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Woman's Institute Library of Cookery, Vol. 1 by Woman's Institute of Domestic Arts and Sciences

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of excellent quality, but such bread is not so nutritious as that made
from whole-wheat flour. In the making of this kind of flour, some of the
choicest varieties of wheat are first moistened in order to soften the
woody fiber of the bran and are then sifted until the outer husk of the
grain is removed. After this treatment, the grains are dried and then
pulverized into various grades of so-called whole-wheat flour. The name
whole-wheat flour is misleading, because it implies that all of the
grain is used; whereas, since several of the outer layers of bran and
the germ are removed in its production, whole-wheat flour is merely
flour in which practically all the gluten and the starch are retained.
Because this variety is not sifted as are the white flours, it is not so
fine as they are; but it is not so coarse as graham flour, nor is bread
made from it so dark in color. Both graham and whole-wheat flours
produce a more wholesome bread than any of the varieties of white flour,
because they contain more of the nutritive elements and mineral salts,
which are necessary in the diet. The bran that is retained in them is
not used by the body as food, but it adds bulk to the diet and assists
in carrying on the normal functions of the digestive tract.

17. SELECTION OF FLOUR.--If a large quantity of flour must be bought at
one time, as, for instance, enough to last through an entire season, it
is advisable to test it carefully before the purchase is made, so as to
avoid the danger of getting a poor grade. As a rule, however, housewives
are obliged to purchase only a small quantity at a time. In such cases,
it will not be necessary to test the flour before purchasing it,
provided a standard make is selected. Very often, too, a housewife in a
small family finds it inconvenient to keep on hand a supply of both
bread flour and pastry flour. In such an event, a blend flour, which, as
has been mentioned, is a mixture of flour made from spring and winter
wheat that will do for all purposes, is the kind to purchase. While such
flour is not ideal for either bread or pastry, it serves the purpose of
both very well.

18. QUALITY OF FLOUR.--Flour is put on the market in various grades, and
is named according to its quality. The highest grade, or best quality,
is called _high-grade patent_; the next grade, _bakers'_; and the next,
_second-grade patent_. The lowest grade, or poorest quality, is called
_red dog_. This grade is seldom sold for food purposes, but it is used
considerably for the making of paste.

The quality of flour used in bread making is of very great importance,
because flour of poor quality will not, of course, make good bread.
Every housewife should therefore be familiar with the characteristics of
good flour and should buy accordingly.

19. Several tests can be applied to flour to determine its kind and its
quality. The first test is its color. Bread flour, or flour made from
spring wheat, is usually of a creamy-white color, while pastry flour, or
that made from winter wheat, is more nearly pure white in color. A dark,
chalky-white, or gray color indicates that the flour is poor in quality.
The second test is the feel of the flour. A pinch of good bread flour,
when rubbed lightly between the thumb and the index finger, will be
found to be rather coarse and the particles will feel sharp and gritty.
When good pastry flour is treated in the same way, it will feel smooth
and powdery. The third test is its adhering power. When squeezed tightly
in the hand, good bread flour holds together in a mass and retains
slightly the impression of the fingers; poor bread flour treated in the
same way either does not retain its shape or, provided it contains too
much moisture, is liable to make a damp, hard lump. The odor of flour
might also be considered a test. Flour must not have a musty odor nor
any other odor foreign to the normal, rather nutty flavor that is
characteristic of flour.

The bleaching and adulteration of flour are governed by the United
States laws. Bleaching is permitted only when it does not reduce the
quality or strength nor conceal any damage or inferiority. Such flour
must be plainly labeled to show that it has been bleached.

20. CARE OF FLOUR.--There is considerable economy in buying flour in
large quantities, but unless an adequate storing place can be secured,
it is advisable to buy only small amounts at a time. Flour absorbs odors
very readily, so that when it is not bought in barrels it should if
possible be purchased in moisture-proof bags. Then, after it is
purchased, it should be kept where it will remain dry and will not be
accessible to odors, for unless the storage conditions are favorable, it
will soon acquire an offensive odor and become unfit for use. Flour
sometimes becomes infested with weevils, or beetles, whose presence can
be detected by little webs. To prevent the entrance of insects and
vermin of all kinds, flour should be kept in tightly closed bins after
it is taken from the barrels or sacks in which it is purchased. If newly
purchased flour is found to be contaminated with such insects, it should
be returned to the dealer.


21. NATURE AND ACTION OF YEAST.--How yeast came to be discovered is not
definitely known, but its discovery is believed to have been purely
accidental. Some mixture of flour and liquid was probably allowed to
remain exposed to the air until it fermented and then when baked was
found to be light and porous. Whatever the origin of this discovery was,
it is certain that yeast was used hundreds of years ago and that its
action was not at that time understood. Even at the present time
everything concerning the action of yeast is not known; still continued
study and observation have brought to light enough information to show
that yeast is the agency that, under favorable conditions, produces
light, spongy bread out of a flour mixture.

22. It has been determined that yeast is a microscopic plant existing
everywhere in the air and in dust; consequently, it is found on all
things that are exposed to air or dust. In order that it may grow, this
plant requires the three things necessary for the growth of any plant,
namely, food, moisture, and warmth. Carbohydrate in the form of sugar
proves to be an ideal food for yeast, and 70 to 90 degrees Fahrenheit is
the temperature at which the most rapid growth occurs. When these
conditions exist and a sufficient amount of moisture is provided, yeast
grows very rapidly and produces fermentation.

The changes that take place when yeast causes fermentation can be
detected very readily by observing the fermenting of fruit juice. As
every housewife knows, the first indication of a ferment in fruit juice
is the appearance of tiny bubbles, which collect on the sides and the
bottom of the vessel containing the fruit and then gradually rise to the
top. These bubbles are a form of gas called _carbon-dioxide_, or
_carbonic-acid, gas_. If, after they appear, the juice is tasted, it
will be found to be slightly alcoholic and to have a somewhat sour or
acid taste. The gas, the acid, and the alcohol thus produced are the
three results of the action of the ferment.

23. When yeast is used in the making of bread out of wheat flour, the
changes just mentioned take place. To understand the action of this
plant, it will be necessary to remember that wheat contains a large
proportion of starch. This substance, however, cannot be acted on by the
yeast plant; it must first be changed into sugar. The yeast that is
added to the flour changes some of the starch into sugar and transforms
the sugar into alcohol and carbonic-acid gas. This gas, which is lighter
than the dough, rises, and in its efforts to escape expands the elastic,
glutinous dough into a mass of bubbles with thin walls until the dough
is two or three times its original bulk. The yeast plants, though, must
be well distributed throughout the dough; otherwise, there are likely to
be no bubbles in some places and large bubbles with thick walls in
others. The gas thus formed is prevented from escaping by the toughness
or the elasticity of the gluten, and the spaces that it leaves are what
produce a light, porous loaf. When the expansion has gone on long
enough, the formation of gas is checked and the ferment is killed by
baking the dough in a hot oven. During the baking, the alcohol is driven
off by heat, some of the starch is browned and forms the crust, and so
little acid is produced in the short time in which the yeast is active
that it is not noticeable.

24. Commercial Yeast.--When yeast plants are deprived of water and food,
they cease to multiply. However, under these conditions, they may be
kept alive so that when water and food are again provided they will
increase in number and carry on their work. Advantage has been taken of
these characteristics of yeast, for although at one time the making of
yeast was entirely a household process, it has now, like butter, cheese,
canned fruit, etc., become a commercial product. The first yeast put on
the market was collected from the surface of the contents of brewers'
vats, where it floated in large quantities; but as this was an impure,
unreliable product composed of various kinds of bacteria, it is no
longer used for the purpose of making bread. At present, yeast is
carefully grown as a pure yeast culture, or product. It is marketed in
such a way that when proper food, such as soft dough, or sponge, and a
favorable temperature are provided, the plants will multiply and act on
the carbohydrate that they find in the food. In fact, the purpose of the
well-known process of "setting" a sponge is to obtain a large number of
yeast plants from a few.

Commercial yeast is placed on the market in two forms--_moist_ and
_dry_. Each of these yeasts has its advantages, so that the one to
select depends on the method preferred for the making of bread as well
as the time that may be devoted to the preparation of this food.

25. Moist yeast, which is usually called _compressed yeast_, consists
of the pure yeast culture, or growth, mixed with starch to make a sort
of dough and then compressed into small cakes, the form in which it is
sold. The moist condition of this kind of commercial yeast keeps the
plants in an active state and permits of very rapid growth in a dough
mixture. Consequently, it proves very useful for the rapid methods of
making bread. It is soft, yet brittle, is of a grayish-white color, and
has no odor except that of yeast.

Since the plants of compressed yeast require very little moisture to
make them grow, an unfavorable, or low, temperature is needed to keep
the yeast from spoiling; in fact, it is not guaranteed to remain good
longer than a few days, and then only if it is kept at a temperature low
enough to prevent the plants from growing. This fact makes it
inadvisable to purchase compressed yeast at great distances from the
source of supply, although it may be obtained by parcel post from
manufacturers or dealers.

26. Dry yeast, the other form of commercial yeast, is made in much the
same way as moist yeast, but, instead of being mixed with a small amount
of starch, the yeast culture is combined with a large quantity of starch
or meal and then dried. The process of drying kills off some of the
plants and renders the remainder inactive; because of this, the yeast
requires no special care and will keep for an indefinite period of time,
facts that account for its extensive use by housewives who are not
within easy reach of the markets. However, because of the inactivity of
the yeast plants, much longer time is required to produce fermentation
in a bread mixture containing dry yeast than in one in which moist yeast
is used. Consequently, the long processes of bread making are brought
about by the use of dry yeast. If moist yeast is used for these
processes, a smaller quantity is required.

27. Liquid Yeast.--Some housewives are so situated that they find it
difficult to obtain commercial yeast in either of its forms; but this
disadvantage need not deprive them of the means of making good home-made
bread, for they can prepare a very satisfactory liquid yeast themselves.
To make such yeast, flour, water, and a small quantity of sugar are
stirred together, and the mixture is then allowed to remain at ordinary
room temperature, or 70 degrees Fahrenheit, until it is filled with
bubbles. If hops are available, a few of them may be added. When such
yeast is added to a sponge mixture, it will lighten the whole amount.
Before the sponge is made stiff with flour, however, a little of it
should be taken out, put in a covered dish, and set away in a cool, dark
place for the next baking. If properly looked after in the manner
explained, this yeast may be kept for about 2 weeks.

More certain results and a better flavor are insured in the use of
liquid yeast if it is started with commercial yeast, so that whenever
this can be obtained it should be used. Then, as just explained, some of
the liquid containing the yeast or some of the sponge made with it may
be retained for the next baking.

