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Woman's Institute Library of Cookery, Vol. 2 by Woman's Institute of Domestic Arts and Sciences

Part 3 out of 6

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(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1/2 c. grated cheese
2 Tb. bread crumbs
4 Tb. milk
4 eggs
1/2 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
3 Tb. butter

Mix the grated cheese with the bread crumbs, milk, egg yolks, salt, and
pepper. Beat the egg whites until they are stiff and fold them into the
other ingredients. To cook the omelet, proceed according to the
directions given for making puff omelet in Art. 59.

61. TOMATO OMELET.--The addition of tomatoes to an omelet makes an
attractive dish as far as color is concerned, and, at the same time, it
gives variety by improving the flavor. Such an omelet is also less
concentrated than a plain omelet, for the tomatoes provide bulk and
additional water is added. While in a way these lower the food value of
the dish, the loss is more than made up by the qualities that are added.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

6 eggs
1/2 c. milk
1/2 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
3 Tb. fat
2 medium-sized ripe tomatoes

Beat the eggs, and to them add the milk, salt, and pepper. Heat the fat
in a pan large enough to make the egg mixture 1/2 inch deep when poured
into it. Cook slowly until it is well done. Peel and cut the tomatoes
into slices 1/3 inch thick. Place the sliced tomatoes on 1/2 of the
omelet, sprinkle them with salt and pepper, score the omelet through the
center, and fold the other half over the tomatoes. Then slide the omelet
on a hot platter, garnish with lettuce or parsley, and serve at once.

62. VARIETY IN OMELETS.--From the recipes given for omelets, it will be
noted that this dish may be made plain or may be varied by adding
ingredients that provide flavoring or increase the nutritive value. In
addition to the suggestions that have been made in these recipes, there
is an almost endless number of ways in which omelets may be varied. For
instance, left-over bits of any kind of meat, such as a roast, a steak,
or chops, from the day before or bits of bacon fried for a previous meal
may be chopped fine and utilized for this purpose. Cheese cut fine or
grated and mixed with the eggs helps to make a delicious omelet. Bread
crumbs, cracker crumbs, rice, riced potatoes, or left-over cereal may
be used, as well as mushrooms, chopped or whole, and oysters raw or
previously scalloped or fried and then chopped. Bits of fish, such as
left-over crab or lobster, will do nicely for increasing variety. Often
jelly, jam, and fruit or vegetables are folded inside after the omelet
is cooked.

63. STUFFED EGGS.--A highly seasoned cold dish that is delicious for
picnics or cold lunches can be made by removing the yolks from
hard-cooked eggs, seasoning them, and then stuffing them into the
whites, as is explained in the recipe here given. Eggs so prepared also
make a desirable high-protein dish for summer weather when meat dishes
fail to appeal to the appetite. Wafers or tiny bread-and-butter
sandwiches served with stuffed eggs make them more attractive.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

6 hard-cooked eggs
1/2 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
1/8 tsp. paprika
1/2 tsp. mustard
2 Tb. vinegar

Cut the eggs in half, either lengthwise or crosswise. Remove the yolks,
mash them, add to them the salt, pepper, paprika, mustard, and vinegar,
and mix thoroughly. Fill the egg whites with the yolk mixture. The eggs
will be much more appetizing in appearance if the yolk is not packed
smoothly back into the white but allowed to stand up roughly. The plate
on which the eggs are served should be nicely garnished with lettuce,
parsley, or celery leaves.

[Illustration: FIG. 15]

64. CREAMED EGGS.--If a dish that will serve well for luncheon or a
light supper is desired, creamed eggs, as illustrated in Fig. 15, will
be found very satisfactory, for the cream sauce that is served on them
and the toast on which the eggs are placed add carbohydrate to an
otherwise high-protein dish. The eggs used in this dish must be
hard-cooked in water, so as not to be indigestible. Paprika sprinkled
over the top and parsley used as a garnish add colors that make the dish
very attractive.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1-1/2 c. milk
2 Tb. fat
2 Tb. flour
1/2 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. paprika
6 hard-cooked eggs
6 slices of toast

Heat the milk. Put the fat in a saucepan and heat it until it is light
brown; then add the flour, salt, and paprika to the melted fat and mix
all thoroughly. Pour in the hot milk and stir the mixture constantly
until the sauce has become smooth and thick. Cut the hard-cooked eggs
into halves while they are hot, and place two halves with the cut sides
down on each piece of toast. Pour the white sauce over all, sprinkle
with paprika, and serve.

[Illustration: FIG. 16]

65. Eggs à la Goldenrod.--Closely resembling creamed eggs in composition
and food value, but differing from them somewhat in appearance, are eggs
à la goldenrod, which are illustrated in Fig. 16. This is, perhaps, even
a more attractive dish if it is nicely made than creamed eggs, and many
persons who do not like hard-cooked eggs find this dish agreeable and
are able to digest it.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 c. milk
2 Tb. fat
2 Tb. flour
1/2 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
4 hard-cooked eggs
6 slices of toast

Heat the milk. Brown the fat in a saucepan, add the flour, salt, and
pepper, and mix well. Then add the hot milk and stir until the sauce
thickens. Chop the whites of the hard-cooked eggs into small pieces, and
mix them with the white sauce. Arrange the toast on a platter and pour
the sauce over it. Put the hard-cooked egg yolks through a sieve or a
ricer and sprinkle them on top of the white sauce. Serve hot.

66. SCALLOPED EGGS.--A quantity of carbohydrate is added to eggs when
they are scalloped, for the white sauce and the cracker crumbs that are
used in this dish supply this food substance. The cold meat that this
dish requires and that should be well chopped into small pieces may be
left-over from roasted, stewed, or even broiled meat. As this provides
an additional amount of protein, the dish on the whole serves as an
excellent substitute for meat with carbohydrate added.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 c. milk
2 Tb. fat
1/2 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
2 Tb. flour
1 c. cracker crumbs
4 hard-cooked eggs
1 c. chopped cold meat

Heat the milk. Brown the fat in a saucepan, add the salt, pepper, and
flour, and mix well. To this add the hot milk. Cook until the sauce
thickens, stirring constantly. Grease a baking dish and place in it 1/3
cupful of the cracker crumbs. Over the crumbs arrange two of the eggs
sliced thinly, and on the top of the eggs put half of the meat. Repeat
by adding a layer of 1/3 cupful of the crumbs, the remaining eggs
sliced, and the remainder of the meat. Pour the white sauce over all and
arrange the remaining 1/3 cupful of crumbs on top. Bake in a moderate
oven for 1/2 hour. Serve hot from the baking dish.

given in the preceding recipe for scalloped eggs state that this recipe
is baked in a baking dish, it is not necessary that one large dish of
this kind be used, for, if desired, individual baking dishes may be
substituted. In fact, any recipe for which a large baking dish would
ordinarily be used may be baked in the small dishes used for a single
serving, and eggs prepared in this way are especially attractive. Such
dishes are also used for the baking of custards or the molding of jelly
and blanc mange. Since they prove very useful and find so much favor,
it is advisable for every housewife to add a few of them to her supply
of utensils and to become familiar with the varieties that can be
secured and the proper way to use them.

Dishes of this kind may be purchased in both cheap and expensive
varieties and in plain or fancy styles, being made of white porcelain,
of glass, or of the brown ware so much used for large baking dishes and
casseroles and having a white glazing on the inside.

68. When such dishes are used as a means of adding variety to the
cooking and serving of eggs, they should be placed in the oven in a
shallow pan containing enough hot water to come nearly to the top of
them. The object of this plan is to keep the temperature uniform. As
long as the dishes are surrounded by water, the food to be cooked will
not attain a greater heat than 212 degrees Fahrenheit, because the
surrounding water cannot reach a higher temperature. Food cooked in this
way will be found to be baked much more evenly and to be of a better
consistency than food that is subjected to the high temperature of the
oven. Most of the recipes that follow, while they can be baked in large
baking dishes if desired and then served from the dish, are designed
particularly to be used in individual baking dishes.

69. BAKED EGGS IN CREAM.--A dish that is particularly desirable for
breakfast, but that may be served for luncheon, is made by baking eggs
in cream according to the accompanying recipe. Besides being very
appetizing, this dish is high in food value because of the addition of
the cream and fat. Crisp toast served with eggs prepared in this way is
very delightful.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

6 eggs
1 Tb. butter
1/2 tsp. salt
1/4 tsp. pepper
3/4 c. cream

Grease six individual baking dishes and break an egg into each. Put a
small piece of butter on top of each egg and season with salt and
pepper. Pour over each egg two tablespoonfuls of cream. Place the baking
dishes in a shallow pan of hot water and bake until the eggs are as hard
as desired. Serve hot.

70. SHIRRED EGGS WITH HAM.--An excellent way in which to utilize scraps
of ham is to combine them with eggs to make a dish that may be served
in place of meat. This dish, besides being high in food value, is very
tasty because of the flavor of the ham and the fact that it is quite
highly seasoned.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1/2 tsp. prepared mustard
1/4 tsp. pepper
1 c. chopped ham
6 eggs
1/4 tsp. salt
1 Tb. butter

Grease six individual baking dishes. Mix the mustard and pepper with the
ham, and then divide this mixture as evenly as possible into the baking
dishes. Break an egg on top of the ham in each dish, season with salt,
and put a small piece of butter on each. Place the dishes in a shallow
pan of hot water and bake in a moderate oven until the eggs are well set
or hardened. Remove from the oven and serve at once.

71. EGG SOUFFLÉ.--If a delicate dish for children or invalids is
desired, egg soufflé will answer the purpose very well. This dish is
light in character, but it is high in protein and to most persons is
very delightful. It is more attractive if baked in individual baking
dishes, but it may be baked in a large baking dish and served directly
from the dish. To improve the flavor of egg soufflé and make it a more
appetizing dish, tomato sauce is often served with it.

(Sufficient to Serve Eight)

1 c. milk
2 Tb. fat
2 Tb. flour
1/2 tsp. salt
1 Tb. chopped parsley
4 eggs

Heat the milk. Brown the fat in a saucepan, add to it the flour, salt,
and parsley, and mix well. Pour in the hot milk, stir constantly until
the sauce thickens, and then remove from the fire. Separate the eggs and
add the well-beaten yolks to the sauce, stirring rapidly so that the egg
will not curd. Beat the whites stiff and fold them carefully into the
sauce. Turn into well-greased individual baking dishes until they are
about two-thirds full, place in a shallow pan of hot water, and bake
until firm when touched with the finger. Serve at once in the dishes in
which they are baked, because they shrink when they are allowed to cool.

