Full Text Archive logoFull Text Archive — Free Classic E-books

What to See in England by Gordon Home

Part 1 out of 5

Adobe PDF icon
Download this document as a .pdf
File size: 0.5 MB
What's this? light bulb idea Many people prefer to read off-line or to print out text and read from the real printed page. Others want to carry documents around with them on their mobile phones and read while they are on the move. We have created .pdf files of all out documents to accommodate all these groups of people. We recommend that you download .pdfs onto your mobile phone when it is connected to a WiFi connection for reading off-line.

Distributed Proofreaders








Broad Street
Cannon St. (South Eastern & Chatham)
Charing Cross (South Eastern & Chatham)
Euston Station (London & North Western)
Fenchurch St. (London, Tilbury, & Southend)
Great Central Station
Great Eastern (Liverpool St.)
Great Western Station
King's Cross (Great Northern)
Liverpool St. (Great Eastern)
London Bridge (South Eastern & Chatham & Brighton & South Coast)
London & North Western (Euston Station)
London & South Western (Waterloo)
London, Tilbury, & Southend (Fenchurch St.)
Marylebone Station (Great Central)
Paddington Station (Great Western)
St Pancras (Midland)
South Eastern & Chatham:
Cannon Street
Charing Cross
Holborn Viaduct
London Bridge
Ludgate Hill
South Western Railway (Waterloo)
Victoria (London, Brighton, & South Coast & South Eastern & Chatham)
Waterloo (London & South Western)]


This book is intended to put in the smallest possible space the means by
which one may reach the chief places of interest in England and Wales.
It will possibly make many holidays, week-ends, or isolated days more
enjoyable by placing a defined objective before the rambler. Places
within an hour or two of London are in the front of the book, so that as
one turns over the pages one is taken further and further afield. The
brief summary of the interests of each place, and the many
illustrations, may help to memorise the impressions obtained.

The first edition of a book of this nature must of necessity be
incomplete, and the author is prepared to hear of long lists of places
which should have been included, and also to hear criticisms on his
choice of those appearing. It is to some extent natural that special
familiarity with certain places and certain writers or heroes of the
past may distort one's vision, and perhaps induce a choice of subjects
which may not seem so comprehensive to some individuals as to others.
Future editions will, however, give ample scope for embracing all the
good suggestions which may be made.



=How to get there.=--Train from Waterloo. L. and S.W. Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Richmond (1-1/4 miles from Petersham Church).
=Distance from London.=--10 miles.
=Average Time.=--1/2 hour.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 1s. 3d. 1s. 0d. 0s. 9d.
Return 2s. 0d. 1s. 6d. 1s. 3d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Castle Hotel," "Roebuck Hotel,"
Richmond. "Dysart Arms" at Petersham.

The little church at Petersham is interesting on account of the memorial
it contains to the memory of Vancouver, the discoverer, in 1792, of the
island bearing his name, on the west coast of the North American
continent. It is said that "the unceasing exertions which Vancouver
himself made to complete the gigantic task of surveying 9000 miles of
unknown and intricate coasts--a labour chiefly performed in open
boats--made an inroad on his constitution from which he never recovered,
and, declining gradually, he died in May 1798." The church is also the
burying-place of the Duchess of Lauderdale, whose residence was Ham
House. This fine old Jacobean mansion stands at no great distance from
Petersham Church. It was built as a residence for Prince Henry, the
eldest son of James I., who, however, died early, the gossips of the
time hinting at poison. The house is still said to be haunted by the
spirit of the old Duchess of Lauderdale, who lived in the time of
Charles II.


=How to get there.=--Train from Waterloo. L. and S.W. Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Walton.
=Distance from London.=--17 miles.
=Average Time.=--3/4 hour.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 2s. 10d. 1s. 10d. 1s. 5d.
Return 4s. 0d. 3s. 0d. 2s. 6d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Ashley" at station; "Swan," on
the river; "Duke's Head," in the town, etc.

Walton-on-Thames is a little riverside town, very much surrounded by
modern villas. The church contains in a glass case in the vestry a
"scold's bridle." This rusty iron contrivance is one of the few
specimens of this mediaeval instrument of torture to be seen in this
country, and it is certainly the nearest to London.

In Elizabethan times a "scold" was looked upon in much the same light as
a witch, and this bridle was applied to those women who obtained for
themselves the undesirable reputation.



"Chester presents Walton with a bridle
To curb women's tongues when they are idle."]


=How to get there.=--Train from Euston. L. and N.W. Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Harrow.
=Distance from London.=--11-1/2 miles.
=Average Time.=--1/2 hour.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 1s. 6d. 1s. 0d. 0s. 9d.
Return 2s. 3d. 1s. 6d. 1s. 0d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"King's Head," etc.
=Alternative Routes.=--Train from Baker Street, Metropolitan Railway.
Train from Broad Street, L. and N.W. Railway. Train from
Marylebone, Great Central Railway.

Harrow, from its high position, 200 feet above the sea, was selected by
the Romans as an important military station. By the Saxons it was called
Hereways, and was purchased in 822 by Wilfred, Archbishop of Canterbury.
The ancient manor-house, of which no traces now remain, was formerly the
residence of the Archbishops of Canterbury, and it was here that Thomas
a Becket resided during his banishment from Court. Cardinal Wolsey, who
was once Rector of Harrow, resided at Pinner, and is said to have
entertained Henry VIII. during his visit to Harrow. The manor was
exchanged by Archbishop Cranmer with the king for other lands, and was
subsequently given to Sir Edmund Dudley, afterwards Lord North.

At the bottom of the hill, and spreading rapidly in all directions, are
quantities of modern houses and villas, but the point of greatest
interest in Harrow is the celebrated school, wonderfully situated on the
very summit of the hill, with views extending over thirteen counties.
Founded in the reign of Queen Elizabeth by John Lyon, a yeoman of the
parish, the school has now grown enormously, the oldest portion being
that near the church, which was erected three years after the founder's
death. In the wainscotting of the famous schoolroom are the carvings cut
by many generations of Harrovians, among them being the names of Peel,
Byron, Sheridan, the Marquess of Hastings, Lord Normanby, and many

The church stands on the extreme summit of the hill, and from the
churchyard the view is simply magnificent. In the building are some
interesting tombs and brasses, and a monument to John Lyon, the founder
of the school.

The grave shown on the opposite page is known as "Byron's tomb," on
account of his fondness for the particular spot it occupied in the
churchyard, from whence the fascinating view just mentioned can be seen,
from the shade of the trees growing on either side.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._




=How to get there.=--Train from Charing Cross, Cannon Street, and
London Bridge. South-Eastern and Chatham Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Hayes (2 miles from Keston village). About 3
miles from Holwood House.
=Distance from London.=--12 miles.
=Average Time.=--35 minutes.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 2s. 0d. 1s. 3d. 1s. 0-1/2d.
Return 3s. 3d. 2s. 4d. 1s. 10d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"The Fox Inn," "The George."
=Alternative Route.=--To Orpington Station by the South-Eastern and
Chatham Railway, about 4 miles distant.

_Visitors are able to pass through the park on a public footpath._

About 3 miles' walk from Hayes Station by a pleasant road over Hayes
Common is Holwood House, a stately, classic building, for many years the
home of William Pitt, the famous statesman and son of the Earl of
Chatham. He owned the estate between 1785 and 1802, and it was during
this period that the British camp in the park suffered so severely. The
earth-works were occupied by some early British tribe before Caesar
crossed the Channel, and the place probably owed its strength to its
well-chosen position. Pitt, however, caused these fascinating remains to
be levelled to a considerable extent, in order to carry out some of his
ideas of landscape gardening. A magnificent tree growing near the house
is known as "Pitt's Oak," from the tradition that Pitt was specially
fond of spending long periods of quiet reading beneath its overshadowing
boughs. Another tree of more interest still stands quite near the public
footpath through the park. This is known as "Wilberforce's Oak," and is
easily distinguished from the surrounding trees by the stone seat
constructed in its shade. The momentous decision which makes this tree
so interesting is given in Wilberforce's diary for the year 1788. He
writes, "At length, I well remember after a conversation with Mr. Pitt
in the open air at the root of an old tree at Holwood, just above the
steep descent into the vale of Keston, I resolved to give notice on a
fit occasion in the House of Commons of my intention to bring forward
the abolition of the slave-trade."

With the exception of Knole Park, Holwood boasts some of the finest
beeches in the country. The present house took the place of the one
occupied by Pitt in 1825; the architect was Decimus Burton.



=How to get there.=--Train from Liverpool Street or Fenchurch Street.
Great Eastern Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Chigwell.
=Distance from London.=--12-3/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--55 minutes. Quickest train, 31 minutes.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 1s. 10d. 1s. 4d. 0s. 11d.
Return 2s. 6d. 1s. 10d. 1s. 4d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"The King's Head."

In 1844 Charles Dickens wrote to Forster: "Chigwell, my dear fellow, is
the greatest place in the world. Name your day for going. Such a
delicious old inn facing the church--such a lovely ride--such forest
scenery--such an out-of-the-way rural place--such a sexton! I say again,
Name your day." This is surely sufficient recommendation for any place;
and when one knows that the "delicious old inn" is still standing, and
that the village is as rural and as pretty as when Dickens wrote over
sixty years ago, one cannot fail to have a keen desire to see the place.
"The King's Head" illustrated here is the inn Dickens had in his mind
when describing the "Maypole" in _Barnaby Rudge_, and the whole of the
plot of that work is so wrapped up in Chigwell and its immediate
surroundings that one should not visit the village until one has read
the story. One may see the panelled "great room" upstairs where Mr.
Chester met Mr. Geoffrey Haredale. This room has a fine mantelpiece,
great carved beams, and beautiful leaded windows. On the ground floor is
the cosy bar where the village cronies gathered with Mr. Willett, and
one may also see the low room with the small-paned windows against which
John Willett flattened his nose looking out on the road on the dark
night when the story opens.