28. Quality of Yeast.--Of equal importance with the quality of flour is
the quality of yeast used in the baking of bread. Yeast is, of course,
accountable for the lightness or sponginess of bread, but, in addition,
it improves the flavor of the bread if it is of good quality or detracts
from the flavor if it is of poor quality. Since the condition of yeast
cannot be determined until its effect on the finished product is noted,
the housewife should take no chances, but should employ only yeast,
whether she uses commercial or liquid, that she knows to be good and
reliable. Compressed yeast may be easily judged as to quality. It should
be grayish white in color, without streaks or spots, and it should have
no sour nor disagreeable odor. If home-made yeast is used and the
results obtained are not satisfactory, it may be taken for granted that
a fresh supply should be prepared.


29. As has already been explained, yeast, in order to grow, requires
something on which to feed, and the food that produces the most rapid
growth is that which contains carbohydrate. Certain of the
carbohydrates, however, prove to be better food and produce more rapid
growth than others, and these, which are known as yeast aids, are
usually added as ingredients in the making of bread. The ones that are
most commonly used are sugar and potato water. Sugar is almost always
added, but it should be limited in quantity, because a dough mixture
that is made heavy with sugar will rise very slowly. Potato water has
been found to be a very satisfactory aid, because the starch of the
potato is utilized readily by the yeast. If this aid is to be used, the
water in which potatoes are boiled may be saved and, when the
ingredients required for the making of bread are mixed, it may be added
as a part or all of the liquid required. If it is desired to increase
the amount of starch in the potato water, a boiled potato or two may be
mashed and added to it.


30. Milk is sometimes used as a part or as all of the liquid in bread.
While it adds nutritive value and is thought by many persons to improve
the texture, it is not absolutely essential to successful bread making.
Whenever milk is used, it should first be scalded thoroughly. A point
that should not be overlooked in connection with the use of milk is that
the crust of milk bread browns more readily and has a more uniform color
than that of bread in which water is used as liquid.

31. Like milk, fat adds nutritive value to bread, but it is not an
essential ingredient. If it is included, care should be taken not to use
too much, for an excessive amount will retard the growth of the yeast.
Almost any kind of fat, such as butter, lard or other clear tasteless
fats, or any mixture of these, may be used for this purpose, provided it
does not impart an unpleasant flavor to the bread.


32. No definite rule can be given for the exact proportion of liquid and
flour to be used in bread making, because some kinds of flour absorb
much more liquid than others. It has been determined, however, that 3
cupfuls of flour is generally needed for each small loaf of bread. With
this known, the quantity of flour can be determined by the amount of
bread that is to be made. The quantity of liquid required depends on the
quantity and kind of flour selected, but usually there should be about
one-third as much liquid as flour.

The particular method that is selected for the making of bread, as is
explained later, determines the amount of yeast to be used. If it is
desired not to have the bread rise quickly, a small quantity, about one
eighth cake of compressed yeast or 2 tablespoonfuls of liquid yeast, is
sufficient for each loaf; but if rapid rising is wanted, two, three, or
four times as much yeast must be used to produce a sufficient amount of
carbon dioxide in less time. It should be remembered that the more yeast
used, the more quickly will the necessary gas be created, and that, as
has already been shown, it is the formation of gas that makes bread
light and porous. In addition to flour, liquid, and yeast, 1 teaspoonful
of salt, 1 tablespoonful of sugar, and 1 tablespoonful of fat are the
ingredients generally used for each loaf of bread.


[Illustration: FIG. 2.]

33. Necessary Equipment.--Not many utensils are required for bread
making, but the ones that are needed must be of the right kind if the
best results are to be obtained. The necessary equipment is illustrated
in Fig. 2. It includes a mixing bowl and cover _a_; a flour sieve _b_;
measuring cups _c_ of standard size, one for moist and one for dry
ingredients, measuring spoons _d_, and a case knife or a spatula _e_ for
measuring; a long-handled spoon _f_ for mixing; and baking, or bread,
pans _g_. Unless the table is such that it can be used as a molding
board, it will be necessary to provide in addition to the equipment
mentioned, a molding board of suitable size.

The mixing bowl may be an earthen one or a metal one like that shown in
the illustration. The size of the pans used and the material of which
the pans are made should also receive attention. The loaves will be
found to bake more quickly and thoroughly if they are not made too large
and each one is baked in a separate pan. Pans that are 8 inches long, 3
1/2 inches wide, and 3 inches deep are of a convenient size. They may be
made of tin, sheet iron, aluminum, or heat-resisting glass, the only
requirements being that all the pans used at one baking be of the same
material, because, as heat penetrates some materials more quickly than
others, the baking will then be more uniform.

34. Convenient Equipment.--While the utensils shown in Fig. 2 are all
that are actually required in the making of bread, a bread mixer, one
style of which is described in _Essentials of Cookery_, Part 2, will be
found extremely convenient by the housewife who must bake large
quantities of bread at one time and who has not a great deal of time to
devote to the work. This labor-saving device can be used and, of course,
often is used by the housewife who makes only a small quantity of bread,
as, for instance, two to four loaves; but it is not actually needed by
her, as she can handle such an amount easily and quickly.

A _cooler_, which consists of a framework covered with wire netting and
supported by short legs, is also a convenient utensil, as it serves as a
good place on which to put baked bread to cool. If one of these devices
is not available, however, a substitute can be easily made by stretching
a wire netting over a wooden frame.

* * * * *



35. The nature and the quality of the ingredients required to make
bread, as well as the utensils that are needed for this purpose, being
understood, it is next in order to take up the actual work of making
bread. Several processes are included in this work; namely, making the
dough, caring for the rising dough, kneading the dough, shaping the
dough into loaves, baking the loaves, and caring for the bread after it
is baked. When the finished product is obtained, the loaves are ready to
be scored and served. A knowledge of how to carry out these processes is
of the utmost importance, for much of the success achieved in bread
making depends on the proper handling of the ingredients. Of course,
skill in manipulation is acquired only by constant practice, so that the
more opportunity the housewife has to apply her knowledge of the
processes, the more proficient will she become in this phase of cookery.
Each one of the processes mentioned is here discussed in the order in
which it comes in the actual work of bread making, and while the proper
consideration should be given to every one of them, it will be well,
before entering into them, to observe the qualities that characterize
good wheat bread.

36. Good wheat bread may be described in various ways, but, as has been
learned by experience and as is pointed out by United States government
authorities, probably the best way in which to think of it, so far as
its structure is concerned, is as a mass of tiny bubbles made of flour
and water, having very thin walls and fixed in shape by means of heat.
The size of the cells and the nature of the bubble walls are points that
should not be overlooked.

Each loaf should be light in weight, considering its size, should be
regular in form, and should have an unbroken, golden-brown crust. The
top crust should be smooth and should have a luster, which is usually
spoken of as the "bloom" of the crust. Taken as a whole, the loaf should
have a certain sponginess, which is known as its elasticity, and which
is evidenced by the way in which the loaf acts when it is pressed
slightly out of shape. As soon as the pressure is removed, the loaf
should resume its original shape. This test should produce the same
results when it is applied to small pieces of the crust and to the cut
surface of the loaf.

The internal appearance must also receive consideration. To be right,
wheat bread should be creamy white in color and should have a definite
"sheen," which can best be seen by looking across a slice, rather than
directly down into it. As already explained, the holes in it should be
small and evenly distributed and their walls should be very thin. These
points can be readily determined by holding a very thin slice up to
the light.

The flavor of bread is also a very important factor, but it is somewhat
difficult to describe just the exact flavor that bread should have in
order to be considered good. Probably the best way in which to explain
this is to say that its flavor should be that which is brought about by
treating the wheat with salt. While such a flavor may not be known to
all, it is familiar to those who have tasted the wheat kernel.

* * * * *



37. The first step in bread making, and without doubt the most important
one, is the making of the dough. It consists in moistening the flour by
means of a liquid of some kind in order to soften the gluten and the
starch, to dissolve the sugar, and to cement all the particles together,
and then combining these ingredients. Before the ingredients are
combined, however, particularly the flour, the liquid, and the yeast,
they must generally be warmed in order to shorten the length of time
necessary for the yeast to start growing. Much care should be exercised
in heating these materials, for good results will not be obtained unless
they are brought to the proper temperature. The flour should feel warm
and the liquid, whether it be water or milk, should, when it is added,
be of such a temperature that it also will feel warm to the fingers. If
water is used, it ought to be just as pure as possible, but if milk is
preferred it should be used only after it has been scalded. The yeast
should be dissolved in a small quantity of lukewarm water. Hot water
used for this purpose is liable to kill the yeast and prevent the bread
from rising, whereas cold water will retard the growth of the yeast.


38. As soon as the bread ingredients have received the proper treatment,
they are ready to be combined. Combining may be done by two different
methods, one of which is known as the _short process_ and the other as
the _long process_. As their names indicate, these methods are
characterized by the length of time required for the bread to rise. Each
method has its advantages, and the one to select depends on the amount
of time and energy the housewife can afford to give to this part of her
work. Persons who use the long process believe that bread made by it
tastes better and keeps longer than that made by the short process;
whereas, those who favor the short process find that it saves time and
labor and are convinced that the quality of the bread is not impaired.
The more rapid methods of making breads are possible only when yeast in
the active state is used and when more of it than would be necessary in
the long process, in which time must be allowed for its growth, is
employed. However, regardless of the method followed, all bread mixtures
must be begun in the same manner. The liquids, seasonings, and fat are
combined, and to these is added the flour, which should be sifted in, as
shown in Fig. 3.

39. Long Process.--By the long process, there are two ways of combining
the ingredients in order to make bread. One is known as the _sponge
method_ and the other as the _straight-dough method_.

[Illustration: Fig. 3] 40. The long-process sponge method is employed
when sufficient time can be allowed to permit the natural growth of the
yeast. To make bread according to this process, start it in the evening
by warming the liquid and dissolving the yeast and then adding these
ingredients to the sugar, salt, and fat, which should first be placed in
the mixing bowl. Stir this mixture well, and then add one-half of the
quantity of flour that is to be used, stirring this also. Place this
mixture, or sponge, as such a mixture is called, where it will remain
warm, or at a temperature of from 65 to 70 degrees Fahrenheit, through
the night. In the morning, stir the remaining flour into the sponge and
knead for a few minutes the dough thus formed. When this is
accomplished, put the dough in a warm place and allow it to rise until
it doubles in bulk. When the dough is in this condition, it is ready to
be kneaded again, after which it may be shaped into loaves, placed in
the pans, allowed to double in bulk again, and finally baked.