72. The tomato sauce that is often served with egg soufflé is made as


1 1/2 c. strained stewed tomatoes
2 Tb. fat
1/2 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
2 Tb. flour

Force enough stewed tomatoes through a sieve to make 1 1/2 cupfuls of
strained tomato. Heat the strained tomato and to it add the fat, salt,
and pepper. Moisten the flour with a little cold water and add it to the
hot tomato. Cook for 5 minutes. Serve over the soufflé.

[Illustration: FIG. 17]

73. Alpine Eggs.--It is rather unusual to combine cream or cottage
cheese with eggs, so that when this is done, as in the accompanying
recipe, a dish that is out of the ordinary is the result. If not a
sufficient amount of cottage cheese is in supply to serve for a meal, it
may very well be used for this dish. Otherwise, cream cheese
serves nicely.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 10-cent pkgs. cream cheese or
1 c. cottage cheese
2 Tb. finely chopped parsley
1/8 tsp. paprika
6 eggs
1 Tb. butter
1 1/2 tsp. salt

Grease six individual baking dishes. Break up the cheese with a fork and
sprinkle a layer on the bottom of each dish. Break an egg in each dish
over the cheese. Season with salt. Sprinkle a layer of cheese on top of
the egg, and over that put chopped parsley, paprika, and a small piece
of butter. Place the baking dishes in a shallow pan of hot water and
bake in a moderate oven until the eggs are set. Remove from the oven and
serve at once.

74. Clipped Eggs.--The chief value of clipped eggs is their appearance,
which, as will be observed in Fig. 17, is very attractive. This dish
adds much to the breakfast tray of an invalid or will tempt the
appetite of a child who does not feel like eating. But in addition to
being attractive, this dish is high in food value, for in this respect
it is exactly equivalent to a poached egg on toast or a plain egg served
with a piece of toast to which is added a small amount of butter.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

6 pieces toast
3 Tb. butter
6 eggs
1/2 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper

Butter the toast with some of the butter. Separate the whites and yolks
of the eggs without breaking the yolks. Beat the whites stiff, and put a
mound of the beaten white on top of each piece of buttered toast. Make a
hole in the center of the mound of egg white and drop the unbroken yolk
into it. Season each with salt and pepper and bits of the remaining
butter. Place in a hot oven and bake until the yolk is set and the white
slightly browned. Serve hot.

75. LEFT-OVER EGGS.--It is not a difficult matter to utilize eggs in any
form in which they may be left over, for they combine readily with many
other foods. For instance, left-over hard-cooked eggs may be sliced or
chopped and used to garnish dishes of vegetables, meat, fish, or salads.
Eggs cooked in this way may also be stuffed according to the recipe
given in Art. 63, or they may be crushed and mixed with seasoning for
sandwiches. If any soft-cooked eggs remain after a meal, they should be
hard-cooked in order to be used to the best advantage. Left-over omelet
or scrambled, poached, or fried eggs may be chopped and added to soups,
sauces, or gravies, or combined with small pieces of meat or fish and
used with crumbs and white sauce to make a scalloped dish.

Even uncooked eggs that are taken from the shells, but that cannot be
used at once, need not be wasted if proper care is given to them to
prevent the formation of a hard crust over their surface. Such eggs
should be put into a dish that will allow as little of the surface as
possible to be exposed and should be covered with cold water and kept in
a cool place. When they are desired for use, the water should be poured
off carefully so as to prevent the loss of any of the egg.


76. So that a definite idea may be formed of the student's progress in
cookery, there is here presented a breakfast menu that is to be prepared
and reported on at the same time that the answers to the Examination
Questions are sent. This menu is practical and it may be easily
prepared, as all the dishes it contains have already been considered.


Sliced Bananas
Cream of Wheat
Graham Muffins
Puff Omelet

In most homes, breakfast is a meal that is gathered together with as
little thought and preparation as possible. The reason for this is that
the housewife feels that she does not wish to rise early enough in the
morning to prepare an elaborate menu. Breakfast, however, should be the
most attractive meal in the day, because it is one that gives to each
member of the family the right start for the day and sustains him until
luncheon time. In most cases, a cup of coffee and a slice or two of
toast do not start one with a cheerful attitude, nor do they contain
sufficient food value to nourish the individual properly. With a little
forethought and planning, certain foods may be partly prepared for
breakfast the day before. If this is done, the time required for the
actual preparation of the breakfast need not be greatly increased. For
example, in the accompanying menu, the cream of wheat may be cooked the
evening before, the materials for the graham muffins measured, and even
the pan in which they are to be baked greased, and the materials for the
omelet collected and measured. If all this is done, the preparation
necessary in the morning will consist merely of slicing the bananas,
reheating the cream of wheat, preparing the coffee, baking the muffins,
and making the omelet. While the coffee and cream of wheat are heating
or cooking, the oven will be heating, so that when the muffins are mixed
it will be ready to bake them; and while these are baking the omelet may
be prepared. When this is done, all will be ready to serve.



(1) Give a brief description of the physical structure of an egg.

(2) (_a_) Why are eggs an important article of diet? (_b_) For what
foods may they be substituted?

(3) (_a_) Mention the food substances that are found in an egg, and give
the percentage of each one. (_b_) What food substance is lacking in
eggs, and how may it be supplied?

(4) What is the chief food substance in: (_a_) an egg white? (_b_) an
egg yolk?

(5) Discuss briefly the digestibility of eggs.

(6) (_a_) Of what value is the grading of eggs? (_b_) What points are
considered when eggs are graded?

(7) (_a_) What conditions affect the quality of eggs? (6) Mention the
agencies that render the quality of eggs inferior and explain how
they work.

(8) How can the quality of eggs be determined: (_a_) in the market?
(_b_) in the home?

(9) (_a_) What is the common commercial means of preserving eggs? (_b_)
How is it beneficial to the housewife?

(10) (_a_) Mention the various ways by which eggs may be preserved in
the home. (_b_) Explain the preservation of eggs with water glass.

(11) When may the shells of eggs be washed?

(12) (_a_) What is the preferable method of breaking an egg? (_b_)
Explain how the yolk and the white of an egg may be separated.

(13) (_a_) For what purposes are eggs beaten? (_b_) With what kind of
egg beater should egg yolks or whole eggs be beaten?

(14) (_a_) With what kind of utensil should egg whites be beaten? (_b_)
Why should egg whites not be allowed to stand after beating?

(15) (_a_) What is the effect of heat upon an egg? (_b_) Why are eggs
cooked in the shell better if they are cooked at a temperature lower
than boiling point? (_c_) Cook an egg by boiling it rapidly for 20
minutes. Cook another egg according to the directions given in Art. 52.
Remove the shells while the eggs are warm, compare the texture, and
report the differences.

(16) (_a_) When eggs are used in a mixture that is to be cooked for a
long time, when should they be added? (_b_) What can be substituted for
some of the eggs in a mixture that requires eggs for thickening?

(17) (_a_) What point should never be overlooked in the serving of eggs
that are intended to be served hot? (_b_) Why should spongy egg dishes
be served immediately after cooking?

(18) (_a_) How should dishes that have contained eggs be washed? (_b_)
Why is such care necessary?

(19) (_a_) What precautions should be taken in the making of a puff
omelet? (_b_) Mention some of the things that may be used to give
variety to omelets.

(20) (_a_) What are the advantages of individual baking dishes? (_b_)
State how these should be put in the oven and explain the object of
this plan.


After trying out the menu given in the text, send with your answers to
the Examination Questions a written report of your success in making it.
On your report simply write the name of the food and describe its
condition by means of the terms specified in the following list:

Cream of Wheat: thin? thick? properly seasoned? smooth? lumpy?

Graham Muffins: light? heavy? texture coarse? texture fine? even brown
color on crust? well flavored?

Puff Omelet: light? heavy? underdone? overdone? even brown on bottom?
tough? tender? properly seasoned?

* * * * *


* * * * *



1. As understood in cookery, VEGETABLES refer to plants or parts of
plants that are used as food. Vegetables may consist of the entire
plant, as, for example, the beet; the stem, as asparagus and celery; the
root, as carrot and turnip; the underground stem, or tuber, as the white
potato and onion; the foliage, as cabbage and spinach; the flower of the
plant, as cauliflower; the pods, which hold the seeds of the plant or
the seeds themselves, as peas and beans; or that which in reality is
fruit, although for table use always considered a vegetable, as the
tomato and eggplant.

2. Because of this large assortment, vegetables afford the greatest
possible variety in flavor, appearance, texture, quality, and food
value. They therefore assume a place of very great importance in the
diet of individuals and in the plans of the housewife who has all the
meals to prepare for her family. In fact, there is scarcely a meal,
except breakfast, at which vegetables are not served. For dinner, they
form a part or all of each course in the meal, except, perhaps, the
dessert, and occasionally they may be used for this.

Although two or more vegetables are nearly always served in even a
simple meal, the use of vegetables in most households is limited to
those few varieties which are especially preferred by the family. As a
rule, there are a number of other vegetables that would be very
acceptable if prepared in certain appetizing ways. An effort should
therefore be made to include all such vegetables in the dietary, for
they may be used to decided advantage and at the same time they afford
variety in the meals. The constant demand for variety in this food makes
acceptable new recipes for the preparation of the vegetables already
known and information for the use of the unfamiliar kinds.

3. Great variety also exists in the flavor of vegetables, which they
derive from their volatile oils; that is, the oils that evaporate
rapidly on exposure to the air. In some cases, the flavor is
disagreeably strong and must be dissipated, or driven away, in order to
make the vegetables agreeable to the taste and to prevent them from
disagreeing with those who eat them. In others, the flavor is very mild,
so that unless the vegetables are properly prepared the flavor may be
almost lost. When the principles relating to the cooking of vegetables
are thoroughly understood, little difficulty will be experienced in
preparing them so that the flavor is dissipated or retained as the case
may require.

4. The food value of vegetables varies as much as do their form and
flavor, some of them having almost no food value, others having a great
deal, and the remainder varying between these two extremes. The
housewife who wishes to provide economically for her family and at the
same time give them food that is best suited to their needs, should
learn as much of the composition and food value of the various kinds of
vegetables as possible. If, besides acquiring this knowledge, she learns
a variety of ways in which to prepare each kind, she will find that it
is possible to substitute vegetable dishes for the more expensive foods.
For instance, it is often possible to substitute a vegetable dish for a
meat dish several times a week, but the composition of the vegetable
dish must be such that it will really take the place of the meat dish.

