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Webster's Unabridged Dictionary

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description of joints.
ArOthrol6oOgy , n. [Gr. ? joint + Ology.] That part of
anatomy which treats of joints.
Ar6throOmere (?), n. [Gr. ? joint + Omere.] (Zol.) One of
the body segments of Arthropods. See Arthrostraca.
X Ar7throOpleu6ra (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. ? joint + ? the
side.] (Zol.) The side or limbPbearing portion of an
Ar6throOpod (?), n (Zol.) One of the Arthropoda.
X ArOthrop6oOda (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. ? joint + Opoda.]
(Zol.) A large division of Articulata, embracing all those
that have jointed legs. It includes Insects, Arachnida,
Pychnogonida, and Crustacea. P ArOthrop6oOdal (?), a.
X Ar7throOpom6aOta (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. ? joint + ?
lid.] (Zol.) One of the orders of Branchiopoda. See
X ArOthro6sis (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. ?, fr. ? joint.] (Anat.)
X ArOthros6traOca , n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. ? joint + ? a
shell.] (Zol.) One of the larger divisions of Crustacea, so
called because the thorax and abdomen are both segmented;
Tetradecapoda. It includes the Amphipoda and Isopoda.
Ar7throOzo6ic (?), a. [Gr. ? joint + ? animal, fr. ? an
animal.] (Zol.) Of or pertaining to the Articulata;
Ar6tiOad (?), a. [Gr. ? even, fr. ? exactly.] (Chem.) Even;
not odd; P said of elementary substances and of radicals the
valence of which is divisible by two without a remainder.
Ar6tiOchoke (?), n. [It. articioc?o, perh. corrupted fr. the
same word as carciofo; cf. older spellings archiciocco,
archicioffo, carciocco, and Sp. alcachofa, Pg. alcachofra;
prob. fr. Ar. alPharshaf, alPkharsh?f.] (Bot.) 1. The Cynara
scolymus, a plant somewhat resembling a thistle, with a
dilated, imbricated, and prickly involucre. The head (to
which the name is also applied) is composed of numerous oval
scales, inclosing the florets, sitting on a broad
receptacle, which, with the fleshy base of the scales, is
much esteemed as an article of food.
2. See Jerusalem artichoke.
Ar6tiOcle (?), n. [F., fr. L. articulus, dim. of artus
joint, akin to Gr. ?, fr. a root ar to join, fit. See Art,
n.] 1. A distinct portion of an instrument, discourse,
literary work, or any other writing, consisting of two or
more particulars, or treating of various topics; as, an
article in the Constitution. Hence: A clause in a contract,
system of regulations, treaty, or the like; a term,
condition, or stipulation in a contract; a concise
statement; as, articles of agreement.
2. A literary composition, forming an independent portion of
a magazine, newspaper, or cyclopedia.
3. Subject; matter; concern; distinct. [Obs.]
A very great revolution that happened in this article of
good breeding.
This last article will hardly be believed.
De Foe.
4. A distinct part. =Upon each article of human duty.8
Paley. =Each article of time.8 Habington.
The articles which compose the blood.
E. Darwin.
5. A particular one of various things; as, an article of
merchandise; salt is a necessary article.
They would fight not for articles of faith, but for articles
of food.
6. Precise point of time; moment. [Obs. or Archaic]
This fatal news coming to Hick's Hall upon the article of my
Lord Russell's trial, was said to have had no little
influence on the jury and all the bench to his prejudice.
7. (Gram.) One of the three words, a, an, the, used before
nouns to limit or define their application. A (or an) is
called the indefinite article, the the definite article.
8. (Zol.) One of the segments of an articulated appendage.
Articles of Confederation, the compact which was first made
by the original thirteen States of the United States. They
were adopted March 1, 1781, and remained the supreme law
until March, 1789. P Articles of impeachment, an instrument
which, in cases of impeachment, performs the same office
which an indictment does in a common criminal case. P
Articles of war, rules and regulations, fixed by law, for
the better government of the army. P In the ~ of death [L.
in articulo mortis], at the moment of death; in the dying
struggle. P Lords of the articles (Scot. Hist.), a standing
committee of the Scottish Parliament to whom was intrusted
the drafting and preparation of the acts, or bills for laws.
P The ThirtyPnine Articles, statements (thirtyPnine in
number) of the tenets held by the Church of England.
Ar6tiOcle, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Articled (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
Articling (?).] [Cf. F. articuler, fr. L. articulare. See
Article, n., Articulate.] 1. To formulate in articles; to
set forth in distinct particulars.
If all his errors and follies were articled against him, the
man would seem vicious and miserable.
Jer. Taylor.
2. To accuse or charge by an exhibition of articles.
He shall be articled against in the high court of admiralty.
Stat. 33 Geo. III.
3. To bind by articles of covenant or stipulation; as, to
article an apprentice to a mechanic.
Ar6tiOcle, v. i. To agree by articles; to stipulate; to
bargain; to covenant. [R.]
Then he articled with her that he should go away when he
Ar6tiOcled (?), a. Bound by articles; apprenticed; as, an
articled clerk.
ArOtic6uOlar (?), a. [L. articularis: cf. F. articulaire.
See Article, n.] Of or pertaining to the joints; as, an
articular disease; an articular process.
ArOtic6uOlar (?), ArOtic6uOlaOry (?), } n. (Anat.) A bone in
the base of the lower jaw of many birds, reptiles,
amphibians, and fishes.

