young or
before the beets themselves have developed. Beet tops are not used so
extensively as some greens, but they will be found to have a more
agreeable flavor than many greens that are more popular. Beets are
raised for the purpose of supplying greens by planting the seeds closely
enough together to form a thick bed of leaves and then thinning them out
before the beets have developed. A few may be allowed to remain and
develop for use as beets. Young beets that are purchased with the tops
on also furnish a source of beet tops as well as beets.

When beet tops are to be cooked, cut the stems into inch lengths and use
them with the leaves. Proceed to clean and cook the greens according to
the directions given in Art. 3. Season with salt and pepper and flavor
with butter. Serve with something tart, such as vinegar or lemon.

DANDELION

5. Dandelion, both wild and cultivated, is a plant whose leaves are much
used for a vegetable green before the blossoms develop. The wild ones
have the advantage of being cheap, so they should be used if they can be
secured; the cultivated ones, on the other hand, cost as much as spinach
and other greens. The season for dandelions is comparatively short,
lasting only a few weeks in the early spring. Use should therefore be
made of them when they can be procured in order to secure variety for
the menu. When they are desired as cooked greens, prepare them in the
manner explained in Art. 3.

6. Dandelion With Sour Sauce.--If a change in the cooking of dandelion
is desired, it should be prepared with a sour sauce. This method of
preparation is very popular, for besides increasing the food value of
this variety of greens, it improves the flavor very much.

DANDELION WITH SOUR SAUCE
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1/2 pk. dandelion
1/2 c. vinegar
4 thin slices bacon
1/2 c. water
2 Tb. flour
1 egg
1 tsp. salt

Clean and wash the dandelion. Cut the slices of bacon into small pieces
and sauté until crisp. Stir the flour and salt into the bacon fat, add
the vinegar and water, and stir until the flour thickens. Add the beaten
egg last, and remove from the fire. Put the dandelion into the pan and
mix well with the hot sauce. If the dandelion is preferred well wilted,
set the pan over the flame, and stir until the dandelion appears as
desired. Serve hot.

ENDIVE

7. ENDIVE is an herb that is used as a salad plant or is cooked and
served with a hot dressing or as greens. The three common varieties of
this green are escarole, chicory, and French endive, all of which have a
slightly bitter taste and may be found in the market from late summer
until early winter. _Escarole_ is a broad-leaved variety that is grown
more or less in a head. _Chicory_, which is shown in Fig. 1, has a small
feathery-edged leaf, and is often bleached by tying the leaves together
at the top, so that the inside ones are very tender. Both of these
varieties may be cooked, but they are also much used for salads. _French
endive_ bears very little resemblance to the other kinds, having
straight, creamy-white leaves that are closely pressed together. It
looks very much like sprouts of some kind, and is entirely bleached in
the process of growth by banking the earth around it. It is never used
for anything except salads and garnishes.

8. Endive is very low in food value, comparing very closely with celery
and cucumbers in this respect. Still, as a salad vegetable, it is worthy
of much more extensive use than is generally made of it. As a rule, its
price is about the same as that of lettuce, so it should be substituted
frequently for lettuce to give variety to the diet. To be most
satisfactory, endive should be bought when it is fresh and unwithered
and kept until used in a cool, damp place. A good plan is to wrap such
vegetables in a damp cloth. If, upon using, endive appears to be
withered, it may be freshened by placing it in a pan of cold water and
allowing it to remain there for a short time.

When endive is used as a salad, it may be served merely with a salad
dressing of some kind or it may be combined with other vegetables before
applying the dressing. Escarole and chicory, which are much used as
greens, should be prepared and cooked according to the directions given
in Art. 3.

LETTUCES

9. Lettuce is a well-known herb that is much used as a salad vegetable.
There are numerous varieties of lettuce, but these may be reduced to the
two kinds shown in Fig. 2, _leaf lettuce_ on the right and _head
lettuce_ on the left. Leaf lettuce, which is more often used for
garnishing than for any other purpose, has firm, crisp, green, upright
leaves; on the other hand, head lettuce has round leaves forming a
compact head, like cabbage. The outside leaves of head lettuce are
green, but the inside ones are usually bleached by the exclusion of
light, as are those of cabbage and endive. These inside leaves are more
tender than the others, and hence more to be desired as a salad
vegetable than the unbleached variety. In food value, lettuce compares
closely with other varieties of greens and is high in the same mineral
salts that they are. The bleached leaves do not contain so much iron as
the green ones. [Illustration: FIG. 2]

10. As has already been implied, lettuce finds its principal use in
garnishing salads. When used for this purpose, it should be eaten along
with the salad, for it is too valuable to be wasted. Since the coarse
outside leaves of a stalk or a head of lettuce do not look so well as
the tender bleached ones, they are often rejected, but this should not
be done, for use can also be made of them. For instance, such leaves may
be shredded into narrow strips and used as a foundation for salads that
will be just as attractive as those having a single lettuce leaf for a
garnish. When it is realized that the outside leaves are purchased at
the same price as the more delicate parts of the lettuce, it can readily
be understood why they also should be utilized as food. Most of the
garden varieties of lettuce, especially when they have grown very large,
are frequently cooked as greens. When used in this way, lettuce is
prepared, as are other greens, according to the directions given in Art.
3. This vegetable also makes an appetizing dish when it is prepared with
a sauce and served hot in the same way as dandelion.