5. That it is possible for adults to live on vegetables alone has been
proved by vegetarians; that is, persons who exclude meat from the diet.
They have shown that all the elements necessary to build and maintain
the human body are contained in vegetables, fruits, and cereals, and
also that these elements are in such quantity that it is not necessary
to supply them in any other way. Even if it is not desired to use such
foods exclusively, as much use should be made of them as possible, for
they average a lower cost than the high-protein foods, such as eggs,
meat, and milk. The use of vegetables, however, need not be restricted
to adults, for when properly prepared they may be included to advantage
in the diet of very young children. In fact, children should be trained
to eat vegetables of all kinds, for such training not only will enable
each one to grow up with a correct appreciation for all edible things,
but will make the preparation of meals easier for the housewife.

6. Vegetables should receive great care in their preparation, whether
the method involved is simple or complicated. Any of the methods of
cookery that call for the application of heat may be applied to them,
and in many cases they are served without cooking, merely dressing or
seasoning being added. Good vegetables may be ruined by improper
preparation, while those which are in excellent condition may be
improved by the application of the correct methods in their preparation.
Vegetables that are inexpensive but highly nutritious should be used
when it is necessary to practice economy, because, when they are
properly prepared, they form a valuable addition to a meal.

7. All varieties of vegetables are grown almost universally. This fact,
together with the facts that they mature at different times during the
season, according to the climate in which they are grown, and that most
varieties can be conveniently shipped, makes the season in which certain
fresh vegetables can be obtained much longer than it formerly was. For
instance, very early in the season, long before it is possible to have
beans, peas, and other vegetables in the North, they are shipped from
the extreme South, and as the season advances, they mature farther and
farther north. Therefore, they may be constantly supplied to the
northern markets until the time when they mature in that locality.

8. In order not to waste vegetables and to have them in the best
possible condition when they are desired for preparation, every
housewife should realize that the selection and care of vegetables are
also important matters to consider. The selection must be learned by
familiarity with them, as well as practice in buying, and the housewife
must be guided by the suitability of the vegetables and the money she
has to spend for them. The care that must be given to them is determined
by the kinds that are purchased, some requiring one kind of care in
storage and others entirely different attention.


9. STRUCTURE OF VEGETABLES.--Although vegetables vary greatly in
composition and consequently in food value, they are similar so far as
physical structure is concerned. In general, they consist of a skeleton
framework that is made up of cellulose. Their digestible part is
composed of tiny cells having thin walls that confine the actual food
material in the form of a liquid or semiliquid. As the vegetables grow
old, the cellulose material and the cell walls gradually toughen, with
the result that old vegetables are less easily made tender than young
ones and are not so agreeable to the taste as those which have not grown
hard. The total food value of vegetables, as well as of cereals, meats,
and, in fact, all foods, varies with the quantity of water and cellulose
they contain. Therefore, the vegetables that contain the least coarse
material are the ones that have the highest food value.

10. The green color that characterizes many vegetables is due to a
substance called _chlorophyl_. This substance is essential to the normal
growth of plants and is present in the correct amount in only those
which are properly exposed to the sunlight. Sufficient proof of this is
seen in the case of vegetables that form heads, as, for instance,
cabbage and head lettuce. As is well known, the outside leaves are
green, while the inside ones are practically white. Since it is exposure
to the light that produces the green color, a vegetable or plant of any
kind can be bleached by merely covering it in order to keep out the
sunlight. This procedure also enables the plants to remain more tender
than those which have been allowed to grow in the normal way and become
green. For instance, the inside leaves of a head of lettuce are always
very much more tender than the green outside leaves. In fact, the center
of any kind of plant, that is, the leaves and the stem that appear last,
are more tender, possess a lighter color, and have a more delicate
flavor than the older ones.

11. PROTEIN IN VEGETABLES.--Taken as a whole, vegetables are not high in
protein. Some of them contain practically none of this food substance
and others contain a comparatively large amount, but the average is
rather low. Vegetables that are high in water, such as lettuce, celery,
tomatoes, and cucumbers, contain so little protein that the quantity is
not appreciable. Such vegetables as potatoes, beets, carrots, etc.
contain slightly larger quantities. Dried vegetables, such as beans,
peas, and lentils, contain comparatively large amounts of this
substance, and for this reason may be substituted for such high-protein
foods as meat and fish.

12. The composition of vegetable protein is only slightly different from
that of animal protein. In fact, the experiments of scientists show that
animal protein may be readily replaced by vegetable protein. One of
these proteins is sometimes called _vegetable albumin_, but the chief
protein of vegetables containing the largest amount of this substance,
namely, beans, peas, and lentils, is called _legumin_, from the term
_legumes_, the name of this class of vegetables. It is generally agreed
that vegetable protein is not so digestible as animal protein, but this
disadvantage is offset by the fact that it does not bring about so much
intestinal trouble as does the protein of animal foods and is less
likely to cause disturbances that are usually attributed to foods high
in this substance. Vegetable protein is affected by heat in much the
same way as other protein.

When any of the dry vegetables high in protein are served at a meal,
meat should be eliminated, or the result will be an oversupply of
protein. As this condition is not only harmful but wasteful, it is one
that should receive proper consideration from the housewife.

13. FAT IN VEGETABLES.--As vegetables as a class are low in protein, so
are they low in fat. In the case of some vegetables, the quantity of fat
they contain is so small that it is never considered in discussing the
food value of these vegetables, while in others slightly larger
quantities are to be found. However, on the whole, vegetables are so
nearly lacking in this food substance that it is necessary to supply fat
in their preparation and in the serving of meals in which they are
included. This is done in a variety of ways, depending on the nature of
the vegetable. For instance, in order that baked beans may take the
place of meat entirely, fat in the form of salt pork is usually added
when they are prepared. The pork, of course, also supplies a very small
amount of protein, but it is not used with the beans for this purpose.
Practically all cooked vegetables are served with butter or with a sauce
that contains fat. Green vegetables that require no cooking but are
served as a salad, are supplied with fat by the salad dressing that is
used with them. The fat varies greatly, depending on the kind of
dressing used. 14. CARBOHYDRATES IN VEGETABLES.--When the composition
of vegetables is considered chemically, the most striking thing about
them is the carbohydrates they contain. It is this that distinguishes
this class of foods from animal foods. The carbohydrate of vegetables is
found in both its forms, starch and sugar. It is in the form of sugar in
many of the vegetables when they are young or immature, but it turns
into starch as they mature. This change can be easily observed in the
case of peas. As is well known, young green peas are rather sweet
because of the sugar they contain, while mature or dried peas have lost
their sweetness and are starchy. The sugar that is found in large
quantities in such vegetables as peas, carrots, turnips, etc. is largely
cane sugar. The starch that vegetables contain occurs in tiny granules,
just as it is found in cereals, and is affected by cooking in the same
way. The mature vegetables in which the starch has developed, although
less tender and less sweet than young ones, have a higher food value. In
fact, the carbohydrate that vegetables contain constitutes a large
proportion of their food value.

One of the chief sources of starch among vegetables is the potato, in
which the starch grains are large and, if properly cooked, easily
digested. Irish, or white, potatoes contain very little carbohydrate in
the form of sugar, but in the sweet potato much of the carbohydrate is
sugar. In either of these two forms--starch and sugar--vegetable
carbohydrate is easily digested.

15. MINERAL MATTER, OR ASH, IN VEGETABLES.--The mineral matter in
vegetables is found in comparatively large quantities, the average
amount being slightly over 1 per cent. The presence of this substance is
of great value, because the mineral salts of both fruits and vegetables
are essential in the diet of adults in order to keep their health in a
normal condition. The mineral salts of vegetables render the blood more
alkaline instead of more acid, as do those contained in cereals and
meat. A large number of vegetables, particularly those low in food
value, such as greens, celery, etc., are very valuable for their mineral
salts. In reality, this substance and the cellulose they contain are the
things that recommend the use of these vegetables in the diet. Minerals
of all kinds are found in solution in the water contained in vegetables,
but chief among them are calcium, sodium, iron, phosphorus, and sulphur.
Greens and salad vegetables are particularly high in iron, the element
that assists in keeping the blood in good condition. These minerals are
easily lost if the method of cookery is not planned to retain them.

16. CELLULOSE IN VEGETABLES.--The special use of cellulose, as has
already been learned, is to serve as bulk in the food containing it. In
vegetables, the cellulose varies greatly as to quantity, as well as to
texture and the amount that can be digested. In young vegetables, it is
very soft and perhaps digestible to a certain extent, but as they grow
older it hardens and they become tough. This fact is clearly
demonstrated in the case of beets. Those which are pulled from the
garden in the summer and cooked are tender and soft, but those which are
allowed to mature in the ground and are then put away for winter are,
when cooked in the late winter or early spring, so hard and tough that
it is almost impossible to make them soft. The quantity of cellulose
that vegetables contain therefore depends largely on their age and
condition. Those low in total food value contain, as a rule, larger
quantities of it than those high in food value. This is due to the fact
that both water and cellulose, which are usually found together in large
quantities, help to detract from the fuel, or food, value of foods.

Very young persons or those who are ill sometimes find it impossible to
take in its original form a vegetable that contains a large amount of
bulk, or cellulose. In such a case, the vegetable may be put through a
colander or a sieve in order to break up the cellulose and make it
easier to digest. Under ordinary conditions, cellulose should not be
avoided, but should be included in large quantities in the diet through
the vegetables that are consumed daily.

17. WATER IN VEGETABLES.--The majority of vegetables contain a large
quantity of water. Such vegetables as lettuce, cucumbers, tomatoes,
etc., which are low in total food value, contain the most water, the
average percentage being about 95. The dry vegetables, which are high in
food value, average only about 10 per cent. of water. The water that is
found in vegetables, whether it is much or little, is contained in
cell-like structures surrounded by cellulose, and it holds in solution
the mineral salts and much of the nutriment of the vegetables. In
addition, the water holds in solution to a certain extent the material
that gives vegetables their distinctive flavor. When any of this water
is lost in the preparation of vegetables, the substances that it
contains are also lost. It is therefore essential that correct methods
of preparation be chosen for the cooking of this food, so as to prevent
the waste of valuable food materials.

18. DIGESTIBILITY OF VEGETABLES.--The digestibility of vegetables is
largely an individual matter; that is, a vegetable that agrees with one
person may not agree with another. The fact that there appears to be no
apparent reason for such a condition would lead to the conclusion that
it is due to the peculiarities of the person. Because of this, it is not
fair to make the general statement that a particular vegetable is easy
to digest and another one is hard to digest.

