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Woman's Institute Library of Cookery, Vol. 2 by Woman's Institute of Domestic Arts and Sciences

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characteristics, and, in some cases, their use and the method of
making, is here given. In addition, there are shown in colors, in Fig.
4, a large number of cheeses, together with a print of butter _o_, which
serves to illustrate the irregular surface that is exposed when good
butter is broken apart.


26. Each of the European countries has originated its own peculiar kind
of cheese, which remains representative of a certain people or locality.
The majority of these cheeses have met with so much favor in the United
States that large quantities of them are continually imported. A few of
them have been copied here with success, but others have not been
successfully made. While these are not in such common use as the
domestic cheeses, it is well for every one to know their names and the
characteristics by which they can be identified.

27. ENGLISH CHEESE.--Chief among the kinds of cheeses made in England is
CHEDDAR CHEESE, which is illustrated at _a_, Fig. 4. It is rich,
double-thick cream cheese, ranging from a pale to a dark yellow,
although when uncolored it may be white. Such cheese, when fresh, has a
milk flavor, but when it is well ripened it has a characteristic sharp
taste. New Cheddar cheese is soft, but not waxy, in texture and may
readily be shaved or broken into small pieces; when it is well ripened,
it may be grated. English Cheddar cheese is not unlike AMERICAN CHEDDAR
CHEESE, or, as it is commonly called, _American cream cheese_, which is
shown by _b_. In fact the American variety is made according to the
method used for the English. Owing to its characteristics, flavor, and
abundance, Cheddar cheese, both English and American, is the kind that
is used most extensively in the United States.

ENGLISH DAIRY CHEESE, shown at _d_, is similar to Cheddar cheese,
although it has a reddish color and, on account of the method of
manufacture, it is harder. This kind of cheese lends itself well to
cooking, as it may be easily grated.

CHESHIRE CHEESE, a well-known English variety, is a dry cream cheese
made from whole cow's milk. It is deep yellow or red in color, similar
in flavor to Cheddar cheese, and is used in much the same manner.



STILTON CHEESE, shown at _m_, is a hard cheese made from cow's milk to
which cream has been added and which is coagulated with rennet. Mold
is introduced into this cheese, so that it resembles Roquefort cheese,
which is shown at _j_.

28. HOLLAND CHEESE.--The variety of cheese shown at _e_, Fig. 4, is
known as EDAM CHEESE. It is a hard rennet cheese of a red color and is
mild in flavor. This kind of cheese is molded into the shape of a ball,
the outside of which is usually dyed red, and will keep for a long
period of time. Edam cheese is one of the important products of the
Netherlands, and while it is seldom used in cookery in the homes of this
country, it is served at the table. Usually a section of the top is cut
off to serve as a lid while the inside is scooped out as needed.
Sometimes, after most of the cheese has been removed, the hollow shell
is stuffed with macaroni or rice that has been cooked and seasoned and
the food then baked in the shell.

29. FRENCH CHEESES.--Among the French cheeses, the variety called
GRUYÈRE CHEESE, which is shown at _f_, Fig. 4, is well liked. It is
usually made of skim milk, has a yellow color and a mild, sweetish
flavor, and contains large holes like those found in Swiss and Emmenthal
cheeses, varieties that are very similar to it. Like these cheeses,
Gruyère cheese may be used in cooking or served without cooking, being
used considerably in the making of sandwiches.

BRIE CHEESE is a French variety of very soft cheese, with a strong
flavor and odor. It is made from whole or partly skimmed cow's milk
coagulated by means of rennet. This kind of cheese is used mostly as an
accompaniment to other foods.

CAMEMBERT CHEESE, which is shown at _h_, is also a soft cheese. It is
made by practically the same process as Brie cheese and is used in the
same way. This cheese has a typical odor. Its rind is thick and dry, but
its center is very soft, being sometimes almost liquid.

NEUFCHÂTEL CHEESE, which is shown at _i_, is a soft rennet cheese made
from cow's milk. It is made at Neufchâtel-en-Bray, France, and not at
Neufchâtel, Switzerland. This variety of cheese is wrapped in tin-foil
and sold in small packages. It is used chiefly for salads, sandwiches,
etc. As it does not keep well after the package is opened, the entire
contents should be used at one time.

ROQUEFORT CHEESE, which is shown at _j_, is a hard, highly flavored
cheese made from sheep's milk coagulated with rennet. It has a marbled
appearance, which is due to a greenish mold that is introduced.
Roquefort cheese is frequently served with crackers at the end of a
meal, and is well liked by many persons.

30. ITALIAN CHEESES.--From Italy is imported a cheese, called PARMESAN
CHEESE, that is used extensively for flavoring soups and macaroni
dishes. This cheese, which is shown at _g_, Fig. 4, is very hard and
granular and, provided it is well made, it will keep for years. Owing to
its characteristics, it may be easily grated. It can be bought by the
pound and grated as it is needed, or it can be secured already grated
in bottles.

GORGONZOLA, another Italian cheese, is shown at _k_. It is not unlike
Roquefort in appearance and in use, but it is made from whole cow's milk
coagulated with rennet. Into this cheese is also introduced a mold that
gives its center a streaked or mottled appearance.

31. SWISS CHEESES.--Possibly the best known cheese imported from
Switzerland is the variety known as SWISS, or SWITZER, CHEESE. This kind
of cheese has different names, depending on the district of Switzerland
in which it is made. Nevertheless all of them are similar and have a
mild, sweet flavor. Swiss cheese may be readily recognized by its pale
yellow color and the presence of large holes, although it resembles
Gruyère cheese very closely.

EMMENTHAL CHEESE is a variety of fairly hard cheese that originated in
Switzerland, but is now made in many other countries. It is similar to
Swiss cheese, being made from whole cow's milk and characterized by
large holes about 3 inches apart.

SAPSAGO CHEESE, shown at _n_, Fig. 4, is a skim-milk cheese made in
Switzerland. It is a very hard cheese, and therefore suitable for
grating. In the process of making this cheese, melilot, a clover-like
herb, is added, and this gives the cheese a green color and a
peculiar flavor.

32. BELGIAN CHEESE.--A cheese that originated in Belgium, but is now
manufactured in other countries, is the variety known as LIMBURG, or
LIMBURGER, CHEESE, cheese, which is shown at _l_, Fig. 4. It is a soft
rennet cheese made from whole cow's milk. It is very strong in taste and
smell, due to putrefactive germs that are added to the milk in its


33. In the United States, efforts that have been exerted to make cheeses
similar to some of those produced in Europe have to a certain extent
been successful. American cheese makers have succeeded in making
several soft cream cheeses that resemble Neufchâtel, some of which are
spiced or flavored with pimiento, olives, etc. In addition, Limburg and
Swiss cheeses have been successfully manufactured in Wisconsin, and
Brie, Neufchâtel, and Camembert have been copied and are produced in New
York. Pineapple cheese, while of American origin, is really very much
like English Cheddar cheese, except that it is harder. But while these
fancy cheeses are desired by some persons and have a moderately large
sale, the cheese for which there is the most demand in America is the
so-called American Cheddar cheese, which, as has been stated, is made
according to the method used for English Cheddar cheese.

34. AMERICAN CHEDDAR CHEESE.--Since American Cheddar cheese is the kind
that is commonly used in this country, the way in which it is made will
be well to know. The milk used for this kind of cheese is first
inspected as to cleanliness and the extent of fermentation it has
undergone, and when these points are ascertained, it is _ripened_; that
is, allowed to sour to a certain degree of acidity. At this stage,
coloring matter is added, after which the milk is prepared for setting
by bringing it to a certain temperature. With the temperature at the
right point, rennet is added to coagulate the milk, or form the curd.
The milk is then allowed to remain undisturbed until the action of the
rennet is at a certain point, when the curd is cut into little
cube-shaped pieces by drawing two sets of knives through it and thus is
separated from the whey. As soon as the curd is cut, the temperature of
the mass is raised to help make the curd firm and to cause the little
cubes to retain their firmness, and during the entire heating process
the whole mass is stirred constantly to assist in the separation from
the whey. When the curd is sufficiently firm, the whey is removed and
the particles of curd are allowed to adhere and form into a solid mass.
If necessary, the curd is cut again into small pieces to get rid of the
excess whey; but if the curd is too dry, the pieces must be piled up
until they are four or five deep. During this process, which is known as
the _cheddaring_ of the cheese, the curd is treated until it is of the
proper texture to be _milled_, that is, put into a mill and ground into
small pieces. The object of milling the curd is to cut it into pieces
small enough to permit of uniform salting and the further escape of
whey. When the curd has been brought to this point, it is salted and
then pressed into molds. Finally, it is wrapped and cured, or ripened.

35. BRICK CHEESE.--Another American cheese that seems to meet with a
popular demand is brick cheese. This kind of cheese, which is
illustrated at _c_, Fig. 4, gets its name from the fact that it is
pressed into "bricks" under the weight of one or two bricks. It is made
from sweet milk, coagulated with rennet, cut with curd knives, and
heated in the whey to firm it. Brick cheese is mild in flavor and of a
moderately close texture. It is used chiefly as an accompaniment to
other foods.

36. AMERICAN HOME-MADE CHEESE.--The making of Cheddar cheese and brick
cheese is, of course, done commercially, but there is a kind of cheese
that can be made very conveniently in the home. This home-made cheese,
which is generally known as COTTAGE CHEESE, affords an excellent way in
which to utilize left-over sour milk, particularly if a quart or more
can be obtained at one time; smaller quantities can generally be used
for baking purposes.

If properly made, such cheese is very digestible. As it can be seasoned
and served in a variety of ways, it makes a delightful addition to
lunches or other light meals in which a protein dish, such as meat, is
undesirable. Skim milk does very well for this kind of cheese, so that
if the sour milk that is to be used has cream on it, the cream should be
removed before the cheese is made; otherwise, it will remain in the whey
and be lost. In case cream is desired to improve the texture and flavor
of the cheese, it should be added after the cheese is made.

[Illustration: FIG. 5]

37. To make cottage cheese, allow a quantity of sour milk to clabber,
that is, become curdled, and then place it on the back of the stove in a
thick vessel, such as a crock, until the whey begins to appear on the
top, turning it occasionally so that it will heat very slowly and
evenly. Do not allow the temperature to rise above 90 degrees
Fahrenheit, or the curd will become tough and dry. Remember that the two
things on which the success of this product depends are the flavor of
the milk used and the proper heating of it. No difficulty will be
encountered in the heating of the milk if a coal or a wood stove is
used, but in case a gas stove must be used, the vessel containing the
milk should be placed in a larger one containing warm water and the milk
should be heated in this manner until the curd and the whey begin to
separate. At this point, pour off all the whey possible, and turn the
curd into a cloth bag or a colander lined with cloth, as shown in Fig.
5, and allow any remaining whey to drip out. If, after the whey is
removed, the curd tastes sour, wash it with warm water and allow it to
drip again. Then season it with salt to suit the taste and, provided
cream is desired, add it at this time, using sweet or sour cream. To
work in the cream, press it into the curd with a spoon until the cheese
is quite smooth.