Chigwell School, built in 1629, and founded by Archbishop Harsnett,
still remains, although there have been several modern additions. Here
William Penn, the founder of Pennsylvania, was educated. (See Index for
Jordans and Penn's Chapel at Thakeham.)

Chigwell Church, facing "The King's Head," has a dark avenue of yews
leading from the road to the porch. A brass to the memory of Archbishop
Harsnett may be seen on the floor of the chancel. The epitaph in Latin
was ordered to be so written in the will of the archbishop. Translated,
the first portion may be read: "Here lieth Samuel Harsnett, formerly
vicar of this church. First the unworthy Bishop of Chichester, then the
more unworthy Bishop of Norwich, at last the very unworthy Archbishop of


The "Maypole" of Dickens's _Barnaby Rudge_.]


=How to get there.=--Train from Liverpool Street. Great Eastern
=Nearest Station.=--Waltham.
=Distance from London.=--12-3/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--40 minutes. Quickest train, 23 minutes.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 2s. 0d. 1s. 6d. 1s. 1d.
Return 3s. 3d. 2s. 6d. 1s. 7d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"The New Inn," etc.

Waltham Abbey is a market town in Essex on the banks of the Lea, which
here divides into several branches which are used as motive power for
some gunpowder and flour mills. Harold II. founded the stately Abbey
Church in May 1060. William the Conqueror disputed Harold's claim to the
throne and landed in England at Pevensey in 1066. At Waltham Abbey,
troubled and anxious, Harold prayed for victory in England's name before
the fatal battle of Hastings, where he was slain. William at first
refused to give up Harold's body to his mother, Gytha, but he afterwards
allowed two monks from Waltham to search for the body of the king. They
were unable to find it amongst the nameless dead, but his favourite,
Edith the swan-necked, whose eye of affection was not to be deceived,
discovered it. His weeping mother buried the disfigured corpse probably
about 120 feet from the east end of the old church.

At Waltham is one of the many crosses erected by Edward I. in memory of
his first wife, Eleanor of Castile, wherever her body rested on its way
to Westminster from Lincoln. At Northampton is another of these famous
crosses. When the king asked the Abbot of Cluny to intercede for her
soul, he said, "We loved her tenderly in her lifetime; we do not cease
to love her in death."

A little way to the left of Waltham Cross, now a gateway to the park of
Theobalds, stands Temple Bar, stone for stone intact as it was in the
days when traitors' heads were raised above it in Fleet Street, although
the original wooden gates have gone. A portion of the richly-carved top
of the gate is still in existence in London. Waltham Abbey is probably
close to that part of the river Lea where King Alfred defeated the
Danes. They had penetrated far up the river when King Alfred diverted
the waters of the river from underneath their black vessels and left
them high and dry in a wilderness of marsh and forest. The gentle
Charles Lamb was very fond of the country all round Waltham Abbey,
especially Broxbourne and Amwell.


Waltham Abbey was founded in 1060 by Harold II.]



=How to get there.=--Train from Charing Cross, Cannon Street, or
London Bridge. South-Eastern and Chatham Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Orpington (3-1/2 to 4 miles from Downe).
=Distance from London.=--13-3/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--35 minutes.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 2s. 4d. 1s. 6d. 1s. 2-1/2d.
Return 4s. 0d. 3s. 0d. ...

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Queen's Head," at Downe, facing the
church. Hotels at Farnborough--"White Lion," "George and

The home of the great scientist is still standing in the little village
of Downe in Kent. The road to the hamlet is through Farnborough, and the
walk takes an hour. Downe is a pleasant place, possessing a large
village pond and a small church with a shingled spire. Darwin's home,
known as Downe House, was built in the eighteenth century. Its front is
of white stucco, relieved by ivy and other creepers. The wing on the
west side of the house was added by Darwin shortly after he came to live
there. This new portion of the house was used partly to accommodate his
library. On the north side is the room used by Darwin as a study, in
which he wrote some of his most important works. The garden of the house
is sheltered and reposeful, and from the old wall-garden to the south
there is a beautiful view over the delightful stretch of country in the
direction of Westerham.

The life led by Darwin when at Downe was exceedingly quiet and regular,
for he always went to bed at an early hour, and rising at six was
enabled to get in a walk and breakfast before commencing work at eight
o'clock. At some other time of the day he would manage to get an
opportunity for another walk, and part of the evening would be given up
to his family and friends who were privileged to enjoy conversation with
the great author of _The Origin of Species_. Professor Haeckel,
describing a visit to Darwin's home, says, "There stepped out to meet me
from the shady porch ... the great naturalist himself, a tall and
venerable figure, with the broad shoulders of an Atlas supporting a
world of thought, his Jupiter-like forehead, highly and broadly arched
... and deeply furrowed with the plough of mental labour; his kindly,
mild eyes looking forth under the shadow of prominent brows."


The Home of Charles Darwin.]


=How to get there.=--From Waterloo, South-Western Railway. From
London Bridge or Victoria, London, Brighton, and South Coast Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--Epsom.
=Distance from London.=--14 miles.
=Average Time.=--3/4 hour.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 2s. 3d. 1s. 6d. 1s. 2d.
Return 3s. 0d. 2s. 6d. 2s. 2d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"King's Head," "Spread Eagle," etc.

One must choose any other than a race-day if one wishes to see the
charming old town of Epsom at its best. But if, on the other hand, one
wishes, to see something of the scene on the race-course depicted in Mr.
Frith's famous picture, one gets no suggestion of the great spectacle
except on race-days. On these occasions, at the Spring meeting and
during Derby week, one has merely to follow the great streams of
humanity which converge on the downs from the roads from London and from
the railway stations. On ordinary days the wide rolling downs are
generally left alone to the health-giving breezes which blow over them.
In the town itself there is much to be seen of the seventeenth-century
architecture associated with the days of Epsom's fame as a
watering-place. The wide portion of the High Street at once attracts
one's notice, for with one or two exceptions its whole length is full of
the quaintest of buildings with cream walls and mossy tiled roofs. The
clock-tower was built in 1848, when it replaced a very simple old
watch-house with a curious little tower rising from it. The "Spread
Eagle" is one of the oldest of the Epsom inns; its irregular front and
its position looking up the High Street make it more conspicuous than
the "King's Head," an equally old and very interesting hostelry facing
the clock-tower. Pepys stayed there in 1667, for in his diary of July 14
of that year he writes, "To Epsom, by eight o'clock, to the well; where
much company. And to the towne to the King's Head; and hear that my Lord
Buckhurst and Nelly (Gwynne) are lodged at the next house, and Sir
Charles Sedley with them: and keep a merry house." This house, next to
the "King's Head," is still standing. A little further along the street
is the large red-brick building known to-day as Waterloo House. It was
built about the year 1680, and was then known as the New Inn. The old
banqueting-hall it contains is divided up now, for the building is
converted into shops.

Durdans, the residence of Lord Rosebery, is about ten minutes' walk from
the High Street. One can see the house and grounds from the narrow lane
leading to the downs.

[Illustration: HIGH STREET, EPSOM.

Showing one of the famous inns which flourished in the seventeenth


=How to get there.=--From Liverpool Street or Fenchurch Street.
Great Eastern Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Theydon Bois. Other stations near the forest
are Chingford, Loughton, and Epping.
=Distance from London.=--15 miles.
=Average Time.=--1 hour. Quickest train, 38 minutes.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 2s. 8d. 1s. 11d. 1s. 3-1/2d.
Return 3s. 9d. 2s. 11d. 1s. 11d.

Those who wish to ramble through Epping Forest off the beaten paths
should carry a compass and a map, so that they do not merely keep in one
section of the forest, and thus miss some of the tracts which are quite
distinct in character to others. The best days during the summer for
having the glades to one's self are Wednesday, Thursday, or Friday, but
during the winter the whole place is left to the keepers and the
feathered inhabitants of the forest. During spring and autumn one also
finds that the grassy walks are left almost entirely alone, and at these
periods the forest is at its very best. Those who have only visited it
in the height of summer, when the foliage is perhaps drooping a little,
when the birds are not singing, and when there are traces of more than
one picnic party, have no idea of the true beauty of the forest. A herd
of deer are allowed to breed in the wilder and less frequented portions
if the forest, and these add much to the charm of some of the umbrageous
by-paths when one suddenly disturbs a quietly grazing group. Queen
Elizabeth's hunting lodge, which adjoins the Forest Hotel at Chingford,
is a restored three-storied and much gabled building, constructed of
plastered brickwork and framed with oak. It seems that the building
originally had no roof, but merely an open platform, from which one
could obtain a good comprehensive view of any sport going on in the
vicinity. The lodge has now been made the home of a museum of objects of
antiquity discovered in the forest. The special points of Epping Forest
which should be included in a long day's ramble are Connaught Water, a
lake near Chingford; High Beach, an elevated portion of the forest
possessing some splendid beeches; the earthwork known as Loughton Camp,
which probably belongs to pre-Roman times, and Ambresbury Banks, towards
Epping. This camp is said to have been the last fortress of the Britons
under Boadicea. From here they are believed to have marched against the
Romans to receive the crushing defeat inflicted upon them.