41. The long-process straight-dough method is a shortened form of the
method just explained. It does away with the necessity of one kneading
and one rising and consequently saves considerable time and labor. To
make bread by this method, combine the ingredients in the evening as for
the sponge method, but instead of adding only half of the flour, put all
of it into the mixture, make a stiff dough at once, and knead. Then
allow this to rise during the night, so that in the morning it can be
kneaded again and put directly into the bread pans. After it rises in
the pans until it doubles in bulk, it is ready to be baked.

The only disadvantage of the straight-dough method is that a stiff dough
rises more slowly than a sponge, but since the entire night is given to
the rising no difficulty will be experienced in carrying out this
process. A point to remember, however, is that dough made according to
this method must be kept warmer than that made by the sponge method.

42. Quick Process.--In the quick process of combining bread ingredients,
there are also two methods of procedure--the _sponge method_ and the
_straight-dough method_. The chief differences between the methods of
this process and those of the long process are in the quantity of yeast
used and the length of time required for the bread to rise. More yeast
must be used and much less time is required for the completion of the
entire process. This shorter period of time is doubtless due to the fact
that throughout the process, whether the straight-dough or the sponge
method is followed, the mixture must be kept at a uniform temperature of
about 90 degrees Fahrenheit.

43. The quick-process sponge method requires only about 5 hours for its
completion, and the bread may be started at any time of the day that
will allow this amount of time for carrying on the work. For this
method, warm the ingredients and then combine the sugar, salt, fat,
liquid, and dissolved yeast. Into this mixture, stir enough of the flour
to make a sponge and put it where it will keep uniformly warm until it
has about doubled in quantity and is full of bubbles. Then add the
remainder of the flour, knead the mixture, and return the dough thus
formed to a warm place. When the dough has doubled in bulk, remove it
from the bowl to the kneading board, knead it slightly, and then shape
it into loaves. Place these into the pans, and after allowing them to
rise sufficiently, bake them.

44. The quick-process straight-dough method differs from the
quick-process sponge method in that the entire amount of flour is added
when the ingredients are first mixed, with the result that a stiff dough
instead of a sponge is formed. As has already been learned, this stiff
dough rises more slowly than a sponge, but it requires one rising less.
It must be kept at a uniform temperature as much of the time as
possible, so that the rising will not be retarded. When it has doubled
in bulk, remove it from the bowl and knead it. Then shape it into
loaves, place these in the pans, allow them to rise sufficiently, and
proceed with the baking.


45. Purpose of Rising.--Rising is an important part of the process of
bread making, no matter which method is employed. In a sponge, its
purpose is to blend the ingredients after they have been mixed, as well
as to permit the growth of the yeast; in a dough, after the gas has been
evenly distributed by means of kneading, the purpose of rising is to
permit the incorporation of a sufficient quantity of carbon dioxide to
make the bread light when it is baked. As has just been explained, three
risings are necessary in the sponge method of both the long and the
short process, whereas only two are required in the straight-dough
methods. The last rising, or the one that takes place after the dough is
shaped into loaves, is the one that affects the texture of the bread
most, so that it should receive considerable attention. If the dough is
not allowed to rise sufficiently at this time, the bread will be too
fine in texture and will likely be heavy; and if it is permitted to rise
too much, it will be coarse in texture. Allowance, however, should be
made for the fact that the rising will continue after the bread has been
placed in the oven.

46. Temperature for Rising.--As has been mentioned, the best results are
obtained if the bread dough is kept at a uniform temperature throughout
its rising. The temperature at which it rises most rapidly is about 86
degrees Fahrenheit; but, unless it can be watched closely, a better plan
is to keep it, especially if the long process of bread making is
followed, at a temperature that runs no higher than 80 degrees. Various
methods of maintaining a uniform temperature have been devised, but the
ones usually resorted to consist in placing the bowl containing the
sponge or the dough in a bread raiser, a fireless cooker, or a vessel of
hot water.

[Illustration: Fig. 4]

47. Bread raisers can be purchased, but if desired a simple
bread-raising device may be constructed from a good-sized wooden box. To
make such a device, line the box with tin or similar metal and fit it
with a door or a cover that may be closed tight. Make a hole in one side
of the box into which to insert a thermometer, and, at about the center
of the box, place a shelf on which to set the bowl or pan containing the
sponge or dough. For heating the interior, use may be made of a single
gas burner, an oil lamp, or any other small heating device. This should
be placed in the bottom of the box, under the shelf, and over it should
be placed a pan of water to keep the air in the box moist, moist air
being essential to good results. Where large quantities of bread must be
baked regularly, such a device will prove very satisfactory. The
temperature inside should be kept somewhere in the neighborhood of 95 to
105 degrees Fahrenheit if the bread is to rise rapidly; but it may be
kept from 80 to 95 degrees if slower rising is desired.

48. Placing the bowl containing the dough mixture in a larger vessel of
hot water is a simple and satisfactory way of obtaining a uniform
temperature, being especially desirable for a sponge in the quick-process
sponge method. The water in the large vessel should be at a temperature
of about 110 to 115 degrees Fahrenheit. After the bowl of sponge or
dough is placed in the water, the large vessel should be covered very
carefully, so that the heat from the water will be retained. To maintain
the temperature in the vessel and thus keep it right for the bread
mixture, the hot water has to be replenished occasionally. If this is
done, the sponge or dough will be maintained at a temperature of about
90 degrees and will therefore rise rapidly.

[Illustration: Fig. 5]

49. To insure the best results with the rising of bread mixtures, it is
advisable, for the beginner at least, to use a thermometer for
determining the temperature of air or water, as this instrument will
save considerable time until experience in judging such matters has been
gained. A Fahrenheit thermometer like that shown in Fig. 4 is the ideal
kind for use in bread making. As an aid in this process, there are
indicated in this illustration the temperature at which dough should be
kept for rising and the temperature at which water should be kept
outside the bowl to maintain a temperature of 75 to 90 degrees in the
dough when the plan mentioned in Art. 48 for keeping dough at a uniform
temperature is followed. In addition, the oven temperatures for baking
bread and rolls, which are explained later, are also shown. The
temperature of water can, however, be determined fairly accurately with
the hands. If it feels very warm but does not burn the hand, it may be
considered at about a temperature of 110 to 115 degrees.

In order to prevent the formation of a hard surface on the dough, the
bowl in which it rises should be kept tightly covered. A further means
of preventing this condition consists in oiling the surface of the
dough; that is, brushing it lightly with melted fat. In case a crust
does form, it should be well moistened with water or milk and allowed to
soften completely before the next kneading is begun.

[Illustration: Fig. 6]

50. Time Required for Rising.--No definite rule can be given for the
length of time required for dough to rise, for this depends entirely on
the activity of the yeast. If the yeast is active, the dough will rise
quickly; but if it is not of good quality or if it has been killed or
retarded in its growth by improper handling, the dough will rise slowly.
Usually, dough should be allowed to rise until it has doubled in bulk. A
good way in which to determine when this takes place is to put a small
piece of the dough in a glass, such as a measuring glass, a tumbler, or
a jelly glass, and mark on this glass where the dough should come when
it has increased to twice its size. This glass set beside the vessel
containing the dough will show when it has risen sufficiently. This plan
is illustrated in Figs. 5 and 6. Fig. 5 shows a glass half filled with
dough and a bowl of bread dough ready to be placed where they will keep
warm for the first rising; and Fig. 6 shows the same dough after it has
doubled in bulk, as is evident from the fact that the glass is
entirely full.


[Illustration: Fig. 7]

51. Purpose of Kneading.--As has been pointed out, it is necessary to
knead dough one or more times in the making of bread, the number of
kneadings depending on the method that is employed. The purpose of
kneading is to work the dough so as to distribute evenly the gas that is
produced by the yeast, to increase the elasticity of the gluten, and to
blend the ingredients. It is a very important part of the work of bread
making, for to a great extent it is responsible for the texture of the
finished product. At first, kneading may be found to be somewhat
difficult, but the beginner need not become discouraged if she is not
proficient at once, because the skill that is necessary to knead the
bread successfully comes with practice. So that the best results may be
attained, however, it is advisable that the purpose for which the
kneading is done be kept constantly before the mind during the process.

[Illustration: Fig. 8]

[Illustration: Fig. 9]

52. Kneading Motions.--Several motions are involved in the kneading of
bread, and these are illustrated in Figs. 7 to 10. In order to carry out
the kneading process, first cover lightly with flour the surface on
which the kneading is to be done; this may be a suitable table top or a
molding board placed on a table. Then remove the dough from the mixing
bowl with the aid of a case knife or a spatula, in the manner shown in
Fig. 6, and place it on the floured surface. Sift a little flour over
the dough, so that it appears as in Fig. 7, and flatten it slightly by
patting it gently. Next, with the fingers placed as shown in Fig. 8,
take hold of the edge of the mass at the side farthest from you and fold
the dough over the edge nearest you, as Fig. 9 illustrates. Then
work the dough with a downward pressure and, as indicated in Fig. 10,
push it out with the palms of the hands. With the motion completed, turn
the entire mass around and knead it in the same way in another
direction. Continue the kneading by repeating these motions until the
dough has a smooth appearance, is elastic, does not stick to either the
hands or the board, and rises quickly when it is pressed down.

[Illustration: Fig. 10]

To prevent the dough from sticking to the hands and the board, flour
should be added gradually during the process of kneading, but care
should be taken not to use too much flour for this purpose. The
lightness and sponginess of the finished loaf depend largely on the
quantity of flour used at this time, so that if the dough is made too
stiff with flour, the bread will be hard and close after it is baked. As
soon as the dough can be kneaded without its sticking to either the
hands or the board, no more flour need be added; but, in case too much
flour is used, the dough may be softened by means of milk or water. Such
dough, however, is not so satisfactory as that which does not have to
be softened.


53. After the dough is properly kneaded in the manner just explained, it
is placed in the mixing bowl and allowed to rise again. When it has
risen sufficiently for the last time, depending on the process employed,
it should be kneaded again, if it must be reduced in size, and then
shaped into loaves and put in the pans. Here, again, much care should be
exercised, for the way in which bread is prepared for the pans has much
to do with the shape of the loaf after it is baked.