<-- p. 86 -->

ArOtic6uOlarOly , adv. In an articular or an articulate
X ArOtic7uOla6ta (?), n. pl. [Neut. pl. from L. articulatus
furnished with joints, distinct, p. p. of articulare. See
Article, v.] (Zol.) 1. One of the four subkingdoms in the
classification of Cuvier. It has been much modified by later
5 It includes those Invertebrata having the body composed of
ringlike segments (arthromeres). By some writers, the
unsegmented worms (helminths) have also been included; by
others it is restricted to the Arthropoda. It corresponds
nearly with the Annulosa of some authors. The chief
subdivisions are Arthropoda (Insects, Myriapoda, Arachnida,
Pycnogonida, Crustacea); and Anarthropoda, including the
Annelida and allied forms.
2. One of the subdivisions of the Brachiopoda, including
those that have the shells united by a hinge.
3. A subdivision of the Crinoidea.
ArOtic6uOlate (?), a. [L. articulatus. See Articulata.] 1.
Expressed in articles or in separate items or particulars.
2. Jointed; formed with joints; consisting of segments
united by joints; as, articulate animals or plants.
3. Distinctly uttered; spoken so as to be intelligible;
characterized by division into words and syllables; as,
articulate speech, sounds, words.
Total changes of party and articulate opinion.
ArOtic6uOlate, n. (Zol.) An animal of the subkingdom
ArOtic6uOlate (?)(?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Articulated (?);
p. pr. & vb. n. Articulating (?). 1. To utter ~ sounds; to
utter the elementary sounds of a language; to enunciate; to
speak distinctly.
2. To treat or make terms. [Obs.]
3. To join or be connected by articulation.
ArOtic6uOlate, v. t. 1. To joint; to unite by means of a
joint; to put together with joints or at the joints.
2. To draw up or write in separate articles; to
particularize; to specify. [Obs.]
3. To form, as the elementary sounds; to utter in distinct
syllables or words; to enunciate; as, to articulate letters
or language. =To articulate a word.8
4. To express distinctly; to give utterance to.
Luther articulated himself upon a process that hand already
begun in the Christian church.
Bibliotheca Sacra.
To... articulate the dumb, deep want of the people.
ArOtic6uOla7ted (?), a. 1. United by, or provided with,
articulations; jointed; as, an articulated skeleton.
2. Produced, as a letter, syllable, or word, by the organs
of speech; pronounced.
ArOtic6uOlateOly (?), adv. 1. After the manner, or in the
form, of a joint.
2. Article by article; in distinct particulars; in detail;
I had articulately set down in writing our points.
3. With distinct utterance of the separate sounds.
ArOtic6uOlateOness, n. Quality of being articulate.
ArOtic7uOla6tion (?), n. [Cf. F. articulation, fr. L.
articulatio.] 1. (Anat.) A joint or juncture between bones
in the skeleton.
5 Articulations may be immovable, when the bones are
directly united (synarthrosis), or slightly movable, when
they are united intervening substance (amphiarthrosis), or
they may be more or less freely movable, when the articular
surfaces are covered with synovial membranes, as in complete
joints (diarthrosis). The last (diarthrosis) includes hinge
joints, admitting motion in one plane only (ginglymus), ball
and socket joints (enarthrosis), pivot and rotation joints,
2. (Bot.) (a) The connection of the parts of a plant by
joints, as in pods. (b) One of the nodes or joints, as in
cane and maize. (c) One of the parts intercepted between the
joints; also, a subdivision into parts at regular or
irregular intervals as a result of serial intermission in
growth, as in the cane, grasses, etc.
3. The act of putting together with a joint or joints; any
meeting of parts in a joint.
4. The state of being jointed; connection of parts. [R.]
That definiteness and articulation of imagery.
5. The utterance of the elementary sounds of a language by
the appropriate movements of the organs, as in
pronunciation; as, a distinct articulation.
6. A sound made by the vocal organs; an articulate utterance
or an elementary sound, esp. a consonant.
ArOtic6uOlaOtive (?), a. Of or pertaining to articulation.
ArOtic6uOla7tor (?), n. One who, or that which, articulates;
as: (a) One who enunciates distinctly. (b) One who prepares
and mounts skeletons. (c) An instrument to cure stammering.
X ArOtic6uOlus (?)(?) n.; pl. Articuli (?). [L. See
Article.] (Zol.) A joint of the cirri of the Crinoidea; a
joint or segment of an arthropod appendage.
Ar6tiOfice (?), n. [L. artificium, fr. artifex artificer;
ars, artis, art + facere to make: cf. F. artifice.] 1. A
handicraft; a trade; art of making. [Obs.]
2. Workmanship; a skillfully contrived work.
The material universe.. in the artifice of God, the artifice
of the best Mechanist.
3. Artful or skillful contrivance.
His [Congreve's] plots were constructed without much
4. Crafty device; an artful, ingenious, or elaborate trick.
[Now the usual meaning.]
Those who were conscious of guilt employed numerous
artifices for the purpose of averting inquiry.
ArOtif6iOcer (?), n. [Cf. F. artificier, fr. LL.
artificiarius.] 1. An artistic worker; a mechanic or
manufacturer; one whose occupation requires skill or
knowledge of a particular kind, as a silversmith.
2. One who makes or contrives; a deviser, inventor, or
framer. =Artificer of fraud.8
The great Artificer of all that moves.
3. A cunning or artful fellow. [Obs.]
B. Jonson.
4. (Mil.) A military mechanic, as a blacksmith, carpenter,
etc.; also, one who prepares the shells, fuses, grenades,
etc., in a military laboratory.
Syn. - Artisan; artist. See Artisan.
Ar7tiOfi6cial (?), a. [L. artificialis, fr. artificium: cf.
F. artificiel. See Artifice.] 1. Made or contrived by art;
produced or modified by human skill and labor, in opposition
to natural; as, artificial heat or light, gems, salts,
minerals, fountains, flowers.
Artificial strife
Lives in these touches, livelier than life.
2. Feigned; fictitious; assumed; affected; not genuine.
=Artificial tears.8
3. Artful; cunning; crafty. [Obs.]
4. Cultivated; not indigenous; not of spontaneous growth;
as, artificial grasses.
w arguments (Rhet.), arguments invented by the speaker, in
distinction from laws, authorities, and the like, which are
called inartificial arguments or proofs. Johnson. P w
classification (science), an arrangement based on
superficial characters, and not expressing the true natural
relations species; as, =the artificial system8 in botany,
which is the same as the Linnan system. P w horizon. See
under Horizon. w light, any light other than that which
proceeds from the heavenly bodies. P w lines, lines on a
sector or scale, so contrived as to represent the
logarithmic sines and tangents, which, by the help of the
line of numbers, solve, with tolerable exactness, questions
in trigonometry, navigation, etc. P w numbers, logarithms. P
w person (Law). See under Person. P w sines, tangents, etc.,
the same as logarithms of the natural, tangents, etc.
Ar7tiOfi7ciOal6iOty (?), n. The quality or appearance of
being artificial; that which is artificial.
Ar7tiOfi6cialOize (?), v. t. To render artificial.
Ar7tiOfi6cialOly, adv. 1. In an artificial manner; by art,
or skill and contrivance, not by nature.
2. Ingeniously; skillfully. [Obs.]
The spider's web, finely and artificially wrought.
3. Craftily; artfully. [Obs.]
Sharp dissembled so artificially.
Bp. Burnet.
Ar7tiOfi6cialOness, n. The quality of being artificial.
Ar7tiOfi6cious (?), a. [L. artificiosus.] Artificial. [Obs.]
Art6iOlize (?), v. t. To make resemble. [Obs.]
If I was a philosopher, says Montaigne, I would naturalize
art instead of artilizing nature.
ArOtil6lerOist (?), n. A person skilled in artillery or
gunnery; a gunner; an artilleryman.
ArOtil6lerOy (?), n. [OE. artilrie, OF. artillerie,
arteillerie, fr. LL. artillaria, artilleria, machines and
apparatus of all kinds used in war, vans laden with arms of
any kind which follow camps; F. artillerie great guns,
ordnance; OF. artillier to work artifice, to fortify, to
arm, prob. from L. ars, artis, skill in joining something,
art. See Art.] 1. Munitions of war; implements for warfare,
as slings, bows, and arrows. [Obs.]
And Jonathan gave his artillery unto his lad.
1 Sam. xx. 40.
2. Cannon; great guns; ordnance, including guns, mortars,
howitzers, etc., with their equipment of carriages, balls,
bombs, and shot of all kinds.
5 The word is sometimes used in a more extended sense,
including the powder, cartridges, matches, utensils,
machines of all kinds, and horses, that belong to a train of
3. The men and officers of that branch of the army to which
the care and management of ~ are confided.
4. The science of ~ or gunnery.
w park, or Park of ~. (a) A collective body of siege or
field ~, including the guns, and the carriages, ammunition,
appurtenances, equipments, and persons necessary for working
them. (b) The place where the ~ is encamped or collected. P
w train, or Train of ~, a number of pieces of ordnance
mounted on carriages, with all their furniture, ready for
ArOtil6lerOyOman (?), n. A man who manages, or assists in
managing, a large gun in firing.
X Ar7tiOoOdac6tyOla (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. ? even + ?
finger or toe.] (Zol.) One of the divisions of the ungulate
animals. The functional toes of the hind foot are even in
number, and the third digit of each foot (corresponding to
the middle finger in man) is asymmetrical and paired with
the fourth digit, as in the hog, the sheep, and the ox; P
opposed to Perissodactyla.
Ar7tiOoOdac6tyle (?), n. (Zol.) One of the Artiodactyla.
Ar7tiOoOdac6tyOlous (?), a. (Zol.) EvenPtoed.
Ar6tiOsan (?; 277), n. [F. artisan, fr. L. artitus skilled
in arts, fr. ars, artis, art: cf. It. artigiano. See Art,
n.] 1. One who professes and practices some liberal art; an
artist. [Obs.]
2. One trained to manual dexterity in some mechanic art or
trade; and handicraftsman; a mechanic.
This is willingly submitted to by the artisan, who can...
compensate his additional toil and fatigue.
Syn. - Artificer; artist. P Artisan, Artist, Artificer. An
artist is one who is skilled in some one of the fine arts;
an artisan is one who exercises any mechanical employment. A
portrait painter is an artist; a sign painter is an artisan,
although he may have the taste and skill of an artist. The
occupation of the former requires a fine taste and delicate
manipulation; that of the latter demands only an ordinary
degree of contrivance and imitative power. An artificer is
one who requires power of contrivance and adaptation in the
exercise of his profession. The word suggest neither the
idea of mechanical conformity to rule which attaches to the
term artisan, nor the ideas of refinement and of peculiar
skill which belong to the term artist.
Art6ist (?), n. [F. artiste, LL. artista, fr. L. ars. See
Art, n., and cf. Artiste.] 1. One who practices some
mechanic art or craft; an artisan. [Obs.]
How to build ships, and dreadful ordnance cast,
Instruct the articles and reward their.
2. One who professes and practices an art in which science
and taste preside over the manual execution.
5 The term is particularly applied to painters, sculptors,
musicians, engravers, and architects.
3. One who shows trained skill or rare taste in any manual
art or occupation.
4. An artful person; a schemer. [Obs.]
Syn. - Artisan. See Artisan.
X ArOtiste6 (?), n. [F. See Artist.] One peculiarly
dexterous and tasteful in almost any employment, as an opera
dancer, a hairdresser, a cook.
5 This term should not be confounded with the English word
ArOtis6tic , ArOtis6ticOal (?), } a. [Cf. F. artistique, fr.
artiste.] Of or pertaining to art or to artists; made in the
manner of an artist; conformable to art; characterized by
art; showing taste or skill. P ArOtis6ticOalOly, adv.
Art6istOry (?), n. 1. Works of art collectively.
2. Artistic effect or quality.
3. Artistic pursuits; artistic ability.
The Academy.
Art6less (?), a. 1. Wanting art, knowledge, or skill;
ignorant; unskillful.
Artless of stars and of the moving sand.
2. Contrived without skill or art; inartistic. [R.]
Artless and massy pillars.
T. Warton.
3. Free from guile, art, craft, or stratagem; characterized
by simplicity and sincerity; sincere; guileless; ingenuous;
honest; as, an artless mind; an artless tale.
They were plain, artless men, without the least appearance
of enthusiasm or credulity about them.
O, how unlike the complex works of man,
Heaven's easy, artless, unencumbered plan!
Syn. - Simple; unaffected; sincere; undesigning; guileless;
unsophisticated; open; frank; candid.
Art6lessOly, adv. In an artless manner; without art, skill,
or guile; unaffectedly.
Art6lessOness, n. The quality of being artless, or void of
art or guile; simplicity; sincerity.
Art6ly, adv. With art or skill. [Obs.]
Ar7toOcar6peOous (?), Ar7toOcar6pous (?), } a. [Gr. ? bread
+ ? fruit.] (Bot.) Of or pertaining to the breadfruit, or to
the genus Artocarpus.
Ar6toOtype (?), n. [Art + type.] A kind of autotype.
Ar7toOty6rite (?), n. [LL. Artotyritae, pl., fr. Gr. ? bread
+ ? cheese.] (Eccl. Hist.) One of a sect in the primitive
church, who celebrated the Lord's Supper with bread and
cheese, alleging that the first oblations of men not only
of the fruit of the earth, but of their flocks. [Gen. iv. 3,
Ar6tow (?). A contraction of art thou. [Obs.]
Arts6man (?), n. A man skilled in an art or in arts. [Obs.]
Art7 un6ion (?). An association for promoting art (esp. the
arts of design), and giving encouragement to artists.
X A6rum , n. [L. arum, aros, Gr. ?.] A genus of plants found
in central Europe and about the Mediterranean, having
flowers on a spadix inclosed in a spathe. The cuckoopint of
the English is an example.
Our common arums the lords and ladies of village children.
5 The American =Jack in the pulpit8 is now separated from
the genus Arum.
Ar7unOdel6ian (?), a. Pertaining to an Earl of Arundel; as,
Arundel or Arundelian marbles, marbles from ancient Greece,
bought by the Earl of Arundel in 1624.
Ar7unOdif6erOous , a. [L. arundifer; arundo reed + ferre to
bear.] Producing reeds or canes.
AOrun7diOna6ceous (?), a. [L. arundinaceus, fr. arundo
reed.] Of or pertaining to a reed; resembling the reed or
Ar7unOdin6eOous (?), a. [L. arundineus, fr. arundo reed.]
Abounding with reeds; reedy.
X AOrus6pex (?), n.; pl. Aruspices (?). [L. aruspex or
haruspex.] One of the class of diviners among the Etruscans
and Romans, who foretold events by the inspection of the
entrails of victims offered on the altars of the gods.
AOrus6pice (?), n. [L. aruspex: cf. F. aruspice. Cf.
Aruspex, Haruspice.] A soothsayer of ancient Rome. Same as
Aruspex. [Written also haruspice.]
AOrus6piOcy (?), n. [L. aruspicium, haruspicium.]
Prognostication by inspection of the entrails of victims
slain sacrifice.
Ar6val (?), n. [W. arwyl funeral; ar over + wylo to weep, or
cf. arfl; Icel. arfr inheritance + Sw. l ale. Cf. Bridal.]
A funeral feast. [North of Eng.]
Ar6viOcole (?), n. [L. arvum field + colere to inhabit.]
(Zol.) A mouse of the genus Arvicola; the meadow mouse.
There are many species.
Ar6yan (?), n. [Skr. >rya excellent, honorable; akin to the
name of the country Iran, and perh. to Erin, Ireland, and
the early name of this people, at least in Asia.] 1. One of
a primitive people supposed to have lived in prehistoric
times, in Central Asia, east of the Caspian Sea, and north
of the Hindoo ???? and Paropamisan Mountains, and to have
been the stock from which sprang the Hindoo, Persian, Greek,
Latin, Celtic, Teutonic, Slavonic, and other races; one of
that ethnological division of mankind called also
IndoPEuropean or IndoPGermanic.