=How to get there.=--South-Western Railway. Waterloo Station.
=Nearest Station.=--Hampton Court.
=Distance from London.=--15 miles.
=Average Time.=--3/4 hour.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 2s. 0d. 1s. 6d. 1s. 2-1/2d.
Return 2s. 9d. 2s. 0d. 1s. 10d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Castle Hotel," "Mitre Hotel," "The
King's Arms Hotel," "Greyhound Hotel," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--By steamboats from London Bridge, etc., during
the summer months.

Within a few hundred yards of the Hampton Court station on the London
and South-Western Railway stands the magnificent palace of Hampton
Court, originally erected by Cardinal Wolsey for his own residence, and
after his sudden downfall appropriated by his ungrateful master Henry
VIII. for his private use and property.

The approach from the station lies through a pair of finely designed
wrought-iron gates to the north frontage of the palace, erected by
Wolsey himself. This front is all in the fine red-brick architecture of
the period, with quaint gables, small mullioned windows, and a
collection of moulded and twisted red-brick chimneys of wonderfully
varied designs. The entrance through the gatehouse, flanked by two
towers, is under a massive Tudor gateway, and leads into an inner
quadrangle and thence into a second court, both of the same picturesque
character. In these inner courts are the suites of rooms given as
residences by royal favour, and on the left-hand side is Wolsey's great
banqueting-hall, with a magnificent open timber roof.

The southern and eastern portions, with the Fountain Court and the
splendid frontage to the gardens, were designed by Sir Christopher Wren,
and form one of the best examples of his work. In this part of the
building are the picture galleries, containing a priceless collection of
works, comprising Sir Peter Lely's Beauties of King Charles II.'s time,
valuable specimens of Holbein, Kneller, West, Jansen, Vandyck, Reynolds,
and other masters, and seven wonderful cartoons by Raphael.

The splendidly kept gardens, about 44 acres in extent, are still very
much as they were in the time of William III. Hampton Court "Maze" is
one of the most intricate in the country.

The palace, grounds, and picture galleries are open to the public daily,
free, except on Fridays; summer, 10 to 6; winter, 10 to 4. Sundays,
summer, 2 to 6; winter, 2 to 4.



=How to get there.=--Train from Liverpool Street. Great Eastern Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--Broxbourne (quite close to Rye House).
=Distance from London.=--17 miles.
=Average Time.=--50 minutes. Quickest train, 39 minutes.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 3s. 3d. 2s. 3d. 1s. 6d. } reduced during
Return 4s. 9d. 3s. 6d. 2s. 6d. } summer months.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--Rye House has been converted into
an hotel.

Rye House stands close to the banks of the river Lea, and is now perhaps
more of a resort than some would wish it to be, for it has been altered
from a manor-house into an hotel. It has not, however, quite lost its
picturesqueness, as one will see from the illustration given here, and
within one may see the fine old dining-hall and the famous "Great bed of
Ware," large enough, it is said, to contain twelve people! The
historical interest which attaches itself to Rye House, though well
known, may be briefly given here. It was in 1683 the scene of a plot, in
Charles II.'s reign, to assassinate the king and his brother the Duke of
York, afterwards James II., on their way to London from Newmarket.
Charles, though restored to the throne, was giving great dissatisfaction
to many in the country. Though professedly a Protestant, it was well
known that his leanings were towards Roman Catholicism, and his brother
the Duke of York was an avowed Catholic. Then it was discovered that
Charles had been receiving a pension from Louis XIV. of France, on
condition that this country did not go to war with the French, an
arrangement which was most humiliating to the English people. The nation
was thoroughly alarmed, and at the next meeting of Parliament the
Commons brought in a bill to exclude the Duke of York from ever coming
to the throne. Many of the leading Whigs, including Lord William
Russell, Algernon Sidney, and the Earl of Essex, formed a confederacy.
It has never been proved that they ever meant the country to rise
against the king, but unfortunately, just at the same time, some bolder
and fiercer spirits of the Whig party determined to kill both Charles
and James at the lonely Rye House belonging to Rumbolt. The plot failed
from the fact that the house which the king occupied at Newmarket
accidentally caught fire, and Charles was obliged to leave Newmarket a
week sooner than was expected. This conspiracy as well as the meetings
of the Whig party were betrayed to the king's ministers. Russell was
beheaded in 1683, and Sidney shared the same fate.

[Illustration: RYE HOUSE.

The scene of the famous Rye House Plot in 1683.]


=How to get there.=--From King's Cross. Great Northern Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Hatfield.
=Distance from London.=--17-3/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--35 minutes.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 2s. 6d. ... 1s. 5-1/2d.
Return 5s. 0d. ... 2s. 11d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Red Lion Hotel," etc.

Permission to see the interior of Hatfield House can be obtained when
the Marquess of Salisbury is not in residence.

After the Norman Conquest Hatfield, the _Haethfield_ of the Saxons,
became the property of the bishops of Ely, and was known as Bishops
Hatfield, as indeed it is marked on many maps. There was here a
magnificent palace, which at the Reformation became the property of
Henry VIII., and was afterwards given to the Cecils by James I., who
received Theobalds in exchange.

The town of Hatfield is a quaint, straggling place, with narrow streets
and many antique houses. A steep declivity leads up to the old church,
dedicated to St. Etheldreda, just outside one of the entrances to the
grounds of Hatfield House. The church contains a monument to Sir Robert
Cecil, first Earl of Salisbury, also tombs of the Botelers, Brockets,
and Reads of Brocket Hall.

The entrance gateway, close to the churchyard, leads to what are now the
stables of Hatfield House, a fine red-brick structure, once the
banqueting-hall of the Bishop's Palace. This building, with its fine
open timber roof, is perhaps the only example of its kind in England
used as a stable.

Hatfield House is one of the most perfect and magnificent of Elizabethan
mansions in the kingdom. It was built by the first Earl of Salisbury in
1611, and is practically unaltered. The fine oak panelling and carving,
the plaster ceilings, and much of the furniture, all remain as they were
in the days of the great Lord Burleigh. The great hall, with its
splendid timber roof, and the gallery, with a fine collection of
pictures and curios, are two striking features. The staircase is
magnificent in design and detail, and is furnished with gates at the
bottom, placed there originally for preventing the dogs from wandering

The paintings in the hall and other rooms in Hatfield House include
portraits of the great Burleigh, Sir Robert and other Cecils, by Lely
and Kneller; Henry VIII., Anne Boleyn, Mary Queen of Scots, the Earl of
Leicester, and Queen Elizabeth.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._



=How to get there.=--Train from Waterloo. L. and S.W. Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Staines.
=Distance from London.=--19 miles.
=Average Time.=--50 minutes.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 3s. 0d. 2s. 0d. 1s. 6d.
Return 5s. 0d. 3s. 6d. 2s. 9d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--At Staines--"Pack Horse Hotel,"
"Swan Hotel," "Bridge Hotel."
=Alternative Route.=--Train from Paddington to Staines. G.W.R.

Runnymede takes a prominent place among the many historical spots which
crowd the banks of the Thames. The river at this point is winding and
picturesque. Some doubt attaches to the exact spot where John, in 1215,
realising at last that the barons were too strong for him, confirmed
their articles with his hand and seal, with the full intention of
breaking his word as soon as it was possible. It was either on the south
side of the river, or on an island opposite the end of the meadow, now
known as Magna Carta Island, that this early bulwark of freedom was
granted by the king. Though there is strong tradition in favour of the
meadows on the opposite bank, possibly the balance of favour is with the
island. On the island there is a rough stone bearing an inscription
stating that this is the celebrated spot.

The island is now private property. Above it, on the left, is a low
wooded ridge known as Cooper's Hill, from which one can enjoy some
exquisite views of the Thames valley.


=How to get there.=--Train to Leatherhead by South-Western or
London, Brighton and South Coast lines.
=Distance from London.=--19 miles.
=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Swan Hotel," etc., at Leatherhead.

Two and a half miles from Leatherhead is situated the ancient church of
Stoke d'Abernon, famous for possessing the oldest brass in England. It
shows a complete figure of Sir John d'Abernoun, who died in 1277. The
church, restored externally, overlooks the river Mole.


Twelfth Century Parish Chest, with slot for inserting Peter's Pence. The
three locks were for the rector and two churchwardens.

The brass to Sir John d'Abernoun on the floor of the Chancel showing the
chain armour worn between 1250 and 1300 A.D.

Jacobean hour-glass stand.]



=How to get there.=--Through train from St. Pancras. Midland Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--St. Albans.
=Distance from London.=--20 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 1/2 to 1 hour.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 2s. 8d. ... 1s. 7-1/2d.
Return 5s. 4d. ... 3s. 3d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"The Peahen," "Red Lion Hotel,"
"The George," etc.
=Alternative Routes.=--Train from Euston, L. and N.W. Railway.
Train from King's Cross, Great Northern Railway.