Cheese made in this way may be flavored with anything desirable. For
instance, chopped pimiento, parsley, olives, or nuts improve the flavor
of the cheese very much and make a very appetizing combination. The dry
curd mixed with any of these makes a delightful salad when it is pressed
into balls, garnished with lettuce, and served with salad dressing.

38. JUNKET COTTAGE CHEESE.--Another variety of cottage cheese can be
prepared by using sweet milk and forming the curd with a junket tablet,
one tablet being required for each quart of milk. To make cheese of this
kind, heat the milk until it is lukewarm, or not over 98 degrees
Fahrenheit, and then add the junket tablet dissolved in cold milk or
water. Keep the milk warm until the curd forms, and then break up the
curd with a spoon and pour the whole mass into a bag or a colander lined
with cloth. When all the whey is drained out, the curd, which will be
sweet, can be seasoned in any desired way or mixed with cream and
served. If more flavor is preferred, the curd may be allowed to sour or
may be mixed with sour cream.

39. BUTTERMILK CREAM CHEESE.--A slight variation from the cottage
cheeses just described is buttermilk cream cheese. This cheese is formed
from the curd of buttermilk, which is finer in texture and not so likely
to become tough as that formed from ordinary sour milk. To prepare
buttermilk cream cheese, warm the buttermilk slowly, being careful not
to allow the temperature to rise beyond 100 degrees Fahrenheit. As the
milk is heated, the curd will form and will gradually sink to the bottom
of the vessel. After this occurs, remove the whey and mix the curd with
a little thick cream. The result will be a mixture having a delightfully
creamy consistency.


40. Cheese does not lend itself readily to many ways of serving, still
it frequently adds zest to many foods. When grated, it may be passed
with tomato or vegetable soup and sprinkled in to impart an unusual
flavor. In this form it may also be served with macaroni and other
Italian pastes, provided cheese has not been included in the preparation
of such foods. When sliced, little slices may be served nicely with any
kind of pie or pastry and with some puddings, such as steamed fruit
puddings. Thin slices or squares of cheese and crackers served with
coffee after the dessert add a finishing touch to many meals. It will be
well to note that crackers to be served with cheese should always be
crisp. Unless they have just been taken from a fresh package, crackers
can be improved by placing them in a moderate oven for a few minutes
before serving. Also, firm crackers that do not crumble easily are best
to serve with cheese, water crackers being especially desirable.

* * * * *



41. Because cheese is a highly concentrated food, it is generally
considered to be indigestible; but this matter can be remedied by mixing
the cheese with other foods and thus separating it into small particles
that are more readily digested. The way in which this may be done
depends on the nature of the cheese. Any of the dry cheeses or any of
the moist cheeses that have become dry may be grated or broken into
bits, but as it is difficult to treat the moist ones in this way, they
must be brought to a liquid state by means of heat before they can be
added to other foods. The cooking of cheese, however, has an effect on
this food that should be thoroughly understood.

It will be well to note, therefore, that the application of heat to the
form of protein found in cheese causes this food substance to coagulate
and harden, as in the case of the albumen of eggs. In the process of
coagulation, the first effect is the melting of the cheese, and when it
has been brought to this semiliquid state it can be easily combined with
other foods, such as milk, eggs, soups, and sauces. In forming such
combinations, the addition of a small amount of bicarbonate of soda
helps to blend the foods. Another characteristic of cheese that
influences the cooking of it is that the fat it contains melts only at a
low temperature, so that, on the whole, the methods of preparation that
require a low temperature are the best for cooking these foods. However,
a precaution that should be taken whenever cheese is heated is not to
cook it too long, for long cooking makes it hard and leathery in
consistency, and cheese in this state is difficult to digest.


42. As has already been learned, cheese lends itself very readily to a
large variety of cooked dishes. For instance, it may be grated and
sprinkled on the top of mashed or creamed potatoes and then browned by
placing the dish in the oven. When it is grated or sliced, it may be
arranged between the layers of macaroni or other food used to make a
scalloped dish. Soups and sauces flavored with cheese are especially
appetizing, a cream sauce of this kind served over toast or rice making
an excellent luncheon dish. Toast or crackers spread with cheese and
placed in the oven just long enough for the cheese to melt are delicious
to serve with a salad course or with tea. To assist in the preparation
of such combinations, as well as other cheese dishes, a number of
recipes are here given. In making up these recipes, it will be well to
note that unless the variety of cheese is stated explicitly, use should
be made of American Cheddar cheese, or, as it is often called, _American
cream cheese_, or _store cheese_. Of course, some similar hard cheese
could be used if desired, but the kind mentioned is recommended for the
sake of economy.

[Illustration: FIG. 6]

43. CHEESE BONBONS.--A combination of cheese and nuts in the form of
cheese bonbons, besides being very tasty, is highly nutritious, since
both the cheese and the nuts used in making them are high in food
value. Such bonbons, which are illustrated in Fig. 6, may be served with
a light salad, such as a vegetable or a fruit salad, to add food value
to the dish, or they may be served with wafers to take the place of a
salad, when a small amount of some kind of tart jelly goes nicely with
them. If the dessert for the dinner has been a very light one, these
bonbons may be served with coffee and wafers after the dessert. They may
be made as follows:

(Sufficient for Twelve Bonbons)

1 pkg. Neufchâtel or cream cheese
2 Tb. finely chopped pimiento
1/2 tsp. salt
Few grains of paprika
1/3 c. half English-walnut meats

Work the cheese smooth with the pimiento and other seasoning, and if the
mixture is too dry add a little cream. Shape this into small balls,
press each ball flat, and then place a half nut on top of each. If the
pimiento is not desired, it may be omitted.

44. CHEESE SOUFFLÉ.--As a dish that will take the place of meat in a
light meal is often desired, cheese soufflé, which is comparatively high
in food value, finds much favor. This dish contains milk, eggs, and
cheese, as is shown in the accompanying recipe, and so may actually be
considered as a protein dish and used accordingly. Soufflé is served in
the dish in which it is baked, but if it is quite firm and is to be
eaten at once, it may be removed from the ramekin to a plate.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

3 Tb. butter
4 Tb. flour
1-1/4 c. milk
3/4 c. grated cheese
Dash of paprika
1/2 tsp. salt
3 eggs

Melt the butter, add the flour, mix well, and then gradually add the
milk, which should be scalded. To this sauce add the cheese, paprika,
and salt. When thoroughly mixed, remove from the fire and add the beaten
yolks of eggs, beating rapidly. Cool and fold in the stiffly beaten
whites of the eggs. Pour into a buttered baking dish or in ramekins and
bake 20 minutes in a slow oven. Serve at once.

45. CHEESE OMELET.--Grated cheese added to an omelet gives it a
delightful flavor. Since such an omelet is a high-protein dish, it
should never be served in the same meal in which meat, fish, or other
protein foods are served, but should be used as the main dish of a
luncheon or a light supper.

(Sufficient to Serve Four)

4 eggs
4 Tb. hot water
1/2 tsp. salt
2 Tb. bread crumbs
1 c. grated cheese
1 Tb. butter

Beat the egg yolks thoroughly and add to them the hot water, salt,
crumbs, and cheese. Beat the egg whites until stiff, but not dry, and
fold them carefully into the yolk mixture. Heat the butter in an omelet
pan. Pour in the mixture, brown very slowly over the heat, and then
place in the oven to cook the top. Serve at once.

46. CHEESE SAUCE.--To give a distinctive flavor to white sauce, cheese
is often added to it. A sauce flavored in this way lends itself nicely
to the garnishing of croquettes or soufflés, and it will be found quite
tasty if it is served over some vegetables, such as steamed cauliflower,
mashed potatoes, or rice served as a vegetable. Such sauce may also be
served over toast to make an attractive luncheon dish.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 c. milk
4 Tb. flour
4 Tb. butter
1/2 tsp. salt
1/4 tsp. paprika
1/2 c. grated cheese

Make a white sauce of the milk, flour, butter, salt, and paprika, and to
it add the grated cheese. If desired, a dash of catsup or chili sauce
may be added for flavoring.

47. CHEESE TOAST.--When toast has added to it eggs, milk, and cheese, as
in the recipe here given, it is sufficiently high in protein to serve as
a meat substitute and is a particularly good dish for a light meal. It
combines well with a vegetable salad for luncheon and is an excellent
dish to serve for Sunday night supper, when very little else need be
served with it.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 c. milk
4 Tb. flour
4 Tb. butter
1/2 tsp. salt
3/4 c. grated cheese
2 hard-cooked eggs
6 squares of toast

Make a white sauce of the milk, flour, butter, and salt, and to it add
1/2 cupful of the grated cheese and the egg whites chopped fine. Arrange
the toast on a platter, pour the sauce over it, sprinkle the top with
the egg yolks that have been run through a ricer or a sieve, and
sprinkle the remaining 1/4 cupful of cheese over all. Place in hot oven
or under a broiler until the cheese melts a little. Serve hot.

[Illustration: FIG. 7]

48. WELSH RAREBIT.--Whenever a dish that can be made in a chafing dish
is desired, Welsh rarebit is immediately thought of. This is possibly
due to the fact that this tasty cheese dish is very often served at
evening parties, when a crowd may gather around a table and enjoy the
preparation of this food in the chafing dish. This kind of cooking
utensil, together with its outfit, which consists of a long-handled
spoon and fork, is shown in Fig. 7. As will be observed, a chafing dish
consists of a frame to which is attached a lamp that provides the heat,
a pan in which water is placed, another pan with a handle in which the
food is cooked, and a cover. The heat for cooking is furnished by
alcohol, although it is possible to get chafing dishes that are heated
by electricity. Chafing dishes are used by many housewives, for in
addition to the use mentioned, they serve very well for the making of
practically any kind of creamed dish, including those in which sea foods
and vegetables are used, as well as for the sautéing of foods. It should
not be understood, however, that Welsh rarebit must be made in a chafing
dish, for this food can be prepared as well in a heavy frying pan or a
double boiler; nor should it be taken for granted that it is served only
at parties, for it may be served as the main dish for luncheon or
supper. Rarebit is often flavored with ale or beer, but this is not
required to make an appetizing dish, as the following recipe shows.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 Tb. butter
1 Tb. flour
1 c. milk
1/4 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. paprika
1/2 lb. cheese cut into small pieces
6 slices of toast or 6 wafers

Melt the butter, add to it the flour, and stir until smooth. Gradually
add the milk, and cook for a few minutes; then add the salt, paprika,
and cheese, stirring until the cheese is melted. The finished rarebit
should not be stringy. Pour over the toast or wafers and serve.