SPINACH

11. SPINACH, which is shown in Fig. 1, consists of the large, fleshy,
deep-green leaves of a garden herb much used as a green for food. In
fact, this is one of the most popular varieties of greens and is used
more extensively than any other. Many varieties of spinach are grown,
but all of them are used in just the same way. It is slightly higher in
food value than lettuce and endive, but lower than dandelion. However,
it is a valuable food in the diet because of the large quantity of iron
it contains, and many persons eat it not so much because they like it
but because they believe it is good for them.

[Illustration: FIG. 3]

12. Some kinds of spinach do not keep for long periods of time.
Therefore, in order to avoid any waste, spinach should always be very
fresh when purchased and should be used as soon as possible after it is
obtained. It may be prepared in a greater number of ways than most of
the other greens except, perhaps, those used for salads. For instance,
it is served with entrées of various kinds, is combined with meat, ham
and spinach being a much used combination, or is made into a purée by
forcing it through a sieve and then used in the making of soup or
soufflé. Then, again, spinach is often boiled and pressed into small
cups to form molds like the one shown in Fig. 3. Such a mold may be used
to garnish a dish of some sort or, as here shown, may be garnished with
a slice of hard-cooked egg. When spinach is used in any of these ways,
it should first be cooked according to the directions given for the
preparation of greens in Art. 3. 13. SPINACH SOUFFLÉ.--The purée that
is made by forcing boiled spinach through a sieve may be used in a
variety of ways, but none of these is more satisfactory than spinach
soufflé. When made according to the accompanying recipe, spinach soufflé
will be found to be appetizing as well as nourishing.

SPINACH SOUFFLÉ
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 Tb. butter
1/2 c. hot milk
2 Tb. flour
1 c. spinach purée
1 tsp. salt
2 egg whites
Dash of pepper

Melt the butter, add the flour, salt, pepper, and hot milk, and stir in
the spinach purée. Beat the egg whites stiff and fold them into the
mixture. Grease individual baking dishes or a large baking dish and fill
two-thirds full with the mixture. Place in a pan of hot water and bake
in a slow oven until firm, or for about 20 or 30 minutes.

[Illustration: FIG. 4]

14. SPINACH ROYAL.--A very attractive dish can be made by combining
spinach with toast, hard-cooked egg, and lemon in the manner shown in
Fig. 4. This dish is known as _spinach royal_, and because of the
additional ingredients it is nutritious as well as palatable.

SPINACH ROYAL
(Sufficient to Serve Four)

1/2 pk. spinach
1/3 c. water
1-1/2 tsp. salt
3 Tb. bacon fat or butter
3 Tb. flour
1/8 tsp. pepper
Triangular pieces of toast
2 hard-cooked eggs
1 lemon

Look the spinach over carefully and remove all roots and dead leaves.
Cut the stalks apart and wash them thoroughly several times in fresh,
clean water to remove the sand and dirt, lifting the spinach out of the
water each time instead of pouring the water off. Put the spinach into a
saucepan with the water. Stir frequently until the spinach is wilted and
there is sufficient water to boil it. Add 1 teaspoonful of the salt and
cook until the leaves are very tender, or for about 15 or 20 minutes.
Drain off all but about 1/2 cupful of the liquid. Melt the fat in a
frying pan, stir the flour into it, brown to a golden brown, and then
add the spinach, pepper, and remaining salt. Stir and cook until the
flour has thickened and mixed well with the spinach. Turn out in a mound
on a platter and place the pieces of toast around the spinach as shown.
Slice the hard-cooked eggs, cut the lemon into any desirable shape, and
use these to garnish the platter. In serving this dish, put a spoonful
of spinach on a piece of toast and serve a slice or two of egg and lemon
with each portion.

15. CREAMED SPINACH.--After spinach has been boiled until it is tender,
it may be made more appetizing by combining it with a well-flavored
cream sauce, according to the accompanying directions.

CREAMED SPINACH
(Sufficient to Serve Four)

1/2 pk. spinach
1/2 tsp. salt
2 Tb. ham or bacon fat
Dash of pepper
2 Tb. flour
2/3 c. milk

Boil the spinach according to the directions given in Art. 3. Melt the
fat in a frying pan, add the flour, salt, pepper, and milk, and stir
until the flour thickens. Chop the cooked spinach and add it to the hot
dressing. Stir and cook until the two are well blended. Serve hot.

WATERCRESS AND PARSLEY

16. WATERCRESS and PARSLEY are two herbs, or greens, that are used
considerably for garnishing and flavoring other dishes. These greens are
shown in Fig. 5, that at the left being watercress and that at the
right parsley.

17. Watercress, which is commonly known as _peppercress_, usually grows
wild in beds along the banks of springs or clear, cool streams. A few
varieties, however, are cultivated, and these are grown in dry soil and
known as _upland cress_. It is a very prolific herb, and may be obtained
from early spring until late in the fall; in fact, it does not freeze
easily and is sometimes found in early winter along the swiftly flowing
streams that are not frozen over. Watercress may be used whenever it can
be procured, but it is not very desirable when in blossom. Its chief use
is to garnish salads and other dishes, but it may also be cooked and
served hot as a green. In such an event, its cooking is accomplished in
the same way as that of other greens.

[Illustration: FIG. 5]

18. Parsley, while classified as a green vegetable, is perhaps not in
the true sense of the word a real vegetable, since it is used for only
two purposes, and in neither of these is it served cooked or raw as an
exclusive article of diet. The most important use of parsley is perhaps
that of flavoring. It is added to soups, sauces, and various kinds of
cooked vegetables in order to impart additional flavor. In such cases,
it should be chopped very fine in order that all possible flavor may be
extracted from it. Parsley may also be dried before it is used for this
purpose, provided it must be kept for any length of time. The other use
of parsley is that of garnishing. It is often used in small sprays to
garnish a roast of meat, a steak, chops, fish, or some baked, fried, or
sautéd vegetable. Sometimes it is chopped very fine and placed around
the edge of a patty shell, a croustade, a timbale case, or a piece of
toast upon which food is served. Parsley may be eaten when it is served
as a garnish if its flavor is found to be agreeable to the taste.