St. Albans is an ancient town of much historic interest, being built
close to the site of the old Roman city of Verulamium. West of the town;
by a little stream, the Ver, some remains of the old Roman wall may be
seen, and the frequent discoveries made there are placed in the museum
in the town. St. Alban, or Albanus, who has given his name to the town,
was the first British martyr. He lived in the reign of Diocletian, and
was beheaded on the site of the abbey raised in his honour. The
Benedictine monastery which arose became the wealthiest and most popular
in England through the fame of the saint. Most of the kings from Saxon
times until the dissolution of the monastery in Henry VIII.'s reign,
visited this shrine. In later times the Abbey Church was made parochial,
and finally a cathedral.

St. Albans owes some of its importance to its situation on the famous
northward road; Watling Street runs through it. Owing to its proximity
to London, it was the scene of two battles in its High Street during the
Wars of the Roses.

The cathedral occupies the highest site of any in England. The square
Norman tower owes its red hue to the Roman bricks used in its
construction. One remarkable feature is the length of the nave, which is
only exceeded by Winchester. Every style of architecture is represented
in the interior from Early Norman to Late Perpendicular, and in the
triforium of the north transept are to be seen some Saxon balusters and
columns. The shrine of St. Alban is in the Saint's Chapel, with the
interesting watching-loft on the north side. The west end has been very
much renovated by Lord Grimthorpe.

At Gorhambury can be seen the tower of the ruined house formerly
occupied by Sir Nicholas Bacon, and visited by Queen Elizabeth. In the
antique church of St. Michael in Verulamium is Lord Bacon's monument.

[Illustration: _F. Frith & Co., Ltd._


Showing the Central Tower constructed of Roman bricks from Verulamium.]


=How to get there.=--Train from Paddington. Great Western Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--Slough (2-1/2 miles from Stoke Poges).
=Distance from London.=--21-1/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 3/4 to 1 hour.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 3s. 0d. 2s. 0d. 1s. 6d.
Return 5s. 0d. 3s. 6d. ...

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--Windsor--"White Hart Hotel,"
"Castle Hotel," "Bridge House Hotel," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from Waterloo to Windsor, 3 miles from
Stoke Poges. London and South-Western Railway.

"The curfew tolls the knell of parting day" has immortalised the
otherwise unimportant district of Stoke Poges--a parish embracing
numerous small hamlets.

Leaving Slough by the north end of the railway bridge, one turns first
to the right and then to the left, and soon after leaving the
uninteresting bricks and mortar of the town, one enters some of the most
beautiful lanes in the home counties. At the first cross road one turns
to the right, and again through an open gate to the left, and thence a
field path leads to the churchyard.

The little church, which is always open, has walls of old red brick and
flint, with patches of rough plaster. It is wonderfully picturesque,
with its partial covering of ivy and beautiful background of fine old
trees, and no one can view the scene at sunset without recalling Gray's
immortal _Elegy written in a Country Churchyard_--those exquisite verses
which breathe in every line the peace of an ideal country scene. To a
lover of Nature there can be nothing more beautiful than the lines--

Now fades the glimmering landscape on the sight,
And all the air a solemn stillness holds;
Save where the beetle wheels his drony flight,
And drowsy tinklings lull the distant folds.

Near the east wall of the church is the red brick tomb where Gray sleeps
his last sleep, and in the meadow by the chancel window stands the huge
cenotaph raised to his memory by John Penn. Of the little cottage where
he spent his summer vacations and wrote the _Elegy_ nothing now remains.
Gray was born in London in 1716, and died at Cambridge in 1771.

The interior of the church has lost its high old pews and galleries, so
that it lacks the interest it might have had, for until these were
removed the building was almost exactly what Gray knew so well.

[Illustration: _Mackenzie Fine Art Co._


Associated with Gray's _Elegy_.]


=How to get there.=--Train from Paddington. Great Western Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Windsor.
=Distance from London.=--21-1/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 1/2 to 1 hour.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 3s. 6d. 2s. 3d. 1s. 9d.
Return 5s. 6d. 4s. 0d. 3s. 4d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"White Hart Hotel," "Bridge House
Hotel," "Castle Hotel," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from Waterloo. L. and S.W. Railway.

The chief interest of Windsor centres in its castle, without which
visitors to the town would probably be few in number. Some of the old
streets are narrow, and there are many architecturally interesting
buildings. The business portion of the town lies nearest to the Castle,
the residential parts being chiefly round the Great Park. The Town Hall,
in the High Street, was commenced in 1686, and was completed under the
direction of Sir Christopher Wren.

The history of Windsor Castle commences with the granting of the site of
the castle and town to the Abbot of Westminster by Edward the Confessor.
William the Conqueror, was, however, so struck with its splendid
military position, that he revoked the grant, and where the castle now
stands built a fortress of considerable size. Of this there is no
description extant. The first court was held at Windsor by Henry I., and
during his reign many splendid functions took place there. Edward III.
employed William of Wykeham to rebuild almost the whole castle. Henry
VII., Henry VIII., and Elizabeth all made additions to the buildings.
Many magnificent paintings were added during the reign of Charles I.
George I. made Windsor Castle his chief residence, and appointed a Royal
Commission to rebuild the castle in its present form at a cost of more
than one million sterling. About 1860, Wolsey's Chapel, now known as the
Albert Memorial Chapel, was restored in memory of the Prince Consort,
and the Duchess of Kent's mausoleum was erected. St. George's Chapel, a
splendid specimen of ecclesiastical architecture, was originally built
by Edward III., and was finally restored in 1887. The State apartments,
which can be seen when the Royal family are absent, are sumptuously
furnished and contain much beautiful tapestry and a valuable collection
of pictures.

Windsor Great Park, the chief feature of which is the Long Walk, is well
stocked with deer.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._



=How to get there.=--Train from Baker Street. Metropolitan Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Chalfont Road (3 miles from Jordans).
=Distance from London.=--22 miles.
=Average Time.=--51 minutes. (Convenient trains, 10.27 A.M., 12.17
and 2.27 P.M.)

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 3s. 2d. 2s. 4d. 1s. 7d.
Return 4s. 9d. 3s. 5d. 2s. 5d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--None at Jordans.
=Alternative Route.=--Train to Uxbridge. Great Western Railway.

Jordans, the burial-place of William Penn, the great English Quaker and
philanthropist, lies on a by-road in Buckinghamshire, leading from
Chalfont St. Peter to Beaconsfield. The place itself, though full of the
typical charm of English scenery in the home counties, does not contain
anything of particular interest, and it owes its reputation to the
associations with the wonderful man who lived and died there. Jordans is
visited by many hundreds of tourists during the summer, mainly
Americans. One of these offered to remove Penn's remains to
Philadelphia, capital of Pennsylvania, and there build a mausoleum over
them; but the offer was declined.

The road runs south-west from the village of Chalfont St. Peter, and
after a sharp curve brings the visitor to the Meeting House, a very
plain and unobtrusive structure, dating from about the end of the
seventeenth century. In the secluded burying-ground surrounded and
overhung by great trees lies William Penn. Five of his children also
rest among these quiet surroundings; and here are buried two well-known
Quaker leaders, Isaac Penington and Thomas Ellwood. At the actual time
of burial there were no gravestones, but these have since been added.
Though the house as a regular place of meeting has long fallen into
disuse, there is still an annual gathering of Quakers there in memory of
the great dead.

Penn was the son of Sir William Penn, an eminent admiral, and was born
in 1644. His violent advocacy of the Quaker creeds led him into
continual trouble and several times into prison. In 1681 he obtained, in
lieu of the income left by his father, a grant from the Crown of the
territory now forming the state of Pennsylvania. Penn wished to call his
new property Sylvania, on account of the forest upon it, but the king,
Charles II., good-naturedly insisted on the prefix Penn. The great man
left his flourishing colony for the last time in 1701, and after a
troublous time in pecuniary matters, owing to the villany of an agent in
America, Penn died at Ruscombe in Berkshire in 1718.

[Illustration: _H.C. Shelley._


The burial-place of William Penn.]


=How to get there.=--Train from Charing Cross, Cannon Street, or
London Bridge. South-Eastern and Chatham Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Sevenoaks (Knole House is just outside Sevenoaks).
=Distance from London.=--22 miles.
=Average Time.=--45 minutes.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 3s. 10d. 2s. 5d. 1s. 11d.
Return 6s. 8d. 4s. 10d. 3s. 10d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--At Sevenoaks--"Royal Crown Hotel,"
"Royal Oak Hotel," "Bligh's Private Hotel," etc.

Sevenoaks is famous for its beautiful situation near the Weald of Kent.
It possesses still some old inns, relics of coaching days. The Grammar
School was founded in 1432 by Sir William Sevenoke, who, from being a
foundling, became Lord Mayor. St. Nicholas' Church is a large building
in the Decorated and Perpendicular style, much restored.

The chief charm of Sevenoaks is Knole House, a splendid example of the
baronial dwellings that were erected after the Wars of the Roses, when
the fortress was no longer so necessary. The demesne of Knole was
purchased in the fifteenth century by Thomas Bourchier, Archbishop of
Canterbury, who rebuilt the mansion on it. It was taken from Cranmer by
the Crown and granted in 1603 to Thomas Sackville, Baron Buckhurst,
afterwards Earl of Dorset, who is now represented by the Sackville-West
family, the present owners.