The chief cause for difficulty in the digestion of vegetables lies in
their volatile oils, which give them their flavor, but which are
irritating to many persons. Vegetables having a strong flavor, such as
radishes, onions, cucumbers, cabbage, and cauliflower, are the ones that
disagree most frequently with persons who eat them; but sometimes the
way in which some of them are cooked has more to do with this than the
vegetables themselves.

Vegetables containing considerable cellulose and water do not of
themselves give trouble in digestion, because they contain practically
nothing to digest; but they are sometimes responsible for interfering
with the digestion of other foods. Vegetables that are extremely high in
starch, such as potatoes, are easily digested by most persons, provided
they are properly cooked. For instance, a plain baked potato is easily
digested, but the same potato sautéd in fat is more difficult of

vegetables vary considerably in the amount of the food substances they
contain, so do they differ greatly in their food value. This is clearly
shown in Table I, which gives the percentage of the food substances of
vegetables, as well as the food value per pound, in calories, that these
vegetables contain. The figures in this table are taken from Atwater's
Table of American Food Materials, and refer to the edible portion of the
material. In the case of several vegetables, no figures are given by
this authority, but in the table here presented the percentages and the
calories for the vegetables most similar are used. For example, the
figures for lettuce are used for endive, as the composition and food
value of this vegetable are not included and it resembles lettuce very
closely. Constant reference should be made to Table I as progress is
make with the study of vegetables and their preparation. Noting the
difference in the composition of the different vegetables, as well as
the variation in their food value, will be not only interesting but
instructive. For instance, when the housewife realizes that lettuce and
celery furnish only 85 to 90 calories to the pound, while dried beans
and peas average more than 1,700 calories to the pound, she will
understand better the place that these foods occupy in the dietary.



Food Value
Vegetable Water Protein Fat Carbo- Ash per Pound
hydrate Calories
Asparagus .......... 94.0 1.8 .2 3.3 .7 105
Dried ............ 12.6 22.5 1.8 59.6 3.5 1,750
Lima ............. 68.5 7.1 .7 22.0 1.7 570
Shelled .......... 58.9 9.4 .6 29.1 2.0 740
String ........... 89.2 2.3 .3 7.4 .8 195
Beets .............. 87.5 1.6 .1 9.7 1.1 215
Brussels sprouts ... 88.2 4.7 1.1 4.3 1.7 215
Cabbage ............ 91.5 1.6 .3 5.6 1.0 145
Carrots ............ 88.2 1.1 .4 9.3 1.0 210
Cauliflower ........ 92.3 1.8 .5 4.7 .7 140
Celery ............. 94.5 1.1 .1 3.3 1.0 85
Corn ............... 75.4 3.1 1.1 19.7 .7 470
Cucumbers .......... 95.4 .8 .2 3.1 .5 80
Eggplant ........... 92.9 1.2 .3 5.1 .5 130
French artichokes .. 92.5 .8 .2 5.0 1.5 110
Dandelion ........ 81.4 2.4 1.0 10.6 4.6 285
Endive ........... 94.7 1.2 .3 2.9 .9 90
Spinach .......... 92.3 2.1 .3 3.2 2.1 110
Swiss chard ...... 92.3 2.1 .3 3.2 2.1 110
Lettuce .......... 94.7 1.2 .3 2.9 .9 90
Watercress ....... 94.7 1.2 .3 2.9 .9 90
Jerusalem artichokes 79.5 2.6 2.0 16.7 1.0 365
Kohlrabi ........... 91.1 2.0 .1 5.5 1.3 145
Lentils, dried ..... 8.4 25.7 1.0 59.2 5.7 1,620
Mushrooms .......... 88.1 3.5 .4 6.8 1.2 210
Okra ............... 90.2 1.6 .2 7.4 .6 175
Onions ............. 87.6 1.6 .3 9.9 .6 225
Parsnips ........... 83.0 1.6 .5 13.5 1.4 300
Dried ............ 9.5 24.6 1.0 62.0 2.9 1,655
Green ............ 74.6 7.0 .5 16.9 1.0 465
Peppers ............ 92.9 1.2 .3 5.1 .5 130
Irish ............ 78.3 2.2 .1 18.4 1.0 385
Sweet ............ 69.0 1.8 .7 27.4 1.1 570
Radishes ........... 91.8 1.3 .1 5.8 1.0 135
Salsify ............ 88.2 1.1 .4 9.3 1.0 210
Summer ........... 95.4 .8 .2 3.1 .5 80
Winter ........... 88.3 1.4 .5 9.0 .8 215
Tomatoes ........... 94.3 .9 .4 3.9 .5 105
Turnips ............ 89.6 1.3 .2 8.1 .8 185

* * * * *



20. As in the case of other foods, the purchase of vegetables in the
market requires special knowledge and attention in order that the best
value may be obtained for the money expended. The housewife who has a
limited amount of money to spend for food does not buy wisely when she
purchases vegetables out of season or those which must be shipped long
distances. On the other hand, it will be found that vegetables bought in
season as well as those which are plentiful in the particular locality
in which they are sold, especially if they are perishable vegetables,
are lowest in price and are in the best condition for food. Therefore,
whether the income is limited or not, it is wisdom on the part of the
housewife to buy vegetables that grow in the neighboring region and to
purchase them when they are in season.

21. A very important point for the housewife to keep in mind regarding
the purchase of vegetables is that their price is determined not by
their value as food, but by their scarcity and the demand for them.
Take, for example, the case of mushrooms. As shown in Table I, this
vegetable is low in food value, containing only 210 calories to the
pound, but, if purchased, they are always an expensive food. The high
price asked for mushrooms is entirely dependent on their scarcity. If
there is much demand in a certain community for a food that is not
plentiful in the market, the price of that food always goes up. As in
the case of mushrooms, many expensive foods add practically nothing in
the way of nourishment, their only value being in the variety of flavor
they supply.

22. Furthermore, in order to provide wisely, the person who purchases
vegetables for the family should be able to judge whether she is getting
full value in food for the money she invests. She cannot always do this
with each particular vegetable purchased, but she can buy in such a way
that what she purchases will average correctly in this respect. The
perishable vegetables should be bought as fresh as possible. No
difficulty will be experienced in determining this, for they will soon
wither or rot if they are not fresh, but the point is to find out their
condition before they are bought. The housewife should be ever on the
alert and should examine carefully the vegetables she buys before they
are accepted from the grocer or taken from the market. In the case of
certain vegetables, it is possible to conceal the fact that they are
stale. For instance, the outside leaves of a head of lettuce or endive
are sometimes removed and only the bleached center is offered for sale;
but this always indicates that the outside leaves were either withered
or spoiled or they would not have been taken off.

23. Much of the spoiling of vegetables can be avoided if proper
attention is given to them in the market. Food of this kind should be so
displayed that it is not exposed to the dirt and dust of the street, nor
to flies and other destructive vermin. The practice of displaying
vegetables on a stand in front of a store is gradually losing favor with
the housewife who understands the sanitary precautions that should be
taken with foods. On the other hand, housewives owe it to the merchant
not to handle the foods they are going to buy, for the handling of them
not only injures them so that they will not keep well, but renders them
unfit to be accepted by the next purchaser.

24. The manner in which vegetables are sold should also receive
consideration. It has been the custom to sell them by measure, but both
housewives and merchants have come to realize that it is fairer to sell
them by weight. Experience has shown that a pound is much more likely to
be always uniform than is a quart or a peck. This is due to the fact
that no two dealers are likely to measure in exactly the same way, even
though the measures they use are up to the standard in size. Then, too,
especially in the case of vegetables that are of various sizes and
shapes, it is impossible to fill a measure properly because of the shape
of the vegetables, and so either the housewife often receives short
measure or the merchant gives more than the measure requires. All
difficulty of this kind is entirely overcome when vegetables
are weighed.


25. PERISHABLE VEGETABLES, that is, those which spoil quickly, are
usually bought in small quantities, and so are used up quickly. However,
if they are kept on hand for only a day or so, they require a definite
amount of care in order to insure the most satisfactory results in their
use. To prevent them from spoiling or withering, they should be kept in
a cool, damp place until they are needed. The most effective and
convenient way in which to accomplish this is to store them in a
refrigerator or other similar device. If ice cannot be obtained, the
cellar should be utilized. Before vegetables of this kind are put away
after being delivered from the market, they should be looked over
carefully, and any that are spoiled should be discarded in order to
prevent others that they might touch from becoming tainted. As little
handling as possible, however, is advantageous, because when such foods
become bruised and are then allowed to stand they are likely to spoil
very quickly.

26. The less perishable vegetables, commonly called WINTER VEGETABLES
because they may be kept through the winter, may be bought in quantity,
provided proper storage facilities to prevent them from spoiling are
available. Potatoes, in particular, are usually purchased in this way,
for, as a rule, they may be obtained at a better price than when bought
in small quantities, and then, too, they are a vegetable that most
families use nearly every day. If they are bought in quantity, they
should first be thoroughly tested, for often a potato looks very well on
the outside while its texture and flavor may not be at all in accordance
with its appearance. Great care should also be exercised to see that
this vegetable, as well as carrots, turnips, parsnips, etc., has not
been frosted, for frost ruins them as to texture and keeping qualities.

All such vegetables as these, provided they must be stored for any
length of time, keep best in a cold, fairly dry atmosphere. To prevent
them from sprouting, the storage room should, if possible, be kept dark,
but in case they do sprout, the sprouts should be removed as soon as
they are discovered. The best receptacles for the storage of these
winter vegetables are bins, a convenient type of which is shown in
_Essentials of Cookery_, Part 2, and the most satisfactory place in
which to put such bins is a cellar that has a dirt floor rather than a
board or a cement floor.


27. Because of their difference in physical structure, both as plants or
parts of plants, and their variation in chemical composition, it is a
rather difficult matter to classify vegetables. The vegetables that are
discussed throughout these Sections are therefore not included in any
classes, but are arranged alphabetically, a plan that the housewife will
find very convenient. However, there are a few general classes whose
names and characteristics should be known by the housewife, for an
understanding of them will enable her to make a more intelligent use of
this food. These classes, together with a brief description of the
features that characterize them and the names by which the principal
varieties are known, are here given.