JERUSALEM ARTICHOKES AND THEIR PREPARATION

19. JERUSALEM ARTICHOKES are tubers belonging to the sunflower family.
In appearance they resemble potatoes to some extent, but, as a rule,
they are neither so large nor so smooth. The inside texture of this
vegetable is more moist and not so mealy as that of the Irish potato.
Jerusalem artichokes are easy to grow and are very prolific, so that if
any one is fond of them they will be found to be a profitable crop. For
table use, they are prepared in much the same way as potatoes.

20. CREAMED ARTICHOKES.--A common method of preparing Jerusalem
artichokes is to cream them. Wash and peel the desired number of
artichokes and cut them into 1/2-inch dice. Put these to cook in boiling
salted water and cook until tender enough to be pierced with a fork.
Drain off the water and dress with hot medium white sauce. Serve hot.

21. BUTTERED ARTICHOKES.--Another satisfactory way in which to prepare
Jerusalem artichokes is to dress them with butter. Wash and peel the
required number of artichokes and cut them into slices. Put these to
cook in boiling salted water and cook until tender enough to be pierced
with a fork. Drain off the water and dress with melted butter to which
has been added a little chopped parsley. Serve hot.

KOHLRABI AND ITS PREPARATION

22. KOHLRABI is a variety of cabbage having a turnip-shaped stem. On
account of its shape it is often called _turnip cabbage_. The edible
part of kohlrabi is the enlarged stem, which has the flavor of both
turnip and cabbage. The stems of the leaves are attached to the enlarged
portion that is used for food, and these must be removed in the
preparation of the vegetable. Kohlrabi is not a perishable vegetable and
therefore stands storage very well. For market, it is usually placed in
bunches and tied as are beets and carrots. In food value, this
vegetable, like cabbage, is somewhat low. The food value it does have is
carbohydrate in the form of sugar. 23. After the stems of the leaves
have been cut off, the kohlrabi should be washed and then pared to
remove the outer skin. It is usually diced or sliced thin, and then
cooked and dressed in any desirable way. This vegetable, like cabbage,
cauliflower, etc., should be cooked with the cover removed from the
kettle, in order to allow some of the flavor to escape in the steam.
Kohlrabi that is old or that has been in storage for some time develops
woody portions as do turnips, beets, and other winter vegetables, and
must therefore be cooked sufficiently long to make it palatable.

24. BOILED KOHLRABI.--Persons fond of kohlrabi as a vegetable will
undoubtedly prefer it merely boiled and flavored with butter, pepper,
and salt. When it is to be cooked in this way, prepare it in the manner
just explained. Then put it on to cook in sufficient boiling salted
water to cover it well, and allow it to cook with the cover removed
until it can be easily pierced with a fork. When sufficiently cooked,
pour off the water, season to taste with salt and pepper, and add 1
tablespoonful of butter for each pint of kohlrabi cooked. Serve hot.

25. MASHED KOHLRABI.--As turnips and potatoes are often boiled and then
mashed, so kohlrabi makes a very appetizing dish when prepared in this
way. Prepare the kohlrabi and cook it by boiling. When it has cooked
soft, drain off the water and mash with a wooden or a wire potato
masher. Season with salt and pepper, and add 1 tablespoonful of butter
for each pint of cooked vegetable. Serve hot.

26. CREAMED KOHLRABI.--The preparation of kohlrabi can be varied by
serving it with a cream sauce. Such a sauce also increases the food
value of this vegetable by supplying the substances in which it is low.

CREAMED KOHLRABI
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

4 c. diced kohlrabi
2 Tb. butter
2 Tb. flour
1/2 tsp. salt
Dash of pepper
1 c. milk

Cook the kohlrabi in boiling salted water until tender and then drain
the water from it. Melt the butter in a saucepan, add the flour, salt,
and pepper, and into this stir the hot milk. Cook until the sauce has
thickened. Then pour it over the kohlrabi and reheat. Serve hot.

LENTILS AND THEIR PREPARATION

27. LENTILS are the flattish, circular, dried seeds of an annual vine
grown chiefly in Europe and Asia. They belong to the class of vegetables
known as legumes, and are therefore high in protein in the form of
legumin. They also contain a large amount of carbohydrate in the form of
starch and are high in mineral salts. Because of their high food value,
which is somewhat over 1,600 calories to the pound, they are a valuable
food in the diet, particularly as a meat substitute. Consequently, when
lentils can be obtained at a reasonable price, it is wise to make
considerable use of them.

There are three varieties of lentils, _yellow_, _red_, and _black_, and
they resemble split peas in appearance, as will be observed from Fig. 6,
which shows a panful of dried lentils. They have a distinctive flavor
that is agreeable to most persons. However, like other dried legumes,
long cooking is required to make them tender and palatable.