49. ENGLISH MONKEY.--Another cheese dish that is frequently made in a
chafing dish and served from it is English monkey, but this may likewise
be made with ordinary kitchen utensils and served directly on plates
from the kitchen or from a bowl on the table. A dish of this kind is
most satisfactory if it is served as soon as the sauce is poured over
toast or wafers and before they have had time to become soaked. English
monkey may be made according to the following recipe and served for the
same purposes as Welsh rarebit.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. bread crumbs
1 c. milk
1 Tb. butter
1/2 c. soft cheese cut into small pieces
1 egg
1/2 tsp. salt
6 buttered wafers

Soak the bread crumbs in the milk. Melt the butter and add to it the
cheese, stirring until the cheese is melted. Then add the soaked crumbs,
the slightly beaten egg, and the salt. Cook for a few minutes and pour
over wafers and serve. If desired, toast may be used in place of
the wafers.

50. CHEESE-AND-MACARONI LOAF.--Macaroni combined with cheese makes a
high-protein dish that very readily takes the place of meat and that may
be served as the main dish in a dinner. If this combination is made into
a loaf and baked well in an oblong bread pan, it may be turned out on a
platter and cut into slices. In case a loaf is not desired, it may be
baked in a baking dish and served directly from that. In either form,
it is made more appetizing by the addition of a tomato sauce.

(Sufficient to Serve Eight)

1/2 c. macaroni (inch lengths)
1 c. milk
1 c. bread crumbs
2 Tb. chopped green peppers
1 Tb. chopped onion
1 Tb. chopped parsley
2 eggs
2 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
1 c. grated cheese
1 Tb. butter

Cook the macaroni according to the directions given in _Cereals_. When
it is thoroughly soft, drain off the water and mix the macaroni with the
milk, bread crumbs, green pepper, onion, parsley, well-beaten egg, salt,
pepper, and grated cheese. Place in a baking dish, dot the top with
butter, and bake in a moderate oven until the mixture is set. Serve with
or without sauce, as desired.

51. CHEESE FONDUE.--A dish that is very similar to cheese soufflé and
that must be served as soon as it comes from the oven in order to avoid
shrinking is cheese fondue. It satisfactorily takes the place of meat in
a light meal, and may be served from a large dish or from individual
baking dishes with or without sauce, as desired.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 1/2 c. soft bread crumbs
1 1/2 c. grated cheese
1 c. hot milk
4 eggs
1/2 tsp. salt

Mix the bread crumbs and cheese, and add them to the hot milk, beaten
egg yolks, and salt. Fold in the stiffly beaten egg whites. Bake in a
buttered baking dish for about 30 minutes in a moderate oven. Serve
at once.

52. CHEESE DREAMS.--If something delicious to serve with fruit or salad
is desired for luncheon or Sunday night supper, the accompanying recipe
for cheese dreams should be tried. They should be served at once on
being taken from the stove, because as soon as they cool the cheese
hardens and they are not appetizing. Cheese dreams may be sautéd or
prepared in a broiler or an oven, but if they are sautéd, they may be
made in a chafing dish.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

12 thinly cut slices of bread
Cheese sliced 1/8 in. thick

Spread the bread thinly with butter and make sandwiches by placing a
slice of cheese between two slices of bread. Place these sandwiches
under a broiler or in a very hot oven and toast them on both sides, or
omit the butter from the center, place the sandwiches in a slightly
oiled frying pan, and brown them on both sides. In heating the
sandwiches, the cheese melts. Serve hot.

53. CHEESE WAFERS.--If made daintily, cheese wafers may be served with
salad or with tea for afternoon tea. The wafers selected for this
purpose should be small and the layer of cheese not very thick. If a
very thin broth is served at the beginning of a meal, cheese wafers may
accompany it, but they should never be served with a heavy soup.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 doz. wafers
3/4 grated cheese

Spread the wafers thinly with butter and sprinkle each with 1
tablespoonful of grated cheese and a pinch of paprika. Bake in a hot
oven until the cheese is melted. Cool and serve.

[Illustration: FIG. 8]

54. CHEESE STRAWS.--Nothing can be more delightful to serve with a
vegetable salad than cheese straws, which are illustrated in Fig. 8. An
attractive way to serve them is to slip them through small rings made
out of strips of the dough mixture and baked at the same time the straws
are baked and then place them at the side of the salad plate. They may
accompany a fruit salad, as well as a vegetable salad, but they are not
appropriate for serving with a meat or a fish salad.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 Tb. butter
2/3 c. flour
1 c. bread crumbs
1 c. grated or cut cheese
1/2 tsp. salt
1/4 tsp. pepper
Pinch of Cayenne pepper
1/2 c. milk

Cream the butter and to it add the flour, bread crumbs, cheese, and
seasonings. Mix thoroughly and add the milk. Roll 1/4 inch thick and
then cut 1/4 inch wide and 6 inches long. Bake until brown in a
moderately hot oven.

55. TOMATOES WITH CHEESE STUFFING.--The addition of cheese to the
stuffing used in stuffed tomatoes means added flavor, as well as
nutritive value in the form of protein, the food substance in which the
tomatoes themselves are lacking. The bread crumbs used for the stuffing
supply a large amount of carbohydrate, so that the completed dish,
besides being a very attractive one, contains all the food principles in
fairly large quantities. Stuffed tomatoes may be served as the main dish
in a light meal or as a vegetable dish in a heavy meal.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

6 tomatoes
1 c. bread crumbs
1 c. grated cheese
1/2 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
2 Tb. butter
1/4 c. hot water

Select medium-sized tomatoes and hollow out the centers. Mix the crumbs,
cheese, salt, pepper, butter, and hot water with the pulp from the
centers of the tomatoes. Fill the tomatoes with this stuffing, place in
a pan, and bake in a moderate oven until the tomato can be pierced
easily with a fork. Serve hot.

56. FIGS STUFFED WITH CHEESE.--As cheese is a very concentrated food, it
is often combined with another food to offset this effect. An excellent
combination is formed by stuffing figs with cheese. Figs prepared in
this way will be found to be very attractive and tasty and may be served
in the place of a dessert or a salad, depending on the kind and size of
the meal with which they are used.

(Sufficient to Serve Eight)

1 pkg. Neufchâtel or cream cheese
2 Tb. cream
8 small pulled figs

Work the cheese and cream until soft. Steam the figs for 10 or 15
minutes or until they are soft; then cool them, cut out their stems,
fill their centers with the soft cheese, and serve.

57. CHEESE SANDWICHES.--Very appetizing sandwiches that may be used to
take the place of meat sandwiches or a protein dish at any time are made
with a cheese filling. If these are made very small and dainty, they may
be served with salad in a light meal. The addition of pickles, olives,
and pimiento, which are included in the accompanying recipe, makes the
filling more attractive than the usual plain cheese by producing in it a
variety of tastes. They also add bulk, which is lacking in both the
white bread and the cheese. If desired, graham or whole-wheat bread may
be used in place of white bread.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1/4 lb. cheese
2 medium-sized pickles
1/2 pimiento
Meat from 1/2 doz. olives
1/4 tsp. salt
1/4 tsp. paprika

Put the cheese, pickles, pimiento, and olives through a food chopper,
and when chopped add the salt and the paprika. If the mixture is not
moist enough to spread, add salad dressing or vinegar until it is of the
right consistency. Mix well and spread on thinly cut, buttered slices
of bread.


58. Many of the dishes for which recipes are given in this Section,
particularly those including cheese as one of the ingredients, do very
well for the main dish in a light meal, such as luncheon. In order that
practice may be had in preparing a well-balanced luncheon that includes
a dish of this kind, a luncheon menu is here presented. The cheese
soufflé, which has been selected as the main dish in this menu, should
be made according to the directions already given. Little difficulty
will be experienced in making the other dishes, as recipes for them are
given immediately after the menu. All the recipes are intended for six
persons, so that if more or fewer are to be served, the recipes should
be changed accordingly. This menu is presented with the intention that
it be tried by each student and a report of it then prepared according
to the plan outlined and sent with the work of the Examination


Cream-of-Corn Soup
Cheese Soufflé
Stewed Tomatoes
Sautéd Potatoes
Brown Bread and Butter
Baked Apples
Black Tea



1 Tb. flour
1 Tb. butter
1 pt. milk
1 c. canned corn
1 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper

Make a white sauce of the flour, butter, and milk. Force the corn
through a colander or sieve and add the purée to the white sauce. Season
with the salt and pepper and serve.


6 medium-sized cooked potatoes
2 Tb. butter
1-1/2 tsp.
salt 1/4 tsp.

Slice the boiled potatoes thin and put the slices in a frying pan in
which the butter has been melted. Add the salt and pepper. Allow the
potatoes to cook until well browned, turning frequently during the
cooking. Serve hot.


1 Tb. butter
1 small onion
6 medium-sized ripe tomatoes or 1 can of tomatoes
1 tsp. salt
2 Tb. sugar
1/4 tsp. pepper
1 Tb. flour

Brown the butter in a saucepan, slice the onion into it, and cook for a
few minutes. Add the tomatoes. If fresh tomatoes are to be used, remove
the skins, cut into pieces, put into the saucepan with a few
tablespoonfuls of water, and cook until the tomatoes are thoroughly
softened. If canned tomatoes are to be used, merely allow them to come
to the boiling point. Add the salt, sugar, and pepper, and, a few
minutes before removing from the fire, moisten the flour with a
tablespoonful of cold water and stir into the tomato. Cook for a few
minutes and serve.


6 medium-sized apples
1 lemon
3/4 c. sugar
1/2 c. water

Wipe and core the apples. Put them into a baking dish and place a slice
of lemon on the top of each. Make a sirup of the sugar and the water,
pour this around the apples, and bake slowly until they can be pierced
easily with a fork. Serve hot or cold, with a teaspoonful of jelly on
the top of each apple.


6 tsp. black tea
6 c. boiling water

Scald out the pot with freshly boiling water, pour in the tea, add the 6
cupfuls of freshly boiling water, and allow it to stand on the leaves
until the tea is strong enough to serve. Then either pour the tea off
the leaves and keep it hot or serve at once.



(1) From what part of milk is butter made?

(2) What food substances does butter contain?

(3) Tell how to select good butter.