[Illustration: Fig. 11]

54. In order to shape the dough into loaves, first loosen it from the
sides of the mixing bowl, using a knife or a spatula for this purpose,
and then turn it out on a flat surface on which flour has been
sprinkled, as in preparing for kneading. Knead the dough a little, and
then cut it into pieces that will be the correct size for the pans in
which the loaves are to be baked, as shown at the right in Fig. 11. Dust
each piece with a small quantity of flour and knead it until the large
bubbles of gas it contains are worked out and it is smooth and round. In
working it, stretch the under side, which is to be the top of the loaf,
and form it into a roll that is as long and half as high as the pan and
as thick at each end as in the center. A good idea of the size and shape
can be formed from the loaf held in the hands in Fig. 11.

[Illustration: Fig. 12]

55. As each loaf is formed, place it in the pan in the manner shown in
Fig. 12 and allow it to rise until the dough comes to the top of the
pan, or has doubled in bulk. So that the loaf will be symmetrical after
it has risen--that is, as high at each end as in the middle--the shaped
dough must fit well into the corners and ends of the pan. At _a_, Fig.
13, is shown how dough placed in the pan for rising should appear, and
at _b_ is illustrated how the dough should look after it has risen
sufficiently to permit it to be placed in the oven for baking. To
produce the result illustrated at _b_, the dough must be kept in a warm
temperature, and to exclude the air and prevent the formation of a hard
crust on the dough, it must be covered well with both a cloth and a
metal cover. Another way in which to prevent the formation of a hard
crust consists in greasing the surface of the dough when it is placed in
the pan, as at _a_, for rising. [Illustration: Fig. 13]


56. PURPOSE OF BAKING.--The various processes in the making of bread
that have been considered up to this point may be successfully carried
out, but unless the baking, which is the last step, is properly done,
the bread is likely to be unpalatable and indigestible. Much attention
should therefore be given to this part of the work. So that the best
results may be obtained, it should be borne in mind that bread is baked
for the purpose of killing the ferment, rupturing the starch grains of
the flour so that they become digestible, fixing the air cells, and
forming a nicely flavored crust. During the process of baking, certain
changes take place in the loaf. The gluten that the dough contains is
hardened by the heat and remains in the shape of bubbles, which give the
bread a porous appearance; also, the starch contained in the dough is
cooked within the loaf, but the outside is first cooked and
then toasted.

57. OVEN TEMPERATURE FOR BAKING.--In baking bread, it is necessary first
to provide the oven with heat of the right temperature and of sufficient
strength to last throughout the baking. As is indicated in Fig. 4, the
usual oven temperature for successful bread baking is from 380 to 425
degrees Fahrenheit, but in both the first and the last part of the
baking the heat should be less than during the middle of it. An oven
thermometer or an oven gauge is a very good means of determining the
temperature of the oven. But if neither of these is available the heat
may be tested by placing in the oven a white cracker, a piece of white
paper, or a layer of flour spread on a shallow tin pan. If any one of
these becomes a light brown in 5 minutes, the oven is right to commence
baking. Every precaution should be taken to have the oven just right at
first, for if the bread is placed in an oven that is too hot the yeast
plant will be killed immediately and the rising consequently checked. Of
course, the bread will rise to some extent even if the yeast plant is
killed at once, for the carbon dioxide that the dough contains will
expand as it becomes heated and will force the loaf up; but bread baked
in this way is generally very unsatisfactory, because a hard crust forms
on the top and it must either burst or retard the rising of the loaf. If
the heat is not sufficient, the dough will continue to rise until the
air cells run together and cause large holes to form in the loaf. In an
oven that is just moderately hot, or has a temperature of about 400
degrees, the yeast plant will not be killed so quickly, the dough will
continue to rise for some time, and the crust of the bread should begin
to brown in about 15 minutes.

[Illustration: Fig. 14]

[Illustration: Fig. 15]

58. Fig. 14 illustrates a loaf of bread that has risen too much. The
inside texture is coarse and the shape of the loaf is not good. Fig. 15
shows the result of uneven temperature. The high side is caused by
exposure to more intense heat than the opposite side, and the crack is
the result of a too rapid formation of the crust. Sometimes it is
advisable to keep the crust from becoming hard too rapidly. In order to
do this, and at the same time produce a more even color, the top of the
loaf may be moistened by brushing it with milk before it is put into
the oven.

Fig. 16 shows a well-formed loaf of bread that has had the right amount
of rising, and Fig. 17 shows the inside texture of bread for which the
mixing, rising, and baking have been correctly done.

59. TIME FOR BAKING AND CARE OF BREAD IN OVEN.--The time required for
baking bread and the care it should receive in the oven are also
important matters to know. How long the bread should bake depends on the
size of the loaf. Under proper oven temperature, a small loaf, or one
made with 1 cupful of liquid, ought to bake in from 50 minutes to 1
hour, while a large loaf requires from 1-1/2 to 2 hours. As has been
explained, the loaf should begin to brown, or have its crust formed, in
about 15 minutes after it is placed in the oven, and the baking should
proceed rather slowly.

[Illustration: Fig. 16]

To get the best results in baking, the pans should be placed so that the
air in the oven will circulate freely around them. If they are so placed
that the loaves touch each other or the sides of the oven, the loaves
will rise unevenly and consequently will be unsightly in shape, like
those shown in Figs. 14 and 15. If the loaves rise higher on one side
than on the other, even when the pans are properly placed, it is evident
that the heat is greater in that place than in the other parts of the
oven and the loaves should therefore be changed to another position.
Proper care given to bread while baking will produce loaves that are an
even brown on the bottom, sides, and top and that shrink from the sides
of the pan.

[Illustration: Fig. 17]

60. CARE OF BREAD AFTER BAKING.--As soon as the bread has baked
sufficiently, take it from the oven, remove the loaves from the pans,
and place them to cool where the air may circulate freely around them. A
bread rack, or cake cooler, like the one on which the loaf rests in
Figs. 14, 15, and 16, is very satisfactory for this purpose, but if such
a device is not available, the loaves may be placed across the edges of
the empty pans so that nearly the entire surface is exposed. Whichever
plan is adopted, it should be remembered that the bread must be
carefully protected from dust and flies. Bread should never be permitted
to remain in the pans after it has been baked nor to cool on a flat
surface; neither should the loaves be wrapped while they are warm,
because the moisture will collect on the surface and the bread will not
keep so well.

After the loaves have become sufficiently cool, place them in the
receptacle in which they are to be kept. This should have been
previously washed and dried and then allowed to stand in the sunshine,
so as to be free from mold or any substance that will taint or otherwise
injure the bread. After the loaves have been put into it, keep it well
covered and allow no stale crumbs nor pieces of bread to collect. To
keep such a receptacle in good condition, it should be scalded and dried
every 2 or 3 days.


61. OBJECT OF SCORING BREAD.--By the _scoring_ of bread is meant simply
the judging of its qualities. Persons who understand what good bread is
agree very closely on the qualities that should characterize it, and
they make these qualities a standard by which any kind of bread may be
scored, or judged. Those who are not proficient in the making of bread,
as well as those who have had very little experience, will do well to
have their bread judged by experts or to learn how to score it
themselves. By following this plan, they will be able to find out the
good and bad points of their bread and then, by ascertaining the causes
of any poor qualities, will be in a position to make improvements. So
that the beginner may learn how to judge the qualities of her bread, she
should study carefully the accompanying score card and its explanation.


External Appearance: PER CENT.
Shape................................. 5
Size.................................. 2
Shade............................... 2
Uniformity of Color................. 2
Character........................... 2
Depth............................ 2--8
Lightness.............................. 20
Internal Appearance:
Even distribution of gas............. 10
Moisture.............................. 5
Elasticity............................ 5
Color................................ 15
Flavor................................. 30
Total............................. 100

62. EXPLANATION OF SCORE CARD.--A study of the score card will reveal
that a certain number of points are given to a loaf of bread for
appearance, both external and internal, for lightness, and for flavor.
To determine these qualities best, allow the loaf to cool thoroughly
after baking. Then consider the various points, and decide how nearly
perfect the loaf is in respect to each one of them. Add the numbers that
are determined upon, and the result obtained will show how the
bread scores.

63. The _shape_ of the loaf, in order to be perfect and to score 5,
should be uniform and symmetrical. Any such shape as that shown in Fig.
15 would fall below perfect.

The _size_ of the loaf, for which a score of 2 is given, is determined
from the standpoint of thorough baking. The exact size that a loaf must
be is a rather difficult thing to state, because the sizes vary
considerably, but a loaf of an ungainly size should be guarded against,
for it would not score well. Bread made in pans of the size already
mentioned would score high with regard to size.

The _crust_, whose combined characteristics score 8, should be a golden
brown in color in order to receive the score of 2 for its _shade_. A
pale loaf or one baked too brown would not receive full credit. If the
required color extends uniformly over the entire loaf, the bottom and
the sides, as well as the top, 2 more is added to the score of the crust
for _uniformity of color_. After these points are scored, a slice of
bread should be cut from the loaf in order that the remaining points may
be scored. As fresh bread does not cut easily, and as a well-cut slice
must be had for this purpose, special care must be taken to obtain the
slice. Therefore, sharpen a large knife and heat the blade slightly by
holding it near a flame; then cut a slice at least 1/2 inch thick from
the loaf before the blade has had time to cool. With such a slice cut,
the _character_ of the crust, by which is meant its toughness or its
tenderness, may be determined. A score of 2 is given if it is of
sufficient tenderness or is devoid of toughness. The _depth_ of the
crust, which depends on the amount of baking the loaf has had, receives
a score of 2 if it is perfect. A deep crust, which is the preferred
kind, is produced by long, slow baking; bread that is baked only a short
time has a thin crust, which is not so desirable and would not score
so high.

64. The _lightness_ of the bread can easily be scored when the bread is
cut. It is judged by the size of the holes, and if it is perfect it
receives a score of 20. If the bread is not light enough, the holes will
be small and the bread will feel solid and unelastic; if it is too
light, the holes will be large and coarse.

65. The internal appearance, which is scored next, includes several
characteristics. For the _even distribution of gas_, which is determined
by the uniformity of the holes, 10 points are given. If the kneading has
been done right and the bread has risen properly, the gas will be
distributed evenly through the loaf, with the result that the holes,
which make the bread porous, will be practically the same throughout the
entire loaf. Such a texture is better than that of a loaf that has some
large and some small holes. The _moisture_ in the bread, which receives
5 if it is of the right amount, is tested by pinching a crumb between
the fingers. If the crumb feels harsh and dry, the bread is not moist
enough, and if it feels doughy, the bread is too moist. The
_elasticity_, for which 5 is given, is determined by pressing the finger
gently into a cut place in the loaf. The bread may be considered to be
elastic if it springs back after the finger is removed and does not
break nor crumble. As compared with cake, bread is always more elastic,
a characteristic that is due to the quantity of gluten it contains.
Still it should be remembered that the elasticity must not amount to
toughness, for if it does the quality of the bread is impaired. To score
15 for _color_, the inside of the loaf should be of an even, creamy
white. A dull white or gray color would indicate that flour of a poor
quality had been used, and dark or white streaks in the bread would
denote uneven mixing and insufficient kneading.