<-- p. 87 -->

2. The language of the original Aryans.
[Written also Arian.]
Ar6yan (?), a. Of or pertaining to the people called Aryans;
IndoPEuropean; IndoPGermanic; as, the Aryan stock, the Aryan
Ar6yanOize , v. t. To make Aryan (a language, or in
K. Johnston.
AOryt6eOnoid (?), a. [Gr. ? shaped like a ladle; ? a ladle +
? form.] (Anat.) LadlePshaped; P applied to two small
cartilages of the larynx, and also to the glands, muscles,
etc., connected with them. The cartilages are attached to
the cricoid cartilage and connected with the vocal cords.
As (?), adv. & conj. [OE. as, als, alse, also, al swa, AS.
eal sw>, lit. all so; hence, quite so, quite as: cf. G. als
as, than, also so, then. See Also.] 1. Denoting equality or
likeness in kind, degree, or manner; like; similar to; in
the same manner with or in which; in accordance with; in
proportion to; to the extent or degree in which or to
which; equally; no less than; as, ye shall be as gods,
knowing good and evil; you will reap as you sow; do as you
are bidden.
His spiritual attendants adjured him, as he loved his soul,
to emancipate his brethren.
5 As is often preceded by one of the antecedent or
correlative words such, same, so, or as, in expressing an
equality or comparison; as, give us such things as you
please, and so long as you please, or as long as you please;
he is not so brave as Cato; she is as amiable as she is
handsome; come as quickly as possible. =Bees appear
fortunately to prefer the same colors as we do.8 Lubbock.
As, in a preceding part of a sentence, has such or so to
answer correlatively to it; as with the people, so with the
2. In the idea, character, or condition of, P limiting the
view to certain attributes or relations; as, virtue
considered as virtue; this actor will appear as Hamlet.
The beggar is greater as a man, than is the man merely as a
3. While; during or at the same time that; when; as, he
trembled as he spoke.
As I return I will fetch off these justices.
4. Because; since; it being the case that.
As the population of Scotland had been generally trained to
arms... they were not indifferently prepared.
Sir W. Scott.
[See Synonym under Because.]
5. Expressing concession. (Often approaching though in
We wish, however, to avail ourselves of the interest,
transient as it may be, which this work has excited.
6. That, introducing or expressing a result or consequence,
after the correlatives so and such.[Obs.]
I can place thee in such abject state, as help shall never
find thee.
So ~, so that. [Obs.]
The relations are so uncertain as they require a great deal
of examination.
7. As if; as though. [Obs. or Poetic]
He lies, as he his bliss did know.
8. For instance; by way of example; thus; P used to
introduce illustrative phrases, sentences, or citations.
9. Than. [Obs. & R.]
The king was not more forward to bestow favors on them as
they free to deal affronts to others their superiors.
10 Expressing a wish. [Obs.] =As have,8 i. e., may he have.

As... as. See So... as, under So. P As far as, to the extent
or degree. =As far as can be ascertained.8 Macaulay. P As
far forth as, as far as. [Obs.] Chaucer. P As for, or As to,
in regard to; with respect to. P As good as, not less than;
not falling short of. P As good as one's word, faithful to a
promise. P As if, or As though, of the same kind, or in the
same condition or manner, that it would be if. P As it were
(as it were), a qualifying phrase used to apologize for or
to relieve some expression which might be regarded as
inappropriate or incongruous; in a manner. P As now, just
now. [Obs.] Chaucer. P As swythe, as quickly as possible.
[Obs.] Chaucer. P As well, also; too; besides. Addison. P As
well as, equally with, no less than. =I have understanding
as well as you.8 Job xii. 3. P As yet, until now; up to or
at the present time; still; now.
As (?), n. [See Ace.] An ace. [Obs.]
AmbesPas, double aces.
X As (?), n.; pl. Asses (?). [L. as. See Ace.] 1. A Roman
weight, answering to the libra or pound, equal to nearly
eleven ounces Troy weight. It was divided into twelve
2. A Roman copper coin, originally of a pound weight (12
oz.); but reduced, after the first Punic war, to two ounces;
in the second Punic war, to one ounce; and afterwards to
half an ounce.
X As6a (?), n. [NL. asa, of oriental origin; cf. Per. az>
mastic, Ar. as> healing, is> remedy.] An ancient name of a
As7aOfet6iOda, As7aOf?t6iOda } (?), n. [Asa + L. foetidus
fetid.] The fetid gum resin or inspissated juice of a large
umbelliferous plant (Ferula asaf?tida) of Persia and the
East India. It is used in medicine as an antispasmodic.
[Written also assaf?tida.]
X As6aOphus (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. ? indistinct, uncertain.]
(Paleon.) A genus of trilobites found in the Lower Silurian
formation. See Illust. in Append.
X As7aOraObac6ca (?), n. [L. asarum + bacca a berry. See
Asarone.] (Bot.) An acrid herbaceous plant (Asarum
Europum), the leaves and roots of which are emetic and
cathartic. It is principally used in cephalic snuffs.
As6aOrone (?), n. [L. asarum hazelwort, wild spikenard, Gr.
?] (Chem.) A crystallized substance, resembling camphor,
obtained from the Asarum Europum; P called also camphor of
AsObes6tic (?), a. Of, pertaining to, or resembling
asbestus; inconsumable; asbestine.
AsObes6tiOform (?), a. [L. asbestus + Oform.] Having the
form or structure of asbestus.
AsObes6tine (?), a. Of or pertaining to asbestus, or
partaking of its nature; incombustible; asbestic.
AsObes6tous (?), a. Asbestic.
AsObes6tus (?), AsObes6tos (?; 277), } n. [L. asbestos (NL.
asbestus) a kind of mineral unaffected by fire, Gr. ? (prop.
an adj.) inextinguishable; ? priv. + ? to extinguish.]
(Min.) A variety of amphibole or of pyroxene, occurring in
long and delicate fibers, or in fibrous masses or seams,
usually of a white, gray, or greenPgray color. The name is
also given to a similar variety of serpentine.
5 The finer varieties have wrought into gloves and cloth
which are incombustible. The cloth was formerly used as a
shroud for dead bodies, and has been recommended for
firemen's clothes. Asbestus in also employed in the
manufacture of iron sa?es, for fireproof roofing, and for
lampwicks. Some varieties are called amianthus.
Ab6soOlin (?), n. [Gr. ? soot.] (Chem.) A peculiar acrid and
bitter oil, obtained from wood soot.
As6caOrid (?), n.; pl. Ascarides (?) or Ascarids. [NL.
ascaris, fr. Gr. ?.] (Zol.) A parasitic nematoid worm,
espec. the roundworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, often occurring
in the human intestine and allied species found in domestic
animals; also commonly applied to the pinworm (Oxyuris),
often troublesome to children and aged persons.
AsOcend6 (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Ascended; p. pr. & vb. n.
Ascending.] [L. ascendere; ad + scandere to climb, mount.
See Scan.] 1. To move upward; to mount; to go up; to rise; P
opposed to descend.
Higher yet that star ascends.
I ascend unto my father and your father.
John xx. 17.
Formerly used with up.
The smoke of it ascended up to heaven.
2. To rise, in a figurative sense; to proceed from an
inferior to a superior degree, from mean to noble objects,
from particulars to generals, from modern to ancient times,
from one note to another more acute, etc.; as, our inquiries
ascend to the remotest antiquity; to ascend to our first
Syn. - To rise; mount; climb; scale; soar; tower.
AsOcend6, v. t. To go or move upward upon or along; to
climb; to mount; to go up the top of; as, to ascend a hill,
a ladder, a tree, a river, a throne.
AsOcend6aOble (?), a. Capable of being ascended.
AsOcend6anOcy (?), AsOcend6ance (?), } n. Same as
AsOcend6ant (?), n. [F. ascendant, L. ascendens; p. pr. of
ascendere.] 1. Ascent; height; elevation. [R.]
Sciences that were then in their highest ascendant.
2. (Astrol.) The horoscope, or that degree of the ecliptic
which roses above the horizon at the moment of one's birth;
supposed to have a commanding influence on a person's life
and fortune.
5 Hence the phrases To be in the ~, to have commanding power
or influence, and Lord of the ~, one who has possession of
such power or influence; as, to rule, for a while, lord of
the ascendant.
3. Superiority, or commanding influence; ascendency; as, one
man has the ascendant over another.
Chievres had acquired over the mind of the young monarch the
ascendant not only of a tutor, but of a parent.
4. An ancestor, or one who precedes in genealogy or degrees
of kindred; a relative in the ascending line; a progenitor;
P opposed to descendant.
AsOcend6ant (?), AsOcend6ent (?), } a. 1. Rising toward the
zenith; above the horizon.
The constellation... about that time ascendant.
2. Rising; ascending.
3. Superior; surpassing; ruling.
An ascendant spirit over him.
The ascendant community obtained a surplus of wealth.
J. S. Mill.
Without some power of persuading or confuting, of defending
himself against accusations, ... no man could possibly hold
an ascendent position.
AsOcend6enOcy (?), n. Governing or controlling influence;
domination; power.
An undisputed ascendency.
Custom has an ascendency over the understanding.
Syn. - Control; authority; influence; sway' dominion;
prevalence; domination.
AsOcend6iOble (?), a. [L. ascendibilis.] Capable of being
ascended; climbable.
AsOcend6ing, a. Rising; moving upward; as, an ascending
kite. P AsOcend6ingOly, adv.
w latitude (Astron.), the increasing latitude of a planet.
Ferguson. P w line (Geneal.), the line of relationship
traced backward or through one's ancestors. One's father and
mother, grandfather and grandmother, etc., are in the line
direct ascending. P w nodehaving, that node of the moon or
a planet wherein it passes the ecliptic to proceed
northward. It is also called the northern node. Herschel. P
w series. (Math.) (a) A series arranged according to the ~
powers of a quantity. (b) A series in which each term is
greater than the preceding. P w signs, signs east of the
AsOcen6sion , n. [F. ascension, L. ascensio, fr. ascendere.
See Ascend.] 1. The act of ascending; a rising; ascent.
2. Specifically: The visible ascent of our Savior on the
fortieth day after his resurrection. (Acts i. 9.) Also,
Ascension Day.
3. An ascending or arising, as in distillation; also that
which arises, as from distillation.
Vaporous ascensions from the stomach.
Sir T. Browne.
w Day, the Thursday but one before Whitsuntide, the day on
which commemorated our Savior's ~ into heaven after his
resurrection; P called also Holy Thursday. P Right ~
(Astron.), that degree of the equinoctial, counted from the
beginning of Aries, which rises with a star, or other
celestial body, in a right sphere; or the arc of the equator
intercepted between the first point of Aries and that point
of the equator that comes to the meridian with the star; P
expressed either in degrees or in time. P Oblique ~
(Astron.), an arc of the equator, intercepted between the
first point of Aries and that point of the equator which
rises together with a star, in an oblique sphere; or the arc
of the equator intercepted between the first point of Aries
and that point of the equator that comes to the horizon with
a star. It is little used in modern astronomy.
AsOcen6sionOal (?), a. Relating to ascension; connected with
ascent; ascensive; tending upward; as, the ascensional power
of a balloon.
w difference (Astron.), the difference between oblique and
right ascension; P used chiefly as expressing the difference
between the time of the rising or setting of a body and six
o'clock, or six hours from its meridian passage.
AsOcen6sive (?), a. [See Ascend.] 1. Rising; tending to
rise, or causing to rise.
2. (Gram.) Augmentative; intensive.
AsOcent6 (?). [Formed like descent, as if from a F. ascente,
fr. a verb ascendre, fr. L. ascendere. See Ascend, Descent.]
1. The act of rising; motion upward; rise; a mounting
upward; as, he made a tedious ascent; the ascent of vapors
from the earth.
To him with swift ascent he up returned.
2. The way or means by which one ascends.
3. An eminence, hill, or high place.
4. The degree of elevation of an object, or the angle it
makes with a horizontal line; inclination; rising grade; as,
a road has an ascent of five degrees.
As7cerOtain6 (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Ascertained (?); p.
pr. & vb. n. Ascertaining.] [OF. acertener; a (L. ad) +
certain. See Certain.] 1. To render (a person) certain; to
cause to feel certain; to make confident; to assure; to
apprise. [Obs.]
When the blessed Virgin was so ascertained.
Jer. Taylor.
Muncer assured them that the design was approved of by
Heaven, and that the Almighty had in a dream ascertained him
of its effects.
2. To make (a thing) certain to the mind; to free from
obscurity, doubt, or change; to make sure of; to fix; to
determine. [Archaic]
The divine law... ascertaineth the truth.
The very deferring [of his execution] shall increase and
ascertain the condemnation.
Jer. Taylor.
The ministry, in order to ascertain a majority... persuaded
the queen to create twelve new peers.
The mildness and precision of their laws ascertained the
rule and measure of taxation.
3. To find out or learn for a certainty, by trial,
examination, or experiment; to get to know; as, to ascertain
the weight of a commodity, or the purity of a metal.
He was there only for the purpose of ascertaining whether a
descent on England was practicable.
As7cerOtain6aOble (?), a. That may be ascertained. P
As7cerOtain6aObleOness, n. P As7cerOtain6aObly, adv.
As7cerOtain6er (?), n. One who ascertains.
As7cerOtain6ment (?), n. The act of ascertaining; a reducing
to certainty; a finding out by investigation; discovery.
The positive ascertainment of its limits.
AsOces6sanOcy (?), n. AsOces6sant (?), a. See Acescency,
Acescent. [Obs.]
AsOcet6ic (?) a. [Gr. ?, fr. ? to exercise, to practice
gymnastics.] Extremely rigid in selfPdenial and devotions;
austere; severe.
The stern ascetic rigor of the Temple discipline.
Sir W. Scott.
AsOcet6ic, n. In the early church, one who devoted himself
to a solitary and contemplative life, characterized by
devotion, extreme selfPdenial, and selfPmortification; a
hermit; a recluse; hence, one who practices extreme rigor
and selfPdenial in religious things.
I am far from commending those ascetics that take up their
quarters in deserts.
w theology, the science which treats of the practice of the
theological and moral virtues, and the counsels of
Am. Cyc.
AsOcet6iOcism (?), n. The condition, practice, or mode of
life, of ascetics.
As6cham (?), n. [From Roger Ascham, who was a great lover of
archery.] A sort of cupboard, or case, to contain bows and
other implements of archery.
X As6ci , n. pl. See Ascus.
As6cian , n. One of the Ascii.
AsOcid6iOan (?), n. [Gr. ? bladder, pouch.] (Zol.) One of
the Ascidioidea, or in a more general sense, one of the
Tunicata. Also as an Adj.
X AsOcid7iOa6riOum (?), n. [NL. See Ascidium.] (Zol.) The
structure which unites together the ascidiozooids in a
compound ascidian.
AsOcid6iOform , a. [Gr. ? a pouch + Oform.] (Zol.) Shaped
like an ascidian.
X AsOcid7iOoid6eOa (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. ascidium + Ooid.
See Ascidium.] (Zol.) A group of Tunicata, often shaped
like a twoPnecked bottle. The group includes, social, and
compound species. The gill is a netlike structure within the
oral aperture. The integument is usually leathery in
texture. See Illustration in Appendix.