28. COOKING OF LENTILS.--In general, the preparation of lentils is
similar to that of dried beans, the cooking of which is now thoroughly
understood. They may be put on to cook immediately after they are
washed, but, as in the case of dried beans, their cooking may be
hastened if they are first softened by soaking them in cold water for 8
to 12 hours. At the end of this time, it is advisable to parboil the
lentils for about 10 or 15 minutes, or until their outer skins begin to
crack, in water to which a pinch of soda has been added. This water
being poured off, the lentils should be washed and then put to cook in
fresh water to which 1 teaspoonful of salt is added for each quart of
water used. Like beans, the lentils should be cooked slowly until they
are soft enough to crush between the fingers. With these principles for
the cooking of lentils well in mind, the housewife will have no
difficulty in preparing this vegetable, for almost any of the recipes
given for dried beans may be used with lentils substituted for
the beans.

[Illustration: FIG. 6] 29. LENTIL PUFF.--A decided change from the
usual ways of preparing lentils can be had by making lentil puff. Black
lentils are used for this preparation, and they are made into a purée
before being used in the puff. If the accompanying recipe is carefully
followed, a most appetizing, as well as nutritious, dish will be
the result.

LENTIL PUFF
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1-1/4 c. lentil purée
1-1/2 c. riced potatoes
2 Tb. butter
1/2 c. milk
1-1/2 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
2 eggs

Soak the lentils overnight in water that contains a pinch of soda,
parboil them for about 10 minutes, and pour off the water. Put them to
cook in cold water and cook until they are tender, allowing the water to
evaporate completely, if possible, so that the purée made from them will
be dry. However, if any water remains when the lentils are done, pour it
off and use it for soup or sauce. Make the purée by forcing the cooked
lentils through a colander. If it is found to be too wet, less milk can
be used than the recipe calls for. Cook several potatoes and rice them
by forcing them through a colander or a ricer. Combine the lentils and
potatoes, and to this mixture add the butter, milk, salt, and pepper.
Separate the eggs, and beat the yolks slightly and the whites until
stiff. Stir the yolks into the mixture and, just before putting the puff
into the oven, fold in the whites. Pour into a buttered baking dish, set
in the oven, and bake until the puff is set and the surface is brown.
Serve hot.

MUSHROOMS AND THEIR PREPARATION

30. Mushrooms are not a vegetable; still they are included in this
Section because they are used like a vegetable. In reality, they are a
fungus growth containing no chlorophyl, or green coloring matter, and,
as shown in Fig. 7, consisting of an erect stalk that supports a
cap-like expansion. They occur in many varieties, both poisonous and
non-poisonous. The non-poisonous, or edible, mushrooms are found on
rich, moist pastures all over the world and they are also very
frequently cultivated. They may be collected in almost any locality, but
no person who is not perfectly familiar with their characteristics and
therefore able to judge the non-poisonous kinds from the poisonous
should attempt to gather them. Fresh mushrooms can usually be found in
the markets, but as they are expensive, they should be considered a
luxury and used only occasionally. Instead, some of the small canned
varieties, which are usually satisfactory for most purposes, should be
used when mushrooms are desired and the wild ones cannot be secured.

31. In food value, mushrooms are not very high, being about equal to
beets or carrots in this respect; but they have a higher percentage of
protein than these vegetables and they contain extractives similar to
those found in meat. To increase their food value, mushrooms are often
combined with other foods, such as peas, chestnuts, diced meats, and
fowl, and made into dishes of various sorts. Then, again, they are
served as a garnish with steaks and other meat dishes. In short, if they
can be secured from the surrounding neighborhood or the price is not
prohibitive, they should be used in the many excellent ways that are
devised for their preparation.

32. PREPARATION FOR COOKING.--To prepare mushrooms for cooking, clean
them by brushing them carefully with a soft brush, by scraping the
surface, and, in some cases, by removing the stems. Do not, however,
throw the stems away, for they may be used as well as the caps. If the
mushrooms are found to be tough, the skin should be peeled off. After
being thus prepared, mushrooms may be cooked in various ways, as is
explained in the accompanying recipes. [Illustration: FIG. 7]

33. BROILED MUSHROOMS.--One of the simplest methods of cooking mushrooms
is to broil them. This may be done either by exposing them directly to
the heat or by pan-broiling them. In this recipe, only the caps
are used.

Clean the mushrooms that are to be broiled and remove the stems. Place
the caps in a broiler that has been greased or in a slightly greased
frying pan. Brown them on one side, then turn them and brown them on the
other side. Remove to a platter, dot with butter, season with salt and
pepper, and serve. 34. STEWED MUSHROOMS.--Another very simple way in
which to cook mushrooms is to stew them and then serve them on toast.
When prepared by this method, both the stems and the caps are utilized.

Clean the mushrooms and cut both the caps and the stems into small
pieces. Cook until tender in sufficient water, stock, or milk to cover
them well, and then season with salt and pepper. To the liquid that
remains, add enough flour to thicken it slightly. Serve on toast.

35. SAUTÉD MUSHROOMS.--When mushrooms are sautéd, they are often used
with other dishes, particularly broiled steak, to improve the flavor and
give variety. In fact, steak smothered with mushrooms is considered a
luxury. However, sautéd mushrooms are very frequently served alone or,
together with a sauce made from the fat in which they are cooked, they
are served on toast.

Clean the mushrooms, remove the stems, and dredge both stems and caps
with flour. Melt fat in the frying pan and place the dredged mushrooms
in it. Sauté until brown on both sides and season with salt, pepper, and
chopped parsley. Serve in any desired manner. If sauce is desired, add
water or stock to the flour and fat that remain in the frying pan, and
allow this to cook for a few minutes.