66. The last thing to be scored, namely, the _flavor_, merits 30 points.
To determine this characteristic, chew a small piece of bread well. If
it is not sour nor musty, has a sweet, nutty flavor, and shows that the
correct amount of salt and sugar were added in the mixing, it may
receive a perfect score.


67. The advantage of a bread mixer in bread making is that it
practically does away with hand mixing and kneading; however, all the
other steps described are the same, depending on the process used. As
has been mentioned, the housewife who bakes such a small quantity as
three or four loaves of bread can get along very well without a bread
mixer; at least, for so few loaves a bread mixer does not seem so
necessary as when six or more loaves are to be made at one time, when it
is a decided convenience. However, bread mixers can be had in various
sizes to meet the requirements of the housewife.

68. In using a bread mixer like that described in _Essentials of
Cookery_, Part 2, the ingredients are placed in the mixer and thoroughly
mixed together by turning the handle, and after the sponge or the dough
has risen, the kneading is performed by again turning the handle. The
amount of turning to be done is, of course, regulated by the ingredients
and the method that is followed.

In addition to the bread mixer mentioned, there is another convenient
type that is constructed in two parts, the top part having a sifter in
its bottom, through which the flour or other dry ingredients are sifted.
The sifting is done with a crank, which also operates a shaft to which
is attached a number of knives extending in different directions. These
knives accomplish the mixing and the kneading. The bread is allowed to
rise in the lower part of the bread mixer, the top part being removed
after the mixing and sifting have been accomplished.

Any of the bread-making methods described may be used with the bread
mixer without change in the process, and no kneading need be done by
hand except a sufficient amount to shape the loaves after the last
rising and before they are placed in the pans.


69. Bread is one of the foods that every one takes so much as a matter
of course that little thought is given to its serving. Of course, it
does not offer so much opportunity for variety in serving as do some
foods; yet, like all other foods, it appeals more to the appetites of
those who are to eat it if it is served in an attractive manner. A few
ideas as to the ways in which it may be served will therefore not
be amiss.

As fresh bread is not easily digested, it should not usually be served
until it is at least 24 hours old. Before it is placed on the table, it
should be cut in slices, the thickness of which will depend on the
preference of the persons who are to eat it. If the loaf is large in
size, the pieces should be cut in two, lengthwise of the slice, but in
the case of a small loaf the slices need not be cut.

Various receptacles for placing bread and rolls on the table, such as a
bread boat, a bread plate, and a bread basket, are also used to add
variety in serving. Whichever of these is selected, it may be improved
in appearance by the addition of a white linen doily. For rolls, a
hot-roll cover is both convenient and attractive. Sometimes, especially
when a large number of persons are to be served, a roll is placed
between the folds of each person's napkin before they are seated at
the table.

Occasionally bread becomes stale before it is needed on the table. Such
bread, however, should not be discarded, especially if the loaves are
uncut. Uncut loaves of this kind may be freshened by dipping them
quickly into boiling water and then placing them in a very hot oven
until their surface becomes dry. If desired, slices of bread that have
become stale may be steamed in order to freshen them; but unless great
care is taken in steaming them the bread is liable to become too moist
and soggy.

* * * * *



70. In order that the beginner may bring into use the bread-making
principles and directions that have been set forth, and at the same time
become familiar with the quantities of ingredients that must be used,
there are here given a number of recipes for the making of bread. These
recipes include not only white bread-that is, bread made from white
flour--but whole-wheat, graham, rye, and corn bread, as well as bread in
which fruit and nuts are incorporated. Before these recipes are taken
up, though, it will not be amiss to look further into the various
ingredients used in the making of bread.

71. The fat used in bread making may vary in both quantity and kind. For
instance, if less than 2 tablespoonfuls is called for in a recipe, this
amount may be decreased; but it is not well to increase the amount to
any extent. Likewise, the fat may be of any kind that will not impart a
disagreeable flavour to the finished product. It may be left-over
chicken fat, clarified beef fat, lard, butter, cooking oil, or any
mixture of clear, fresh fats that may be in supply.

The sweetening for bread is, as a rule, granulated sugar, although
sirup, molasses, brown sugar, or white sugar of any kind may be
employed. Sweetening is used merely to give a slightly sweet flavour to
the bread, and the kind that is used is of slight importance.

The liquid, as has been stated, may be water or milk or any proportion
of both. The milk that is used may be either whole or skim. In addition
to these two liquids, the whey from cottage cheese or the water in which
rice, macaroni, or potatoes have been cooked should not be overlooked.
Potato water in which a small quantity of potato may be mashed serves as
a yeast aid, as has been pointed out. Therefore, whenever, in a bread
recipe, liquid is called for and the kind to be used is not stated
specifically, use may be made of any of the liquids that have been

The quantity of flour required for a bread recipe will depend entirely
on the kind of flour that is to be used, bread flour having a much
greater absorbing power for liquid than has pastry or blend flour. When,
in the process of mixing the bread, the sponge is stiffened by adding
the remaining flour to it, the last cupful or two should be added
cautiously, in order not to make the mixture too stiff. In some
instances, more flour than the recipe calls for may be required to make
the dough of the right consistency. The amount can be determined only by
a knowledge of what this consistency should be, and this will be easily
acquired with practice in bread making.

72. The beginner will find it a good plan to begin making bread entirely
of white flour, for the reason that it is easier to determine the
consistency of the dough mixture at various stages, as well as during
the kneading, if there is no coarse material, such as bran, corn meal,
nuts, fruits, etc., in the dough. Later, when a definite knowledge along
this line has been acquired, one after the other of the bread recipes
should be tried. They are no more difficult to carry out than the
recipes for white bread; indeed, the woman who has had experience in
bread making will find that she will be equally successful with all
of them.

73. WHITE BREAD.--Bread made from white flour, which is commonly
referred to as _white bread_, is used to a much greater extent than any
other kind, for it is the variety that most persons prefer and of which
they do not tire quickly. However, white bread should not be used to the
exclusion of other breads, because they are of considerable importance
economically. This kind of bread may be made by both the quick and the
long processes, for the ingredients are the same, with the exception of
the quantity of yeast used. The amounts given in the following recipes
are sufficient to make two large loaves or three small ones, but, of
course, if more bread is desired, the quantity of each ingredient may be
increased proportionately.

(Sufficient for Two Large or Three Small Loaves)

2 Tb. fat
2 Tb. sugar
1/2 cake compressed yeast, or 1 cake dried yeast
1 Tb. salt
1 qt. lukewarm liquid
3 qt. flour
1 c. flour additional for kneading

Put into the mixing bowl the fat, the sugar, the salt, and the yeast
that has been dissolved in a little of the lukewarm liquid. Add the
remainder of the liquid and stir in half of the flour. Place this sponge
where it will rise overnight and will not become chilled. In the
morning, add the remainder of the flour, stirring it well into the risen
sponge, and knead the dough thus formed. Allow it to rise until it has
doubled in bulk and then knead it again. After it is properly kneaded,
shape it into loaves, place them in greased pans, let them rise until
they have doubled in bulk, and then bake them.

Combining the ingredients in the manner just mentioned is following the
sponge method of the long process. By adding all instead of half of the
flour at night, the straight-dough method of this process may
be followed.

(Sufficient for Two Large or Three Small Loaves)

2 Tb. fat
2 Tb. sugar
1 Tb. salt
2 cakes compressed yeast
1 qt. lukewarm liquid
3 qt. flour
1 c. flour additional for kneading

Put the fat, the sugar, and the salt into the mixing bowl, and then to
them add the yeast dissolved in a few tablespoonfuls of the lukewarm
liquid. Add the remaining liquid and stir in half or all of the flour,
according to whether the process is to be completed by the sponge or the
straight-dough method. One yeast cake may be used instead of two.
However, if the smaller quantity of yeast is used, the process will
require more time, but the results will be equally as good. After the
dough has been allowed to rise the required number of times and has been
kneaded properly for the method selected, place it in greased pans, let
it rise sufficiently, and proceed with the baking.

74. Whole-Wheat Bread.--Bread made out of whole-wheat flour has a
distinctive flavour that is very agreeable to most persons. This kind of
bread is not used so extensively as that made of white flour, but since
it contains more mineral salts and bulk, it should have a place in the
diet of every family. When made according to the following recipe,
whole-wheat bread will be found to be a very desirable substitute for
bread made of the finer flours.

(Sufficient for Two Small Loaves)

3 Tb. fat
1/4 c. brown sugar
1 Tb. salt
1 cake compressed yeast
3 c. lukewarm liquid
8 c. whole-wheat flour
1 c. white flour for kneading

Place the fat, the sugar, and the salt in the mixing bowl and add the
yeast cake dissolved in a little of the liquid. Add the remainder of the
liquid, and then stir in half or all of the flour, according to whether
the sponge or the straight-dough method is preferred. Then proceed
according to the directions previously given for making bread by the
quick process.

The long process may also be followed in making whole-wheat bread, and
if it is, only one-half the quantity of yeast should be used.

75. Graham Bread.--To lend variety to the family diet, frequent use
should be made of graham bread, which contains even more bulk and
mineral salts than whole-wheat bread. In bread of this kind, both graham
and white flour are used. Since graham flour is very heavy, it prevents
the bread from rising quickly, so the bread is started with white flour.
The accompanying recipe contains quantities for the short process,
although it may be adapted to the long process by merely using one-half
the amount of yeast.

(Sufficient for Two Loaves)

2 Tb. fat
1/4 c. brown sugar
2 tsp. salt
1 cake compressed yeast
2 c. lukewarm liquid
2 c. white flour
3 c. graham flour
1 c. white flour additional for kneading

Put the fat, the sugar, and the salt in the mixing bowl, and to them add
the yeast that has been dissolved in a little of the liquid. Pour over
these ingredients the remainder of the liquid and stir in the white
flour. When the mixture is to be made stiff, add the graham flour. Then
knead the dough, let it rise, knead again, place it in greased pans, let
rise, and bake.

A point to be remembered in the making of graham bread is that sifting
removes the bran from graham flour, and if lightness is desired, the
flour may be sifted and the bran then replaced.

76. Graham Bread With Nuts.--To increase the food value of graham bread,
nuts are sometimes added. This kind of bread also provides an agreeable
variety to the diet. The following recipe is intended to be carried out
by the short process, so that if the long process is desired the
quantity of yeast must be reduced.