[Illustration: FIG. 1]

28. SUCCULENT VEGETABLES are those which are generally eaten for their
appetizing effect and their value as a source of mineral salts and bulk.
These vegetables, which get their name from the fact that they are juicy
in texture, include the greens, such as spinach, Swiss chard, dandelion,
lettuce, etc., also celery, asparagus, cabbage, and all other plants
whose green leaves and stems are edible. Succulent vegetables may be
cooked, but they are often used as cold relishes or in the making
of salads.

29. ROOT, TUBER, and BULB VEGETABLES form another class. Examples of
several well-known roots are shown in Fig. 1, which from left to right
are salsify, carrots, turnips, and parsnips. The varieties included in
this class are closely related as to food value, and on the whole
average much higher in this characteristic than do the succulent
vegetables. Irish potatoes and Jerusalem artichokes are examples of
tubers; sweet potatoes, beets, radishes, etc., in addition to the
vegetables shown in Fig. 1, belong to the roots; and onions and all the
vegetables related to the onion, such as garlic, shallots, and leeks,
are illustrations of bulbs or enlarged underground stems.

30. FRUIT and FLOWER VEGETABLES form a third class. They present great
variety in appearance, structure, and composition. To this class belong
cucumbers, eggplant, winter and summer squash, vegetable marrow,
tomatoes, peppers, and okra, which are in reality fruits but are used as
vegetables. Flower vegetables include California, or French, artichokes,
and cauliflower, all of which are in reality the buds of flowers or
plants and are eaten for food.

31. LEGUMES form a fourth class of vegetables, and they include all the
varieties of beans, peas, and lentils. When these foods are mature and
dried, they have the highest food value of all the vegetables. Among the
beans are Lima beans, kidney beans, navy, or soup, beans, soy beans, and
many others. The peas include the various garden varieties that have
been allowed to mature, cow-peas, and many others, some of which are not
suitable for human consumption. The lentils occur in numerous varieties,
too, but those commonly used are the red, yellow, and black ones. To
legumes also belong peanuts, but as they are seldom used as vegetables
in cookery, no further mention is made of them in this Section.

* * * * *



32. PREPARING VEGETABLES FOR COOKING.--Before many vegetables can be
cooked, they require a certain amount of preparation, such as washing,
soaking, peeling, cutting up into suitable sizes, etc. When they must be
peeled, great care should be taken not to remove too much of the
vegetable with the skin. Whenever it is possible to do so, vegetables
should be cooked in their skins, as there is much less waste of edible
material if the skins are removed after cooking. Potatoes that are to be
fried, hashed brown, or used for salad and other similar dishes may be
boiled in their skins and peeled afterwards just as conveniently as to
be peeled first and then boiled. Indeed, this plan is strongly
recommended, for it not only saves material that is removed in the
peeling but also conserves the mineral salts and the soluble food
material, much of which is lost in the water during the cooking.

33. If it is desired to remove the peeling before cooking, it will be
found more economical to put the vegetables in water and then scrape off
the skins than to cut them off with a knife. This method is especially
satisfactory with new potatoes and with such vegetables as carrots,
parsnips, salsify, and turnips. The scraping can be accomplished more
easily if the vegetables are first plunged into boiling water for a few
minutes and then dipped into cold water.

When entire heads of such vegetables as cabbage, cauliflower, Brussels
sprouts, etc. are to be cooked, they should be soaked, head down, for at
least 1/2 hour in salted water made by adding 1 teaspoon-full of salt to
1 quart of water. This is done in order to remove any bugs or worms that
may be lodged in the head. The correct proportion of salt is an
important detail of this process, for if salt water that is too strong
is used, it will kill the bugs or worms and they will remain in the
of cooking applied to vegetables are boiling, steaming, baking, stewing,
frying, sautéing, broiling, and roasting. Which one of these to select
depends, of course, on the particular kind of vegetable that is to be
cooked and the result that is desired, but, if possible, an effort
should be made to select an economical method. Starchy vegetables, such
as Irish and sweet potatoes, beans, etc., develop a more delicious
flavor when they are baked than when they are cooked by any other method
of preparation. Steaming is an excellent means of preparing vegetables
that must be cooked by moist heat, especially when it is desired that no
soluble material be lost, as is often the case in boiling. Frying and
sautéing, when applied to vegetables, usually produce a delicious
flavor, but often render the vegetables decidedly indigestible. For this
reason, vegetables so prepared should seldom if ever be served to
children and to persons whose digestion is not good.

35. EFFECT OF COOKING ON VEGETABLES.--The various ways in which cooking
affects vegetables should be thoroughly understood by the housewife. In
the first place, some methods conserve the food material whereas others
waste it. For instance, boiling in water, which is probably one of the
most common ways of cooking vegetables, is decidedly advantageous in
some respects, but the water dissolves much of the soluble material,
such as mineral salts, sugar, etc., found in the vegetables, so that
unless some use is made of this water in the cooking of other foods,
considerable waste results. On the other hand, steaming and baking
permit no loss of food material, and so they should be applied to
vegetables whenever it is desired to conserve food substances.

36. The flavors of vegetables are greatly changed during the process of
cooking, being increased in some cases and decreased in others. In the
case of such strongly flavored vegetables as cabbage, cauliflower,
onions, etc., it is advisable to dissipate part of the flavor. Therefore
such vegetables should be cooked in an open vessel in order that the
flavor may be decreased by evaporation. Vegetables mild in flavor,
however, are improved by being cooked in a closed vessel, for all their
flavor should be retained. The overcooking of vegetables is sometimes
responsible for an increase of a disagreeable flavor. 37. Another
feature of vegetables often changed by cooking is their color. For
instance, green vegetables do not, upon cooking, always remain green. In
many cases, the color may be improved by adding a very small quantity of
soda to the water in which the vegetables are cooked. Attention should
also be given to the length of time vegetables are subjected to heat,
for the overboiling of some vegetables is liable to develop an
unattractive color in them. This is particularly the case with cabbage,
cauliflower, and Brussels sprouts, which develop not only a strong,
disagreeable flavor but also a reddish color when cooked too long.

38. The application of heat to vegetables also has a definite effect on
them. By sufficient cooking, the cellulose of vegetables is softened to
the extent that it is less irritating and much more likely to be partly
digested than that of raw vegetables. The acids of fruits increase upon
cooking, and so the acidity of vegetables is increased to a certain
extent. Vegetables that contain starch are rendered digestible in no
other way than by cooking. On the other hand, the protein material of
this food is coagulated by the application of heat, just as the white of
an egg or the tissue of meat is coagulated and hardened. However,
cooking is the only means of softening the cellulose that surrounds
this material.

Still, high-protein foods, such as beans, peas, and lentils, can be much
improved if they are cooked in water that is not very hard. The lime in
hard water has a tendency to harden them to the extent that they require
a much longer time to cook than when soft water is used. These
vegetables may be still further softened by the addition of a small
quantity of soda to the water in which they are cooked, but care should
be taken not to use too much soda, as it will injure the flavor. When
soda is used, the vegetable should be parboiled for 10 or 15 minutes in
the soda water and then drained and cooked in fresh water. This method,
of course, does not apply to vegetables that are cooked in soda water to
retain their color.

39. Salt is always added in the cooking of vegetables to season them. In
the use of salt, two important points must be borne in mind: first, that
it has the effect of hardening the tissues of the vegetable in much the
same manner as it hardens the tissues of meat; and, secondly, that it
helps to draw out the flavor of the vegetables. These two facts
determine largely the time for adding the salt. If an old, tough,
winter vegetable is to be prepared, it should be cooked until nearly
soft in water that contains no salt, and the salt should be added just
before the cooking is finished. When it is desired to draw out the
flavor, as, for instance, when vegetables are cooked for soup or stews,
the salt should be supplied when the vegetables are put on to cook.
Young tender vegetables may be cooked in salt water, but as such water
extracts a certain amount of flavor, an effort should be made to use it
in the preparation of stews, sauces, and soups.


40. Vegetables may, of course, be served plain, but they are greatly
improved in flavor, nutritive value, and often in appearance by the
addition of a well-seasoned sauce. Numerous sauces are used for this
purpose, the one to select depending somewhat on the vegetable, the
method of cooking employed, and the flavor that is desired. Recipes for
the sauces found to be most satisfactory are here given. It will be well
to practice the making of these, so as to become familiar with them and
thus know just what sauce is meant when reference is made to a
particular sauce in the recipes for vegetables. The quantities given in
the recipes for sauces will make sufficient sauce to dress the
vegetables required for four to six persons. White sauce, which is
probably the one that is used oftenest, may be made in various
thicknesses, as has been explained previously. However, the medium white
sauce has been found to be the one most nearly correct for vegetables
and consequently the one most preferred.


2 Tb. butter
2 Tb. flour
1/2 tsp. salt
Dash of pepper
1 c. milk

Melt the butter and add the flour, salt, and pepper. Pour into this the
milk, which has been previously heated, and cook together until the
flour thickens completely. Pour over the vegetable, from which the water
has been previously drained, and serve.


2 Tb. butter
2 Tb. flour
1/2 tsp. salt
Dash of pepper
1/2 c. milk
1/2 c. water in which vegetable was cooked

Melt the butter, add the flour, salt, and pepper, and pour into this
the heated liquids. Cook until the mixture thickens. Pour over the
drained vegetable and serve hot.


1/4 c. butter
2 Tb. flour
1/2 tsp. salt
Dash of pepper
1 c. hot water

Melt the butter, add the flour, salt, and pepper, and pour into this the
hot water. Boil for a few minutes and serve.


1/3 c. butter
1 Tb. flour
1/4 tsp. salt
1/2 c. boiling water
1 egg yolk
2 Tb. vinegar or lemon juice

Melt the butter, add the flour, salt, and water, and cook until the
mixture thickens. While still hot, pour over the slightly beaten egg
yolk, beating constantly to prevent curding. Add the vinegar or lemon
juice. Serve with vegetables that have been boiled in salt water.


2 Tb. butter
2 Tb. flour
1/2 tsp. salt
Dash of pepper
3/4 c. milk or sweet cream
1/4 c. vinegar

Melt the butter and add the flour, salt, and pepper. Pour into this the
heated milk or cream, and allow the sauce to thicken. Then add the
vinegar, stirring rapidly, and serve hot.


1-1/2 c. stewed tomatoes
1 slice onion
2 Tb. butter
2 Tb. flour
1/2 tsp. salt
Dash of pepper

Heat the tomatoes with the onion and force through a sieve. Melt the
butter, add the flour, salt, pepper, and the strained tomatoes. Cook
together until thick, remove, and serve hot with a vegetable.