(4) After butter is purchased, what care should be given to it?

(5) (_a_) How does cooking affect butter? (_b_) How can economy be
exercised in the use of butter in cooking?

(6) How may rancid butter be made fit for use in cooking?

(7) Explain the advantages of butter substitutes.

(8) Give the test for distinguishing oleomargarine and renovated butter
from butter.

(9) Explain briefly the way in which cheese is produced.

(10) What food substances are found in cheese?

(11) Why can cheese be used to take the place of meat?

(12) Tell the advantages that cheese has over meat.

(13) Explain how to make cottage cheese from sour milk.

(14) Why should cheese be mixed with other foods instead of being served

(15) Explain the effect of cooking on cheese.


After trying out the luncheon menu given in the text, send with your
answers to the Examination Questions a report of your success. In making
out your report, simply write the name of the food and describe its
condition by means of the terms specified in the following list:

Cream-of-Corn Soup: too thick? too thin? lumpy? well seasoned? milk

Cheese Soufflé: light? heavy? baked sufficiently? shrunken? underdone?

Hash-Browned Potatoes: too brown? not brown enough? well seasoned? too
much fat? too little fat?

Stewed Tomatoes: sufficiently cooked? well seasoned? too sour?

Baked Apples: well done? not well done? too brown? too dry? too moist?
sufficient sugar?

Black Tea: too weak? too strong? hot? taste of tannin?

* * * * *


* * * * *



1. Eggs are of great importance in the diet, and to appreciate this fact
fully the true nature of this food must be understood. For domestic use,
the eggs of guinea hens, turkeys, ducks, and geese occasionally find
favor, but as eggs laid by hens are the kind that is commonly used, it
is to such eggs that this Section is devoted. A hen's egg may really be
considered as an undeveloped chicken, because it contains all the
elements required to build the body of the chick and provide it with the
energy it needs to pick its way into the world. When it emerges from the
shell, it is fully developed, and in a short time it begins an
independent existence, seeking and finding its own food. The fact that
eggs store so much nutritive material explains to some extent why they
are a valuable source of food for man and why they are used so
extensively. However, as in the case of milk, the elements that eggs
contain are not in just the right proportion for the sole nourishment of
a human being, so they must generally be used in combination with
other foods.

2. Most persons are familiar with the appearance of eggs, but in order
that satisfactory results may be obtained in their selection, care, and
cooking, it will be necessary to look into the details of their
composition. As is well known, an egg consists of a porous shell lined
with a fine, but tough, membrane that encloses the white and the yolk
and serves to protect them. The yolk is divided from the white by a
delicate membrane, which permits it to be separated from the white when
an egg is carefully broken. This membrane extends to each end of the
shell in the form of a small cord, and it is so fastened to the shell as
to hold the yolk evenly suspended. The porous nature of an egg shell is
required to give air to the developing chick, but it is this
characteristic that permits eggs to spoil as they grow old and are
exposed to air, for through these minute pores, or openings, the water
in the egg evaporates and air and bacteria enter. Of course, as the
water evaporates and is replaced by air, the egg becomes lighter.
Because of this fact, the freshness of eggs can be determined by placing
them in water. When they are fresh, they will sink in cold water, but as
they decompose they become lighter and will float.

Since it is known that the spoiling of eggs is due to the entrance of
air through the porous shell, it may be inferred that their decay may be
prevented either by protecting the shell so that air cannot enter or by
keeping the eggs at so low a temperature that bacteria cannot grow.
Although stored eggs always deteriorate more or less, both of these
methods of preservation have proved very satisfactory, the former being
used largely in the home and the latter finding its solution in cold
storage. A knowledge of how eggs can be preserved, however, is of great
value, for if there were no means of preservation and eventual
marketing, the price of eggs would at times rise to actual
prohibitive limits.

3. That eggs as an article of food are growing in importance is
indicated by the fact that their production has come to be a large and
widely distributed industry. Owing to the private consumption and sale
of eggs, an accurate statement of the number of eggs produced is
difficult to give. Still, in a report, the United States Bureau of
Agriculture estimated the value of the yearly egg production at
something more than three million dollars, with an allowance of about
210 eggs, or 17-1/2 dozen, per capita each year, or 4 eggs a week for
each person. These figures, however, are only suggestive of the
production, use, and value of eggs, for as the population increases so
does the use of eggs. In fact, they are proving to be almost
indispensable to the cook, the baker, the manufacturers of certain
foods, and many others.

4. With the increase in the demand for eggs has come a corresponding
steady advance in the money value of this product and, consequently, an
increase in its price. The housewife who would practice economy in
cookery can readily see, therefore, that with reference to the number of
eggs required and the ways in which they are used, she must choose
carefully the recipes and methods she employs. If the eggs are always
considered a part of a meal, their use is seldom an extravagance, even
at such high prices as they sometimes attain. On the other hand, if a
dessert that requires the use of many eggs is added to a meal that is
itself sufficient in food value, it is not unreasonable to regard such
use of eggs as an extravagance. A point that should be taken into
consideration in the use of eggs in the diet, especially when their
price seems very high, is that there is no waste matter in them, unless
the shell is regarded as waste. Therefore, they are often more
economical than other foods that can be bought for less money.

It must not be understood, however, that eggs are used only as an
article of diet. They are also a very important food ingredient, being
employed in the preparation of many kinds of dishes. For instance, they
are often used to thicken custards, sauces, etc.; to clarify soups and
jellies; to lighten cakes, puddings, hot breads, and other baked
mixtures; to form the basis for salad dressings; and to combine or hold
together many varieties of food.


5. Like milk, eggs are often spoken of as a perfect food. Still, as has
been pointed out, they are not a perfect food for man, but they are of
especial nutritive value and should be used freely in the diet just as
long as their cost neither limits nor prohibits their use. An idea of
how they compare with other nutritious foods can be obtained from Fig.
1, which shows that eight eggs are equal in food value to 1 quart of
milk or 1 pound and 5 ounces of beefsteak. A better understanding of
their food value, however, can be gained from a study of their

[Illustration: FIG. 1]

6. Since an egg is an undeveloped chick that requires only the addition
of warmth to develop it into a living, moving creature made of muscles,
bones, and blood, it is evident that this food contains considerable
tissue-building and energy-producing material. The exact proportion of
this material, as well as the other substances found in eggs, is given
in the food chart shown in _Essentials of Cookery_, Part 1. The chart
relating to the composition of eggs points out that the edible portion
of the whole egg consists of 73.7 per cent. of water, 14.8 per cent. of
protein, 10.5 per cent. of fat, and about 1 per cent. of ash, or mineral
matter. The protein, which is chiefly in the form of albumen, and the
fat are the most digestible of these elements, while the mineral
constituents are as valuable for the growing child as for the chick.
When the total weight of an egg is taken into consideration, the shell
constitutes about 11 per cent., the yolk 32 per cent., and the white 57
per cent. The composition of the yolk and the white differs somewhat,
the yolk having the greater food value, a fact that is also clearly
indicated in the chart. The white contains a larger proportion of water
than the yolk, but the yolk contains the most of the fat and more
protein and mineral matter, or ash, than the white. In addition, the
chart shows that the number of calories to the pound of whole egg is
700, of egg yolk is 1,608, and of egg white is 265.

7. PROTEIN IN EGGS.--The nature of the food substances in eggs is of
nearly as great importance as their amount, for they not only determine
the value of this food in the body, but influence its cooking. That
protein is present in both the yolk and the white is apparent from the
fact that they coagulate when heat is applied. Because eggs are high in
protein, containing 14.8 per cent. of this substance, they may be
regarded as equivalent to a meat dish, and it is only when they are
extremely high in price that they cannot be frequently substituted for
meat to advantage. They are often used to take the place of milk, too,
for eggs and milk are more alike in nutritive value than any other two
protein foods; but, of the two, milk yields the cheaper form of protein.
Like meat and milk, eggs are rich in all those food materials which
enter into the construction of bone, muscle, and blood.

8. FAT IN EGGS.--A study of the food chart previously mentioned will
show that eggs contain proportionately almost as much fat as protein and
that nearly all this fat is found in the yolk. Since fat produces more
heat or energy, weight for weight, than any other food substance, and
since eggs contain neither starch nor sugar, it is evident that the fat
of this food is the main source of the energy-producing material. Fat in
eggs occurs in the form of an emulsion, or tiny particles, and, like the
fat of milk, is very readily digested. It is for this reason that both
of these foods are particularly well adapted to the diet of both
children and adults. The presence of quantities of protein and fat and
the absence of carbohydrate in eggs indicate that the proper thing to
combine with this food, in order to have a well-balanced meal when eggs
are eaten, is carbohydrate in some form.

9. MINERALS IN EGGS.--Eggs are especially valuable for the mineral salts
they contain, chief among which are lime, phosphorus, sulphur, iron,
potassium, and sodium. For this reason, the addition of eggs to any kind
of diet supplies a large amount of the minerals that are needed for
bone, blood, and tissue building. A favorable point concerning the
minerals found in eggs is that they are not affected to any extent by
cooking. Therefore, in the preparation of any dish, if eggs are added to
other foods, that dish will contain an additional amount of mineral
salts, plus the nutritive value of the eggs.

10. DIGESTIBILITY OF EGGS.--In connection with the discussion of the
food substances of which eggs are composed, it will be well to note how
these affect the digestibility of this food. But just what is meant by
this characteristic with reference to eggs must first be understood. In
some foods, digestibility may mean the length of time required for them
to digest; in others, the completeness of the digestion; and in still
others, the ease and comfort with which the process of digestion
proceeds. In the case of eggs, digestibility refers to the quantity of
this food that is absorbed, that is, actually dissolved and permitted to
enter the blood stream. The nutritive value of eggs is not so high as
would naturally be supposed, for, although the protein, fat, and mineral
salts of an egg make up about one-fourth of its contents, one egg equals
in nutritive value only 1/2 cupful of milk, a small potato, or a
medium-sized apple. However, when the proportion of the nutritive
material that the body retains from this food, or its digestibility, is
considered, eggs rank extremely high, it having been determined by
experiments that 97 per cent. of the protein and 95 per cent. of the fat
are assimilated. A point worthy of note in this connection, though, is
that eggs contain no cellulose, such as that found in grains,
vegetables, and fruits. Therefore, in order to add the much-needed bulk
to the diet, foods that do contain cellulose should be served with eggs.