(Sufficient for Two Loaves)

1 cake compressed yeast
2 c. lukewarm liquid
1/4 c. molasses
2 Tb. fat
1 Tb. salt
2 c. white flour
4 c. graham flour
1-1/2 c. chopped nuts
1 c. white flour additional for kneading

Dissolve the yeast in a little of the lukewarm liquid and mix it with
the molasses, fat, and salt. Add the remaining liquid and the white
flour. Let this sponge rise until it is light. Then stir in the graham
flour, adding the nuts while kneading. Let the dough rise until it
doubles in bulk. Shape into loaves, place it in the greased pans, and
let it rise until it doubles in size. Bake for an hour or more,
according to the size of the loaves.

77. Whole-Wheat Fruit Bread.--A very delicious whole-wheat bread is
produced by combining fruit, which, besides improving the flavour, adds
to the food value of the bread. Thin slices of this kind of bread spread
with butter make excellent summer sandwiches. If the short process is
employed, the amounts specified in the following recipe should be used,
but for the long process the quantity of yeast should be decreased.

(Sufficient for Three Small Loaves)

1 yeast cake
2 c. lukewarm liquid
2 Tb. fat
1/4 c. brown sugar stoned, chopped dates
2 tsp. salt
6 c. whole-wheat flour
1-1/2 c. seeded raisins or stoned, chopped dates
1 c. white flour for kneading

Dissolve the yeast cake in a little of the lukewarm liquid and add it to
the fat, sugar, and salt that have been put into the mixing bowl. Pour
in the remainder of the liquid and add half or all of the flour,
depending on the bread-making method that is followed. Stir in the
fruit before all the flour is added and just before the dough is shaped
into loaves. After it has risen sufficiently in the greased pans,
proceed with the baking.

78. BRAN BREAD.--Bread in which bran is used is proportionately a trifle
lower in food value than that in which whole wheat or white flour is
used. However, it has the advantage of an additional amount of bulk in
the form of bran, and because of this it is a wholesome food.

(Sufficient for Two Loaves)

2 c. milk
6 Tb. molasses
1-1/2 tsp. salt
1/2 yeast cake
1/4 c. lukewarm water
2 c. white flour
4 c. graham flour
1 c. sterilized bran
1 c. white flour additional for kneading

Scald the milk and to it add the molasses and salt. When this is
lukewarm, add to it the yeast cake dissolved in the lukewarm water, as
well as the white flour and 1 cupful of the graham flour. Cover this
mixture and let it rise. When it has risen sufficiently, add the bran
and the rest of the graham flour and knead. Cover this dough, and let it
rise until it doubles in bulk. Then shape it into loaves, place it in
the greased pans, let it rise again until it doubles in bulk, and bake
in a hot oven.

79. RYE BREAD.--Rye bread has a typical flavour that many persons enjoy.
When rye flour is used alone, it makes a moist, sticky bread; therefore,
in order to produce bread of a good texture, wheat flour must be used
with the rye flour. The recipe here given is for the short process of
bread making, but by reducing the quantity of yeast it may be used for
the long process.

(Sufficient for Three Loaves)

2 Tb. fat
1 Tb. salt
2 Tb. sugar
1 cake compressed yeast
3 c. lukewarm liquid
6 c. rye flour
4 c. white flour
1 c. white flour additional for kneading

Into the mixing bowl, put the fat, the salt, the sugar, and the yeast
that has been dissolved in a small quantity of the lukewarm liquid. Then
stir in the flour, one-half or all of it, according to whether the
sponge or the straight-dough method is followed. When the dough is
formed, allow it to rise until it doubles in bulk; then knead it and
shape it into loaves for the greased pans. When these have risen until
they are double in size and therefore ready for the oven, glaze the
surface of each by brushing it with the white of egg and water and put
them in the oven to bake. If desired, caraway seed may be added to the
dough when it is formed into loaves or simply sprinkled on the top of
each loaf. To many persons the caraway seed imparts a flavour to the
bread that is very satisfactory.

80. Corn Bread.--Corn meal is sometimes combined with wheat flour to
make corn bread. Such a combination decreases the cost of bread at times
when corn meal is cheap. Bread of this kind is high in food value,
because corn meal contains a large proportion of fat, which is more or
less lacking in white flour. The following recipe is given for the short
process, but it may be used for the long process by merely decreasing
the quantity of yeast.

(Sufficient for Two Loaves)

1 yeast cake
2 c. lukewarm liquid
2 tsp. salt
1 Tb. sugar
2 Tb. fat
4-1/2 c. white flour
2 c. corn meal
1 c. white flour additional for kneading

Put the yeast to soak in 1/4 cupful of warm water and let it dissolve.
Heat the liquid and cool it to lukewarm, and then add to it the salt,
the sugar, the dissolved yeast, and the melted fat. Make a sponge with
some of the flour and let it rise until it doubles in bulk. Then make a
dough with the corn meal and the remaining flour. Knead the dough, let
it rise again, and form it into loaves. Let these rise in the greased
pans until they double in bulk; then bake about 45 minutes.

81. Rice Bread.--Very often variety is given to bread by the addition of
rice, which imparts an unusual flavour to bread and effects a saving of
wheat flour. Oatmeal and other cereals may be used in the same way as
rice, and bread containing any of these moist cereals will remain moist
longer than bread in which they are not used.

(Sufficient for Three Loaves)

1/2 c. uncooked rice
1-1/2 c. water
1 Tb. salt
1 Tb. sugar
1 Tb. fat
1/2 yeast cake
1 c. lukewarm liquid
6 c. white flour
1 c. white flour additional for kneading

Steam the rice in a double boiler in 1 and a half cupfuls of water
until it is soft and dry. Add the salt, sugar, and fat, and allow all to
become lukewarm. Dissolve the yeast in the lukewarm liquid, and add it
to the rice. Put all in the mixing bowl, stir in 2 cupfuls of flour, and
allow the mixture to become very light. Add the remainder of the flour
and knead lightly. Let the dough rise until it has doubled in bulk and
knead to reduce the quantity. Place in greased pans. When the loaves
have risen sufficiently, bake for about 50 minutes.

82. SALT-RISING BREAD.--Recipes for bread would be incomplete if mention
were not made of salt-rising bread. Such bread differs from ordinary
bread in that the gas that causes the rising is due to the action of
bacteria. Salt-rising bread is not universally popular, yet many persons
are fond of it. Its taste is very agreeable, and, as a rule, its texture
is excellent; however, it always has an unpleasant odour. The method
given in the accompanying recipe for salt-rising bread differs in no way
from the usual method of making it. It is very necessary that the first
mixture of corn meal, salt, sugar, and milk be kept at a uniformly warm
temperature in order to induce bacteria to grow. Any failure to make
such bread successfully will probably be due to the violation of this
precaution rather than to any other cause.

(Sufficient for Two Loaves)

1 c. fresh milk
1/4 c. corn meal
1 tsp. salt
2 tsp. sugar
2 c. lukewarm water
7 c. white flour
1/2 c. white flour additional for kneading

Scald the milk and pour it over the corn meal, salt, and sugar. Allow
this mixture to stand in a warm place for several hours or overnight,
when it should be light. To this batter add the warm water and enough
flour to make a drop batter. Allow this to stand in a warm place until
it is light; and then add the remainder of the flour so as to make a
dough, and knead. Allow this to rise, shape it into loaves, put it in
pans, let it rise again, and bake.


83. While the preceding recipes call for bread in the form of loaves, it
should be understood that bread may be made up in other forms, such as
rolls, buns, and biscuits. These forms of bread may be made from any of
the bread recipes by adding to the mixture shortening, sugar, eggs,
fruit, nuts, spices, flavoring, or anything else desirable. Since these
things in any quantity retard the rising of the sponge or dough, they
should be added after it has risen at least once. Rolls, buns, and
biscuits may be made in various shapes, as is shown in Fig. 18. To shape
them, the dough may be rolled thin and then cut with cutters, or the
pieces used for them may be pinched or cut from the dough and shaped
with the hands. After they are shaped, they should be allowed to rise
until they double in bulk. To give them a glazed appearance, the surface
of each may be brushed before baking with milk, with white of egg and
water, or with sugar and water. Butter is also desirable for this
purpose, as it produces a crust that is more tender and less likely to
be tough. Rolls, buns, or biscuits may be baked in an oven that has a
higher temperature than that required for bread in the form of loaves,
as is indicated in Fig. 4, and only 15 to 20 minutes is needed for
baking them. If such forms of bread are desired with a crust covering
the entire surface, they must be placed far enough apart so that the
edges will not touch when they are baking.

[Illustration: Fig. 18]

So that experience may be had in the preparation of rolls, buns, and
biscuits there are given here several recipes that can be worked out to
advantage, especially after proficiency in bread making has
been attained.

84. Parker House Rolls.--Of the various kinds of rolls, perhaps none
meets with greater favor than the so-called Parker House rolls, one of
which is shown at _a_, Fig. 19. Such rolls may be used in almost any
kind of meal, and since they are brushed with butter before they are
baked, they may be served without butter, if desired, in a meal that
includes gravy or fat meat.

(Sufficient for 3 Dozen Rolls)

1 cake compressed yeast
1 pt. lukewarm milk
4 Tb. fat
2 Tb. sugar
1 tsp. salt
3 pt. white flour
1 c. white flour additional for kneading

Dissolve the yeast in some of the lukewarm milk. Pour the remainder of
the warm milk over the fat, sugar, salt, and dissolved yeast, all of
which should first be put in a mixing bowl. Stir into these ingredients
half of the flour, and beat until smooth. Cover this sponge and let it
rise until it is light. Add the remainder of the flour, and knead until
the dough is smooth and does not stick to the board. Place the dough in
a greased bowl, and let it rise again until it doubles in bulk. Roll the
dough on a molding board until it is about 1/4 inch thick. Then cut the
rolled dough with a round cutter; brush each piece with soft butter;
mark it through the center, as at _b_, Fig. 19, with the dull edge of a
kitchen knife; and fold it over, as at _c_. Place the pieces of dough
thus prepared in shallow pans, about 1 inch apart, and let them rise
until they are light, when each roll will appear like that shown at _d_.
Then bake them in a hot oven for about 15 minutes. [Illustration:
Fig. 19]

85. Dinner Rolls.--As their name implies, dinner rolls are an especially
desirable kind of roll to serve with a dinner. They should be made
small enough to be dainty, and as an even, brown crust all over the
rolls is desirable they should be placed far enough apart in the pans to
prevent them from touching one another, as shown in Fig. 20 (_a_). If
they are placed as in (_b_), that is, close together, only part of the
crust will be brown. When made according to the accompanying recipe,
dinner rolls are very palatable.