<-- p. 88 -->

AsOcid7iOoOzo6oid (?), n. [Ascidium + zooid.] (Zol.) One
of the individual members of a compound ascidian. See
X AsOcid6iOum (?), n.; pl. Ascidia (?). [NL., fr. ascus. See
Ascus.] 1. (Bot.) A pitcherPshaped, or flaskPshaped, organ
or appendage of a plant, as the leaves of the pitcher plant,
or the little bladderlike traps of the bladderwort
2. pl. (Zol.) A genus of simple ascidians, which formerly
included most of the known species. It is sometimes used as
a name for the Ascidioidea, or for all the Tunicata.
AsOcig6erOous (?), a. [Ascus + Ogerous.] (Bot.) Having asci.
X As6ciOi (?), As6cians (?), } n. pl. [L. ascii, pl. of
ascius, Gr. ? without shadow; ? priv. + ? shadow.] Persons
who, at certain times of the year, have no shadow at noon; P
applied to the inhabitants of the torrid zone, who have,
twice a year, a vertical sun.
X AsOci6tes (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. ? (sc. ? disease), fr. ?
bladder, belly.] (Med.) A collection of serous fluid in the
cavity of the abdomen; dropsy of the peritoneum.
AsOcit6ic (?), AsOcit6icOal (?), } a. Of, pertaining to, or
affected by, ascites; dropsical.
As7ciOti6tious (?), a. [See Adscititious.] Supplemental; not
inherent or original; adscititious; additional; assumed.
Homer has been reckoned an ascititious name.
AsOcle6piOad (?), n. (Gr. & L. Pros.) A choriambic verse,
first used by the Greek poet Asclepias, consisting of four
feet, viz., a spondee, two choriambi, and an iambus.
AsOcle7piOaOda6ceous , a. [See Asclepias.] (Bot.) Of,
pertaining to, or resembling, plants of the Milkweed family.
X AsOcle6piOas , n. [L., fr. Gr. ?, named from Asclepios or
Aesculapius.] (Bot.) A genus of plants including the
milkweed, swallowwort, and some other species having
medicinal properties.
w butterfly (Zol.), a large, handsome, red and black
butterfly (Danais Archippus), found in both hemispheres. It
feeds on plants of the genus Asclepias.
X As7coOcoc6cus (?), n.; pl. Ascococci (?). [NL., fr. Gr. ?
bladder, bag + ? kernel.] (Biol.) A form of micrococcus,
found in putrid meat infusions, occurring in peculiar
masses, each of which is inclosed in a hyaline capsule and
contains a large number of spherical micrococci.
As6coOspore (?), n. [Ascus + spore.] (Bot.) One of the
spores contained in the asci of lichens and fungi. [See
Illust. of Ascus.]
AsOcrib6aOble (?), a. Capable of being ascribed;
AsOcribe6 (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Ascribed (?); p. pr. &
vb. n. Ascribing.] [L. ascribere, adscribere, to ascribe; ad
+ scribere to write: cf. OF. ascrire. See Scribe.] 1. To
attribute, impute, or refer, as to a cause; as, his death
was ascribed to a poison; to ascribe an effect to the right
cause; to ascribe such a book to such an author.
The finest [speech] that is ascribed to Satan in the whole
2. To attribute, as a quality, or an appurtenance; to
consider or allege to belong.
Syn. - To Ascribe, Attribute, Impute. Attribute denotes, 1.
To refer some quality or attribute to a being; as, to
attribute power to God. 2. To refer something to its cause
or source; as, to attribute a backward spring to icebergs
off the coast. Ascribe is used equally in both these senses,
but involves a different image. To impute usually denotes to
~ something doubtful or wrong, and hence, in general
literature, has commonly a bad sense; as, to impute unworthy
motives. The theological sense of impute is not here taken
into view.
More than goodPwill to me attribute naught.
Ascribes his gettings to his parts and merit.
And fairly quit him of the imputed blame.
As6cript (?), a. See Adscript. [Obs.]
AsOcrip6tion (?), n. [L. ascriptio, fr. ascribere. See
Ascribe.] The act of ascribing, imputing, or affirming to
belong; also, that which is ascribed.
As7cripOti6tious (?), a. [L. ascriptitius, fr. ascribere.]
1. Ascribed.
2. Added; additional. [Obs.]
An ascriptitious and supernumerary God.
As6cus (?), n.; pl Asci (?). [NL., fr. Gr. ? a bladder.]
(Bot.) A small membranous bladder or tube in which are
inclosed the seedlike reproductive particles or sporules of
lichens and certain fungi.
APsea , adv. [Pref. aO + sea.] On the sea; at sea; toward
the sea.
AOsep6tic (?), a. [Pref. aO not + septic.] Not liable to
putrefaction; nonputrescent. P n. An ~ substance.
AOsex6uOal (?; 135), a. [Pref. aO not + sexual.] (Biol.)
Having no distinct; without sexual action; as, asexual
reproduction. See Fission and Gemmation.
AOsex6uOalOly (?), adv. In an asexual manner; without sexual
Ash (?), n. [OE. asch, esh, AS. sc; akin to OHG. asc, Sw. &
Dan. ask, Icel. askr, D. esch, G. esche.] 1. (Bot.) A genus
of trees of the Olive family, having opposite pinnate
leaves, many of the species furnishing valuable timber, as
the European ash (Fraxinus excelsior) and the white ash (F.
Prickly ~ (Zanthoxylum Americanum) and Poison ~ (R??s
venerala) are shrubs of different families, somewhat
resembling the true ashes in their foliage. P Mountain ~.
See Roman tree, and under Mountain.
2. The tough, elastic wood of the ~ tree.
Ash is used adjectively, or as the first part of a compound
term; as, ash bud, ash wood, ash tree, etc.
Ash, n., sing. of Ashes.
5 Ash is rarely used in the singular except in connection
with chemical or geological products; as, soda ash, coal
which yields a red ash, etc., or as a qualifying or
combining word; as, ash bin, ash heap, ash hole, ash pan,
ash pit, ashPgrey, ashPgrey, ashPcolored, pearlash, potash.
Bone ~, burnt powered; bone earth. P Volcanic ~. See under
Ash, v. t. To strew or sprinkle with ashes.
AOshame (?), v. t. [Pref. aO + shame: cf. AS. >scamian to
shame (where >O is the same as Goth. usO, G. erO, and orig.
meant out), gescamian, gesceamian, to shame.] To shame. [R.]
AOshamed6 (?), a. [Orig. a p. p. of ashame, v. t.] Affected
by shame; abashed or confused by guilt, or a conviction or
consciousness of some wrong action or impropriety. =I am
ashamed to beg.8
All that forsake thee shall be ashamed.
Jer. xvii. 13.
I began to be ashamed of sitting idle.
Enough to make us ashamed of our species.
An ashamed person can hardly endure to meet the gaze of
those present.
5 Ashamed seldom precedes the noun or pronoun it qualifies.
By a Hebraism, it is sometimes used in the Bible to mean
disappointed, or defeated.
AOsham6edOly (?), adv. Bashfully. [R.]
Ash7anOtee6 (?), n.; pl. Ashantees (?). A native or an
inhabitant of Ashantee in Western Africa.
Ash7anOtee6, a. Of or pertaining to Ashantee.
Ash6Pcol7ored (?), a. Of the color of ashes; a whitish gray
or brownish gray.
Ash6en (?), a. [See Ash, the tree.] Of or pertaining to the
ash tree. =Ashen poles.8
Ash6en, a. Consisting of, or resembling, ashes; of a color
between brown and gray, or white and gray.
The ashen hue of age.
Sir W. Scott.
Ash6en (?), n., obs. pl. for Ashes.
Ash6erOy (?), n. 1. A depository for ashes.
2. A place where potash is made.
Ash6es (?), n. pl. [OE. asche, aske, AS. asce, sce, axe;
akin to OHG. asca, G. asche, D. asch, Icel. & Sw. aska, Dan.
aske, Goth. azgo.] 1. The earthy or mineral particles of
combustible substances remaining after combustion, as of
wood or coal.
2. Specifically: The remains of the human body when burnt,
or when 8returned to dust8 by natural decay.
Their martyred blood and ashes sow.
The coffins were broken open. The ashes were scattered to
the winds.
3. The color of ashes; deathlike paleness.
The lip of ashes, and the cheek of flame.
In dust and ~, In sackcloth and ~, with humble expression of
grief or repentance; P from the method of mourning in
Eastern lands. P Volcanic ~, or Volcanic ash, the loose,
earthy matter, or small fragments of stone or lava, ejected
by volcanoes.
Ash6Ofire , n. A low fire used in chemical operations.
Ash6Pfur7nace (?), Ash6Pov7en (?), n. A furnace or oven for
fritting materials for glass making.
AOschine6 (?), a. Shining; radiant.
Ash6lar, Ash6ler } (?), n. [OE. ascheler, achiler, OF.
aiseler, fr. aiselle, dim. of ais plank, fr. L. axis, assis,
plank, axle. See Axle.] 1. (Masonry) (a) Hewn or squared
stone; also, masonry made of squared or hewn stone.
Rough ashlar, a block of freestone as brought from the
quarry. When hammerOdressed it is known as common ashlar.
(b) In the United States especially, a thin facing of
squared and dressed stone upon a wall of rubble or brick.
2. (Carp.) One of the short upright pieces or studs between
the floor beams and the rafters of a garret. Ashlar pieces
cut off the sharp angles between the floor and ceiling.
Ash6larOing, Ash6lerOing, } n. 1. The act of bedding ashlar
in mortar.
2. Ashlar when in thin slabs and made to serve merely as a
case to the body of the wall.
Brande & C.
3. (Carp.) The short upright pieces between the floor beams
and rafters in garrets. See Ashlar, 2.
AOshore6 (?), adv. [Pref. aO + shore.] On shore or on land;
on the land adjacent to water; to the shore; to the land;
aground (when applied to a ship); P sometimes opposed to
aboard or afloat.
Here shall I die ashore.
I must fetch his necessaries ashore.
Ash6toOreth (?), n.; pl. Ashtaroth (?). The principal female
divinity of the Ph?nicians, as Baal was the principal male
W. Smith.
Ash7 Wednes6day (?). The first day of Lent; P so called from
a custom in the Roman Catholic church of putting ashes, on
that day, upon the foreheads of penitents.
Ash6weed7 (?), n. (Bot.) [A corruption of achePweed; F.
ache. So named from the likeness of its leaves to those of
ache (celery).] Goutweed.
Ash6y (?), a. 1. Pertaining to, or composed of, ?shes;
filled, or strewed with, ashes.
2. AshPcolored; whitish gray; deadly pale.
w pale, pale as ~.
A6sian (?), a. [L. Asianus, Gr. ?, fr. ?, L. Asia.] Of or
pertaining to Asia; Asiatic. =Asian princes.8 Jer. Taylor. P
n. An Asiatic.
A6siOarch (?), n. [L. Asiarcha, Gr. ?; ? + ? ruler.] One of
the chiefs or pontiffs of the Roman province of Asia, who
had the superintendence of the public games and religious
A7siOat6ic (?), a. [L. Asiaticus, Gr. ?.] Of or pertaining
to Asia or to its inhabitants. P n. A native, or one of the
people, of Asia.
A7siOat6iOcism (?), n. Something peculiar to Asia or the
AOside6 (?), adv. [Pref. aO + side.] 1. On, or to, one side;
out of a straight line, course, or direction; at a little
distance from the rest; out of the way; apart.
Thou shalt set aside that which is full.
2 Kings iv. 4.
But soft! but soft! aside: here comes the king.
The flames were blown aside.
2. Out of one's thoughts; off; away; as, to put aside gloomy
thoughts. =Lay aside every weight.8
Heb. xii. 1.
3. So as to be heard by others; privately.
Then lords and ladies spake aside.
Sir W. Scott.
To set ~ (Law), to annul or defeat the effect or operation
of, by a subsequent decision of the same or of a superior
tribunal; to declare of no authority; as, to set aside a
verdict or a judgment.
AOside6, n. Something spoken ~; as, a remark made by a
stageplayer which the other players are not supposed to
X AOsi6lus (?), n. [L., a gadfly.] (Zol.) A genus of large
and voracious twoPwinged flies, including the bee killer and
robber fly.
As7One6go, As7siOne6go (?), n. [Sp. asnico, dim. of asno an
ass.] A stupid fellow. [Obs.]
As6iOnine (?), a. [L. asininus, fr. asinus ass. See Ass.] Of
or belonging to, or having the qualities of, the ass, as
stupidity and obstinacy. =Asinine nature.8 B. Jonson.
=Asinine feast.8 Milton.
As7iOnin6iOty (?), n. The quality of being asinine;
stupidity combined with obstinacy.
AOsi6phonOate (?), a. (Zol.) Destitute of a siphon or
breathing tube; P said of many bivalve shells. P n. An ~
X As7iOpho6neOa (?), X AOsi7phoOna6ta (?), X As7iOphon6iOda
(?), } n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. ? priv. + ? a tube.] (Zol.) A
group of bivalve mollusks destitute of siphons, as the
oyster; the asiphonate mollusks.
X AOsi6tiOa (?), n. [Gr. ?; ? priv. + ? food.] (Med.) Want
of appetite; loathing of food.
Ask (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Asked (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
Asking.] [OE. asken, ashen, axien, AS. >scian, >csian; akin
to OS. ?sc?n, OHG. eisc?n, Sw. >ska, Dan. ske, D. eischen,
G. heischen, Lith. j sk"ti, OSlav. iskati to seek, Skr. ish
to desire. ?.] 1. To request; to seek to obtain by words; to
petition; to solicit; P often with of, in the sense of from,
before the person addressed.
Ask counsel, we pray thee, of God.
Judg. xviii. 5.
If ye abide in me, and my words abide in you, ye shall ask
what ye will, and it shall be done unto you.
John xv. 7.
2. To require, demand, claim, or expect, whether by way of
remuneration or return, or as a matter of necessity; as,
what price do you ask?
Ask me never so much dowry.
Gen. xxxiv. 12.
To whom men have committed much, of him they will ask the
Luke xii. 48.
An exigence of state asks a much longer time to conduct a
design to maturity.
3. To interrogate or inquire of or concerning; to put a
question to or about; to question.
He is of age; ask him: he shall speak for himself.
John ix. 21.
He asked the way to Chester.
4. To invite; as, to ask one to an entertainment.
5. To publish in church for marriage; P said of both the
banns and the persons.
Syn. - To beg; request; seek; petition; solicit; entreat;
beseech; implore; crave; require; demand; claim; exhibit;
inquire; interrogate. See Beg.
Ask, v. i. 1. To request or petition; P usually folllowed by
for; as, to ask for bread.
Ask, and it shall be given you.
Matt. vii. 7.
2. To make inquiry, or seek by request; P sometimes followed
by after.
Wherefore... dost ask after my name?
Gen. xxxii. 29.
Ask (?), n. [See 2d Asker.] (Zol.) A water newt. [Scot. &
North of Eng.]
AOskance6 (?), AOskant6 (?), } adv. [Cf. D. schuin, schuins,
sideways, schuiven to shove, schuinte slope. Cf. Asquint.]
Sideways; obliquely; with a side glance; with disdain, envy,
or suspicion.
They dart away; they wheel askance.
My palfrey eyed them askance.
Both... were viewed askance by authority.
AOskance6 , v. t. To turn aside. [Poet.]
O, how are they wrapped in with infamies
That from their own misdeeds askance their eyes!
Ask6er , n. One who asks; a petitioner; an inquirer.
Ask6er, n. [A corruption of AS. a?exe lizard, newt.] (Zol.)
An ask; a water newt. [Local Eng.]
AOskew6 , adv. & a. [Pref. aO + skew.] Awry; askance;
asquint; oblique or obliquely; P sometimes indicating scorn,
or contempt, or entry.
Ask6ing , n. 1. The act of inquiring or requesting; a
petition; solicitation.
2. The publishing of banns.