36. CREAMED MUSHROOMS AND CHESTNUTS.--No more delightful combination can
be imagined than mushrooms and chestnuts. When combined with a cream
sauce and served in patty shells or timbale cases, a dish suitable for
the daintiest meal is the result. Another very attractive way in which
to serve this combination is to place it in a baking dish, or, as shown
in Fig. 8, in individual baking dishes, cover it with a layer of biscuit
or pastry crust, bake, and serve it as a pie.

CREAMED MUSHROOMS AND CHESTNUTS
(Sufficient to Serve Eight)

1-1/2 c. stewed chestnuts
1-1/2 c. stewed mushrooms
3 Tb. butter
3 Tb. flour
1-1/2 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
1-1/2 c. milk

Remove the shells from the required number of Italian chestnuts and
cook the nut meats in boiling water until tender. Peel off the skins and
break the chestnuts into pieces. If fresh mushrooms are used, stew them
in boiling water until tender. Cut the stewed or canned mushrooms into
pieces of the same size as the chestnuts, and mix the two together. Make
a cream sauce by melting the butter, adding the flour, salt, and pepper,
and stirring in the hot milk. Cook until the mixture thickens, pour it
over the chestnuts and mushrooms, and serve in any of the ways
suggested.

OKRA AND ITS PREPARATION

[Illustration: FIG. 9]

37. OKRA is a fruit vegetable consisting of a green pod that is several
inches long, pointed at one end, and filled with seeds. Fig. 9 shows
okra pods attached to the herb of which they are a part. Although okra
originated in Africa, it is for the most part grown in the southern
section of the United States. However, canned okra may be obtained
almost anywhere. Okra is low in food value, being only slightly higher
than cabbage and most of the greens; nevertheless, it is liked by many
persons. It is of a mucilaginous, or gummy, consistency, and if it is
not properly cooked it becomes very slimy and is then decidedly
unpleasant. Because of its gummy nature, it helps to thicken any dish to
which it is added. Probably its chief use is as an ingredient in soups,
when it is known as _gumbo_. Chicken gumbo soup is one of the most
popular dishes of this kind. The preliminary preparation of okra is
the same as that of most other vegetables; that is, the pods should be
washed, the stems removed, and the cleaned pods then cooked in
sufficient boiling salted water to cover them well.

38. STEWED OKRA.--The simplest way in which to prepare okra is to stew
it. When seasoned well with salt, pepper, and butter, stewed okra finds
much favor with those who care for this vegetable.

Select the required number of okra pods and put them on to cook in
enough boiling salted water to cover them well. Cook until the pods are
soft enough to be easily pierced with a fork. Season with pepper and, if
necessary, additional salt, and add 1 tablespoonful of butter for each
four persons to be served.

39. OKRA WITH TOMATOES.--If one does not desire a dish made entirely of
okra, it may be combined with tomatoes. Such a combination, seasoned
well and flavored with ham or bacon fat, makes a very tasty dish.

OKRA WITH TOMATOES
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1-1/2 c. stewed or canned okra
1-1/2 c. stewed or canned tomatoes
1-1/2 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
2 Tb. ham or bacon fat

Heat the okra and tomatoes together in a saucepan and add the salt,
pepper, and ham or bacon fat. Cook for 5 or 10 minutes or until well
blended. Serve hot.

ONIONS AND THEIR PREPARATION

VARIETIES OF THE ONION FAMILY

40. ONIONS are the chief commercial vegetable of the bulb crops. They
have been cultivated from the earliest times, their native country being
Central Asia. Closely allied to the onion are several other bulb
vegetables, including garlic, shallots, leeks, and chives, all of which
are used more extensively for flavoring dishes than for any other
purpose. Fig. 10 shows several varieties of this family, the group of
three in the upper right corner being garlic; the bunch in the lower
right corner, leeks; the bunch in the lower left corner, green onions;
and the remainder of those shown in the illustration, different
varieties of dried onions, that is, onions that have been allowed
to mature.

41. This entire class of food is characterized by a typical, volatile
oil, which in most cases is so strong as to be somewhat irritating and
which causes the vegetable to disagree with many persons. This flavor,
however, can be almost entirely dissipated by cooking, so that many
persons who cannot eat the various members of the onion family raw can
tolerate them cooked. In food value, which is found principally as
carbohydrate in the form of sugar, this class of foods is not very high,
being about the same as carrots, beets, and other root vegetables. Some
persons believe that onions have wonderful medicinal value in curing
colds and preventing them, but there is really no foundation for such
a belief.

[Illustration: Fig. 10]

42. ONIONS.--As has been pointed out, onions are of two general
varieties, dried and green. _Dried onions_, as shown in Fig. 10, are
those which have been allowed to grow to maturity and have then been
cured, or dried, to a certain extent. Such onions are in demand at all
seasons. _Green onions_, also shown in Fig. 10, are those which are
pulled, or taken out of the ground, before they have matured and are
eaten while fresh. They are especially popular in the spring, although
they have a rather long season. Each of these classes has many
varieties, which vary in flavor and in color, some of the dried ones
being yellow, some red, and others white. All dried onions have
excellent keeping qualities, so, after purchasing, no special care need
be given to them except to store them in a comparatively cool, dry
place. Deterioration is due chiefly to sprouting, for as soon as the new
plant begins to grow from the center of the onion, the remainder becomes
soft and loses much of its flavor. The green, immature onions, however,
will not keep for any length of time, and in order to keep them fresh
until they are used, they must be stored in a cool, damp place.