1/3 c. butter
1 Tb. chopped parsley
2 Tb. lemon juice
1/4 tsp. salt
Dash of pepper

Melt the butter and add the chopped parsley, lemon juice, salt, and
pepper. Mix well, and allow the whole to boil, but not to brown. Pour
over the vegetable and serve.


1/2 c. butter
1 Tb. chopped parsley
1/2 tsp. salt
Dash of pepper

Heat the butter in a saucepan until it is well browned, and then add
the parsley, salt, and pepper. Allow the sauce to become hot, but not to
boil. This is an excellent sauce to use over new potatoes or diced
vegetables, such as turnips or carrots.


41. ASPARAGUS is a vegetable that consists of the shoots of the plant,
which are eaten before the blossoms develop. It grows quickly and is
very tender if the shoots are clipped at just the right time after they
appear above the ground. It comes early in the spring, being about the
first green vegetable that gets into the local market, but its season is
comparatively short. It does not keep long after it is purchased and is
better when it is used at once. If asparagus must be kept for any length
of time, it should be stored in a cool, damp place.

42. In selecting asparagus, it should be remembered that there are two
varieties, one of which is green and the other white. The stems of the
green asparagus should be green to the bottom, and should not be hard
nor woody where they are cut from the plant. However, if a part of the
stems is found to be woody, the hard ends should not be rejected, for
the outside may be peeled off and the center used, or the hard ends may
be cooked with other vegetables for the making of soup. The white
asparagus will have slightly green tips, while the rest of the stem
will be white.

Asparagus is one of the succulent vegetables comparatively low in food
value. It contains, as Table I shows, only one-fourth as many calories
to the pound as potatoes. Its food value, however, may be increased by
dressing it with butter after the vegetable has been cooked or by
serving with it a sauce made with milk, butter, flour, etc. Then, too,
asparagus is sometimes served on toast, which is another means of making
a more nutritious dish out of this vegetable.

In its composition, asparagus contains a _diuretic_, that is, a
substance that has an effect upon the kidneys, and that is known as
_asparagine_. Because of the presence of this substance, asparagus is
thought to be injurious to those who have kidney trouble, but it need
not be avoided except in some forms of this disease. 43. PREPARATION
FOR COOKING.--To prepare asparagus for cooking, strip the tiny scales
from the sides of the stems by means of a small paring knife. These hold
sand and are responsible for the presence of the grit that is sometimes
found in a cooked dish of asparagus even when the housewife feels
certain that she has washed it as clean as possible. Then wash the stems
thoroughly in several cold waters, lifting them out of the water after
each washing instead of pouring the water off of them. If the water is
poured off the stems, the sand that has been washed from them is likely
to remain in the bottom of the pan and mix with the vegetable again.

When the asparagus has been sufficiently washed, it may be used in the
full lengths or cut into pieces of any desired length, 1 inch being the
size that is usually preferred. If stems are to be cooked whole, it is a
good plan to form them into a bunch as when purchased and tie the bunch
with a tape or a string. When this is done, the string should, of
course, be cut and removed before the asparagus is served. A point to
remember about the preparation of this vegetable is that it should
always be cooked in boiling, salted water.

44. ASPARAGUS WITH BUTTER DRESSING.--Perhaps the simplest way in which
to prepare asparagus is to cook it in salted water and then serve it
with a butter dressing. When prepared in this way, it may be served
plain, but it becomes more attractive, as well as more nutritious, if it
is placed on squares of toast.

For this dish, secure a bunch of fresh, tender asparagus, wash it
thoroughly, and then, as desired, cut it into inch lengths or allow it
to remain whole. Pour enough boiling water over it to cover well, add
salt in the proportion of 1 teaspoonful to each quart of water, and
allow it to cook until the stems may be easily pierced with a fork,
which in most cases will require not more than from 10 to 15 minutes.
The length of the cooking is an important factor with this vegetable,
for when it is overcooked its flavor is not so agreeable as when it has
had just enough cooking. When the asparagus is done, drain off the
water, season with a little more salt and a dash of pepper, and, if it
is to be served without toast, add 1 tablespoonful of butter for each
bunch cooked, allowing the butter to melt. In case it is to be served on
toast, allow a small amount of the liquid in which it was cooked to
remain on it, add the butter to this, and, after placing several of the
stems or a number of the pieces on the squares of toast, dip a little of
the liquid over all. 45. CREAMED ASPARAGUS ON TOAST.--A still more
nutritious dish can be prepared from asparagus by combining it with a
cream sauce and serving it on toast. The sauce supplies protein and fat
and the toast furnishes carbohydrate, substances in which this vegetable
is low. Numerous ways of serving this combination may be resorted to,
but one of the most attractive methods is illustrated in Fig. 2. As here
shown, a small bunch of the stems is slipped through a ring of toast cut
by means of round cutters of two sizes. If it is not desired to use
toast for this, a ring of lemon rind or pimiento may be substituted, or
the ring may be omitted altogether and the stems merely laid in an
orderly manner on a square of toast. Also, with this dish, as with the
previous one, the asparagus may be cut into inch lengths instead of
being cooked whole.

[Illustration: FIG. 2]

To prepare creamed asparagus, clean it in the manner explained in Art.
43. Then either cut it into inch lengths or allow the stems to remain
whole, and cook it in enough boiling salted water to cover it well.
While the asparagus is cooking, prepare a medium white sauce. As soon as
the asparagus has cooked enough to be pierced with a fork, pour off the
water and serve with the sauce in any of the ways already suggested. If
the asparagus is left whole, the sauce is poured over it after it is
placed on the toast, but when it is cut into small pieces, it is usually
combined with the sauce and the creamed vegetable then poured over
the toast.

46. SCALLOPED ASPARAGUS.--Another nutritious dish with asparagus as its
base is scalloped asparagus. This involves all the ingredients used in
creamed asparagus, but to give it still more food value, cheese is
also added.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 bunch asparagus
2 Tb. butter
2 Tb. flour
1 c. asparagus stock
1/2 c. milk
1/4 tsp. salt
1 c. buttered cracker crumbs
1/2 c. grated cheese

Clean the asparagus according to the directions given in Art. 43. Cut
it into inch lengths and cook in boiling salted water until it is tender
enough to be pierced with a fork, and then drain. Prepare a sauce by
melting the butter, adding the flour, and pouring into this mixture the
heated stock and milk seasoned with the salt. Put a layer of the
buttered crumbs in the bottom of a baking dish, and pour half the
asparagus over them. Sprinkle the asparagus with one-third the cheese
and add another layer of crumbs. Sprinkle this with one-third the
cheese. Add the remainder of the asparagus and the crumbs and sprinkle
the rest of the cheese on top. Pour the sauce over the entire mixture,
place in the oven, and bake until heated thoroughly and the top is
slightly browned. Serve from the baking dish.

* * * * *



47. Of all the vegetables commonly used for food, BEANS afford the
greatest variety. However, there are two principal classes into which
all varieties of this vegetable can be placed, namely, _string beans_
and _shell beans_. String beans include both the pods and the seeds, and
are used when the beans are very young. Shell beans consist of the
seeds, which are allowed to mature either partly or entirely and are
taken from the shells before cooking. Those which are partly developed
are cooked when they are fresh, but the ones that are allowed to mature
completely are dried and then stored for use at any time during the
year. In some cases, the same variety of beans may be used in the three
ways mentioned, while in others certain kinds are raised expressly for
one of these purposes.

48. The food value of beans increases as they mature, as will be
observed upon reference to Table I. The very young beans, that is, the
string beans, which include the pods and all, are comparatively low in
food value, being only a little higher than asparagus. To increase the
food value of these, fat meat, butter, or other fat is supplied in their
cooking, or milk or a cream sauce is added before they are served. Fresh
shell beans have much more nutriment than string beans, whereas dried
beans are very high in food value. It is this characteristic of dried
shell beans that makes them a very good meat substitute.


49. VARIETIES OF STRING BEANS.--There are two general varieties of
string beans: the yellow ones, which are commonly known as _wax beans_,
and the green ones, which are the ones usually meant when the term
string beans is used. Numerous varieties exist among these classes, and
some are very much better than others. Many of them have strings, but
others are stringless and consequently are easier to prepare. Whatever
kind is used should be picked from the vines before the beans are old
enough for the pods to develop woody fibers. Otherwise they will not be
palatable, for when they have reached this stage it will be impossible
to cook them soft.

50. SELECTION AND CARE.--Small, round, rusty-looking spots are common to
both string and wax beans; but when such spots are present they must be
removed before cooking. As there is considerable waste in the
preparation of such beans for the table, it is wise in buying string
beans to select those whose surface is not marred with such blemishes.
In addition, the beans should be as fresh as can be obtained and crisp
and tender enough to snap when the pods are bent in half. Proper
attention should be given to them after they are purchased, too. If
possible, they should be cooked immediately, but if this cannot be done
they should be kept in a cool, damp place to prevent them from becoming
limp. However, if they wilt before they can be cooked, they may be
freshened by allowing them to stand in cold water for a short time.

51. PREPARATION AND COOKING.--To prepare beans for cooking, wash them
thoroughly in cold water. If the beans are of the stringless variety,
cut off the stem and blossom ends; but, in case they have strings, break
the ends and strip off the strings together with the ends, as shown in
Fig. 3. The beans may then be cooked whole or cut into inch lengths
before cooking. If it is desired to cut them, the most convenient way is
to place them in an orderly heap on a cutting board and then cut a
handful at a time, drawing a sharp knife across them as they are held on
the board. Any imperfect portions should be removed before cutting.

52. The cooking of string beans is similar to that of asparagus, except
that they require longer cooking. Put them, either whole or cut into a
kettle, cover them with boiling water to which has been added 1
teaspoonful of salt to each quart of water, and cook them with the cover
on the kettle until they can be easily pierced with a fork. The length
of time required to cook them depends on the age of the beans, but
usually from 30 minutes to 1 hour will be sufficient. When they are
done, drain the water from them, but save it to make sauce for them or
to add to soup stock.

53. STRING BEANS IN BUTTER.--String beans, which, of course, include wax
beans, may be served with a sauce of some kind, but they are very
appetizing when merely drained after cooking and served with
melted butter.

[Illustration: FIG. 3]

To prepare beans in this manner, wash the desired amount, remove the
ends and strings, if necessary, and cut into inch lengths. Cook until
they are tender and then pour off the water. Add 1 tablespoonful of
butter for each four persons to be served, a dash of pepper, and, if
they are not salty enough, a little more salt. Allow the butter to melt
and serve the beans hot.