<-- p. 89 -->

AOslake6 (?), v. t. & i. [AS. >slacian, slacian, to slacken.
Cf. Slake.] To mitigate; to moderate; to appease; to abate;
to diminish. [Archaic]
AOslant6 (?), adv. & a. [Pref. aO + slant.] Toward one side;
in a slanting direction; obliquely.
[The shaft] drove through his neck aslant.
AOslant6, prep. In a slanting direction over; athwart.
There is a willow grows aslant a brook.
AOsleep6 , a. & adv. [Pref. aO + sleep.] 1. In a state of
sleep; in sleep; dormant.
Fast asleep the giant lay supine.
By whispering winds soon lulled asleep.
2. In the sleep of the grave; dead.
Concerning them which are asleep... sorrow not, even as
others which have no hope.
1 Thess. iv. 13.
3. Numbed, and, usually, tingling.
Leaning long upon any part maketh it numb, and, as we call
it, asleep.
AOslope6 (?), adv. & a. [Pref. aO + slope.] Slopingly;
aslant; declining from an upright direction; sloping. =Set
them not upright, but aslope.8
AOslug6 (?), adv. [Pref. aO + slug to move slowly.]
Sluggishly. [Obs.]
AOsmear6 (?), a. [Pref. aO + smear.] Smeared over.
As7moOne6an (?), a. Of or pertaining to the patriotic Jewish
family to which the Maccabees belonged; Maccabean; as, the
Asmonean dynasty. [Written also Asmonan.]
As7moOne6an, n. One of the w family. The Asmoneans were
leaders and rulers of the Jews from 168 to 35 b. c.
AOsoak6 (?), a. [Pref. aO + soak.] Soaking.
AOso6maOtous (?), a. [L. asomatus, Gr. ?; ? priv. + ? body.]
Without a material body; incorporeal.
As6oOnant (?), a. [Pref. aO not + sonant.] Not sounding or
sounded. [R.]
C. C. Felton.
Asp (?), n. (Bot.) Same as Aspen. =Trembling poplar or asp.8
Asp (?), n. [L. aspis, fr. Gr. ?: cf. OF. aspe, F. aspic.]
(Zol.) A small, hooded, poisonous serpent of Egypt and
adjacent countries, whose bite is often fatal. It is the
Naja haje. The name is also applied to other poisonous
serpents, esp. to Vipera aspis of southern Europe. See Haje.
X AsOpal6aOthus (?), n. [L. aspalathus, Gr. ?.] (Bot.) (a) A
thorny shrub yielding a fragrant oil. Ecclus. xxiv. 15. (b)
A genus of plants of the natural order Leguminos. The
species are chiefly natives of the Cape of Good Hope.
AsOpar6aOgine (?), n. [Cf. F. asparagine.] (Chem.) A white,
nitrogenous, crystallizable substance, C4H8N2O3+H2O, found
in many plants, and first obtained from asparagus It is
believed to aid in the disposition of nitrogenous matter
throughout the plant; P called also altheine.
As7paOrag6iOnous (?), a. Pertaining or allied to, or
resembling, asparagus; having shoots which are eaten like
asparagus; as, asparaginous vegetables.
AsOpar6aOgus (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. ?, ?; cf. ? to swell with
sap or juice, and Zend ?paregha prong, sprout, Pers.
asparag, Lith. spurgas sprout, Skr. sphurj to swell. Perh.
the Greek borrowed from the Persian. Cf. Sparrowgrass.] 1.
(Bot.) A genus of perennial plants belonging to the natural
order Liliace, and having erect much branched stems, and
very slender branchlets which are sometimes mistaken for
leaves. Asparagus racemosus is a shrubby climbing plant with
fragrant flowers. Specifically: The Asparagus officinalis, a
species cultivated in gardens.
2. The young and tender shoots of A. officinalis, which form
a valuable and wellPknown article of food.
5 This word was formerly pronounced sparrowgrass; but this
pronunciation is now confined exclusively to uneducated
w beetle (Zol.), a small beetle (Crioceris asparagi)
injurious to ~.
AsOpar6tic (?), a. (Chem.) Pertaining to, or derived,
asparagine; as, aspartic acid.
As6pect (?), n. [L. aspectus, fr. aspicere, aspectum, to
look at; ad + spicere, specere, to look, akin to E. spy.] 1.
The act of looking; vision; gaze; glance. [R.] =The basilisk
killeth by aspect.8
His aspect was bent on the ground.
Sir W. Scott.
2. Look, or particular appearance of the face; countenance;
mien; air. =Serious in aspect.8
[Craggs] with aspect open shall erect his head.
3. Appearance to the eye or the mind; look; view. =The
aspect of affairs.8
The true aspect of a world lying in its rubbish.
T. Burnet.
4. Position or situation with regard to seeing; that
position which enables one to look in a particular
direction; position in relation to the points of the
compass; as, a house has a southern aspect, that is, a
position which faces the south.
5. Prospect; outlook. [Obs.]
This town affords a good aspect toward the hill from whence
we descended.
6. (Astrol.) The situation of planets or stars with respect
to one another, or the angle formed by the rays of light
proceeding from them and meeting at the eye; the joint look
of planets or stars upon each other or upon the earth.
5 The aspects which two planets can assume are five;
sextile, ?, when the planets are 600 apart; quartile, or
quadrate, ?, when their distance is 900 or the quarter of a
circle; trine, ?, when the distance is 1200; opposition, ?,
when the distance is 1800, or half a circle; and
conjunction, ?, when they are in the same degree. Astrology
taught that the aspects of the planets exerted an influence
on human affairs, in some situations for good and in others
for evil.
7. (Astrol.) The influence of the stars for good or evil;
as, an ill aspect.
The astrologers call the evil influences of the stars evil
w of a plane (Geom.), the direction of the plane.
AsOpect6 (?), v. t. [L. aspectare, v. intens. of aspicere.
See Aspect, n.] To behold; to look at. [Obs.]
AsOpect6aOble (?), a. [L. aspectabilis.] Capable of being;
visible. =The aspectable world.8 Ray. =Aspectable stars.8
Mr. Browning.
AsOpect6ant (?), a. (Her.) Facing each other.
AsOpect6ed, a. Having an aspect. [Obs.]
B. Jonson.
AsOpec6tion (?), n. [L. aspectio, fr. aspicere to look at.]
The act of viewing; a look. [Obs.]
Asp6en (?), Asp (?), } n. [AS. sp, ps; akin to OHG. aspa,
Icel. sp, Dan. sp, Sw. asp, D. esp, G. espe, spe, aspe;
cf. Lettish apsa, Lith. apuszis.] (Bot.) One of several
species of poplar bearing this name, especially the Populus
tremula, so called from the trembling of its leaves, which
move with the slightest impulse of the air.
Asp6en (?), a. Of or pertaining to the ~, or resembling it;
made of ~ wood.
Nor aspen leaves confess the gentlest breeze.
As6per (?), a. [OE. aspre, OF. aspre, F. pre, fr. L. asper
rough.] Rough; rugged; harsh; bitter; stern; fierce.
[Archaic] =An asper sound.8
X As6per (?), n. [L. spiritus asper rough breathing.] (Greek
Gram.) The rough breathing; a mark (?) placed over an
initial vowel sound or over ? to show that it is aspirated,
that is, pronounced with h before it; thus ?, pronounced
h?s, ?, pronounced hr>6t?r.
X As6per, n. [F. aspre or It. aspro, fr. MGr. ?, ?, white
(prob. from the whiteness of new silver coins).] A Turkish
money of account (formerly a coin), of little value; the
120th part of a piaster.
As6perOate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Asperated; p. pr. & vb.
n. Asperating.] [L. asperatus, p. p. of asperare, fr. asper
rough.] To make rough or uneven.
The asperated part of its surface.
As7perOa6tion (?), n. The act of asperating; a making or
becoming rough.
X AsOper6ges (?), n. [L., Thou shalt sprinkle.] (R. C. Ch.)
(a) The service or ceremony of sprinkling with holy water.
(b) The brush or instrument used in sprinkling holy water;
an aspergill.
As6perOgill (?), X As7perOgil6lum (?), } n. [LL.
aspergillum, fr. L. aspergere. See Asperse, v. t. 1. The
brush used in the Roman Catholic church for sprinkling holy
water on the people. [Also written aspergillus.]
2. (Zol.) See Wateringpot shell.