[Illustration: FIG. 11]

43. GARLIC.--The variety of onion known as garlic is very much desired
by the people of southern Europe, where it originated. As Fig. 10 shows,
it resembles the onion in appearance, but it consists of several parts,
or small bulbs, called _cloves_, which are encased in a covering of thin
white skin. Garlic has a very strong penetrating odor and a biting taste
that resemble the odor and taste of onion, but that are much ranker. It
is little used by Americans except as a flavoring for salads and various
kinds of highly seasoned meats. In reality, a very small amount of
garlic is sufficient to lend enough flavor, and so the bowl in which a
salad is served is often merely rubbed with garlic before the salad is
put into it. No difficulty will be experienced in recognizing garlic in
the markets, for here it is found in long strings that are made by
braiding the dry stems together.

44. SHALLOTS.--Closely allied to garlic are shallots, which are native
to Syria, where they still grow wild. They are said to have been brought
into Europe by the Crusaders. The bulbs of this vegetable are similar to
those of garlic, being compound in form, but instead of being enclosed
in a thin covering, they are separate when mature, as Fig. 11 shows.
Shallots have a strong flavor, but it is not so rank as that of garlic,
nor does the odor remain in the mouth so long as that of onion. Many
persons like shallots for flavoring stews, soups, salads, and pickles.

45. LEEKS.--Another member of the onion family that is more highly
prized and more extensively raised in Europe than in the United States
is leeks. As Fig. 10 shows, leeks do not produce a bulb as do onions. In
this vegetable, the lower parts of the leaves grow close together and
form a bulb-like stem, or neck, which is fairly solid and which
constitutes the edible part. The odor and flavor of leeks are similar to
those of onions, but they are somewhat weaker. The fleshy stem may be
bleached by banking it with earth, and when this is done, the flavor
becomes more mild and the texture more tender than in the onion bulb.
Like shallots, leeks are used to flavor stews, soups, and similar foods.

46. CHIVES.--The member of the onion family known as chives is a small
plant whose roots remain in the ground for many years and produce year
after year dense tufts of slender, hollow leaves. These leaves grow to a
height of about 6 or 8 inches and resemble the tops of onions except
that they are much smaller. Chives, which have a more delicate flavor
than onions, are much used for flavoring soup, stews, salads, meats, and
other vegetables and as a garnish for salads. When used for any of these
purposes, they are cut into tiny pieces.

PREPARATION OF ONIONS

47. ONIONS FOR FLAVORING.--When only the flavor of onions is desired in
a salad or a cooked dish of some sort, such as a dressing for fowl,
hash, or any similar combination of food ingredients, the onion should
be added in the form of juice and pulp rather than in pieces. Then it
will not be possible to observe the onion when it is mixed with the food
nor to come across small pieces of it when the food is eaten. To prepare
an onion in this way, peel it, cut off a crosswise slice, and then grate
the onion on a grater over a shallow dish. Add the juice and pulp thus
obtained to any food that calls for onion as a flavoring.

48. ONIONS FOR THE TABLE.--When onions are to be used as a vegetable for
the table, they require cooking, but first of all they must be peeled.
This is at best a rather unpleasant task, because the fumes from the
strong volatile oil are irritating to both the eyes and the nostrils.
However, it may be done more comfortably by keeping the onions immersed
in cold water during the peeling. Remove only the dry outside shells,
and, if the onions are large, cut them in halves or quarters. However,
as the various layers are likely to fall apart when the onion is cut, it
is advisable to select medium-sized or small onions, for these may be
cooked whole. After the onions have been peeled, they may be cooked in a
variety of ways.

49. BOILED ONIONS.--Perhaps the simplest method of cooking onions is to
boil them. To allow the strong volatile oil to escape instead of being
reabsorbed by the onions, and thus improve the flavor of the onions, the
cover should be kept off the vessel while they are cooking. The water in
which this vegetable is cooked has not a very agreeable flavor, so no
use should be made of it.

Peel the desired number of onions and if necessary cut them into halves
or quarters. Place them in sufficient boiling water to cover well. Cook
in an uncovered vessel until tender enough to be easily pierced with a
fork, but not so soft as to fall apart. Then pour off the water, season
with more salt, if necessary, and a little pepper, and add 1
tablespoonful of butter for each four persons to be served. Serve hot.

50. CREAMED ONIONS.--A cream sauce added to onions makes a very
appetizing dish. In fact, most persons prefer creamed onions to any
other method of preparation.

CREAMED ONIONS
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 pt. stewed onions
3 Tb. butter
3 Tb. flour
1 tsp. salt
Dash of pepper
1-1/2 c. hot milk

Prepare the onions according to the directions given in Art. 49. When
they are tender enough to be easily pierced with a fork, drain. Melt the
butter, and add the flour, salt, pepper, and hot milk. Cook until the
sauce thickens, pour over the stewed onions, heat together for a few
minutes, and serve.

51. BAKED ONIONS.--If variety in the preparation of onions is desired,
baked onions should be tried. Select medium-sized onions, peel them, and
then boil them whole in boiling salted water until they are almost
tender. Drain off the water, place the onions in a shallow dish, brush
with butter, and sprinkle with salt and pepper. Place in a hot oven and
bake until brown on one side; then turn them and brown on the other
side. Serve hot.

[Illustration: FIG. 12] 52. STUFFED ONIONS.--When large onions can be
secured, a very appetizing as well as attractive dish can be prepared by
stuffing them and then baking them brown. Onions cooked in this way will
appear as shown in Fig. 12.