11. Whether or not the cooking of eggs has any effect on their
digestibility is a matter that has also been investigated. The results
of the experiments made indicate that cooking makes some difference with
the rate of digestion, but very little with its thoroughness. So far as
the rapidity of digestion is concerned, there is very little difference
between raw eggs and slightly cooked eggs; but hard-cooked eggs,
although they may be digested as completely as soft-cooked ones, require
longer time for the accomplishment of the process. This is due to the
fact that the whites of hard-cooked eggs are so firm in texture that,
unless they are finely chopped or thoroughly masticated, the digestive
juices are not able to act on them quickly. As a result, portions of
them may escape digestion or remain in the digestive tract for some time
and decompose. For this reason, hard-cooked eggs are usually excluded
from the diet of children and invalids, and even healthy adults should
be careful to masticate them thoroughly.


12. On first thought it would seem as if there is very little to guide
the housewife in the selection of eggs, it being extremely difficult to
tell from their external appearance whether or not they are fresh or
stale. As a rule, she must trust largely to the honesty of the person
from whom she buys eggs. Still she need not depend entirely on the
dealer's word, for, at least to a certain extent, there are ways in
which she may judge the quality of eggs. Because of the great value of
eggs as a food and for cooking purposes, it is important that the
housewife make use of all available information on this matter and, in
addition, become familiar with the trade practices in the egg industry.

13. MARKETING OF EGGS.--As is generally known, hens lay a large number
of eggs in the spring of the year, but they do not lay readily in the
cold winter months; and not alone are the greatest quantities of eggs
produced in April and May, but those laid at this time are of the best
quality. Because of this condition and in order that the demand during
the time of scarcity may be supplied, it is necessary that a
considerable number of eggs be preserved when they are comparatively
cheap and abundant. Also, in the preserving of eggs for future use, it
is of the greatest importance that they be kept in the best possible
condition and manner, so that when they are used, months after they are
laid, they may be as good as it is possible to have them.

The advance made in storage and transportation methods in recent years
has done much toward making the egg supply uniform all the year around.
Not long ago, because of inadequate means of storage and shipping, eggs
were sold only a short distance from the place where they were produced.
However, with the coming of cold storage and improved methods of
shipping, eggs have been changed from a perishable and more or less
seasonable food to a staple one. Now it is possible to collect them in
large quantities, to keep them for a considerable time before selling
them, and to ship them long distances. To safeguard the public, though,
authorities have set a time limit for the storage of eggs, the legal
time they may be kept being 8 months. By this is meant that eggs placed
in the warehouse in May must be released or sold in December; whereas,
those stored in June must be released no later than January.

14. Eggs that have been kept too long in storage are characterized by a
musty odor and flavor, the breaking of the yolk and its mixing with the
white, and a watery condition of the white. Such eggs, of course, cannot
be sold legally. Those which may be placed on the market are graded
according to their freshness, cleanliness, size, cracks, and color. With
the exception of their freshness, these points can be readily told from
the appearance of the eggs; but, in order to determine whether an egg is
fresh or not, it is generally put through a process known as _candling_,
by which the interior condition of the egg can be ascertained.

In the grading of eggs, all those of the best size, color, and condition
are sold under a particular trade name and bring a high or a low price,
according to the grading. Others that are not so perfect are put in
another grade and sell for prices that vary according to the demand.
Eggs, of course, differ in appearance and in many cases they are sorted
in order to satisfy the demand. For instance, in some localities, eggs
having a brown shell sell for the highest price, while in other places,
eggs having a white shell are in the greatest demand and bring the
highest price. Unsorted eggs are not held in much favor and do not
bring so good a price as those which are all one color. Many persons
have an idea that the color of the shell of an egg bears some relation
to its nutritive value and flavor. However, authorities on foods agree
that, other things being alike, the edible portion of white-shelled eggs
has essentially the same composition and nutritive value as that of
dark-shelled eggs.

15. QUALITY OF EGGS.--The natural quality of eggs depends largely on the
food of the hens and their conditions of living. Because of this fact,
the selection, breeding, and care of fowls have developed into a
science, particularly since the production of eggs has grown into an
industry. When the quality itself is to be determined, all the
characteristics of eggs must be taken into consideration; still there is
one particular point on which the quality of eggs depends, and that is
their freshness. Various agencies, however, are constantly at work to
render this quality inferior. Chief among these are the molds and
bacteria that pass through the porous shells of eggs that have been
improperly cared for or have become contaminated by being allowed to
remain in unclean surroundings. Such bacteria are responsible for the
unpleasant flavors that are found in bad eggs. Because of their harmful
effect, every effort should be made to prevent the entrance of the germs
that cause decay, and, as has been stated, the best way in which to
accomplish this is to protect the shell. If it is found that bacteria
have entered, the eggs will become unfit for use quickly unless their
growth is prevented. This may be done by storing the eggs at a
temperature that will keep the bacteria dormant, or inert.

16. If the eggs are kept under the proper conditions, they will not
actually spoil for a long time; but it is seldom that they are not more
or less affected by storage of any kind that covers a period of several
months. One change that can always be looked for in such eggs is in the
air space at the broad end. When an egg is first laid, this air space is
small, but since the water contained in the egg slowly evaporates
through the porous shell it increases in size as the egg grows staler.
For this reason, the freshness of an egg can often be determined by the
size of this air space.

In addition, the purposes for which eggs are used are somewhat affected
by their storage. A stale egg, although it may not be actually spoiled
to the extent that it cannot be used as food, will not produce such good
results in a cooking process as a fresh egg, especially if it is used
for leavening. In fact, it is impossible to produce the desired results
with eggs that have undergone a certain amount of change, even though
their odor and their flavor do not indicate that they are spoiled.

mentioned, the housewife must depend considerably on the dealer's word
as to the freshness of the eggs she purchases, it will be well for her
to be familiar with the trade names of eggs and their meaning. The names
used differ, of course, in various localities, but all large
distributors grade and name eggs in much the same way. In deciding on
the grade to which eggs belong, a certain number of points are given for
color, size, freshness, and appearance, and the sum total of these
points determines the grade, a special name being given for each grade.
For instance, eggs that can be graded 90 are called _extra fancy_; those
which receive a grade of 80, _fancy_; those which are graded 70,
_strictly fresh_; and those which can be graded only 60, _cooking eggs_.
When eggs are put on the market under such names, it can be expected
that the quality will correspond to the grade and the price will vary
with the grade. Therefore, the trade name and the price are two of the
principal ways in which the quality of eggs in the market may be judged.

18. Another way of judging the quality of eggs consists in observing the
condition of the surface of the shell. When eggs are freshly laid, the
shell is covered with a substance, called _bloom_, that gives it a
feeling much like that of a thin lime coating deposited in a pan after
water boils. This coating disappears gradually as the egg is exposed to
the air, but as long as it remains, the egg may be considered as fresh
and germ-proof. While this way of determining freshness is probably the
quickest, it is possible that the quality of some eggs from which the
bloom has recently disappeared has not been injured.

19. When eggs are selected in the market, certain points in their
appearance should also be noted. If eggs of the best quality are
desired, medium-sized ones that are uniform in size and color should be
selected. With regard to shape, they should have a comparatively long
oval shell, one end of which is blunt and the other, a sharp curve.

[Illustration: FIG. 2: Internal structure of egg.]

[Illustration: FIG. 3: FRESH, 3 WEEKS, 3 MONTHS, OLDER.]

20. JUDGING THE QUALITY OF EGGS IN THE HOME.--After eggs have been
received in the home, several simple tests for determining their
freshness can be applied in addition to the ones already mentioned. A
rather indefinite test, but one that is sometimes applied to determine
the freshness of an egg, is to shake it. However, to be able to carry
out this test successfully, it is well to understand the interior
structure of an egg. Fig. 2 illustrates this clearly. At _a_ is shown
the air space previously mentioned; at _b_, the spiral cords that run
from the yolk to each end of the egg and hold the yolk in place; at _c_,
the yolk; and at _d_, the white. When the water inside the shell
evaporates, the yolk and white shrink so much that they can be felt
moving from side to side when the egg is shaken. The staler the egg, the
more pronounced does the movement become. This method should be applied
only immediately before the egg is to be used, as the thin membrane
between the yolk and the white and the spiral cords that hold up the
yolk are liable to be disturbed by the shaking. If they are broken, the
yolk will settle and finally adhere to the shell in case the egg is
stored for any length of time after that.

[Illustration: FIG. 4: Testing the egg.]

[Illustration: FIG. 5: four eggs.]

21. If nothing has been done to preserve eggs, the simple test for
freshness illustrated in Fig. 3, which consists in placing the eggs in a
glass containing water, will be found effective. A perfectly fresh egg
will sink when it is put into the water, but if the egg is 3 weeks old
the broad end will rise slightly from the bottom of the glass. An egg
that is 3 months old will sink into water until only a slight portion of
the shell remains exposed; whereas, if the egg is older or stale, it
will rise in the water until nearly half of it is exposed. 22. The
test known as candling, which is usually applied to eggs before they are
put on the market, can also be practiced by the housewife in the home.
This method of determining the freshness of eggs consists in placing a
piece of cardboard containing a hole a little smaller than an egg
between the eye and a light, which may be from a lamp, a gas jet, or an
electric light, and holding the egg in front of the light in the manner
shown in Fig. 4. The rays of light passing through the egg show the
condition of the egg, the size of its air space, and the growth of mold
or the spoiling of the egg by any ordinary means.

[Illustration: FIG. 6 (_a_) (_b_)]

In Fig. 5 is shown how an egg at various stages of freshness appears
when candled. When an egg is fresh, it will appear as in (_a_); that is,
the yolk will be barely distinguishable from the white except as a
slightly darker area in the center of the egg, and the entire egg will
appear clear and bright and free from spots. In an egg that is a little
older, candling will reveal a slightly darker yolk, a cloudy white, and
a larger air space, as in (_b_). In a watery egg, or one that is
beginning to spoil, various dark spots and blotches usually develop, as
view (_c_) indicates. When an egg is rotten, the contents of the shell
will look dark in candling and the yolk will appear to be mixed with the
white, as in (_d_). 23. If the housewife does not wish to resort to
candling, she may determine the condition of an egg by breaking it into
a saucer and examining it carefully. If the egg is newly laid, no odor
will be detected and the white will be clear, elastic, and rather thick;
also, where it joins the yolk it will be almost solid. The yolk of such
an egg will have an even yellow color, without lighter or darker spots
and, as shown in Fig. 6 (_a_), will stand up well from the surface of
the white. Sometimes a small spot of blood may be detected on the yolk
of a perfectly fresh egg, but, while this is not pleasant to look at, it
does not affect the quality of the egg. When an egg that is not real
fresh is broken into a saucer, the yolk will lie flat, as in (_b_). In
an egg that is quite stale, the membrane surrounding the yolk is easily
destroyed, so that even when such an egg is broken carefully the yolk
and the white are likely to run together.