54. STRING BEANS WITH SALT PORK.--Those who like the flavor of salt pork
will find string beans cooked with a small piece of this meat very
appetizing. Besides improving the flavor, salt pork supplies the beans
with fat, a food substance in which they are very low.

After washing the beans that are to be cooked in this way, remove the
ends and strings, but do not cut into inch lengths. Put the whole beans
to cook in boiling water and add 1/4 pound of pork for a sufficient
amount of beans for four persons. Cook until the beans are tender, and
serve with the pork without removing from the liquid.

55. CREAMED STRING BEANS.--Perhaps the most popular way in which to
prepare string or wax beans is to cream them. Not only an appetizing
dish, but one whose food value is increased, is the result. The cream
sauce served with the beans may be made entirely of milk, but a very
satisfactory sauce can be made by using half milk or cream and half
liquid in which the beans were cooked. To prepare creamed beans, clean
the beans in the usual way and cut them into inch lengths. Put them to
cook in boiling salted water and cook until they may be easily pierced
with a fork. Pour off the water, but keep it to use in the dressing. To
dress a sufficient quantity of beans for four persons, a sauce should be
made as follows:


1 Tb. butter
1 Tb. flour
1/4 tsp. salt
Pinch of pepper
1/3 c. rich milk or cream
1/3 c. liquid from beans

Melt the butter in a saucepan and add the flour, salt, and pepper. Pour
in the heated liquids and stir until the mixture is smooth and
thoroughly cooked. Add the sauce to the beans, heat together, and serve.

56. STRING BEANS WITH SOUR DRESSING.--A dish having an entirely
different flavor from those already explained is produced when beans are
served with a sour dressing.

To prepare beans in this way, clean a sufficient number according to the
directions already given and cut them into inch lengths. Cook them in
boiling salted water until they are tender. Pour off the water, but
retain 1/2 cupful for the dressing. Make the following sauce, which will
dress a sufficient quantity of beans for four persons:


2 Tb. ham or bacon fat
1 Tb. flour
1/4 c. vinegar
1/2 c. liquid from beans

Melt the fat in a double boiler, add the flour, and into this stir the
vinegar and the liquid from the beans. Cook until the mixture thickens
and pour over the beans. Reheat and serve.


57. VARIETIES AND FOOD VALUE OF SHELL BEANS.--When beans have matured on
the vines to such an extent that the pods are no longer tender enough
for human consumption, they are picked and the seeds then used for food.
Some are picked before the seeds have entirely matured, and these, which
must be young enough to contain considerable moisture, are cooked
fresh; others are allowed to mature entirely and are then dried before
they are cooked. After being dried, beans keep indefinitely and require
no care in storage except that they must not become moist. Numerous
varieties of both fresh and dried shell beans are in use, including
navy, marrowfat, pinto, and Lima beans.

58. Fresh shell beans average about three times as much food value as
string or wax beans. Most of this is carbohydrate in the form of starch,
but they also contain considerable protein. Dried shell beans, which are
entirely different in flavor and texture from fresh ones, contain still
more nutriment, their food value being more than twice that of fresh
shell beans and over four times that of potatoes. In the entirely
matured bean, which, as has already been mentioned, belongs to the class
of vegetables called legumes, the high food value is due to the high
percentage of starch and the large amount of protein in the form of
legumin, a substance that is an important substitute for other more
expensive protein foods. This composition reveals at once the fact that
dried shell beans make an excellent food, provided some fat is added to
them in their preparation.

Lima beans, most of the varieties of fresh shell beans are placed on the
market in the pods and must be shelled after they are purchased. Green
Lima beans, however, are usually sold shelled. If the beans are
purchased in the pods, wash them in cold water before shelling, but if
they are bought shelled, wash the shelled beans. Then put them to cook
in sufficient boiling water to which has been added 1 teaspoonful of
salt for each quart. Allow the beans to cook until they may be easily
pierced with a fork. The cooking will probably require from 45 minutes
to 1-1/2 hours, depending on the age and variety of the beans.

60. SHELL BEANS DRESSED WITH BUTTER.--Any variety of fresh shell beans
may be prepared according to the accompanying recipe, but Lima beans are
especially delicious when cooked in this way.

Prepare and cook the beans as directed in Art. 59. When they are
sufficiently cooked, pour off the water, season with additional salt, if
necessary, and a dash of pepper, and add 1 tablespoonful of butter for
each four persons to be served. Allow the butter to melt and serve the
beans hot. 61. SHELL BEANS IN CREAM.--Fresh shell beans are especially
appetizing when they are dressed with cream. Besides improving the
flavor, cream also adds considerable food value, an item that should not
be overlooked.

For this dish, prepare and cook the beans in the manner explained in
Art. 59. When they are tender, pour off the water and season with
additional salt and pepper. Then for each four persons to be served, add
1 tablespoonful of butter and 1/2 cupful of thin cream. Heat the beans
well in the cream and serve.

62. BEAN PURÉE.--Persons with whom the coarse skins that must
necessarily be eaten with beans disagree, find bean purée very
satisfactory. To prepare it, clean and cook the beans in boiling salted
water according to the directions given in Art. 59. Then pour off the
water and force the beans through a ricer or a sieve. Add sufficient
butter, salt, and pepper to season well and serve hot.

63. COOKING OF DRIED SHELL BEANS.--Before dried shell beans of any
variety are cooked, look them over very carefully, reject any that are
unfit for use, and wash the rest in cold water. They may then be cooked
without further preparation, but in order to hasten their cooking and
save fuel in their preparation, it is a good plan to moisten them by
soaking them in water before cooking. If they are to be soaked, place
them in cold water and allow them to remain there for 8 to 12 hours.
Then put them on to cook in water to which has been added a small pinch
of soda. Parboil the beans in this water until the outside skin begins
to crack and then pour off the water. While it is true that a certain
amount of mineral salts and perhaps a small percentage of food value are
lost in this procedure, because the water that is poured off is too
strong to be used for any other purpose, the improvement in the flavor
warrants any loss that might occur. After pouring off the water, wash
the beans in cold water, add fresh water to continue the cooking, and
allow the beans to simmer slowly until they are cooked soft enough to
crush between the fingers, but still retain their original shape.
Nothing is gained by cooking them rapidly on a hot fire, and
considerable fuel is wasted by this practice.

The fireless cooker and the double boiler are excellent utensils for the
cooking of dried beans, because they cook the beans at a temperature
below boiling point. They therefore cook the beans soft with little
difficulty and prevent the protein from becoming hard. The theory of the
cooking of protein--that is, the higher the temperature, the harder the
coagulation--applies in the cooking of dried beans, just as it does in
the cooking of eggs or milk.

64. STEWED NAVY BEANS.--The common small white beans are called _navy
beans_ from the fact that they are much used in the navy. These may be
prepared in various ways, but the simplest method is to stew them. In
the preparation of this dish, as well as any other made from dried
beans, it will be well to remember that 1/2 cupful of beans is usually
sufficient to serve four persons when they are cooked.

Look over the required amount of beans, reject any that are imperfect,
wash thoroughly, and put to soak overnight in cold water. Pour off any
water that remains, cover well with boiling water, and add a pinch of
soda. Cook slowly until the skins begin to burst. Pour off the water,
add fresh hot water and 1 teaspoonful of salt for each quart of water,
and allow to simmer until the beans may be easily crushed between the
fingers. During this process, the water should cook down until just a
sufficient amount to serve with the beans remains. When this is
accomplished, add 1-1/2 tablespoonfuls of butter, a dash of pepper, and,
if necessary, additional salt. Instead of the butter, ham or bacon fat
may be used for seasoning, or a small piece of ham or salt pork may be
cooked with the beans and the fat omitted. Serve the beans hot.

65. LIMA BEANS IN CREAM.--Dried Lima beans, when combined with thin
cream, make a very appetizing dish. To prepare them in this way, clean,
soak, and cook them as explained in Art. 63. When they are soft enough
to crush easily between the fingers and the water has boiled down so
that practically none remains, add 1/2 cupful of thin cream to a
sufficient quantity for four persons. Allow the beans to simmer for a
short time in the cream, add additional salt and a dash of pepper for
flavoring, and serve.

66. LIMA BEANS EN CASSEROLE.--While the small varieties of dried beans
are more commonly baked than the larger ones, Lima beans will be found
especially delicious when prepared in a casserole.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. dried Lima beans
1/4 c. ham or bacon fat
2 c. milk
2 tsp. salt
1/4 tsp. pepper

Soak the beans overnight and then parboil them in soda water. Drain off
the water and turn the beans into a baking dish. Add the fat, milk,
salt, and pepper. Cover the dish and bake until the beans are soft.
Serve hot from the casserole.

[Illustration: FIG. 4]

67. LIMA-BEAN LOAF.--If a dish that is not only appetizing, but
sufficient in food value to be used as a meat substitute, is desired,
Lima-bean loaf, which is illustrated in Fig. 4, should be selected. This
is very good when served alone, but it becomes more attractive and at
the same time more palatable when a sauce or gravy is added.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. dried Lima beans
2 c. bread crumbs
Milk to moisten crumbs
2 eggs
1 tsp. salt
1/4 tsp. pepper
1/2 tsp. celery salt
2 Tb. butter

Soak the beans overnight and parboil them in soda water. Pour off this
water, cook until tender in boiling salted water, and then drain.
Moisten the bread crumbs slightly with milk, mix them with the beans,
and add the beaten eggs and seasoning. When the entire mixture is well
blended, place in a loaf pan, dot the top with the butter, and bake in
the oven until nicely browned and quite firm. Turn out on a platter,
garnish with parsley, and serve by cutting it into slices, as shown
in Fig. 4.

68. BEAN SOUFFLÉ.--Probably the daintiest dish that can be made from
dried beans is bean soufflé. This is equally suitable as the main dish
for a luncheon or a home dinner. One point to remember about it is that
it should be served immediately, for soufflé usually settles when taken
from the oven.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. bean pulp
1 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
1/4 tsp. celery salt
1 Tb. onion juice
2 eggs

Make the bean pulp by forcing well-cooked beans through a colander or a
press. Add all the seasoning and the beaten egg yolks. Beat the egg
whites stiff and fold them into the mixture. When well blended, pour
into a greased baking dish, or individual dishes, place in a pan
containing hot water, and bake in a moderate oven until the soufflé is
set, which will require from 30 to 45 minutes. Test by tapping slightly
with the finger. If the dent thus made in the soufflé springs back, it
is sufficiently baked. Remove from the oven and serve at once.