The first Earl of Dorset greatly improved Knole, employing, it is said,
200 workmen constantly. The building surrounds three square courts and
occupies about 5 acres. Knole possesses an extremely valuable collection
of paintings, and the mediaeval furniture is untouched from the time of
James I. There are famous pictures by Flemish, Dutch, Venetian, and
Italian painters. In the dressing-room of the Spangled Bedroom are to be
seen some of Sir Peter Lely's beauties. The Cartoon Gallery has copies
of Raphael's cartoons by Mytens, and in the Poet's Parlour are portraits
of England's famous poets--some by Gainsborough and Sir Joshua Reynolds.
The banqueting-hall has a screened music gallery. It is said that there
are as many rooms in the house as there are days in the year. The drives
and walks of the large park are always open, and the house is shown on
Fridays from 10 A.M. to 5 P.M., and on Thursdays and Saturdays from 2 to
5 P.M. at a charge of 2s.; there is a reduction for a party. Tickets are
procurable at the lodge.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._


One of the finest examples of a baronial residence of the period
immediately succeeding the Wars of the Roses.]



=How to get there.=--Train from Liverpool Street or Fenchurch Street.
Great Eastern Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Chipping Ongar (1 mile from Greenstead Church).
=Distance from London.=--22-3/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 1 to 1-1/2 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 3s. 11d. 2s. 10d. 1s. 11-1/2d.
Return 5s. 9d. 4s. 2d. 3s. 1d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--Inn, etc., at Ongar.

Entering Ongar from the railway station one finds on the right a
footpath leading into a fine avenue. About ten minutes' walk down this
brings one to Greenstead Hall, a red brick Jacobean house, with the
church adjoining it. Set among a profusion of foliage, the simple little
building would be quite interesting as an ideally situated little rustic
church, but when one realises how unique it is, the spot at once becomes
fascinating. The walls of the diminutive nave, as one may see from the
illustration given here, consist of the trunks of large oak trees split
down the centre and roughly sharpened at each end. They are raised from
the ground by a low foundation of brick, and inside the spaces between
the trees are covered with fillets of wood. On top the trees are
fastened into a frame of rough timber by wooden pins. The interior of
the building is exceedingly dark, for there are no windows in the wooden
walls, and the chief light comes from the porch and a dormer window.
This window in the roof, however, was not in the original design, for
the rude structure was only designed as a temporary resting-place for
the body of St. Edmund the Martyr. It was in A.D. 1010 that the saint's
body was removed from Bury to London, its protectors fearing an
incursion of the Danes at that time. Three years afterwards, however,
the body was brought back to Bury, and on its journey rested for a time
at Greenstead--a wooden chapel being erected in its honour. The remains
of this chapel, built nearly half a century before the Conquest, are
still to be seen in the wooden walls just referred to. The length of the
original structure was 29 feet 9 inches long by 14 feet wide. The walls,
5 feet 6 inches high, supported the rough timber roof, which possessed
no windows. The chancel and tower were added afterwards.

Ongar Castle, a huge artificial mound surrounded by a moat, is close to
the main street. The church contains in the chancel, hidden by a carpet,
the grave of Oliver Cromwell's daughter. A house in the High Street is
associated with Livingstone.


Built in 1013, is remarkable for its nave, constructed of solid tree



=How to get there.=--Train from Baker Street. Metropolitan Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Chalfont Road (2-1/2 miles from Chalfont St. Giles).
An omnibus runs between the village and the station during
the summer months.
=Distance from London.=--23-3/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--51 minutes. (Convenient trains, 10.27 A.M., 12.17
and 2.27 P.M.)

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 3s. 2d. 2s. 4d. 1s. 7d.
Return 4s. 9d. 3s. 5d. 2s. 5d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"The Merlin's Cave Inn," etc.

This pretty little Buckinghamshire village has become almost as
celebrated as its neighbour Stoke Poges, on account of having been the
home of John Milton. The poet's cottage is the last on the left side at
the top of the village street. As one may see from the illustration, it
is a very picturesque, half-timbered house, whose leaded windows look
into a typical country garden. In 1887 a public subscription was raised
and the cottage was purchased. Visitors are therefore able to see the
interior as well as the exterior of Milton's home, which, it should be
mentioned, is the only one existing to-day of the various houses he
occupied. For those who are not residents in the parish a charge of
sixpence is made for admission. The poet's room, which is on the right
on entering, is rather dark, and has a low ceiling. One notices the
wide, open fireplace where the white-bearded old man would sit in winter
days, and the lattice-paned windows through which in summer-time came
the humming of bees and the scent of the flowers growing in the
old-fashioned garden. The pleasant indications of his surroundings must
have been a great solace to the blind old man. In these simple
surroundings one must picture Milton dictating his stately verse, with
his thoughts concentrated on the serried ranks of the hosts of heaven.

Milton came to Chalfont in 1665, in order to escape from the plague. His
eldest daughter was at that time about seventeen years of age, and as
she and her sisters are supposed to have remained with their father
until about 1670, it is probable that they came to Chalfont with him.

The church of Chalfont St. Giles has a Norman font, and there are other
traces of Norman work in the bases of the pillars and elsewhere. The
south wall of the nave and the north chapel are specially interesting on
account of their frescoes.


Milton moved here from London in 1665, to avoid the Plague.]



=How to get there.=--Train from Charing Cross, Cannon Street, or
London Bridge. South-Eastern and Chatham Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Westerham.
=Distance from London.=--25 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 1 to 2 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 3s. 10d. 2s. 5d. 2s. 0d.
Return 6s. 8d. 4s. 10d. 4s. 0d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"The King's Arms," "The Bull,"
"The George and Dragon," etc.

Westerham as a small country town is not very remarkable in itself,
although not devoid of interest, but as containing the birthplace of
General Wolfe it becomes a place worthy of a pilgrimage. Colonel and
Mrs. Wolfe, the parents of the hero of Quebec, had just come to
Westerham, and occupied the vicarage at the time of the birth of their
son James in 1727. This, being previous to 1752, was during the old
style, when the year began on March 25. The day was December 22, now
represented by January 2. Colonel Wolfe's infant was christened in
Westerham Church by the vicar, the Rev. George Lewis; but although born
at the vicarage, James's parents must have moved into the house now
known as Quebec House almost immediately afterwards, for practically the
whole of the first twelve years of the boy's life were spent in the fine
old Tudor house which is still standing to-day. The vicarage is also to
be seen, and though much altered at the back, the front portion,
containing the actual room in which Wolfe was born, is the same as in
the past. It has a three-light window towards the front, and two small
windows in the gable at the side. Quebec House is near the vicarage. It
does not bear its name upon it, but it will be pointed out on inquiry.
The front is a most disappointing stucco affair, but this merely hides
the beautiful Elizabethan gables which originally adorned the house from
every point of view. Two private tenants now occupy the house, but the
interior is on the whole very little altered since little James Wolfe
played hide-and-seek in the old passages and rooms. Squerryes Court, the
seat of Lieut.-Colonel C.A.M. Warde, J.P., is the local storehouse of
Wolfe relics. Numbers of letters, portraits, and other interesting
objects are all carefully preserved there. Young Wolfe was constantly at
Squerryes, and the spot in the park where he received his first
commission is marked by a stone cenotaph.


Where General James Wolfe spent the first twelve years of his life.]


=How to get there.=--Train from Waterloo. South-Western Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Guildford.
=Distance from London.=--29-3/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies from 50 minutes to 1-1/2 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 5s. 0d. 3s. 2d. 2s. 6d.
Return 8s. 9d. 5s. 6d. 5s. 0d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Angel," "White Lion," "Castle,"
=Alternative Route.=--South-Eastern and Chatham Railway from
Charing Cross Station, and other South-Eastern and Chatham
Railway termini.

Guildford High Street is without doubt one of the most picturesque in
England. When one stands beneath the shadow of the quaint
seventeenth-century town hall, with its great clock projecting half-way
across the street towards the Corn Exchange, with its classic stone
portico, a most charming picture is spread before one. The steep street
dropping down to the river Wey, with the great green slopes of the Hog's
Back rising immediately beyond, framed in with quaint gabled fronts and
projecting windows. The castle, though very much in ruins, still
possesses its huge square keep standing upon an artificial mound. Both
the keep and the other portions of the fortress were probably built in
the reign of Henry II. Those who are endeavouring to read the history of
the castle should bear in mind that in 1623 it was converted into a
private dwelling-house, and this accounts for the red brick mullions in
the upper windows of the keep. From the highest portion of the walls
there is an exceedingly pretty view up the winding course of the Wey.
Abbot's Hospital, at the top of the High Street, was built in 1619. It
is an exceedingly picturesque old structure of red brick, with
conspicuously fine chimney-stacks. The buildings enclose a beautiful
courtyard full of the richest architectural detail. The dining-hall is
oak-panelled almost to the ceiling, and contains oak tables, benches,
and stools. The chapel in the north-east corner contains an alms-box and
a "Vinegar" Bible, and two of the windows are remarkable for their fine
old glass.

The Angel Hotel in the High Street is built over a thirteenth-century
crypt and contains much panelling.

The old stone grammar school in Spital Street was founded by Edward VI.
St. Mary's Church, in the centre of the town, has a painted roof to one
of its chapels and some Saxon features.


Showing the Town Hall, with its projecting clock, and the Corn



=How to get there.=--Train from Victoria or Holborn Viaduct. South-Eastern
and Chatham Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Rochester. (Gad's Hill lies 1-1/2 miles from
=Distance from London.=--31 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 1 and 1-1/2 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 5s. 4d. 3s. 4d. 2s. 8d.
Return 9s. 4d. 6s. 8d. 5s. 4d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--At Rochester--"King's Head Hotel,"
"Royal Victoria Hotel," "Bull Hotel," "Royal Crown Hotel," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from Charing Cross, Cannon Street, or
London Bridge. South-Eastern and Chatham Railway.