(Sufficient for 1-1/2 Dozen Rolls)

1 cake compressed yeast
1 c. lukewarm milk
2 Tb. sugar
2 Tb. fat
1 tsp. salt
3 c. white flour
1 egg white
1/2 c. white flour additional for kneading

[Illustration: Fig. 20]

Dissolve the yeast in some of the lukewarm milk. Put the sugar, fat,
salt, and dissolved yeast in the mixing bowl, and pour the remainder of
the milk over these ingredients. Stir half of the flour into this
mixture and allow the sponge to rise. When it is light, add the egg
white, which should first be beaten, and the remainder of the flour, and
then knead the dough. Let the dough rise until it doubles in bulk. Roll
out the dough until it is 1/2 inch thick, and then cut out the rolls
with a small round cutter. Place these in a shallow pan and let them
rise until they are light. Then glaze each one with the white of egg to
which is added a little water and bake them in a hot oven for about
15 minutes.

86. LUNCHEON ROLLS.--If rolls smaller than dinner rolls are desired,
luncheon rolls will undoubtedly be just what is wanted. Since these are
very small, they become thoroughly baked and are therefore likely to be
even more digestible than bread or biscuit dough baked in a loaf. For
rolls of this kind, the following recipe will prove satisfactory:

(Sufficient for 2 Dozen Rolls)

1 cake compressed yeast
1-1/4 c. lukewarm milk
2 Tb. sugar
2 Tb. fat
1 tsp. salt
4 c. white flour
1 egg white
1/2 c. white flour additional for kneading

Combine the ingredients in the manner directed for making dinner rolls.
Shape the dough into biscuits the size of a small walnut, place them in
a shallow pan, spacing them a short distance apart, and let them rise
until they are light. Next, brush the tops of them with melted butter,
and then bake them in a hot oven for about 15 minutes.

87. WHOLE-WHEAT ROLLS.--Rolls made of whole-wheat flour are not so
common as those made of white flour, and for this reason they appeal to
the appetite more than ordinary rolls. Whole-wheat rolls have the same
advantage as bread made of whole-wheat flour, and if they are well baked
they have a crust that adds to their palatableness.

(Sufficient for 3 Dozen Rolls)

1 pt. lukewarm milk
1 cake compressed yeast
1 tsp. salt
3 Tb. sugar
4 Tb. fat
2 c. white flour
4 c. whole-wheat flour
1/2 c. white flour additional for kneading

Set a sponge with the lukewarm milk, in which are put the yeast cake,
salt, sugar, fat, and white flour. Allow this to become very light, and
then add the whole-wheat flour. Knead this dough and allow it to double
in bulk. Then shape it into rolls, allow them to rise, and bake for 15
to 20 minutes.

88. GRAHAM NUT BUNS.--Buns made of graham flour and containing nuts are
not only especially delightful in flavour, but highly nutritious.
Because they are high in food value, they may be served with a light
meal, such as lunch or supper, to add nutrition to it. The recipe here
given will result in excellent buns if it is followed closely.

(Sufficient for 3 Dozen Buns)

1 cake compressed yeast
2 c. lukewarm milk
4 Tb. brown sugar
2 tsp. salt
2 Tb. fat
2-1/2 c. white flour
1 egg
1 c. chopped nuts
3-1/2 c. graham flour
1 c. white flour additional for kneading

Dissolve the yeast in a little of the lukewarm milk. Place the sugar,
salt, fat, and dissolved yeast in the mixing bowl and add the remainder
of the warm milk. Stir in the white flour and let the sponge thus formed
rise. Then add the egg, which should first be beaten, the nuts, and the
graham flour. Knead the dough and shape it into buns. Let these rise and
then bake them in a hot oven for about 15 minutes.

89. NUT OR FRUIT BUNS.--Nuts or fruit added to buns made of white flour
provide more mineral salts and bulk, substances in which white flour is
lacking. Buns containing either of these ingredients, therefore, are
especially valuable in the diet. Besides increasing the food value of
the buns, nuts and fruit improve the flavour and make a very palatable
form of bun. Buns of this kind are made as follows:

(Sufficient for 2 Dozen Buns)

4 Tb. sugar
1 Tb. fat
1 tsp. salt
1 cake compressed yeast
1 c. lukewarm milk
3 c. white flour
3/4 c. chopped nuts or raisins
1 c. white flour additional for kneading

Add the sugar, fat, and salt to the yeast dissolved in a little of the
milk. Then stir in the remainder of the milk and half of the flour.
Allow this sponge to rise until it is very light, and then add the
remainder of the flour and the nuts or the raisins. Knead at once and
form into buns. Let these rise until they are light. Then moisten them
with milk and sprinkle sugar over them before placing them in the oven.
Bake for about 15 minutes.

90. SWEET BUNS.--Persons who prefer a sweet bun will find buns like
those shown in Fig. 21 and made according to the following recipe very
much to their taste. The sweetening, eggs, and lemon extract used in
this recipe give to the white buns a delightful flavour and help to lend
variety to the usual kind of bun.

(Sufficient for 1-1/3 Dozen Buns)

1 cake compressed yeast
1 c. lukewarm scalded milk
1/4 c. sugar
2 Tb. fat 1 tsp.
1 tsp. salt
3-1/2 c. white flour
2 eggs
1 tsp. lemon extract
1 c. white flour additional for kneading

Dissolve the yeast in a small amount of the lukewarm milk and add it to
the sugar, fat, salt, and remaining milk in the mixing bowl. Stir into
this mixture half of the flour, beat well, and let the sponge rise until
it is light. Add the eggs, which should first be beaten, the lemon
extract, and the remaining flour. Knead until the dough is smooth. Let
the dough rise again and then shape it into rolls. Allow these to rise,
and then bake them in a hot oven for about 15 minutes.

[Illustration: Fig. 21]

91. COFFEE CAKE.--When an especially good kind of biscuit that can be
served for breakfast and eaten with coffee is desired, coffee cake made
according to the following recipe should be used. Cinnamon sprinkled
over the top of such cake imparts a very pleasing flavour, but if more
of this flavour is preferred 1 teaspoonful of cinnamon may be mixed with
the dough.

(Sufficient for One Cake)

1 cake compressed yeast
1/2 c. lukewarm milk
1 Tb. sugar
1/2 tsp. salt
2 c. white flour
1 egg
2 Tb. fat
1/4 c. brown sugar
1/2 c. white flour additional for kneading

Dissolve the yeast in the lukewarm milk and add the sugar and the salt.
Stir in 1 cupful of flour and let the mixture rise. When the sponge is
light, add the beaten egg, the fat and the brown sugar creamed, and the
remaining flour. Knead until the dough is smooth and allow it to rise
until it is double in bulk. Then roll the dough until it is 1/2 inch
thick, place it in a shallow pan, and let it rise until it is light.
Brush the top with 1 tablespoonful of melted butter and sprinkle it with
3 teaspoonfuls of cinnamon and 3 tablespoonfuls of sugar. Bake 10 to 15
minutes in a moderately hot oven.

[Illustration: Fig. 22]

[Illustration: Fig. 23]

92. CINNAMON ROLLS.--To make cinnamon rolls, which are preferred by some
persons to coffee cake, use may be made of the preceding coffee-cake
recipe. However, instead of rolling the dough 1/2 inch thick, roll it
1/4 inch thick and brush it with melted butter. Then sprinkle it with 1
tablespoonful of cinnamon, 1/2 cupful of light-brown sugar, and 1/2
cupful of chopped raisins. Next, roll this as a jelly roll and cut the
roll into 1/2-inch slices, as shown in Fig. 22. Place these slices
close together in a shallow pan and let them rise until they are light,
as in Fig. 23. Then bake them in a hot oven for about 15 minutes.


93. As every one knows, TOAST is sliced bread browned by means of heat.
To make toast is not a difficult process, but a certain amount of care
must be exercised if good results are desired. The slices used for toast
may be cut thick or thin, depending on whether the persons for whom the
toast is made prefer a soft or a dry toast and whether the digestibility
of the toast is to be taken into consideration. If thick slices are used
and they are toasted the usual length of time necessary to make the
surfaces brown, the centre of the slices will remain soft. Toast made of
thin slices and toasted over a slow fire becomes dry and crisp during
the process of browning and is more digestible than that which is moist.
Such toast will not lose its crispness unless the pieces are piled in a
heap while they are hot and are allowed to soften from the moisture that
collects. While toast is usually served in the form of slices, just as
they are cut from the loaf, the pieces may be cut into shapes of various
kinds; in fact, toast becomes more attractive if it is cut in unusual
shapes. The crust of toast may be trimmed off or left on, as desired.

94. If the best results are desired in the making of toast, considerable
attention must be given to the heat that is to produce the toast.
Whatever kind is employed, it should be steady and without flame. Before
a coal or a coke fire is used for this purpose, it should be allowed to
burn down until the flame is gone and the coals are hot enough to
reflect the heat for toasting. If a gas toaster is used, the gas should
be turned sufficiently low for the bread to brown slowly. Very good
results are obtained from the use of an electric toaster, also. This
device has become a rather common household article where electricity is
used in the home, and by means of it the toast can be made on the table
and served while it is fresh and hot. In whatever way toast is made, it
will lose much of its attractiveness unless it is served while it is
fresh and before it loses its heat. If toast becomes burned, either from
a flame that is too hot or from inattention on the part of the person
who is preparing it, it may be made fit for use by scraping it lightly
with a knife or by rubbing it across a grater, so as to remove the
burned portion.

95. MILK TOAST.--Milk and toast make a combination that is liked by
many persons, and when these two foods are combined the result is known
as milk toast. To make milk toast, simply pour over the toast rich milk
that has been heated and seasoned with salt, a little sugar, and a
little butter. Thin white sauce may also be used for this purpose
if desired.

96. FRENCH TOAST.--Possibly no dish in which toast is used is better
known than the so-called French toast. Both milk and egg are used in
making this dish, and these of course add to the food value of the
bread. French toast made according to the following recipe will prove
very satisfactory.

(Sufficient to Serve Eight)

1 egg
1 c. milk
2 tsp. sugar
8 slices of bread
1/2 tsp. salt

Beat the egg and add it to the milk, salt, and sugar. Dip each slice of
bread into this liquid, turn it quickly, and then remove it. Place the
bread thus dipped in a hot frying pan and sauté it until the under side
is brown; then turn it and brown the other side. Serve hot with sirup
or jelly.