As7perOgil6liOform (?), a. [Aspergillum + Oform.] (Bot.)
Resembling the aspergillum in form; as, an aspergilliform
As7perOiOfo6liOate (?), As7perOiOfo6liOous (?), } a. [L.
asper rough + folium leaf.] (Bot.) Having rough leaves.
5 By some applied to the natural order now called
Boraginace or borageworts.
AsOper6iOty (?), n.; pl. Asperities (?). [L. asperitas, fr.
asper rough: cf. F. asprit.] 1. Roughness of surface;
unevenness; P opposed to smoothness. =The asperities of dry
2. Roughness or harshness of sound; that quality which
grates upon the ear; raucity.
3. Roughness to the taste; sourness; tartness.
4. Moral roughness; roughness of manner; severity;
crabbedness; harshness; P opposed to mildness. =Asperity of
It is no very cynical asperity not to confess obligations
where no benefit has been received.
5. Sharpness; disagreeableness; difficulty.
The acclivities and asperities of duty.
Syn. - Acrimony; moroseness; crabbedness; harshness;
sourness; tartness. See Acrimony.
AOsper6maOtous (?), a. [Gr. ? priv. + ?, ?, seed.] (Bot.)
AOsper6mous , a. [Gr. ?; ? priv. + ? seed.] (Bot.)
Destitute of seeds; aspermatous.
AOsperne6 (?), v. t. [L. aspernari; a (ab) + spernari.] To
spurn; to despise. [Obs.]
Sir T. More.
As6perOous (?), a. [See Asper, a.] Rough; uneven.
AsOperse6 (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Aspersed (?); p. pr. &
vb. n. Aspersing.] [L. aspersus, p. p. of aspergere to
scatter, sprinkle; ad + spargere to strew. See Sparse.] 1.
To sprinkle, as water or dust, upon anybody or anything, or
to besprinkle any one with a liquid or with dust.
2. To bespatter with foul reports or false and injurious
charges; to tarnish in point of reputation or good name; to
slander or calumniate; as, to asperse a poet or his
writings; to asperse a man's character.
With blackest crimes aspersed.
Syn. - To slander; defame; detract from; calumniate; vilify.
P To Asperse, Defame, Slander, Calumniate. These words have
in common the idea of falsely assailing the character of
another. To asperse is figuratively to cast upon a character
hitherto unsullied the imputation of blemishes or faults
which render it offensive or loathsome. To defame is to
detract from a man's honor and reputation by charges
calculated to load him with infamy. Slander (etymologically
the same as scandal) and calumniate, from the Latin, have in
common the sense of circulating reports to a man's injury
from unworthy or malicious motives. Men asperse their
neighbors by malignant insinuations; they defame by
advancing charges to blacken or sully their fair fame; they
slander or calumniate by spreading injurious reports which
are false, or by magnifying slight faults into serious
errors or crimes.
AsOpersed6 (?), a. 1. (Her.) Having an indefinite number of
small charges scattered or strewed over the surface.
2. Bespattered; slandered; calumniated.
AsOpers6er (?), n. One who asperses; especially, one who
vilifies another.
AsOper6sion (?), n. [L. aspersio, fr. aspergere: cf. F.
aspersion.] 1. A sprinkling, as with water or dust, in a
literal sense.
Behold an immersion, not and aspersion.
Jer. Taylor.
2. The spreading of calumniations reports or charges which
tarnish reputation, like the bespattering of a body with
foul water; calumny.
Every candid critic would be ashamed to cast wholesale
aspersions on the entire body of professional teachers.
Who would by base aspersions blot thy virtue.
AsOpers6ive (?), a. Tending to asperse; defamatory;
slanderous. P AsOpers6iveOly, adv.
X As7per7soir6 (?), n. [F.] An aspergill.
X As7perOso6riOum (?), n.; pl. Aspersoria (?). [LL. See
Asperse.] 1. The stoup, basin, or other vessel for holy
water in Roman Catholic churches.
2. A brush for sprinkling holy water; an aspergill.
As6phalt (?), AsOphal6tum (?), } n. [Gr. ?, of eastern
origin: cf. F. asphalte.] 1. Mineral pitch, Jews' pitch, or
compact native bitumen. It is brittle, of a black or brown
color and high luster on a surface of fracture; it melts and
burns when heated, leaving no residue. It occurs on the
surface and shores of the Dead Sea, which is therefore
called Asphaltites, or the Asphaltic Lake. It is found also
in many parts of Asia, Europe, and America. See Bitumen.
2. A composition of bitumen, pitch, lime, and gravel, used
for forming pavements, and as a waterPproof cement for
bridges, roofs, etc.; asphaltic cement. Artificial asphalt
is prepared from coal tar, lime, sand, etc.
Asphalt stone, Asphalt rock, a limestone found impregnated
with asphalt.
As6phalt, v. t. To cover with ~; as, to asphalt a roof;
asphalted streets.
X As7phalte6 (?), n. [F. See Asphalt.] Asphaltic mastic or
cement. See Asphalt, 2.
AsOphal6tic (?), a. Pertaining to, of the nature of, or
containing, asphalt; bituminous. =Asphaltic pool.8
=Asphaltic slime.8
AsOphal6tite (?), a. Asphaltic.
AsOphal6tite (?), a. Asphaltic.
X AsOphal6tus , n. See Asphalt.
As6phoOdel (?), n. [L. asphodelus, Gr. ?. See Daffodil.]
(Bot.) A general name for a plant of the genus Asphodelus.
The asphodels are hardy perennial plants, several species of
which are cultivated for the beauty of their flowers.
5 The name is also popularly given to species of other
genera. The asphodel of the early English and French poets
was the daffodil. The asphodel of the Greek poets is
supposed to be the Narcissus poeticus.
Dr. Prior.
Pansies, and violets, and asphodel.
AsOphyc6tic (?), a. Pertaining to asphyxia.
X AsOphyx6iOa (?), AsOphyx6y (?), } n. [NL. asphyxia, fr.
Gr. ?; ? priv. + ? to throb, beat.] (Med.) Apparent death,
or suspended animation; the condition which results from
interruption of respiration, as in suffocation or drowning,
or the inhalation of irrespirable gases.
AsOphyx6iOal (?), a. Of or relating to asphyxia; as,
asphyxial phenomena.
AsOphyx6iOate (?), v. t. To bring to a state of asphyxia; to
suffocate. [Used commonly in the past pple.]
AsOphyx6iOa7ted (?), AsOphyx6ied (?), p. p. In a state of
asphyxia; suffocated.
AsOphyx7iOa6tion (?), n. The act of causing asphyxia; a
state of asphyxia.
As6pic (?), n. [F. See Asp.] 1. The venomous asp. [Chiefly
Shak. Tennyson.
2. A piece of ordnance carrying a 12 pound shot. [Obs.]
As6pic, n. [F., a corrupt. of spic (OF. espi, F. pi), L.
spica (spicum, spicus), ear, spike. See Spike.] A European
species of lavender (Lavandula spica), which produces a
volatile oil. See Spike.
As6pic, n. [F., prob. fr. aspic an asp.] A savory meat jelly
containing portions of fowl, game, fish, hard boiled eggs,
X As7piOdoObran6chiOa (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. ?, ?, shield
+ ? gills.] (Zol.) A group of Gastropoda, with limpetlike
shells, including the abalone shells and keyhole limpets.
AsOpir6ant (?; 277), a. [Cf. F. aspirant, p. pr. of aspirer.
See Aspire.] Aspiring.
AsOpir6ant, n. [Cf. F. aspirant.] One who aspires; one who
eagerly seeks some high position or object of attainment.
In consequence of the resignations... the way to greatness
was left clear to a new set of aspirants.
As6piOrate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Aspirated (?); p. pr. &
vb. n. Aspirating (?).] [L. aspiratus, p. p. of aspirare to
breathe toward or upon, to add the breathing h; ad + spirare
to breathe, blow. Cf. Aspire.] To [pronounce with a
breathing, an ~, or an h sound; as, we aspirate the words
horse and house; to aspirate a vowel or a liquid consonant.
As6piOrate (?), n. 1. A sound consisting of, or
characterized by, a breath like the sound of h; the
breathing h or a character representing such a sound; an
aspirated sound.