Mr. Latham, the present occupier, kindly admits visitors on Wednesday

Lovers of Charles Dickens naturally have a pleasure in seeing the places
near Rochester so familiar to them through his works. A mile and a half
from this ancient city with its cathedral and castle is Gad's Hill
Place, where the great author resided from 1856 till the day of his
death in 1870. When Dickens was a small boy the house had always a
curious interest for him, for he thought it the most beautiful house he
had ever seen. His father, then living in Rochester, used to bring him
to look at it, and used to tell the little fellow that if he grew up to
be a clever man he might own that or another such house. Gad's Hill
Place is a comfortable old-fashioned house, built, it is said, about
1775. Facing it is a shrubbery containing huge cedars. This was
connected with the grounds opposite by an underground passage still
existing, and here Dickens erected a chalet given to him by his friend
Mr. Fechter, in which he worked till the time of his sudden death. Gad's
Hill had a peculiar fascination for Dickens, for it was on the highway
there that he obtained his wonderful insight into the character and
manners of the various tramps and showmen he portrays in his books.

Dickens liked nothing better than taking his friends over this district.
He thought the seven miles between Rochester and Maidstone one of the
most beautiful walks in England. Dickens would compress into infinitely
few days an enormous amount of sight-seeing and country enjoyment:
castles, cathedrals, lunches and picnics among cherry orchards and

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._


The home of Charles Dickens.]


=How to get there.=--Train from Victoria, Holborn Viaduct, and Ludgate
Hill. South-Eastern and Chatham Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Wrotham (2 miles from Ightham Mote).
=Distance from London.=--31 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 1 to 1-1/2 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 5s. 1d. 3s. 2d. 2s. 6d.
Return 8s. 11d. 6s. 4d. 5s. 0d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"The George and the Dragon,"
=Alternative Route.=--None.

In a lovely green hollow, surrounded by splendid old trees and velvet
turf, stands Ightham Mote, a gem among old English moated manor-houses.
It is the home of Mr. J.C. Colyer-Fergusson, who allows the public to
see the house and grounds on Fridays, between 11 and 1, and 2 and 6. A
charge of 6d. is made.

Crossing a bridge over the moat, one enters the courtyard of the house
through the great Tudor gate illustrated here. Standing in this
courtyard one can scarcely imagine anything more beautiful and
picturesque. The great square battlemented tower, through which one has
just passed, is pierced with leaded windows, and its weather-beaten old
walls are relieved by all sorts of creepers, which have been allowed to
adorn without destroying the rich detail of stone and half-timber work.
Those who find pleasure in gazing on architectural picturesqueness can
satisfy themselves in the richness of colour and detail revealed in this
beautiful courtyard. The crypt with its fine groined roof, the chapel
which dates from 1520, the drawing-room with its two hundred years old
Chinese wall-paper--believed to be one of the earliest occasions when
wall-papers were used in this country--and many other interesting
features are shown to visitors.

The original Ightham Mote seems to have been built in 1180 by Sir Ivo de
Haut. The Hall, it is known, was built by Sir Thomas Cawne in 1340.
Richard de Haut, who owned the place later on, was beheaded in 1484 at
Pontefract. His estate was confiscated and came into the hands of Sir
Robert Brackenbury, governor of the Tower, who lost his life at the
battle of Bosworth. However, during the reign of Henry VII., Ightham
once more came into the possession of the de Hauts; and it should be
mentioned that throughout the seven centuries of its existence the house
has always been inhabited.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._



=How to get there.=--Train from Charing Cross, Cannon Street, or
London Bridge. South-Eastern and Chatham Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Penshurst.
=Distance from London.=--32 miles.
=Average Time.=--1-1/2 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 5s. 0d. 3s. 3d. 2s. 6d.
Return 8s. 8d. 6s. 2d. 4s. 7d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Leicester Arms Hotel."

The pleasant little village of Penshurst, situated 6 miles north-west
from Tunbridge Wells, is renowned for the beautiful fourteenth-century
mansion known as Penshurst Place. From Norman times a house has occupied
the site, but the present building did not come into existence until
1349, when Sir John de Poultenay, who was four times Lord Mayor of
London, built the present historic seat. Having come into the possession
of the Crown, the estate was given by Edward VI. to Sir William Sidney,
who had fought at Flodden Field. The unfortunate young King Edward died
in the arms of Sir William's son Henry, whose grief was so excessive
that he retired to Penshurst and lived there in seclusion. Sir Henry
Sidney had three children, one of whom being Sir Philip Sidney, the type
of a most gallant knight and perfect gentleman. It was at Penshurst that
Edmund Spenser, Sir Philip's friend, wrote his first work, the
_Shepherd's Calendar_, and though Sidney did not actually write his
famous poem _Arcadia_ in his beautiful Kentish home, its scenery must
have suggested many of the descriptions. Algernon Sidney, who was
illegally put to death through Judge Jeffreys, was the nephew of Sir
Philip, and he is supposed to be buried in Penshurst Church, though no
monument remains. The present owner of Penshurst is Lord De Lisle and
Dudley (Sir Philip Charles Sidney (died 1851) was given the peerage in
1835), who allows visitors to view the historic mansion on Tuesdays,
Thursdays, and Fridays, from 3 P.M. to 6 P.M. (admission 1s.). The great
feature of the house is the baronial hall, built in 1341, which has a
hearth in the centre of the room. The Queen's drawing-room, said to have
been furnished by Queen Elizabeth, contains some interesting Tudor
furniture, and the satin tapestry which adorns the walls is also
believed to be the work of the virgin queen and her maidens. There are
many valuable and interesting portraits of the famous members of the
Sidney family. In the beautiful grounds of Penshurst is an oak tree,
planted, says tradition, at the time of Sir Philip Sidney's birth.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._


Which was built in 1349, was the home of Sir Philip Sidney.]


=How to get there.=--Train from Paddington. Great Western Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--Marazion.
=Distance from London.=--324-3/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 8-1/2 to 11-1/2 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 50s. 2d. 31s. 6d. 25s. 1d.
Return 87s. 10d. 55s. 0d. 50s. 2d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Godolphin Hotel," "Marazion Hotel,"

Marazion, the nearest town to St. Michael's Mount, is situated on the
eastern side of Mount's Bay, and was in the Middle Ages a place of some
importance, being the headquarters of the pilgrims to St. Michael's
Mount. Marazion is connected with St. Michael's Mount by a causeway 120
feet in width, formed of rocks and pebbles, and passable only at low
tide for three or four hours.

The mount itself is a remarkable granite rock, about a mile in
circumference and 250 feet high. It was referred to by Ptolemy, and is
supposed to have been the island Iclis of the Greeks, noticed by
Diodorus Siculus as the place near the promontory of Belerium to which
the tin, when refined, was brought by the Britons to be exchanged with
the Phoenician merchants. Its British name was equivalent to "the grey
rock in the woods," a traditional name, apparently confirmed by the
discovery of a submarine forest extending for some miles round the base
of the mount. The beauty of the spot caused it to be selected by the
ancient Britons as a favourite resort for worship, and shortly after the
introduction of Christianity it became a place of pilgrimage, and was
visited in the fifth century by St. Kelna, a British princess, who
founded a hermitage there. Some sort of military defences protected the
mount at a very early date, for Edward the Confessor's charter in 1047
to the Benedictine monks, whom he settled here, especially mentions its
_castella_ and other buildings.

In Charles II.'s reign the estate was purchased from the Basset family
by the St. Aubyns, who still remain its owners. In the castle itself,
which crowns the mount, the chief feature is the old hall, now known as
the "Chevy Chase" room, from its being adorned with carvings of various
field sports. There is some fine old furniture and good pictures.
Visitors are allowed to see the principal rooms of the castle when the
family are from home, and at all times to see the quaint old Gothic
chapel. There is a small fishing village with a pier and harbour at the
foot of the rock.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._


The rock is 250 feet in height, and has possessed a castle since 1047.]


=How to get there.=--Train from Victoria, Holborn Viaduct, or St.
Paul's. South-Eastern and Chatham Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Rochester.
=Distance from London.=--33 miles.
=Average Time.=--1-1/2 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 5s. 4d. 3s. 4d. 2s. 8d.
Return 9s. 4d. 6s. 3d. 5s. 4d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"King's Head Hotel," "Royal Victoria,"
"Bull Hotel," "Royal Crown Hotel," etc.