* * * * *



24. As has been implied in the discussion given thus far, eggs will
deteriorate or spoil in a comparatively short time unless something is
done to preserve them. In view of the eggs she keeps on hand at home, as
well as those she buys, the causes of spoiling and the ways in which to
prevent spoiling are matters with which the housewife should be
familiar, particularly if she would secure for her family eggs of the
best quality at prices that are not beyond her means. The spoiling of
eggs is due to decomposition, which is caused by molds or bacteria that
result from accidental causes, and, in fertile eggs, to the germination
and development of the chick, which is a natural process. The loss of
quality resulting from molds and bacteria in the egg is brought about by
their growth and by the formation of chemical compounds, which give
spoiled eggs their peculiar appearance, taste, and odor. Some of these
molds are not injurious to health, while others may give rise to more or
less serious illness.

25. Various methods have been devised whereby their rapid deterioration
may be prevented, and a knowledge of these is important to those who
have occasion to purchase eggs or to keep them over from the season of
plenty to the season of scarcity. The method followed to prevent losses
due to the development of the embryo consists in the production of
infertile eggs--that is, eggs that are non-productive. This is a point
that is as well worth remembering in the home production of eggs as it
is in professional poultry raising. The method employed to prevent the
infection of eggs by molds and bacteria is to keep them clean and dry
from the time they are laid until they are finally used.

26. While the preservation of eggs is carried on to a greater extent at
present than formerly, the idea is neither new nor original; indeed, it
has been practiced for many years by the people of some foreign
countries. For instance, in some sections of China, duck eggs are
preserved by covering them with a layer of mud, and such eggs are often
kept for a year or more before they are eaten. However, eggs stored in
this way decompose and their odor and flavor disappear before they are
used, so that they must usually be hard boiled before they can be eaten.
Egg preservation such as is practiced in the United States is the
opposite of this and attempts to prevent not only ripening processes and
putrefactive changes but any bacterial or other changes that lessen the
original quality. It will be well to note, however, that eggs preserved
for any length of time deteriorate to some extent and cannot be expected
to be equally as good as fresh eggs.


27. The usual market method of preserving eggs is by cold storage, an
industry that has developed to vast proportions in recent years. The
success of this method depends on the fact that germs causing
decomposition will not live in a low temperature. While the plan of
storing eggs is responsible for their high price at certain times, it is
also a means of supplying eggs to many persons who would otherwise not
be able to obtain them. The greatest point in favor of this plan,
however, is that it makes possible the marketing of quantities of eggs
during the winter season of scarcity at a price that, although somewhat
high at times, is much more moderate than it would be if it were not
possible to store eggs in large quantities.

28. In order that advantage may be taken of favorable climatic
conditions, eggs are commonly purchased for storage as early in the year
as they are abundant. They are selected with great care, only those
which are clean, sound, and fresh being used. These eggs are packed in
clean cases, and then placed in warehouses where they are kept at a
temperature just above freezing, or one that ranges from 32 to 40
degrees Fahrenheit. In such storage, precaution is usually taken to
prevent the eggs from freezing, for while freezing does not necessarily
injure them for immediate use it breaks the shell because of the
contraction that occurs. While the eggs are in storage, they are also
protected as far as possible from air circulation, as this increases
evaporation and causes the contents of eggs to shrink. To prevent the
yolks from settling to one side, and finally adhering to the shell, the
eggs are turned frequently. The usual limits of storage are from 6 to 9
months, but eggs are not generally allowed to remain in storage more
than 8 months. When taken out at the end of that time, it will be found
that they have deteriorated very little, and while they cannot compete
with the better grades of fresh eggs, they are as desirable as most of
the eggs that can be purchased in the early fall when eggs are not

29. Sometimes eggs are removed from the shells, stored for commercial
use in containers of about 50 pounds each, and kept at the freezing
point until they are to be used. Eggs in this form, which may be bought
with the yolks and whites either mixed or separate, find a ready market
in bakeries and restaurants, where large quantities of eggs are
continually used. Such eggs remain good for any length of time while
they are kept frozen, but they must be used immediately after they are
removed from storage.

30. It is not always necessary to keep eggs at a cold temperature in
order to preserve them, for a method that has proved very satisfactory
is to reduce them to the form of powder by drying them. In this form,
the bulk is greatly reduced, 1 pound of the dry material representing 30
to 40 eggs, and in order to prepare them for use in cooking they must be
mixed with water. POWDERED EGGS, or _desiccated eggs_, as they are
usually called, can be kept for an indefinite length of time without
special care in storage, when they are wholesome and carefully handled.
Tests that have been made show that eggs of this kind give fairly good
results when used in cookery, but they are used principally by bakers,
for they can be obtained more cheaply than fresh eggs, especially when
it is difficult to secure eggs in other forms.


31. The housewife who desires to run her household on an economical
basis will not depend entirely on eggs that are commercially stored, but
will take advantage of one of the many methods by which eggs may be
successfully kept in the home. By being prudent in this matter, she will
be prepared to supply her family with this commodity at times when the
market price is high.

As many as twenty household methods have been tried out for the
preserving of eggs, but each one is based on the theory that decay is
hindered when the shell is covered with some substance that renders it
air-tight and prevents evaporation or the entrance of bacteria and mold.
Among the methods that have met with the most success are burying eggs
in oats, bran, or salt; rubbing them with fat; dipping them in melted
paraffin; covering them with varnish or shellac; and putting them down
in lime water or in a solution of water glass.

No matter which of these methods is adopted, however, it will be well to
note that only eggs laid in April, May, or June should be used for
storage purposes, as these are the best ones laid during the year; also,
that the eggs should always be packed with the small end down, because
the yolk will not settle toward the small end so readily as toward the
large end or the side.

32. Of these various ways of preserving eggs in the home, probably the
oldest method is that of packing the eggs in oats, bran, or salt. This
method is fairly effective, but the eggs preserved by it do not keep so
long as eggs preserved by other methods, nor is their quality so good.
Preserving eggs by completely covering the shells with fat, vaseline,
paraffin, varnish, or other substance that will exclude the air but not
impart flavor to the eggs, proves a more satisfactory method so far as
the eggs are concerned, but it requires more time and handling. To
assist in their preservation, eggs are sometimes immersed in boiling
water for 12 to 15 seconds. This process, which causes the white to
harden slightly just inside of the shell, keeps the eggs fairly well,
but it is rather difficult to accomplish, as the least overcooking
renders the egg unfit for use as a raw egg.

As a result of many trials, it has been found that putting eggs down in
the various solutions that are used for this purpose is the most
effective way of preserving them under home conditions, provided, of
course, the solutions in which the eggs are immersed do not flavor the
eggs. Therefore, to assist the housewife, detailed directions for using
lime water and water glass for this purpose are here given.

33. PRESERVATION WITH LIMEWATER.--To prepare limewater for the
preservation of eggs, dissolve 1 pound or 1 pint of salt and 1 quart of
finely slaked lime in 3 gallons of water, stir the solution at frequent
intervals for a day or two, and then allow the liquid to settle. Place
the eggs in tall stone crocks or kegs with their pointed ends turned
down, filling the receptacles to within a few inches of the top. Pour
the clear limewater over the eggs so arranged, allowing it to rise an
inch or two above the top layer. Then stand the vessel in a cool place
where the temperature will not exceed 50 degrees Fahrenheit. Eggs so
treated will keep for at least 6 or 8 months. The only objection to this
plan is that the eggs preserved by it sometimes acquire a slight
lime taste.

34. PRESERVATION WITH WATER GLASS.--Putting eggs down in a solution of
water glass is without doubt the most satisfactory method of storing
them in the home. So effective does this method prove that the housewife
who has a convenient and proper storage room should not fail to take
advantage of this way of laying up a supply of eggs.

The commercial form of water glass is usually a mixture of potassium and
sodium silicate, which, besides being cheaper than that which is
chemically pure, is the kind that is preferred for the purpose of
preserving eggs. A good quality of it either in a sirup-like solution or
in the form of a powder retails in drug or grocery stores for about 10
cents a pound. To make a solution of the desired strength to preserve
eggs satisfactorily, dissolve 1 part of water glass in 7 parts of warm
water that has first been boiled to drive off bacteria, mold, spores,
etc. One quart of water glass will make sufficient solution to cover
about 12 dozen eggs. With the solution thoroughly mixed, it is ready to
pour over the eggs.

In selecting eggs for the purpose of storing, be careful to choose only
those which are clean, fresh, and perfectly sound, and, if possible,
infertile. It is advisable not to wash them before they are put into the
preservative, for they will keep better if their bloom is not removed.
Place the eggs in receptacles in the manner explained for preserving
eggs in limewater, and over them pour the water-glass solution until
they are all covered. If the eggs so prepared are stored in a cool
place, they will keep as long as those preserved in limewater; besides,
there will be no danger of their acquiring any foreign flavor.

* * * * *



35. The successful preparation of eggs for their use as a food demands
that certain points must be observed by the housewife. For instance, she
must see that the eggs she uses are in the right condition; that the
shells are properly broken for the most convenient removal of the egg;
that the parts of the egg are separated in the right way in case the
whites and the yolks are to be used separately; and that the eggs
receive the right treatment for the purpose for which they are to be
used. Attention to all these points not only will insure the most
satisfactory results, but will enable the housewife to supply her family
with food that is extremely wholesome and nutritious.

[Illustration: FIG. 7]

36. Exterior Condition of Eggs.--As has been explained, clean eggs are
the most desirable, but it is not advisable to wash eggs that are to be
kept for even a short time, as washing them removes the natural coating
that helps to prevent the entrance of bacteria. However, as it is
necessary that the shells be perfectly clean before they are broken or
before the eggs are cooked, the eggs may be washed or wiped with a damp
cloth immediately before such processes.

37. BREAKING OF EGGS.--In cookery, it is usually desirable to break an
egg shell so that the yolk will not run into the white; that is, so
that these can be kept separate. While there are several methods of
doing this, the housewife should adopt the one that is most convenient
for her. A quick method that is often employed consists in striking the
shell on the edge of the pan or the bowl into which the contents are to
be put. A preferable method, however, is illustrated in Fig. 7. It
consists in striking one side of the shell, midway between the ends, a
sharp blow with the edge of a knife. The advantage of this method will
be evident after a trial or two, for it will be found that the depth of
the cut made by the knife can be so gauged that there will be little
danger of breaking the yolk. Besides, fragments of the shell are not
likely to fall into the bowl or the pan with the contents of the egg.