[Illustration: FIG. 5]

69. BAKED BEANS.--Almost any kind of dried beans may be used for baking.
Some persons prefer the small navy beans, which are mentioned in this
recipe, whereas others like the larger marrowfat beans or Lima beans.
Pinto beans have for some time been taking the place of navy beans, and
are found to be a very good substitute. To bake beans successfully, a
dish with a tight-fitting cover, such as the one shown in Fig. 5, is
required. This is made of heavy glass, but if such a utensil is not
available, very satisfactory results can be obtained by using a heavy
earthen bowl, crock, or baking dish. To produce the delicious flavor
that is agreeable to most persons, beans should be baked a long time.
Therefore, as considerable heat is consumed in their cooking, it is a
wise plan to prepare more than enough for one meal. They may be served
the second time as baked beans, or, if this is not desired, they may be
used for various other purposes.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 pt. navy beans
2 Tb. molasses
2 tsp. salt
1/2 lb. bacon or salt pork

Soak the beans overnight, parboil in soda water, and drain. Add a
sufficient amount of water to cover the beans well, cook until they
break open, and then pour with the liquid into a baking dish. If this
liquid does not almost cover the beans, add more until it comes nearly
to the top. Add the molasses and salt, cut the salt pork into pieces,
and distribute these well through the beans, placing a piece or two over
the top. The beans should then appear as shown in Fig. 5. Place the
cover on the dish and bake in a slow oven for 4 or 5 hours. Remove the
cover occasionally, stir the beans carefully so as not to crush nor
break them, and add enough water from time to time to keep the beans
well moistened. When done, the beans should be light brown in color, but
the top should be well browned. Sometimes it will be found necessary to
remove the cover in order to brown the beans sufficiently.

70. BEAN CROQUETTES.--Left-over baked beans need never be wasted, for
there are numerous uses to which they can be put. If it is not desired
to reheat them and serve them again as baked beans, they may be utilized
in soup, salads, and sandwiches, or they may be made into soufflé, as
explained in Art. 68, or into croquettes according to the accompanying
recipe. Bean croquettes may be served plain, but they are much improved
by the addition of tomato sauce.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 c. cold baked beans
1-1/2 c. bread crumbs
Milk to moisten crumbs
1 egg
1 tsp. salt
Pinch of pepper

To the beans add the bread crumbs slightly moistened with milk. Stir in
the egg, beaten, and the salt and pepper. Blend the entire mixture, form
into croquettes, and roll in dry crumbs. Bake in the oven until brown,
sauté in shallow fat, or fry in deep fat. Place on a platter, garnish
with parsley, and serve plain or with tomato sauce.


71. BEETS are a root vegetable that comes in two varieties, _red_ and
_white_. The red beets are more popular for cooking than the white ones,
and of these the ones that retain their dark-red color after cooking are
preferable to any other. The root, however, is not the only part of this
plant that is eaten, for the tops are also much used for food. When the
tops are to be cooked, the plants are usually not allowed to mature to
the extent that the root parts can be used; still, early in the summer,
when very small beets are to be had with the tops on, both the tops and
the beets may be used. At this age, the beets are very tender and do not
require long cooking. If the beets are not eaten when they are young,
they are allowed to mature in the ground and are then pulled in the fall
and stored for a winter vegetable.

Like other root vegetables, beets contain very little protein and fat,
but in their composition is included a fairly large percentage of
carbohydrate in the form of sugar. Their total food value is greater
than that of string beans, but is considerably less than that
of potatoes.

72. SELECTION AND CARE OF BEETS.--When beets are selected as a summer
vegetable with the idea of using both the tops and the roots, the tops
should be fresh, that is, not withered nor rotted. When the roots are to
be used, either as a summer or a winter vegetable, they should have a
smooth skin, should contain no blemishes, and, as nearly as possible,
should be uniform in size.

Summer beets require about the same care as any other vegetable; that
is, they should be kept in a cool, damp place until they are ready to be
cooked. If they are at all wilted at that time, they may be freshened by
allowing them to stand in a pan of cold water for several hours. Winter
beets, however, should be stored in a cool, dark place where they will
not freeze. A portion of the cellar that has a dirt floor is a very good
place to put the bins containing such vegetables. The woody tissue of
beets that are stored increases as the winter advances, so that any
beets that remain until spring are rather hard and extremely difficult
to cook. In fact, at times it is almost impossible to make them soft
enough to serve, but they can be greatly improved by soaking them in
cold water for a few hours before cooking them. 73. PREPARATION AND
COOKING OF BEETS.--In preparing young beets for cooking, allow an inch
or two of the stems to remain on the beets in order to prevent them from
bleeding. Of course, from winter beets, the entire stem should be
removed, as it will be dried up. Scrub beets of either variety carefully
with a vegetable brush until entirely free from dirt. Then, whether they
are old or young, put them to cook in boiling water without removing
their skins. Allow them to cook until they are soft enough to be pierced
with a fork. This is the best way in which to determine when the beets
are done, for as the length of time required to cook them depends
entirely on their age, no definite time can be stated. As soon as they
are sufficiently cooked, pour off the water, allow them to cool enough
to handle, and then remove the skins, which will slip off easily.

74. BUTTERED BEETS.--Butter added to beets increases both their
nutriment and their flavor. In order to prepare buttered beets, first
clean and cook them in the manner just explained. To remove the skins,
scrape the beets as thinly as possible, so as not to waste any more than
is necessary. Then slice them thin or cut them into 1/2-inch cubes,
season well with salt and pepper, and add 1 tablespoonful of butter for
each four persons to be served. Allow the beets to heat thoroughly in
the butter, and serve hot.

75. BEETS WITH CREAM DRESSING.--If a creamed vegetable is desired, beets
to which cream has been added will be very satisfactory. Clean and cook
the beets in the manner explained in Art. 73. Then peel, cut into
slices, place in a saucepan, and nearly cover with thin cream. Allow
them to cook in the cream for a few minutes, season with salt and
pepper, and serve.

76. BEETS WITH SOUR DRESSING.--To give variety, beets are sometimes
served with a sour dressing. Probably no other vegetable lends itself so
well to this sort of preparation as beets, with the result that a very
appetizing dish is provided.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

6 medium-sized beets
2 Tb. butter
2 Tb. flour
1 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
1/4 c. vinegar
1-1/4 c. hot water

Prepare and cook the beets as explained in Art. 73. When tender, drain
them, remove the skins, and dice the beets. Make a sauce by melting the
butter in a double boiler and adding the flour, salt, pepper, vinegar,
and hot water. Cook until the flour thickens the sauce and then pour
over the beets. Heat together and serve.

77. BAKED BEETS.--If something entirely different in the way of a
vegetable dish is wanted, baked beets will meet with favor. Beets may be
baked in a covered baking dish or on the open grate of an oven. A slow
fire produces the best results, and as a rule it will take 4 or 5 hours
to bake good-sized beets.

Wash thoroughly and dry the desired number of beets. Place them in a
baking dish and set in a slow oven or place them on the open grate. Bake
until they may be pierced with a fork. Remove from the skins and serve
with a sour sauce or merely with salt, pepper, and butter.

78. PICKLED BEETS.--When beets are cooked for any of the recipes that
have been given, it will be economy to boil more than will be needed for
one meal, for a large number can be cooked with practically the same
quantity of fuel as a few. Then the remainder may be pickled by peeling
them, cutting them into slices, and pouring over them hot vinegar
sweetened slightly and flavored with spice. Pickled beets make an
excellent relish and they will keep for an indefinite period.


[Illustration: FIG. 6]

79. BRUSSELS SPROUTS, as shown in Fig. 6, look just like tiny green
heads of cabbage. These heads grow along a stem that protrudes above the
surface of the ground in much the same way as does the stem to which a
head of cabbage is attached. The heads are cut from the stem and then
usually packed in quart boxes. It is in such boxes as these that they
are found in the markets, where they can be purchased from December
until early spring. They are considered a great delicacy because of the
fineness of their flavor, which rivals that of cauliflower and, while
closely resembling that of cabbage, is much superior to it. In food
value, they are somewhat higher than cauliflower, but about equal
to beets.

80. COOKING OF BRUSSELS SPROUTS.--To prepare Brussels sprouts for the
table, break off the outside leaves from the heads, and then in order to
remove any bugs that may be lodged in the heads, allow them to stand in
cold salted water for 1 hour or so before cooking. After removing the
sprouts from the salted water, pour enough boiling water over them to
cover them well, add 1 teaspoonful of salt to each quart of water, and
boil without any cover on the kettle until they can be easily pierced
with a fork. Care should be taken not to overcook the sprouts, for when
they are cooked too long they become red in color and develop a
strong flavor.

[Illustration: FIG. 7]

81. BUTTERED BRUSSELS SPROUTS.--When Brussels sprouts are properly
cooked and then seasoned with salt and pepper and flavored with butter,
an appetizing dish is the result. To make such a dish for about six
persons, prepare and cook 1 quart of Brussels sprouts in the manner just
explained. When they are tender, pour off the water, season with
additional salt and a dash of pepper, and add 2 tablespoonfuls of
butter. Allow the butter to melt over the sprouts and then serve hot.

If a more attractive dish is desired, the Brussels sprouts prepared in
this way may be combined with French lamb chops, as shown in Fig. 7.
Pile up the buttered sprouts in the center of a platter, and then place
broiled or sautéd lamb chops, whose ends are trimmed with paper frills,
around the sprouts in the manner shown. 82. CREAMED BRUSSELS
SPROUTS.--A very satisfactory way in which to prepare Brussels sprouts
is to serve a cream sauce over them. This sauce, of course, adds food
value, and at the same time greatly improves the flavor of the

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 qt. Brussels sprouts
2 Tb. butter
2 Tb. flour
1-1/2 c. milk
1 tsp. salt
Dash of pepper

Prepare and cook the sprouts as explained in Art. 80. When they are
tender, drain the water from them. Make a white sauce of the butter,
flour, milk, salt, and pepper. Pour this over the sprouts, heat
together, and serve.

83. SCALLOPED BRUSSELS SPROUTS.--Undoubtedly the most palatable way of
preparing Brussels sprouts is to scallop them. The ingredients used in
the preparation of this dish add food value, as well as flavor.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 qt. Brussels sprouts
3 Tb. butter
2 Tb. flour
1 tsp. salt
2 c. milk
1 c. buttered crumbs

Prepare the sprouts as explained in Art. 80. Cook them in boiling salted

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