STUFFED ONIONS
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

6 large onions
1 c. dried bread crumbs
2 Tb. butter
1/2 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
1/2 tsp. celery salt
1/4 c. milk

Peel the onions and cook them in boiling salted water until almost
tender. Remove from the water and take out the inner portions of the
onions, leaving the outside layers in the shape of a cup. Chop the
portions of the onions which have been removed and mix with the bread
crumbs. Melt the butter, add to it the chopped onion, bread crumbs,
salt, pepper, and celery salt, and stir all together for a few minutes
over the flame. Add the milk, and if the 1/4 cupful is not sufficient to
make the stuffing moist, add more. Fill the onion shells with the
stuffing, place in a hot oven, and bake until brown. Serve immediately.

PARSNIPS AND THEIR PREPARATION

53. Parsnips are an important root vegetable, being closely allied to
carrots. They are used to a certain extent during the summer when they
are immature, but generally they are allowed to mature so that they may
be stored for use as a winter vegetable. Parsnips have an advantage over
many vegetables in that they have excellent keeping qualities and are
particularly hardy, being able to withstand considerable freezing and
thawing when they are left in the ground during the winter. However, as
they grow older, they develop a woody texture, as do beets and turnips,
and so at the end of the winter require longer cooking than at the
beginning.

54. In food value, parsnips are somewhat higher than other root
vegetables, containing a large amount of carbohydrate, which occurs in
the form of sugar. Although they are wholesome and nourishing, they have
a peculiar, sweetish flavor that is due to the volatile oil they contain
and is objectionable to some persons. Still, those who are fond of this
flavor find that parsnips afford an excellent opportunity to give
variety to the diet, for they may be prepared in a number of ways, most
of which are similar to the ways in which carrots are cooked.

55. In preparing parsnips for cooking, scrape them, if possible, instead
of peeling them, so as not to waste any of the edible material. Then,
too, try to obtain medium-sized parsnips, for they will be of much
better quality than the larger ones. If uneven sizes must be used, the
larger ones should be cut before being cooked, so that they will be
similar in size to the smaller ones and therefore cook in the same
length of time.

56. MASHED PARSNIPS.--A very simple way in which to prepare parsnips is
to mash them. Clean and scrape the desired number of parsnips and put
them to cook in sufficient boiling salted water to cover. Cook until
tender enough to be pierced with a fork, the length of time required to
do this depending entirely on the age of the parsnips. When tender,
drain off the water and force the parsnips through a colander or a
sieve. Season with butter, salt, and pepper, and serve hot.

57. CREAMED PARSNIPS.--Parsnips are sometimes cut into dice and then
served with a cream, sauce. When it is desired to prepare them in this
way, the accompanying directions should be carefully followed.

CREAMED PARSNIPS
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 c. diced parsnips
2 Tb. butter
2 Tb. flour
1/2 tsp. salt
Dash of pepper
1 c. milk

Clean and scrape the parsnips and cut them into dice 1/2 inch in size.
Put these to cook in sufficient boiling salted water to cover, cook
until they may be easily pierced with a fork, and then drain. Melt the
butter in a double boiler, and add the flour, salt, and pepper. Stir in
the hot milk, and cook until the mixture thickens. Pour this sauce over
the parsnips, heat together for a few minutes, and serve.

58. BROWNED PARSNIPS.--Parsnips that are browned and sweetened with
sugar seem to meet with greater favor than those prepared by other
methods. To prepare them in this way, clean and scrape the desired
number of parsnips, and slice them in thick slices, or, if they are
small, cut them in halves lengthwise. Put them to cook in boiling salted
water and cook until they may be easily pierced with a fork, but are not
tender enough to fall to pieces. Melt some fat in a frying pan, and
place the slices of cooked parsnips in it. Brown on one side, turn, and
then brown on the other. Sprinkle with a little sugar and, if necessary,
additional salt. Serve.

PEAS AND THEIR PREPARATION

59. In addition to beans and lentils, the class of vegetables called
legumes includes PEAS, which, both green and dried, are used for food.
In composition, there is a decided difference between the two varieties
of peas, the green ones being about equal to green corn in food value,
and the dried ones having a food value nearly four times as great. In
each case, the food substance in the greatest amount is in the form of
carbohydrate. In green peas, this is in the form of sugar, while in
dried ones it is changed into starch. Peas also contain protein in the
form of legumin, there being three times as much of this substance in
dried peas as in green ones. The amount found in green peas is
sufficient to be of importance in the diet, but the percentage of this
substance is so great in dried peas that they may be used very
satisfactorily as a meat substitute.

60. GREEN PEAS.--Numerous varieties of green peas are found on the
market. A few of them are cooked in the pods, especially when the peas
are very young, and are eaten pods and all, just as are string beans.
Most of them, however, are allowed to mature further and only the peas
are eaten, the shell being discarded.

When green peas are purchased, they are always found in the pods. For
the peas to be most satisfactory, the pods should be fresh and green and
should appear to be well filled. Flat-looking pods mean that the peas
have not matured sufficiently. After being purchased, the peas should
not be removed from the pods until they are to be cooked. However, if it
is necessary that they stand for any length of time after they are
shelled, they should be kept in a cool place in order to prevent them
from shriveling. Their cooking is similar to that of any other fresh
vegetable; that is, they should be cooked in boiling salted water in a
covered vessel until they are tender enough to be easily crushed between
the fingers or pierced with a fork. With this preliminary preparation,
they may be dressed in any desirable manner.

61. DRIED PEAS.--Dried peas, because of their nature, require a
different kind of preparation from green peas. In fact, their cooking is
similar to that of dried beans. They require long slow cooking and are
improved if they are first parboiled in water to which a pinch of soda
has been added. They are not used extensively except in the making of
soups or occasionally for a purée or a soufflé, but as they are very
high in food value and can be used as a meat substitute, they should
have a prominent place in the dietary of most families. Many of the ways
in which dried beans and lentils are prepared are fully as applicable in
the case of dried peas.