97. Bread that has become stale need not be wasted, for there are many
uses to which it may be put. As such bread has lost much of its
moisture, it is desirable for toast, for it browns more quickly and
makes crisper toast than fresh bread. Thick slices of it may also be cut
into cubes or long, narrow strips and then toasted on all sides, to be
served with soup instead of crackers. Still another use that can be made
of stale bread is to toast it and then cut it into triangular pieces to
be served with creamed dishes or used as a garnish for meats, eggs, and
various entrées. Left-over toast may also be cut in this way and used
for these purposes.

98. The ends of loaves, crusts trimmed from bread used for sandwiches,
or stale bread or rolls that cannot be used for the purposes that have
been mentioned can also be utilised, so none of them need be thrown
away. If such pieces are saved and allowed to dry thoroughly in the
warming oven or in an oven that is not very hot, they may be broken into
crumbs by putting them through a food chopper or rolling them with a
rolling pin. After the crumbs are obtained, they should be put through a
coarse sieve in order to separate the coarse ones from the fine ones.
Such crumbs, both coarse and fine, may be kept for some time if they are
put into jars or cans.

It is a very good plan to keep a supply of bread crumbs on hand, for
there are numerous dishes that require the use of bread in this form.
For instance, bread crumbs are used for all kinds of scalloped dishes;
for making puddings, such as bread pudding, brown Betty, etc.; for
stuffing fish, fowl, and such vegetables as tomatoes and peppers; for
covering the top of baked dishes, such as various egg and cheese dishes;
for breading steaks and chops; and for covering croquettes or oysters
that are to be fried. They may also be added to muffins, griddle cakes,
and even yeast-bread dough. With so many uses to which bread crumbs can
be put, no housewife need be at a loss to know how to utilise any scraps
of bread that are not, for some reason, suitable for the table.

* * * * *



(1) Mention the ingredients required for bread making.

(2) From what kind of wheat is bread flour usually made?

(3) (_a_) What is gluten? (_b_) Why is it necessary for the making of

(4) (_a_) What is meant by a blend flour? (_b_) When is its use indicated?

(5) How may the kind and quality of flour be judged in purchasing it?

(6) (_a_) What is yeast? (_b_) What things are necessary for its growth?
(_c_) What temperature is best for its growth?

(7) (_a_) What is produced by the growth of yeast? (_b_) What part does
this play in bread making?

(8) What determines the quantity of yeast to use in bread making?

(9) (_a_) What will hasten the bread-making process? (_b_) What will retard

(10) Give the general proportions of the main ingredients used for
making a loaf of bread.

(11) What are the advantages of: (_a_) the long process of bread making?
(_b_) the quick process?

(12) What is: (_a_) a sponge? (_b_) a dough?

(13) (_a_) Why must bread dough be kneaded? (_b_) How is it possible to
tell when dough has been kneaded sufficiently?

(14) At what temperature should bread be kneaded?

(15) How should bread be cared for after it is removed from the oven?

(16) What points are considered in the scoring of bread?

(17) What part of bread making may be done in a bread mixer?

(18) What are the differences in time and oven temperatures in baking
rolls and bread?

(19) Mention briefly the procedure in making rolls, buns, and biscuits.

(20) Score a loaf of bread you have made and submit the points as you
have scored it.

* * * * *


* * * * *



1. Closely related to yeast breads, or those in which yeast is used as
the leavening agent, are breads known as HOT BREADS, or QUICK BREADS. As
these names indicate, such breads are prepared in a very short time and
are intended to be served while they are fresh and hot. Hot breads, to
call such breads by the name in common use, are made by baking a batter
or a dough mixture formed by mixing flour, liquid, salt, and a leavening
agent. The nature of the mixture, however, is governed by the proportion
of flour and liquid, the two ingredients that form the basis of all
bread mixtures; and by incorporating with them such ingredients as eggs,
sugar, shortening, flavouring, fruits, nuts, etc. there may be produced
an almost endless variety of appetising hot breads, which include
popovers, griddle cakes, waffles, muffins, soft gingerbread, corn cake
or corn bread, Boston brown bread, nut loaf, and baking-powder and
beaten biscuit. Because of the variety these hot breads afford, they
help considerably to relieve the monotony of meals. In fact, the
housewife has come to depend so much on breads of this kind that their
use has become almost universal. As is well known, however, certain
kinds are typical of certain localities; for instance, beaten biscuit
and hoe cake are characteristic of the Southern States of the United
States, while Boston brown bread is used most extensively in the New
England States and throughout the East. The popular opinion of most
persons is that hot breads are injurious. It is perhaps true that they
may be injurious to individuals afflicted with some digestive
disturbance, but, at any rate, the harmful effect may be reduced to a
minimum by the correct preparation and baking of these foods.


2. Hot breads are quickly and easily made, but in this part of cookery,
as in every other phase of it, certain principles must be understood and
applied if the most satisfactory results are desired. These principles
pertain chiefly to the ingredients used, the way in which they are
measured and handled, the proportions in which they are combined, the
necessary utensils, and the proper baking of the mixtures that
are formed.

In the first place, the quality of the ingredients should be carefully
considered, because on this depends the quality of the finished product.
No one who prepares foods can expect good food to result from the use of
inferior materials. Next, the proportion of the ingredients demands
attention, for much importance is attached to this point. For instance,
in making a certain kind of hot bread, the quantity of flour to be used
is regulated by the quantity of bread that is desired, and the quantity
of flour governs, in turn, the quantities of liquid, leavening, and
other ingredients that are to be put into the mixture. When the
proportions of ingredients required for a hot bread are known, it is
necessary that the ingredients be measured very accurately. Leavening
material, for example, will serve to make clear the need for accuracy in
measuring. A definite quantity of leavening will do only a definite
amount of work. Therefore, if too little or too much is used,
unsatisfactory results may be expected; and, as with this ingredient, so
it is with all the materials used for hot breads.

The handling of the ingredients and the mixture has also much influence
on the success with which hot breads are produced. A heavy touch and
excessive handling, both of which are usually characteristic of the
beginner, are more likely to result in a tough product than is the
light, careful handling of the expert. However, as skill in this matter
comes with practice, no discouragement need result if successful results
are not forthcoming at the very start in this work. A good rule to
follow in this particular, and one that has few exceptions, is to handle
and stir the ingredients only enough to blend them properly.

In addition to the matters just mentioned, the utensils in which to
combine the hot-bread materials and bake the batters or doughs are of
importance. While none of these is complicated, each must be of the
right kind if the best results are expected. The final point to which
attention must be given is the baking of this food. Proper baking
requires on the part of the housewife familiarity with the oven that is
to be used, accuracy in judging temperature, and a knowledge of the
principles underlying the process of baking.

* * * * *



3. As has been pointed out, the ingredients that are actually required
in the making of hot breads are flour, liquid, salt, and leavening, and
to give variety to breads of this kind, numerous other materials,
including sugar, shortening, eggs, fruit, nuts, etc., are often added.
With the exception of leavening agents, none of these ingredients
requires special attention at present; however, the instruction that is
given in _Bread_ regarding flour should be kept in mind, as should also
the fact that all the materials for hot breads should be of the best
quality that can be obtained.

As is known by this time, leavening agents are the materials used to
leaven, or make light, any kind of flour mixture. These agents are of
three classes, namely, _organic, physical_, and _chemical_. The organic
agent is the oldest recognized leavening material, it being the one that
is used in the making of yeast breads; but as a complete discussion of
this class of leavening agents is given in _Bread_ and as it is not
employed in the making of hot breads, no consideration need be given to
it here. Physical leavening is accomplished by the incorporation of air
into a mixture or by the expansion of the water into steam, and chemical
leavening agents are the most modern and accurate of all the agents that
have been devised for the quick rising of flour mixtures.


4. PHYSICAL LEAVENING consists in aerating, or incorporating gas or air
into, a mixture that is to be baked, and it is based on the principle
that air or gas expands, or increases in volume, when heated. It is
definitely known that when air is incorporated into dough and then
heated, the air increases 1/273 of its own volume for each degree that
the temperature is increased. For instance, if the temperature of an
aerated mixture is 65 degrees Fahrenheit when it is put into the oven,
the air or gas will have doubled in volume by the time it has reached
338 degrees Fahrenheit. Thus, the success of aerated bread depends to
some extent on the temperature of the mixture when it goes into the
oven. The colder it is at that time, the greater is the number of
degrees it will have to rise before it is sufficiently baked, and the
more opportunity will the gas have to expand.

5. The air or gas required for physical leavening is incorporated into a
mixture by beating or folding the batter or dough itself, or by folding
beaten egg whites into it. If the mixture is thin enough, the beating
may be done with a spoon or an egg beater; but if it is thick enough to
be handled on a board, air may be incorporated into it by rolling and
folding it repeatedly. If eggs are to be used for aerating the batter or
dough, the entire egg may be beaten and then added, but as more air can
be incorporated into the egg whites, the yolks and whites are usually
beaten separately. To make the white of eggs most satisfactory for this
purpose, it should be beaten stiff enough to stand up well, but not
until it becomes dry and begins to break up. In adding the beaten egg
white, it should be folded carefully and lightly into the mixture after
all the other ingredients have been combined. Beaten egg white may be
used to lighten any mixture that is soft enough to permit it to be
folded in.

6. To insure the best results from mixtures that are to be made light by
means of physical leavening agents, certain precautions must be taken.
Such mixtures should be baked as soon as possible after the mixing is
done, so that the gas or air will not pass out before the dough is
baked. Likewise, they should be handled as lightly and quickly as
possible, for a heavy touch and too much handling are often the cause of
imperfect results. For baking aerated mixtures, heavy irons are better
than tin muffin pans; also, the pans that are used should be heated
before the mixture is put into them, so that the batter or dough will
begin to expand immediately. Gem irons should be filled level with an
aerated mixture.


7. CHEMICAL LEAVENING is brought about by the action of gas produced by
an acid and an alkali. All chemical leavening agents are Similar in
their action, and they are composed of an acid and an alkali. When an
acid and an alkali are brought together in the presence of moisture and
heat, the result is the rapid production of carbon dioxide, a gas that
expands on being heated, just as all other gases do. In expanding, the
gas pushes up the batters or doughs, and these, when baked, set, or
harden, into porous shapes. In addition to forming the gas, the acid and
the alkali produce a salt that remains in the bread, and it is this salt
that is responsible for the harmful effect usually attributed to
chemical leavening agents.

8. The first chemical leavening agents were devised by housewives
themselves. They consisted of a combination of saleratus, an alkali made

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