Rochester, a most picturesque old town on the river Medway, has been a
place of importance from the earliest times. The cathedral, which is not
very impressive externally, and is much surrounded by houses, is best
seen from the castle. It was the first church built after Augustine
settled in Canterbury, but of this building no trace now remains except
some foundations. The Norman Bishop Gundulf in 1080 built a large
portion of the Norman work of the present cathedral. In 1201 it was
largely rebuilt by money obtained from thank-offerings for miracles
wrought by St. William, a baker of Perth, who was murdered near
Rochester on his way to Canterbury, and buried in the cathedral. The
Norman castle, standing on the banks of the river, was built by Bishop
Gundulf, and though it is now in ruins, the interior having been
destroyed for its timber, the walls remain firm. The castle was besieged
by William Rufus and Simon de Montfort, and on both occasions suffered
considerable damage. One of the many interesting buildings in the High
Street is the three-gabled house of Watts's Charity, which has become
famous from Dickens's Christmas story of _The Seven Poor Travellers_.
According to the inscription above the doorway, Richard Watts in 1579
founded this "Charity for Six Poor Travellers, who not being Rogues or
Proctors, may receive gratis for one night, Lodging, Entertainment, and
Fourpence each." Restoration House, an old red-brick mansion on the
Maidstone Road, is so named from the visit of Charles II. on his way to
London in 1660. To all admirers of Charles Dickens, Rochester is full of
memories (see Index, Gad's Hill). Not only did Dickens make Rochester
the scene of his last unfinished work, _Edwin Drood_, but he made many
allusions to it elsewhere. Mr. Jingle, for instance, in the _Pickwick
Papers_ says, "Ah! fine place, glorious pile--frowning walls--tottering
arches--dark nooks--crumbling staircases--old cathedral too--earthy
smell--pilgrims' feet worn away the old steps."

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._


A considerable portion was built in 1080 by Bishop Gundulf.]


=How to get there.=--Train from Charing Cross, Cannon Street, or
London Bridge. South-Eastern and Chatham Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Tunbridge Wells.
=Distance from London.=--34-1/2 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 1 to 2 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 5s. 10d. 3s. 8d. 2s. 8-1/2d.
Return 10s. 0d. 7s. 4d. 5s. 5d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Spa Hotel," "The Swan Hotel,"
"Castle Hotel," "Carlton Hotel," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from Victoria, Holborn Viaduct, and St.
Paul's. South-Eastern and Chatham Railway.

At the same time that Epsom began to become known as a watering-place,
Tunbridge Wells was rapidly growing into a famous inland resort. The
wells were discovered by Lord North in 1606, while he was staying at
Eridge, and in a few years Tunbridge Wells became the resort of the
monied and leisured classes of London and other parts of the kingdom.
From that time to this the town has been one of the most popular of
England's inland watering-places.

The Tunbridge Wells of to-day is a charming and picturesque town. "The
Pantiles," with its row of stately limes in the centre and the colonnade
in front of its shops, is unique among English towns. Readers of
Thackeray's _Virginians_ will remember his description of the scene on
the Pantiles in the time of powdered wigs, silver buckles, and the
fearful and wonderful "hoop."

At the end of the Pantiles is the red brick church of
King-Charles-the-Martyr, the only one with any claim to antiquity in the
town; the rest are all quite modern.

Walks and excursions around Tunbridge Wells are numerous. The common,
with its mixture of springy turf, golden gorse, with here and there a
bold group of rocks, is one of the most beautiful in the home counties,
and in whatever direction one wanders there are long views over
far-stretching wooded hills and dales.

Rusthall Common, about a mile from the town, though somewhat smaller
than that of Tunbridge Wells, commands more extensive views.

One great feature of interest at Rusthall Common is the group of rocks,
of which the largest, the Toad Rock, bears a most singular resemblance
to the reptile from which it is named. The High Rocks, situated further
on, and just in the county of Sussex, are also very remarkable, rising
from 30 to 60 feet in height.

[Illustration: THE TOAD ROCK

On Rusthall Common, Tunbridge Wells.]

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._



=How to get there.=--Train from Victoria, Holborn Viaduct, Ludgate
Hill, or St. Paul's. South-Eastern and Chatham Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--West Malling (1 mile from Offham).
=Distance from London.=--36 miles.
=Average Time.=--1-1/2 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 5s. 11d. 3s. 9d. 2s. 11-1/2d.
Return 10s. 4d. 7s. 6d. 3s. 11d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"George Hotel" at West Malling.
=Alternative Route.=--None.

On the green at Offham, an out-of-the-way Kentish village, stands the
only quintain post in England. It consists of a tall white post, having
a spike at the top, upon which revolves a cross-bar. This portion, which
turns on the spike, has a fairly broad square end covered with small
holes, while at the opposite end hangs a billet of wood.

The pastime consisted in riding on horseback at the broad end and aiming
a lance at one of the holes. The rider had to duck his head at the same
instant, in order to save himself from the billet which swung round
immediately the lance-point caught the opposite end. Only those who were
very agile saved themselves from a nasty blow. Instead of a billet, a
bag containing sand or mould would sometimes be suspended on the
cross-bar. This would swing round with sufficient force to unseat the

This quintain post is undoubtedly one of the most interesting survivals
of the pastimes of the "good old days." The owners of the adjoining
house have been required to keep the quintain post in a good state of
repair, and it is doubtless to this stipulation in the title-deeds of
the property that we owe the existence of this unique relic.

The ruins of Malling Abbey, now the property of an Anglican sisterhood,
are extremely interesting. The abbey was founded in 1090, and was given
to the nun Avicia by the famous Gundulf of Rochester. The keep of St.
Leonard, not far from the abbey, was also built by Gundulf, who is
responsible for the White Tower of the Tower of London. This St.
Leonard's Tower is said to be of earlier character than any keep in
Normandy. Permission to see the ruins must be obtained from the abbess
or chaplain, and visitors are expected to give a small contribution
towards the restoration fund.

[Illustration: OFFHAM.

The Quintain Post on the Green.]



=How to get there.=--Train from Waterloo. South-Western Railway.
=Nearest Stations.=--Wokingham, 5 miles; Winchfield, 7 miles.
=Distance from London.=--Wokingham, 36-1/2 miles; Winchfield, 39 miles.
=Average Time.=--Wokingham, 2 hours; Winchfield, 1-1/2 hours.

Single. Return.
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
Wokingham 5s. 6d. 3s. 9d. 3s. 0d. 9s. 0d. 6s. 6d. 6s. 0d.
Winchfield 6s. 6d. 4s. 0d. 3s. 3d. 11s. 6d. 7s. 2d. 6s. 6d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--Small village inn at Eversley. "George
Hotel" at Odiham, 2 miles from Winchfield Station; very old
and picturesque.
=Alternative route.=--Train to Wellington College. S.E. and C. Rly.

The drive from Winchfield (7 miles) is chiefly across beautiful heathery
commons; from Wokingham the road is more enclosed with hedges. Eversley
Church and rectory stand almost alone, save for a farmhouse and barns,
being nearly a mile from the other portions of the village. The church
is very picturesquely situated on sloping ground, an avenue of yews
leading from the lych gate to the porch. Inside, the building has
suffered a good deal from restoration, but the pulpit from which
Kingsley preached his stirring sermons remains unaltered. The rectory is
a very old building which has been modernised on the side fronting on
the road. On the lawn stands the group of glorious Scotch firs which
Kingsley was never tired of watching. Their boughs sweep downwards and
almost touch the grass, and their great red trunks are a strong contrast
to the dense green of the surrounding foliage.

In one of the sitting-rooms is a set of drawers in which Kingsley kept a
collection of fossils. His grave is on the side of the church yard
nearest the overshadowing branches of the Scotch firs. The Runic cross
of white marble is a beautiful one. The head is ornamented with a spray
of passion flower and bears upon it the words "God is Love." On the base
are the words "Amavimus, amamus, amabimus."

The neighbouring district of Bramshill has still the little thatched
cottage where Kingsley used to conduct a little simple service on Sunday
afternoons. The whole of the country surrounding Bramshill Park is
closely covered with self-sown firs, and the commons interspersed among
the forest lands are covered with heather and gorse. This was the
country Kingsley loved, whether he was riding over it with the local
pack of foxhounds or on a visit to one of his parishioners.

[Illustration: EVERSLEY RECTORY.

The scene of the labours of Charles Kingsley.]



=How to get there.=--Train from Waterloo. South-Western Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Farnham.
=Distance from London.=--37-3/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--1-1/2 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 6s. 3d. 4s. 0d. 3s. 1-1/2d.
Return 10s. 0d. 7s. 0d. 6s. 3d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"The Bush," "The Railway Hotel,"
"The Lion and Lamb," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--None.

In 1762 William Cobbett, one of the great writers and reformers of the
eighteenth century, was born at Farnham, in Surrey. The house is still
standing, and is now known as the "Jolly Farmer" Inn. Cobbett gives a
very clear account of his early years at Farnham, and some of his
youthful escapades are very amusing. One game which he and two of his
brothers were never tired of playing was that of rolling each other like
barrels down the very steep sandy hill which one may see rising sharply
from the back of the "Jolly Farmer." Cobbett left Farnham for London
when he was twenty-one, but often revisited his native town in later
years. When he died, in 1835, he was buried in Farnham churchyard. The
grave faces the porch on the north side of the church. The Rev. Augustus
Toplady, who wrote the universally known hymn "Rock of Ages," was born
in a little house in West Street, Farnham, which was rebuilt some years

Overlooking the town from the hills to the north is Farnham Castle, the
historic seat of the Bishops of Winchester for many generations past. A
portion of the buildings, including the keep, are of Norman origin, the
rest having been chiefly built by Bishop Fox in the early part of the
sixteenth century. During the Parliamentary war Farnham Castle was for
some time the headquarters of the Roundhead army operating in this part
of the country, Sir William Waller having overcome the garrison placed
there by the High Sheriff of Surrey.

Vernon House, in West Street, is notable by reason of the visit paid to
it by Charles I. when on his way to London as a prisoner in the hands of
the Parliamentary troops. The silk cap which King Charles presented to
his host is still preserved in the house by the present owner, a
descendant of the Vernon family.