[Illustration: FIG. 8]

38. SEPARATING OF EGGS.--Frequently recipes require that the yolks and
whites of eggs be beaten separately before being added to the other
ingredients. When this is the case, care must be exercised in taking the
egg from the shell. The method by which this is most easily accomplished
is illustrated in Fig. 8. As will be observed, the shell is first broken
as nearly as possible into halves and then, while the egg is poured from
1/2 of the shell into the other, the white is dropped into a dish and
the yolk is retained in the shell. During this process, the yolk should
remain intact in its delicate membrane, for if it becomes mixed with the
white the lightness of the white will be injured. To separate the yolk
from the white is not difficult when eggs are fresh, but as they become
stale the membrane surrounding the yolk grows weak and breaks easily. If
the yolk breaks and any of it falls into the white, it must be
completely removed before the white is beaten.

39. BEATING OF EGGS.--Sometimes eggs are cooked in the shell and other
times they are used alone just as they are removed from the shell, as in
the frying and poaching processes; however, when they are to be
combined with other ingredients, they are usually beaten. Eggs are
beaten for the purpose of mixing the yolk and the white or of
incorporating air to act as a leavening agent when the eggs are heated
in the cooking process. Various utensils, such as a fork, an egg whip,
or an egg beater, may be employed for beating eggs, the one to select
depending on the use to which the eggs are to be put. The rotary, or
Dover, egg beater, previously described as a labor-saving device and
illustrated in Fig. 9 (_a_), should be used to beat either whole eggs or
the yolks of eggs when they are to be used in custards, mayonnaise,
cakes, puddings, etc., as it will beat them sufficiently light for such
purposes. However, for the beating of egg whites, use should be made of
a fork or of an egg whip similar to that shown in (_b_), because the
whites must be lifted instead of stirred for the incorporation of air,
and it is only with a utensil of this kind that this can be
accomplished. Then, too, more air can be incorporated into the whites
and the volume of the egg thereby increased by means of a fork or an egg
whip than by an egg beater. An important point to remember in this
connection is that eggs can be beaten more successfully when they are
cold and have had a pinch of salt added to them.

[Illustration: FIG. 9]

[Illustration: FIG. 10]

40. In the beating of eggs, it should be remembered that for some
purposes, as in making some kinds of sponge cake, they are beaten until
nearly frothy, as shown in Fig. 10, when they do not stand up nor cling
to the whip; whereas, for other purposes, as in making meringue, they
are beaten until they are stiff enough to stand up well and to adhere to
the whip, as Fig. 11 shows. When egg whites are to be beaten stiff, care
should be taken not to continue the beating too long. If this is done,
they will become dry and will break up into small pieces, a condition
that will mean a loss of some of the air that has been incorporated. It
is well also to observe that egg whites should always be beaten in the
same direction and that the same motion should be continued throughout
the beating, for a change of direction or motion always causes a loss of
air. A final precaution to take is never to allow egg whites to stand
after they are beaten. If this is done, the leavening power of the eggs
is reduced, because the air soon escapes from beaten eggs and leaves
underneath them a clear liquid that can never be beaten up. For
instance, eggs that are to be used for boiled icing should not be beaten
until the sirup has finished boiling. However, eggs that have been
separated but not beaten may stand for a couple of hours, provided they
are covered and kept in a cool place.

[Illustration: FIG. 11]


41. As has been previously stated, the substance in eggs that requires
special care in the cooking process is the protein, which occurs in this
food in the form of albumen. Because of this, certain points concerning
the treatment that the albumen requires should be kept in mind. In a raw
egg, the albumen occurs in a semiliquid form, but it coagulates at a
lower temperature than does the yolk, which contains a high percentage
of fat. After coagulation, the consistency of the two parts is very
different. The white is elastic and more or less tough, while the yolk,
upon being thoroughly cooked, becomes powdery, or mealy, and breaks up
into minute particles. The egg white begins to coagulate at 134 degrees
Fahrenheit, and it becomes white and jellylike at 160 degrees. Bringing
an egg to such a temperature produces a more desirable result than
cooking it at a high temperature--boiling point, for instance--because
the albumen, instead of becoming tough, as it does at a high
temperature, acquires a soft, tender consistency that exists throughout
the entire egg. An egg cooked in this way is more digestible and
appetizing than one that is boiled until it becomes hard and tough.

42. The low temperature at which eggs will cook in the shell applies
also to eggs when they are combined with other foods. Sometimes,
however, a mixture in which eggs are one of the ingredients must be
cooked at a high temperature because the materials mixed with them
require it. This difficulty can be overcome when eggs are combined with
starchy foods, such as corn starch, rice, and tapioca, that require long
cooking. In such a case, all the ingredients except the eggs may be
cooked the length of time they require, after which the eggs may be
added so that they will cook just long enough to become coagulated.
Longer cooking is liable to spoil the texture. Often the starchy mixture
retains sufficient heat to set the eggs without further cooking after
they are added.

43. A very nutritious way in which to prepare eggs when they are to be
used for a dessert is to combine them with milk to form a custard,
which, after being sweetened and flavored, is baked. The proportion that
has been accepted as ideal to produce a dessert of the right thickness
is one egg to each cupful of milk; however, an entire egg is not always
required, as one yolk is often sufficient to thicken 1 cupful of milk.
Care should be taken in the cooking of such custards, for if they are
cooked too long or at too high a temperature they will curdle and whey;
whereas, a properly cooked custard--that is, one cooked slowly at a low
temperature and for the required length of time--will have a smooth,
jellylike consistency. A slight variation in a dish of this kind is
secured by reducing the number of eggs and thickening it with corn
starch or some other starchy material. While such a mixture is not a
true custard, it makes an excellent dessert.

44. In the cooking of mixtures containing eggs, no utensil proves quite
so satisfactory as the double boiler, which has already been explained
and illustrated. In fact, it is almost impossible to cook an egg mixture
directly over the flame on account of the difficulty encountered in
preventing the eggs from curdling. The low temperature at which cooking
is possible in the double boiler makes it a comparatively simple matter
to bring a mixture to the proper consistency without the formation of
curds. Still, a certain amount of precaution must be taken even with a
double boiler. If the degree of heat that is reached in this utensil is
applied too long, the result will be no more satisfactory than when
mixtures are exposed directly to the heat and cooked at a high
temperature. While every effort should be made to cook mixtures
containing eggs, such as custards or mayonnaise, so as to prevent curds
from forming, occasionally they will form in spite of all that can be
done. However, it is sometimes possible to remedy the matter by placing
the vessel at once in cold water and beating the mixture rapidly with a
Dover egg beater until the curds disappear. The cold water cools the
mixture and prevents the formation of more curds, and the beating breaks
up those which have already formed, provided they are not too hard.

45. In addition to the uses already mentioned, eggs have numerous other
uses in cooking with which the housewife should be familiar. For
instance, slightly beaten egg is used to a great extent to make crumbs
or meal adhere to the surface of croquettes, meat, oysters, etc. that
are to be sautéd or fried in deep fat, a coating of this kind preventing
the food from becoming soaked with grease. In addition, egg is used to
stick flour together for certain kinds of dough, such as noodles. Then,
again, it is much used to puff up mixtures and produce a hollow space in
them, as in popovers and cream puffs. While such mixtures do not require
beating, spongy mixtures, such as omelets and sponge cakes, do. In
these, eggs are an important factor, and they must be thoroughly beaten
in order to incorporate the air in small bubbles and thus produce the
desired texture.


46. The manner of serving eggs depends, of course, on the way in which
they are cooked. One point, however, that should never be overlooked, so
far as eggs that are to be served hot is concerned, is that they should
be served immediately upon being prepared, so that they will not have
an opportunity to become cool before being eaten. This applies
particularly to any spongy mixture, such as puff omelet and soufflé, as
these dishes shrink upon standing and become less appetizing in both
appearance and texture.

Several ways of serving soft-cooked eggs are in practice, but probably
the most satisfactory way is to serve them in egg cups. In case cups are
used, they should be heated before being placed on the table, as the
heat that they retain helps to keep the eggs warm. The eggs may be
removed from the shell into the cup and eaten from the cup, or the
unbroken egg may be placed point downwards in the small end of the cup,
a small piece broken from the broad end of the shell, and the egg then
eaten from the shell through the opening made in it. If egg cups are not
available, the eggs may be removed from the shell and served in small
dessert dishes, which also should be heated.

Many egg dishes are made more attractive and appetizing by means of a
garnish of some kind. Small strips or triangular pieces of toast, sprays
of parsley, celery leaves, lettuce, and strips of pimiento are very
satisfactory for this purpose. If no other garnish is desired, just a
sprinkling of paprika adds a touch of color.

47. In connection with the serving of eggs it will be well to note that
they have a tendency to adhere to china and to discolor silver.
Therefore, in the washing of china and the cleaning of silver that have
been used in the serving of raw or slightly cooked eggs, much care
should be exercised. Dishes in which eggs of this kind have been served
should first be washed in cool water in order to remove all the egg, and
then they should be thoroughly washed in hot water. If the hot water is
applied first, the heat will cause the egg to coagulate and cling to the
dishes. Silver that comes in contact with eggs tarnishes or becomes
discolored through the action of the sulphur that is found in them, just
as it does when it is exposed to the air. Dark spots that appear on
silver from this source may be removed by means of a good
silver cleaner.


48. To enable the housewife to prepare many of the dishes already
mentioned, as well as many other egg dishes, a number of recipes are
here given. These recipes pertain to the cooking of eggs alone in
various ways or to dishes in which eggs are the leading ingredient.
There are, of course, numerous other dishes in which eggs are required,
such as custards, cakes, mayonnaise, etc., but these are omitted here,
as recipes for them are included in the lessons that pertain directly to
them. In the first few recipes, the ingredients are omitted and merely
directions given, for the eggs themselves are practically the only thing
required, especially so far as the cooking is concerned. However, in the
majority of cases, the ingredients are listed in the usual manner and
explicit directions then given for carrying out the recipe.

49. SOFT-COOKED, OR JELLIED, EGGS.--Eggs that are cooked soft, or
jellied, may be used for any meal in which plain eggs can be served.
When properly prepared, they are both digestible and attractive, and any
person who is able to eat eggs at all can eat them in this form.

To prepare soft-cooked, or jellied, eggs, first bring to the boiling
point sufficient water to cover well the desired number of eggs, which
is usually 1 pint of water to each egg. Then drop the eggs into the
water carefully, remove the pan from the fire, place a cover on it, and
set it on the back of the stove, where the water will not heat further
nor cool too rapidly. Allow the eggs to remain in the water for
5 minutes.