<-- p. 90 -->

2. A mark of aspiration (?) used in Greek; the asper, or
rough breathing.
3. An elementary sound produced by the breath alone; a surd,
or nonvocal consonant; as, f, th in thin, etc.
As6piOrate (?), As6piOra6ted (?), } a. [L. aspiratus, p. p.]
Pronounced with the h sound or with audible breath.
But yet they are not aspirate, i. e., with such an
aspiration as h.
As7piOra6tion (?), n. [L. aspiratio, fr. aspirare: cf. F.
aspiration.] 1. The act of aspirating; the pronunciation of
a letter with a full or strong emission of breath; an
aspirated sound.
If aspiration be defined to be an impetus of breathing.
2. The act of breathing; a breath; an inspiration.
3. The act of aspiring of a ardently desiring; strong wish;
high desire. =Aspirations after virtue.8
Vague aspiration after military renown.
As6piOra7tor (?), n. 1. (Chem.) An apparatus for passing air
or gases through or over certain liquids or solids, or for
exhausting a closed vessel, by means of suction.
2. (Med.) An instrument for the evacuation of the fluid
contents of tumors or collections of blood.
AsOpir6aOtoOry (?), a. Of or pertaining to breathing; suited
to the inhaling of air
AsOpire6 (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Aspired (?); p. pr. & vb.
n. Aspiring.] [F. aspirer, L. aspirare. See Aspirate, v. t.]
1. To desire with eagerness; to seek to attain something
high or great; to pant; to long; P followed by to or after,
and rarely by at; as, to aspire to a crown; to aspire after
Aspiring to be gods, if angels fell;
Aspiring to be angels, men rebel.
2. To rise; to ascend; to tower; to soar.
My own breath still foments the fire,
Which flames as high as fancy can aspire.
AsOpire6, v. t. To ~ to; to long for; to try to reach; to
mount to. [Obs.]
That gallant spirit hath aspired the clouds.
AsOpire6, n. Aspiration. [Obs.]
AsOpire6ment (?), n. Aspiration. [Obs.]
AsOpir6er (?), n. One who aspires.
AsOpir6ing, a. That aspires; as, an Aspiring mind. P
AsOpir6ingOly, adv. P AsOpir6ingOness, n.
Asp6ish (?), a. Pertaining to, or like, an asp.
As7porOta6tion (?), n. [L. asportatio, fr. asportare to
carry away; abs = ab + portare to bear, carry.] (Law) The
felonious removal of goods from the place where they were
5 It is adjudged to be larceny, though the goods are not
carried from the house or apartment.
AOsprawl6 (?), adv. & a. Sprawling.
AOsquat6 (?), adv. & a. Squatting.
AOsquint6 (?), adv. [Cf. Askant, Squint.] With the eye
directed to one side; not in the straight line of vision;
obliquely; awry, so as to see distortedly; as, to look
Ass (?), n. [OE. asse, AS. assa; akin to Icel. asni, W.
asen, asyn, L. asinus, dim. aselus, Gr. ?; also to AS. esol,
OHG. esil, G. esel, Goth. asilus, Dan. sel, Lith. asilas,
Bohem. osel, Pol. osiel. The word is prob. of Semitic
origin; cf. Heb. ath?n she ~. Cf. Ease.] 1. (Zol.) A
quadruped of the genus Equus (E. asinus), smaller than the
horse, and having a peculiarly harsh bray and long ears. The
tame or domestic ~ is patient, slow, and surePfooted, and
has become the type of obstinacy and stupidity. There are
several species of wild asses which are swiftPfooted.
2. A dull, heavy, stupid fellow; a dolt.
Asses' Bridge. [L. pons asinorum.] The fifth proposition of
the first book of Euclid, =The angles at the base of an
isosceles triangle are equal to one another.8 [Sportive] =A
schoolboy, stammering out his Asses' Bridge.8 F. Harrison. P
To make an ~ of one's self, to do or say something very
foolish or absurd.
As7saOf?t6iOda (?), n. Same as Asafetida.
As6saOgai (?), As6seOgai (?), n. [Pg. azagaia, Sp. azagaya,
fr. a Berber word. Cf. Lancegay.] A spear used by tribes in
South Africa as a missile and for stabbing, a kind of light
X AsOsa6i (?). [It., fr. L. ad + satis enough. See Assets.]
(Mus.) A direction equiv?lent to very; as, adagio assai,
very slow.
AsOsail6 (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Assailed (?); p. pr. & vb.
n. Assailing.] [OE. assailen, asailen, OF. asaillir,
assailler, F. assaillir; ? (L. ad) + saillir to burst out,
project, fr. L. salire to leap, spring; cf. L. assilire to
leap or spring upon. See Sally.] 1. To attack with violence,
or in a vehement and hostile manner; to assault; to molest;
as, to assail ? man with blows; to assail a city with
No rude noise mine ears assailing.
No storm can now assail
The charm he wears within.
2. To encounter or meet purposely with the v??? of
??stering, as an obstacle, difficulty, or the like.
The thorny wilds the woodmen fierce assail.
3. To attack morally, or with a view to produce ?anges in
the feelings, character, conduct, existing usages,
institutions; to attack by words, hostile influence, etc.;
as, to assail one with appeals, arguments, abuse, ridicule,
and the like.
The papal authority... assailed.
They assailed him with keen invective; they assailed him
with still keener irony.