62. GREEN PEAS WITH BUTTER.--When peas are young and tender, no more
appetizing way to prepare them can be found than to boil them and then
serve them with butter.

Select fresh green peas with full pods, wash in cold water, and remove
the peas from the shells. Put to cook in enough boiling salted water to
cover well, and cook until tender. Pour off all but a small amount of
the water, using the part poured off for making soup or sauce. Add 1
tablespoonful of butter for each four persons to be served, and season
with additional salt if necessary and a dash of pepper. Serve hot.

63. GREEN PEAS ENGLISH STYLE.--If the flavor of mint is agreeable, green
peas prepared English style will undoubtedly find favor. Cook them as
for green peas with butter, but, at the time the butter is added, add 1
tablespoonful of finely chopped fresh mint. Season with additional salt,
if necessary, and pepper, allow all to simmer together for a few
minutes, and serve.

[Illustration: FIG. 13]

64. CREAMED PEAS.--A cream sauce adds considerable food value and flavor
to green peas. Peas prepared in this way may be served plain, but they
can be made very attractive by serving them in croustades, as shown in
Fig. 13. As already learned, _croustades_ are cases made from large
pieces of bread that are cut any desired shape, hollowed out, and then
toasted in a hot oven or on a broiler or fried in deep fat until crisp.

CREAMED PEAS
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 c. shelled green peas
2 Tb. butter
2 Tb. flour
1/2 tsp. salt
Dash of pepper
1/2 c. water from peas
1/2 c. milk

Cook the peas in boiling salted water until tender, and then drain the
water from them, retaining 1/2 cupful for the sauce. Melt the butter,
add the flour, salt, and pepper, and stir in the hot liquids. Cook until
the flour has thickened and then pour over the peas. Serve hot, either
plain or in croustades.

65. PEAS IN TURNIP CUPS.--A somewhat unusual dish can be prepared by
making cups out of turnips, filling them with peas, and then pouring a
cream sauce over the peas. Besides being attractive, this combination
makes a very palatable vegetable dish.

Select a sufficient number of medium-sized white turnips. Wash them
thoroughly, and then hollow out the inside of each, leaving cup-shaped
shells about 1/4 inch thick. Cook these shells in boiling salted water
until tender, but not tender enough to break into pieces, and remove
from the water. Then, according to the directions given in Art. 60, cook
enough green peas to fill the cups. When tender, fill the cups with the
peas and over them pour a medium white sauce. Serve hot. 66. PEAS
PURÉE.--Many persons who cannot eat peas because of the coarse outside
skins are able to digest them in the form of a purée. To prepare them in
this way, boil fresh peas in the manner explained in Art. 60. When they
are tender, force them through a purée sieve or a fine-mesh wire sieve.
The pulp will pass through the sieve, but the coarse skins will remain.
The purée thus made may be used for soup or in the making of a soufflé.

67. PEAS SOUFFLÉ.--Nothing in the way of peas is more appetizing and at
the same time more easily digested than peas soufflé. This may be baked
in a large baking dish, or it may be divided and baked in individual
baking dishes.

PEAS SOUFFLÉ
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 Tb. butter
2 Tb. flour
1/2 c. milk
1 c. peas purée
1/2 tsp. salt
Dash of pepper
2 eggs

Melt the butter, stir in the flour, and add the heated milk. Cook until
the mixture thickens and then add the peas purée, salt, and pepper.
Separate the eggs, beat the yolks and add them to the mixture, and then
fold in the stiffly beaten whites. Pour into a well-greased baking dish
or individual baking dishes, place in a pan of hot water, and bake in a
slow oven until set, or for 30 or 40 minutes. Serve at once.

PEPPERS AND THEIR PREPARATION

68. PEPPERS are one of the fruit vegetables. Some varieties of them are
dried and used as a condiment, that is, to season or give relish to
food, but as they are never used as a vegetable, they are not included
here. It is the sweet varieties of peppers which are used as vegetables
and to which reference is made in these discussions. They are valuable
chiefly for two reasons: to flavor various kinds of dishes, such as
entrées, salads, etc., and to make a dish more attractive in appearance
because of the contrast in color they afford. In food value, they are
about equal to the various greens, but as a rule such small quantities
of them are eaten that they cannot be regarded as a food.

69. STUFFED PEPPERS.--The usual way of preparing peppers as a vegetable
is to stuff them and then bake them, when they will appear as in Fig.
14. The stuffing may be made of various kinds of material, such as
pieces of meat, vegetables, cereals, etc., and so affords an excellent
way to utilize left-overs of any of these foods. Two recipes for
stuffing are here given, and either one may be used with equally
good results.

[Illustration: FIG. 14]

To prepare peppers for stuffing, wash them in cold water and remove the
tops by cutting around the peppers a short distance from the stem.
Remove the pulp and seeds from the inside, and wash the peppers
thoroughly to make sure that no loose seeds remain. Fill with the
desired stuffing, place in a shallow pan with a small amount of water,
and bake until the peppers are soft enough to be pierced with a fork.
The water permits the peppers to steam during the first part of the
cooking. Serve hot.

STUFFING NO. 1
(Sufficient for Six Peppers)

2 Tb. ham fat
1 small chopped onion
1/2 tsp. salt
Dash of pepper
1-1/2 c. steamed rice

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