When eggs cooked in this manner are served, they will be found to be the
consistency of jelly all the way through. This method of cooking is
preferable to boiling them for 3, 4, or 5 minutes, because boiling cooks
the white just inside the shell very hard, while the yolk of the egg
remains liquid.

50. POACHED EGGS.--Eggs properly poached make a very attractive
breakfast dish, but the poaching should be well done in order to have
the dish attractive and digestible. The food value of a plain poached
egg is, of course, identically the same as that of a soft-cooked, a
hard-cooked, or a raw egg. Eggs are usually poached in a shallow pan,
although egg poachers are to be had.

To poach eggs in a shallow pan, pour into the pan sufficient water to
cover the eggs that are to be cooked, add a teaspoonful of salt or of
vinegar for each pint of water, and bring it to the boiling point.
Remove the pan from the flame or reduce the heat so that the water will
cease to boil. Break the eggs, one at a time, into a saucer and then
slide them carefully into the water. Do not allow the water to boil
after the eggs have been added, as boiling toughens the egg white and in
addition causes considerable loss by tearing it into shreds. When the
eggs are set, remove them carefully from the water and season them with
salt and pepper. A convenient way to remove the eggs is to use a large
spoon that has holes in the bowl for draining off the water. The salt or
vinegar is added to the water before cooking in order to solidify the
albumen and keep it in a mass.

[Illustration: Fig. 12]

An egg poacher contains a perforated section of metal just large enough
to hold an egg. In poaching eggs with such a utensil, the perforated
part is placed over a pan of boiling water; then the egg is carefully
slid into it, and allowed to poach. Eggs prepared in this way are really
cooked by steam and are found to be very satisfactory.

51. POACHED EGGS ON TOAST.--Eggs poached according to the directions
just given can be made both appetizing and attractive by serving them on
toast, as shown in Fig. 12; indeed, the addition of toast to a poached
egg adds a quantity of carbohydrate, a food principle in which the egg
is lacking. If the toast is buttered, fat is added, and such a dish,
together with fruit, makes a very excellent breakfast. A slice of toast
of medium size with the usual amount of butter and egg will have a food
value of about 225 calories. In preparing poached eggs on toast, the
usual custom is to butter slices of freshly made toast, moisten them
with hot milk or cream, and place on them freshly poached eggs. The eggs
are then seasoned with salt and pepper, and, if desired, a little piece
of butter may be dropped on each one. To add to the attractiveness of
such a dish, the toast may be cut round with a cookie cutter or a square
piece may be cut diagonally to make two triangular pieces.

52. HARD-COOKED EGGS.--Eggs that are cooked hard may be served hot or
cold, or they may be used in numerous ways, as, for example, to garnish
a dish to which the addition of protein is desirable or to supply a
high-protein dish for some light meal.

To prepare hard-cooked eggs, bring to the boiling point sufficient water
to cover well the desired number of eggs, about 1 pint of water for each
egg to be cooked usually being sufficient. Carefully drop the eggs into
the water and place the pan on the back of the stove where the water
will not boil, but will stay hot. Allow the eggs to remain in the hot
water for 45 minutes; then remove them, and if they are desired hot,
serve them at once. If they are not to be served hot, pour cold water
over them and allow them to cool before removing the shells in order to
prevent the yolks from discoloring.

When prepared in this way, eggs will be found to be tender and at the
same time well cooked; whereas, if they are cooked at the boiling point,
they are certain to be tough and leathery and consequently less

53. FRIED EGGS.--Fried eggs are likely to be more or less indigestible,
because the hot fat coagulates the protein and makes it very hard. The
addition of fat, however, increases the food value of the eggs to a
certain extent. To fry eggs, melt enough butter or other fat in a frying
pan to cover its surface well. Break the eggs one at a time into a
saucer and slip them into the hot fat. Season with salt and pepper. Fry
until the white has become well solidified on the bottom, and then
either turn them over or put a few drops of water in the pan and cover
it tight with a cover, so that the steam will cook the top of the egg.
Fry until the desired degree of hardness has been obtained, and
then serve.

54. SCRAMBLED EGGS.--A pleasing variety from the usual methods of
preparation is offered by means of scrambled eggs, which are not
difficult to make. Too long cooking, however, should be guarded against,
for it will cause the protein in the eggs to become too hard and to
separate from the liquid and will produce watery scrambled eggs. To be
most satisfactory, they should be taken from the pan just before they
have finished cooking, for the heat that they hold will complete it.
Eggs prepared in this way, according to the accompanying recipe, may be
served on toast or with ham and bacon. If they are served with meat, a
smaller portion of meat should be given to a person than is
ordinarily served.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

6 eggs
3/4 c. milk
1/2 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
2 Tb. butter

Beat the eggs slightly, and to them add the milk and seasonings. Melt
the butter in a frying pan and, when the butter is hot, pour the egg
mixture into it. As the eggs begin to thicken, stir them up from the
bottom of the pan and continue to stir them until the entire mass has
thickened slightly. Before the eggs are entirely cooked, remove them
from the pan. Bacon and ham fat may be used instead of butter, and they
are strongly recommended if they can be secured, for they lend an
excellent flavor to scrambled eggs.

55. SCRAMBLED EGGS WITH TOMATO.--The addition of tomato to scrambled
eggs lends an unusual flavor as well as a little variety to the dish.
The same conditions apply to the cooking of scrambled eggs with tomato
as apply to plain scrambled eggs; namely, that too long cooking ruins
them. The onion included in the recipe here given may be omitted from
the dish if it is not desirable. The fat to be used may be in the form
of butter, although bacon or ham fat may be substituted to give an
agreeable flavor.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

3 Tb. fat
1 slice onion
1 c. stewed tomatoes
1/2 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
6 eggs

Put the fat into a frying pan, and when this grease is hot add the slice
of onion and fry it until it is brown. Remove the onion from the fat,
and add the stewed tomatoes, salt, and pepper. Then beat the eggs
slightly and add them to the hot tomato. Stir the mixture slowly from
the bottom of the pan until it is slightly thickened. Remove from the
pan and serve hot.

56. SCRAMBLED EGGS ON TOAST.--The addition of cheese to eggs, as in the
accompanying recipe, makes a dish that is very high in protein and
usually pleasing in flavor. So as not to overcook the eggs in this dish,
they should be cooked only slightly in the pan, because they receive
additional cooking when the dish is placed in the oven to melt the
cheese. Browning the cheese slightly on top makes a very attractive
dish, especially when garnished with parsley.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

6 eggs
3/4 c. milk
1/2 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
2 Tb. fat
1/2 c. grated cheese
6 slices of toast

Beat the eggs slightly, and to them add the milk, salt, and pepper. Melt
the fat in a frying pan, and when it is hot add the egg mixture. Stir
the mixture as it cooks until it has thickened slightly; then pour it
over the slices of toast placed in a shallow pan. Sprinkle the grated
cheese over the top, and place under a lighted broiler or in a very hot
oven until the cheese melts. Remove to a platter garnish with parsley,
and serve.

57. SCRAMBLED EGGS WITH HAM.--The accompanying recipe affords an
excellent way in which to use up the little scraps of ham that may be
cut from the bone when it is impossible to cut enough nice looking
pieces to serve as a cold dish. Eggs prepared in this way will be found
very tasty and will take the place of a meat dish for luncheon
or supper.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

6 eggs
1 c. milk
1/2 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
1 c. chopped cooked ham
2 Tb. fat

Beat the eggs slightly, and to them add the milk, salt, pepper, and ham.
Melt the fat in a frying pan and scramble the mixture as directed in
Art. 54 until it is slightly thickened. Remove from the stove and serve
at once. If desired, this dish may be served on toast. Other left-over
meat, such as roast beef or pork, may be used in place of ham, but such
meats do not make so tasty a dish, the flavor of ham in such a
combination being more desirable. 58. PLAIN OMELET.--The simplest type
of omelet, which is known as plain omelet, does not differ materially
from scrambled eggs, except that the whole is collected in a mass in an
omelet shape. No difficulty will be experienced in making such an omelet
if the directions in the recipe here given are followed explicitly. To
make this dish more attractive, some food of a contrasting color, such
as jelly or tomatoes, may be used for garnishing.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

6 eggs
6 Tb. water
1/2 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
3 Tb. fat

Beat the eggs, and to them add the water, salt, and pepper. Heat the fat
in an omelet pan or a small frying pan, and when it is hot add the egg
mixture. When the egg on the bottom of the pan has thickened, tip the
pan and draw the thickened portion toward the handle with the end of a
knife, allowing the uncooked egg to run over the pan, and when that has
thickened on the bottom, draw it up as before. Repeat until all of the
egg has been cooked and an oblong-shaped omelet is formed. Place on a
hot platter or plate, garnish with parsley or jelly, and serve.

[Illustration: FIG. 13]

59. PUFF OMELET.--Many housewives consider it to be a very difficult
thing to make a puff omelet successfully; but such need not be the case
if fresh eggs are used and the usual amount of care is taken in its
preparation. The whites of the eggs must not be over-beaten, as too much
beating will cause the loss of air and will not permit the omelet to
become sufficiently light. Another precaution is that the mixture should
not be overcooked, for the application of heat after it has been
sufficiently cooked will cause it to shrink. How a puff omelet made
according to the recipe here given should look, is shown in Fig. 13.
This is a very pleasing dish and never fails to appeal to those persons
who are fond of eggs.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 Tb. bread crumbs
4 Tb. milk
4 eggs
1/2 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
3 Tb. fat

Soak the bread crumbs in the milk. Separate the yolks and whites of the
eggs. Beat the egg yolks and add them to the crumbs and milk. Add the
salt and pepper. Beat the egg whites until stiff and fold them carefully
into the yolk mixture. Heat the fat in an omelet pan or a frying pan,
and when it is hot pour the mixture into it. Cook over a very slow fire,
being careful not to burn the mixture, until a knife can be slipped
under and the whole mixture raised. By this time the top should be quite
puffed up. Place the pan in a hot oven, where the omelet should puff
still more, and cook until it is no longer raw. With a knife, score
across through the center on a straight line with the handle. Then
carefully fold the omelet double, roll it out on a hot platter or plate,
as shown in Fig. 14, garnish with parsley, and serve at once. If an
omelet of this kind stands for any length of time after it is served, it
will shrink and be much less appetizing.

[Illustration: FIG. 14]

60. CHEESE OMELET.--If an additional amount of protein in the form of
casein is desired in an omelet, the accompanying recipe for cheese
omelet should be tried. The addition of cheese makes this dish even a
better meat substitute than either the plain or the puff omelet.
Likewise, the cheese adds flavor, which may be increased if desired by
the addition of more cheese than the recipe calls for. Although this
recipe mentions butter, fat other than butter may be used.

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