Syn. - To attack; assault; invade; encounter; fall upon. See
AsOsail6aOble (?), a. Capable of being assailed.
AsOsail6ant (?), a. [F. assaillant, p. pr. of assaillir.]
Assailing; attacking.
AsOsail6ant, n. [F. assaillant.] One who, or that which,
assails, attacks, or assaults; an assailer.
An assailant of the church.
AsOsail6er (?), n. One who assails.
AsOsail6ment (?), n. The act or power of assailing; attack;
assault. [R.]
His most frequent assailment was the headache.
As6saOmar (?), n. [L. assare to roast + amarus, bitter.]
(Chem.) The peculiar bitter substance, soft or liquid, and
of a yellow color, produced when meat, bread, gum, sugar,
starch, and the like, are roasted till they turn brown.
As7samOese6 (?), a. Of or pertaining to Assam, a province of
British India, or to its inhabitants. P n. sing. & pl. A
native or natives of Assam.
X As7saOpan6 (?), X As7saOpan6ic (?), n. [Prob. Indian
name.] (Zol.) The American flying squirrel (Pteromys
AsOsart6 , n. [OF. essart the grubbing up of trees, fr.
essarter to grub up or clear ground of bushes, shrubs,
trees, etc., fr. LL. exartum, exartare, for exsaritare; L.
ex + sarire, sarrire, saritum, to hoe, weed.] 1. (Old Law)
The act or offense of grubbing up trees and bushes, and thus
destroying the tickets or coverts of a forest.
Spelman. Cowell.
2. A piece of land cleared of trees and bushes, and fitted
for cultivation; a clearing.
w land, forest land cleared of woods and brush.
AsOsart6, v. t. To grub up, as trees; to commit an ~ upon;
as, to assart land or trees.
AsOsas6sin (?), n. [F. (cf. It. assassino), fr. Ar.
?hashishin one who has drunk of the hashish. Under its
influence the Assassins of the East, followers of the Shaikh
alPJabal (Old Man of the Mountain), were said to commit the
murders required by their chief.] One who kills, or attempts
to kill, by surprise or secret assault; one who
treacherously murders any one unprepared for defense.
AsOsas6sin, v. t. To assassinate. [Obs.]
AsOsas6sinOate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Assassinated (?); p.
pr. & vb. n. Assassinating (?).] [LL. assassinatus, p. p. of
assassinare.] 1. To kill by surprise or secret assault; to
murder by treacherous violence.
Help, neighbors, my house is broken open by force, and I am
ravished, and like to be assassinated.
2. To assail with murderous intent; hence, by extended
meaning, to maltreat exceedingly. [Archaic]
Your rhymes assassinate our fame.
Such usage as your honorable lords
Afford me, assassinated and betrayed.
Syn. - To kill; murder; slay. See Kill.
AsOsas6sinOate (?), n. [F. assassinat.] 1. An assassination,
murder, or murderous assault. [Obs.]
If i had made an assassinate upon your father.
B. Jonson.
2. An assassin. [Obs.]
AsOsas7siOna6tion (?), n. The act of assassinating; a
killing by treacherous violence.
AsOsas6siOna7tor (?), n. An assassin.
AsOsas6sinOous (?), a. Murderous.
AsOsas6tion (?), n. [F., fr. LL. assatio, fr. L. assare to
roast.] Roasting. [Obs.]
Sir T. Browne.
AsOsault6 (?), n. [OE. asaut, assaut, OF. assaut, asalt, F.
assaut, LL. assaltus; L. ad + saltus a leaping, a springing,
salire to leap. See Assail.] 1. A violent onset or attack
with physical means, as blows, weapons, etc.; an onslaught;
the rush or charge of an attacking force; onset; as, to make
assault upon a man, a house, or a town.
The Spanish general prepared to renew the assault.
Unshaken bears the assault
Of their most dreaded foe, the strong southwest.
2. A violent onset or attack with moral weapons, as words,
arguments, appeals, and the like; as, to make an assault on
the prerogatives of a prince, or on the constitution of a
3. (Law) An apparently violent attempt, or ? offer with
force or violence, to do hurt to another; an attempt or
offer to beat another, accompanied by a degree of violence,
but without touching his person, as by lifting the fist, or
a cane, in a threatening manner, or by striking at him, and
missing him. If the blow aimed takes effect, it is a
Blackstone. Wharton.
Practically, however, the word assault is used to include
the battery.
Mozley & W.
Syn. - Attack; invasion; incursion; descent; onset;
onslaught; charge; storm.
AsOsault6, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Assaulted; p. pr. & vb. n.
Assaulting.] From Assault, n.: cf. OF. assaulter, LL.
assaltare.] 1. To make an ~ upon, as by a sudden rush of
armed men; to attack with unlawful or insulting physical
violence or menaces.
Insnared, assaulted, overcome, led bound.
2. To attack with moral means, or with a view of producing
moral effects; to attack by words, arguments, or unfriendly
measures; to assail; as, to assault a reputation or an
Before the gates, the cries of babes newborn,...
Assault his ears.
5 In the latter sense, assail is more common.
Syn. - To attack; assail; invade; encounter; storm; charge.
See Attack.
AsOsaut6aOble (?), a. Capable of being assaulted.
AsOsault6er (?), n. One who assaults, or violently attacks;
an assailant.
E. Hall.
AsOsay6 (?), n. [OF. asai, essai, trial, F. essa. See Essay,
n.] 1. Trial; attempt; essay. [Obs.]
I am withal persuaded that it may prove much more easy in
the assay than it now seems at distance.
2. Examination and determination; test; as, an assay of
bread or wine. [Obs.]
This can not be, by no assay of reason.
3. Trial by danger or by affliction; adventure; risk;
hardship; state of being tried. [Obs.]
Through many hard assays which did betide.
4. Tested purity or value. [Obs.]
With gold and pearl of rich assay.
5. (Metallurgy) The act or process of ascertaining the
proportion of a particular metal in an ore or alloy;
especially, the determination of the proportion of gold or
silver in bullion or coin.
6. The alloy or metal to be assayed.
[Assay and essay are radically the same word; but modern
usage has appropriated assay chiefly to experiments in
metallurgy, and essay to intellectual and bodily efforts.
See Essay.]
5 Assay is used adjectively or as the first part of a
compound; as, assay balance, assay furnace.
w master, an officer who assays or tests gold or silver coin
or bullion. P w ton, a weight of 29.166% grams.
AsOsay6, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Assayed (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
Assaying.] [OF. asaier, essaier, F. essayer, fr. essai. See
Assay, n., Essay, v.] 1. To try; to attempt; to apply. [Obs.
or Archaic]
ToPnight let us assay our plot.
Soft words to his fierce passion she assayed.
2. To affect. [Obs.]
When the heart is ill assayed.
3. To try tasting, as food or drink. [Obs.]
4. To subject, as an ore, alloy, or other metallic compound,
to chemical or metallurgical examination, in order to
determine the amount of a particular metal contained in it,
or to ascertain its composition.
AsOsay6, v. i. To attempt, try, or endeavor. [Archaic. In
this sense essay is now commonly used.]
She thrice assayed to speak.
AsOsay6aOble (?), a. That may be assayed.
AsOsay6er , n. One who assays. Specifically: One who
examines metallic ores or compounds, for the purpose of
determining the amount of any particular metal in the same,
especially of gold or silver.
AsOsay6ing, n. The act or process of testing, esp. of
analyzing or examining metals and ores, to determine the
proportion of pure metal.
X Asse (?), n. (Zol.) A small foxlike animal (Vulpes cama)
of South Africa, valued for its fur.
As7seOcuOra6tion (?), n. [LL. assecuratio, fr. assecurare.]
Assurance; certainty. [Obs.]
As7seOcure6 (?), v. t. [LL. assecurare.] To make sure or
safe; to assure. [Obs.]
As7seOcu6tion (?), n. [F. asscution, fr. L. assequi to
obtain; ad + sequi to follow.] An obtaining or acquiring.
As6seOgai (?), n. Same as Assagai.
AsOsem6blage , n. [Cf. F. assemblage. See Assemble.] 1. The
act of assembling, or the state o? being; association.
In sweet assemblage every blooming grace.
2. A collection of individuals, or of individuals, or of
particular things; as, a political assemblage; an assemblage
of ideas.
Syn. - Company; group; collection; concourse; gathering;
meeting; convention. Assemblage, Assembly. An assembly
consists only of persons; an assemblage may be composed of
things as well as persons, as, an assemblage of incoherent
objects. Nor is every assemblage of persons an assembly;
since the latter term denotes a body who have met, and are
acting, in concert for some common end, such as to hear, to
deliberate, to unite in music, dancing, etc. An assemblage
of skaters on a lake, or of horse jockeys at a race course,
is not an assembly, but might be turned into one by
collecting into a body with a view to discuss and decide as
to some object of common interest.
AsOsem6blance , n. [Cf. OF. assemblance.] 1. Resemblance;
likeness; appearance. [Obs.]
Care I for the... stature, bulk, and big assemblance of a
man ? Give me the spirit.
2. An assembling; assemblage. [Obs.]
To weete [know] the cause of their assemblance.
AsOsem6ble (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Assembled (?); p. pr. &
vb. n. Assembling (?).] [F. assembler, fr. LL. assimulare to
bring together to collect; L. ad + simul together; akin to
similis like, Gr. ? at the same time, and E. same. Cf.
Assimilate, Same.] To collect into one place or body; to
bring or call together; to convene; to congregate.
Thither he assembled all his train.
All the men of Israel assembled themselves.
1 Kings viii. 2.
AsOsem6ble, v. i. To meet or come together, as a number of
individuals; to convene; to congregate.

The Parliament assembled in November.
W. Massey.
AsOsem6ble, v. i. To liken; to compare. [Obs.]
Bribes may be assembled to pitch.
AsOsem6bler (?), n. One who assembles a number of
individuals; also, one of a number assembled.
AsOsem6bly (?), n.; pl. Assemblies (?). [F. assemble, fr.
assembler. See Assemble.] 1. A company of persons collected
together in one place, and usually for some common purpose,
esp. for deliberation and legislation, for worship, or for
social entertainment.
2. A collection of inanimate objects. [Obs.]
3. (Mil.) A beat of the drum or sound of the bugle as a
signal to troops to assemble.
5 In some of the United States, the legislature, or the
popular branch of it, is called the Assembly, or the General
Assembly. In the Presbyterian Church, the General Assembly
is the highest ecclesiastical tribunal, composed of
ministers and ruling elders delegated from each presbytery;
as, the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the
United States, or of Scotland.

<-- p. 91 -->

Assembly room, a room in which persons assemble, especially
for dancing. P Unlawful assembly (Law), a meeting of three
or more persons on a common plan, in such a way as to cause
a reasonable apprehension that they will disturb the peace
tumultuously. P Westminster Assembly, a convocation,
consisting chiefly of divines, which, by act of Parliament,
assembled July 1, 1643, and remained in session some years.
It framed the =Confession of Faith,8 the =Larger Catechism,8
and the =Shorter Catechism,8 which are still received as
authority by Presbyterians, and are substantially accepted
by Congregationalists.
Syn. - See Assemblage.
AsOsem6blyOman (?), n.; pl. Assemblymen (?). A member of an
assembly, especially of the lower branch of a state
AsOsent6, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Assented; p. pr. & vb. n.
Assenting.] [ F. assentir, L. assentire, assentiri; ad +
sentire to feel, think. See Sense.] To admit a thing as
true; to express one's agreement, acquiescence, concurrence,
or concession.
Who informed the governor... And the Jews also assented,
saying that these things were so.
Acts xxiv. 9.
The princess assented to all that was suggested.
Syn. - To yield; agree; acquiesce; concede; concur.
AsOsent6 (?), n. [OE. assent, fr. assentir. See Assent, v.]
The act of assenting; the act of the mind in admitting or
agreeing to anything; concurrence with approval; consent;
agreement; acquiescence.
Faith is the assent to any proposition, on the credit of the
The assent, if not the approbation, of the prince.
Too many people read this ribaldry with assent and
Royal ~, in England, the ~ of the sovereign to a bill which
has passed both houses of Parliament, after which it becomes
Syn. - Concurrence; acquiescence; approval; accord. P
Assent, Consent. Assent is an act of the understanding,
consent of the will or feelings. We assent to the views of
others when our minds come to the same conclusion with
theirs as to what is true, right, or admissible. We consent
when there is such a concurrence of our will with their
desires and wishes that we decide to comply with their
requests. The king of England gives his assent, not his
consent, to acts of Parliament, because, in theory at least,
he is not governed by personal feelings or choice, but by a

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