=How to get there.=--Train from Waterloo. L. and S.W. Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Haslemere.
=Distance from London.=--43 miles.
=Average Time.=--1-1/2 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 7s. 2d. 4s. 6d. 3s. 7d.
Return 12s. 6d. 8s. 0d. 6s. 8d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Old Swan Hotel," "The Hindhead
Beacon," "White Horn Hotel," Haslemere. "Hindhead
Hotel," "Royal Anchor Hotel," Liphook, etc.

The Hindhead district, not long ago one of the wildest in the home
counties, has of late been much encroached upon by the erection of
modern villas and houses. A few years back there was scarcely a vestige
of human habitation to be seen from the road skirting the "Devil's
Punchbowl," or the descent on the other side, but since the time
Professor Tyndall built his house there, the aspect of the country has
been in places considerably changed.

From Haslemere Station one may take a direct road to the Hindhead
summit, but the most interesting route is through Shottermill, about a
mile distant (see p. 64). From here an easy walk takes one into the main
Portsmouth road close to the Seven Thorns Inn, where there is a long
ascent to the summit of Hindhead, with its inn, the Royal Huts Hotel.
Close by is the village of Grayshott, now fast growing into a place of
considerable residential importance. Following the road Londonwards, one
arrives in a few hundred yards at the very highest point of the road
over Hindhead, after which it drops gently, skirting the magnificent
hollow known as the "Devil's Punchbowl." On the left-hand side, in the
loneliest part of the road, is the gruesome tombstone which marks the
spot where an unknown sailor was murdered and robbed while tramping from
Portsmouth to London. This stone and its surroundings, it will be
remembered, are mentioned in _Nicholas Nickleby_, in the account of the
walk of Nicholas and Smike from London to Portsmouth. Close by, on the
opposite side of the road, there is a rough sandy track--once the old
coach road--which leads up to the stone cross on the extreme summit of
the Hindhead--900 feet above sea-level--where the murderers of the
sailor were executed, and hung in chains. The view from this point,
aptly named Gibbet Hill, is quite magnificent for Surrey.

On the northern slope of Blackdown--the high ridge of hills towards the
south-east--is Aldworth House, where Tennyson resided in his latter


Near the highest point, where it crosses Hindhead.]



=How to get there.=--Train from Waterloo Station. L. and S.W.
=Nearest Station.=--Haslemere (1 mile by road from Shottermill
=Distance from London.=--43 miles.
=Average Time.=--From 1-1/2 to 2 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 7s. 2d. 4s. 6d. 3s. 7d.
Return 12s. 6d. 8s. 0d. 6s. 8d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--At Haslemere--"White Horse Hotel,"
"Swan Hotel," etc. "Oakland's Mansion Private Hotel."

This lovely little village, on the slopes of Hindhead, with its breezy
uplands, its hills covered with Scotch firs and its undulating tracts of
land, so beautiful in the autumn with the glorious purple heather, was
much beloved by George Eliot, known to the whole world as the writer of
_Adam Bede_ and the _Mill on the Floss_. In 1871, while _Middlemarch_
was appearing in parts, George Eliot, who as Mr. Lewes said, "never
seemed at home except under a broad sweep of sky," spent part of the
spring and summer at Brookbank,--an old-fashioned gabled cottage in the
village (close to the church) with delightful lattice-paned
windows,--belonging to a Mrs. Gilchrist. At this time George Eliot was
in a delicate state of health and scarcely equal to finishing her new
story. One cannot call it a novel, for it had no plot. It was simply a
remarkable picture of provincial life in the first half of the
nineteenth century. George Eliot greatly enjoyed her quiet life at
Shottermill, although many of her friends thought it incomprehensible
that she could endure such a secluded life. One can scarcely read her
graphic description of the sweet beauty of a Warwickshire lane, with its
hedgerows all radiant in summer beauty, without feeling how much this
remarkable woman loved it all, and in some degree one may understand how
restful were the village surroundings. They led a most uneventful life,
but occasionally would pay a visit to Tennyson, whose house at Aldworth
was only 3 miles off. George Eliot rarely went out in the daytime, but
sometimes she would go to see some cottagers and have a chat with them.
A farmer's wife was greatly astonished at her knowledge of
butter-making, and of the growth of fruit and vegetables, little
imagining that in her early days, after her mother's death, the great
authoress had managed the dairy in her own home at Griff House.

[Illustration: BROOKBANK.

George Eliot's cottage at Shottermill, near Haslemere.]


=How to get there.=--Train from Victoria or London Bridge. L.B.
and S.C. Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Billingshurst (3 miles from Thakeham).
=Distance from London.=--44 miles.
=Average Time.=--1-1/2 to 2-1/2 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 7s. 2d. 4s. 8d. 3s. 6-1/2d.
Return 11s. 5d. 8s. 2d. 7s. 1d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--None at Thakeham. "King's Arms"
at Billingshurst.

The little chapel where the great William Penn used to worship when he
lived at the old mansion of Warminghurst is so entirely buried in the
country that one must make careful inquiries in order to find one's way
to it from Billingshurst. When one reaches the cottage at last, one
finds a gate right across the road, for beyond it the lane gradually
deteriorates to a mere grassy track between hedges. Locally this
Thakeham meeting-house is known as the "Blue Idol," a name not
altogether explained when one discovers that for a long period the
interior of the chapel had blue-washed walls.

As one may see from the drawing given here, it is an exceedingly quaint
old building, the portion shown being used as a meeting-house, the other
half being a cottage occupied by the family who act as caretakers. The
cream-washed walls are broken up by the richly mellowed half-timber
work, and above is the roof of grey green Horsham slabs splashed over
with bright orange lichen.

Inside there are the very old oaken settles as well as less ancient
ones. The timber framing shows on the walls and roof, here, as on the
exterior, and the general quaintness of the place is enhanced by the old
stone-flagged floor. Of William Penn's house at Warminghurst no traces
whatever remain, but this only helps to increase the interest in the
little chapel which has remained entirely unaltered for over two
centuries. Penn, who bought the house in 1682, probably chose its site
on account of its remoteness, for those were the days when their
meetings were at any moment liable to interruption--when the members of
the congregation met together knowing well that discovery meant
imprisonment. In the quaint little meeting-house it is easy to feel the
spirit of the Quakers, and one may almost imagine that one hears outside
the rumble of the wheels of the heavy ox-waggon in which Penn drove over
from Warminghurst Place.


Where William Penn used to worship.]


=How to get there.=--Train from Waterloo. L. and S.W. Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Alton (1 mile from Chawton).
=Distance from London.=--46-1/2 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 1-3/4 to 2 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 7s. 9d. 5s. 0d. 3s. 10-1/2d.
Return 13s. 6d. 8s. 8d. 7s. 9d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--At Alton--"Swan Hotel," "Crown
Hotel," etc.

Situated about a mile from Alton Station, on the main line of the
South-Western Railway, is the little village of Chawton, the residence
of Jane Austen at the time when she was producing her best literary
work. A walk along the main Winchester road brings one to the charming
old-world place, and, keeping on past the thatched cottages of the
village, one reaches a small brick house on the right-hand side, near a
pond, just before the road divides for Winchester and Gosport. This
building, which is now tenanted by a workman's club, was Chawton
Cottage, where Jane Austen spent some of the brightest days of her life,
and wrote her most successful novels, books which are more highly
appreciated at the present day than they were during the lifetime of the

Her father was rector of Steventon, another Hampshire village, at which
place his daughter was born in 1775, and where her early days were
spent. Jane Austen's novels are remarkable for the truthfulness and
charm with which they reproduce the everyday life of the upper middle
classes in England in her time, and for delicate and yet distinct
insight into every variety of the human character. Miss Austen's first
four novels, _Sense and Sensibility_, _Pride and Prejudice_, _Mansfield
Park_, and _Emma_, were published anonymously.

A short distance along the Gosport road is Chawton Park, a remarkably
fine Elizabethan mansion, occupied in Miss Austen's time by Edward
Knight, the lord of the manor. This country seat, which is not
accessible to visitors, was most probably the original of _Mansfield
Park_, and in the little church close by are several monuments to the
Knight family. Miss Austen died at Winchester on July 24, 1817, and is
buried in the cathedral. The brass to her memory is in the north aisle.

Within easy walking distance is Gilbert White's home at Selborne, which
is treated under a separate heading (p. 70).


_Sense and Sensibility_, _Pride and Prejudice_, and _Northanger Abbey_
were revised and partly rewritten here; and _Emma_, _Mansfield Park_,
and _Persuasion_ were entirely produced at the cottage.]



=How to get there.=--Train from Waterloo. L. and S.W. Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Alton (4 miles from Selborne).
=Distance from London.=--46-1/2 miles. East Tisted, 2 miles from Selborne,
shortly to be available.
=Average Time.=--1-3/4 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.=--Single 7s. 9d. 5s. 0d. 3s. 10-1/2d.
Return 13s. 6d. 8s. 8d. 7s. 9d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--At Alton--"Swan Hotel," "Crown
Hotel," etc.

Selborne, the birthplace of the famous naturalist, Gilbert White, is
situated in the extreme eastern corner of the county of Hampshire. A
vast chalk hill rises some 300 feet above the south-western side of the
village, part of which is covered with an extensive beech wood, called
"The Hanger," and a down or sheep-walk. This down is a beautiful
park-like spot, with a delightful woodland, now bounded by the Sussex

Book of the day: