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Webster's Unabridged Dictionary

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sufficient evidence to give preponderation to the mind, but
insufficient to induce certainty; as, in our apprehension,
the facts prove the issue.
To false, and to be thought false, is all one in respect of
men, who act not according to truth, but apprehension.
5. The faculty by which ideas are conceived; understanding;
as, a man of dull apprehension.
6. Anticipation, mostly of things unfavorable; distrust or
fear at the prospect of future evil.
After the death of his nephew Caligula, Claudius was in no
small apprehension for his own life.
Syn. - Apprehension, Alarm. Apprehension springs from a
sense of danger when somewhat remote, but approaching; alarm
arises from danger when announced as near at hand.
Apprehension is calmer and more permanent; alarm is more
agitating and transient.
Ap7preOhen6sive (?), a. [Cf. F. apprhensif. See Apprehend.]
1. Capable of apprehending, or quick to do so; apt;
It may be pardonable to imagine that a friend, a kind and
apprehensive... friend, is listening to our talk.
2. Knowing; conscious; cognizant. [R.]
A man that has spent his younger years in vanity and folly,
and is, by the grace of God, apprehensive of it.
Jer. Taylor.
3. Relating to the faculty of apprehension.
Judgment... is implied in every apprehensive act.
Sir W. Hamilton.
4. Anticipative of something unfavorable' fearful of what
may be coming; in dread of possible harm; in expectation of
Not at all apprehensive of evils as a distance.
Reformers... apprehensive for their lives.
5. Sensible; feeling; perceptive. [R.]
Thoughts, my tormentors, armed with deadly stings,
Mangle my apprehensive, tenderest parts.
Ap7preOhen6siveOly, adv. In an apprehensive manner; with
apprehension of danger.
Ap7preOhen6siveOness, n. The quality or state of being
ApOpren6tice (?), n. [OE. apprentice, prentice, OF.
aprentis, nom. of aprentif, fr. apprendare to learn, L.
apprendere, equiv. to apprehendere, to take hold of (by the
mind), to comprehend. See Apprehend, Prentice.] 1. One who
is bound by indentures or by legal agreement to serve a
mechanic, or other person, for a certain time, with a view
to learn the art, or trade, in which his master is bound to
instruct him.
2. One not well versed in a subject; a tyro.
3. (Old law) A barrister, considered a learner of law till
of sixteen years' standing, when he might be called to the
rank of serjeant. [Obs.]
ApOpren6tice , v. t. [imp. & p. p. Apprenticed ; p. pr. &
vb. n. Apprenticing .] To bind to, or put under the care of,
a master, for the purpose of instruction in a trade or
ApOpre6ticeOage , n. [F. apprentissage.] Apprenticeship.
ApOpren6ticeOhood, n. Apprenticeship. [Obs.]
ApOpren6ticeOship, n. 1. The service or condition of an
apprentice; the state in which a person is gaining
instruction in a trade or art, under legal agreement.
2. The time an apprentice is serving (sometimes seven years,
as from the age of fourteen to twentyPone).
ApOpressed6, ApOprest6 } , a. [p. p. appress, which is not
in use. See Adpress.] (Bot.) Pressed close to, or lying
against, something for its whole length, as against a stem,
ApOprise6 , v. t. [imp. & p. p. Apprised ; p. pr. & vb. n.
Apprising.] [ F. appris, fem. apprise, p. p. apprendre to
learn, to teach, to inform. Cf. Apprehend, Apprentice.] To
give notice, verbal or written; to inform; P followed by of;
as, we will apprise the general of an intended attack; he
apprised the commander of what he had done.
ApOprise6, n. Notice; information. [Obs.]
ApOpriz6al , n. See Appraisal.
ApOprize6 , v. t. [The same as Appraise, only more
accommodated to the English form of the L. pretiare.] To
appraise; to value; to appreciate.
ApOprize6ment , n. Appraisement.
ApOpriz6er , n. 1. An appraiser.
2. (Scots Law) A creditor for whom an appraisal is made.
Sir W. Scott.
ApOproach6 , v. i. [imp. & p. p. Approached ; p. pr. & vb.
n. Approaching.] [OE. approchen, aprochen, OF. approcher,
LL. appropriare, fr. L. ad + propiare to draw near, prope
near.] 1. To come or go near, in place or time; to draw
?igh; to advance nearer.
Wherefore approached ye so nigh unto the city?
2 Sam. xi. 20.
But exhorting one another; and so much the more, as ye see
the day approaching.
Heb. x. 25.
2. To draw near, in a figurative sense; to make advances; to
approximate; as, he approaches to the character of the
ablest statesman.
ApOproach6, v. t. 1. To bring near; to cause to draw near;
to advance. [Archaic]
2. To come near to in place, time, or character; to draw
nearer to; as, to approach the city; to approach my cabin;
he approached the age of manhood.
He was an admirable poet, and thought even to have
approached Homer.
3. (Mil.) To take approaches to.
ApOproach6, n. [Cf. F. approche. See Approach, v. i.] 1. The
act of drawing near; a coming or advancing near. =The
approach of summer.8
A nearer approach to the human type.
2. A access, or opportunity of drawing near.
The approach to kings and principal persons.
3. pl. Movements to gain favor; advances.
4. A way, passage, or avenue by which a place or buildings
can be approached; an access.
5. pl. (Fort.) The advanced works, trenches, or covered
roads made by besiegers in their advances toward a fortress
or military post.
6. (Hort.) See Approaching.
ApOproach7aObil6iOty (?), n. The quality of being
approachable; approachableness.
ApOproach6aOble (?), a. Capable of being approached;
accessible; as, approachable virtue.
ApOproach6aObleOness, n. The quality or state of being
approachable; accessibility.
ApOproah6er (?), n. One who approaches.
ApOproach6ing, n. (Hort.) The act of ingrafting a sprig or
shoot of one tree into another, without cutting it from the
parent stock; P called, also, inarching and grafting by
ApOproach6less, a. Impossible to be approached.
ApOproach6ment (?), n. [Cf. F. approachement.] Approach.
Ap6proObate (?), a. [L. approbatus, p. p. of approbare to
approve.] Approved. [Obs.]
Ap6proObate (?), v. t. To express approbation of; to
approve; to sanction officially.
I approbate the one, I reprobate the other.
Sir W. Hamilton.
5 This word is obsolete in England, but is occasionally
heard in the United States, chiefly in a technical sense for
license; as, a person is approbated to preach; approbated to
keep a public house.
Pickering (1816).
Ap7proOba6tion (?), n. [L. approbatio: cf. F. approbation.
See Approve to prove.] 1. Proof; attestation. [Obs.]
2. The act of approving; an assenting to the propriety of a
thing with some degree of pleasure or satisfaction;
approval; sanction; commendation.
Many... joined in a loud hum of approbation.
The silent approbation of one's own breast.
Animals... love approbation or praise.
3. Probation or novitiate. [Obs.]
This day my sister should the cloister enter,
And there receive her approbation.
Syn. - Approval; liking; sanction; consent; concurrence. P
Approbation, Approval. Approbation and approval have the
same general meaning, assenting to or declaring as good,
sanction, commendation; but approbation is stronger and more
positive. =We may be anxious for the approbation of our
friends; but we should be still more anxious for the
approval of our own consciences.8 =He who is desirous to
obtain universal approbation will learn a good lesson from
the fable of the old man and his ass.8 =The work has been
examined by several excellent judges, who have expressed
their unqualified approval of its plan and execution.8
Ap6proObaOtive (?), a. [Cf. F. approbatif.] Approving, or
implying approbation.
Ap6proObaOtiveOness, n. 1. The quality of being approbative.
2. (Phren.) Love of approbation.
Ap6proOba7tor (?), n. [L.] One who approves. [R.]
Ap6proOba7toOry (?), a. Containing or expressing
approbation; commendatory.
ApOpromt6 (?; 215), v. t. [Pref. adO + promt.] To quicken;
to prompt. [Obs.]
To appromt our invention.
ApOproof6 (?), n. [See Approve, and Proof.] 1. Trial; proof.
2. Approval; commendation.
Ap7proOpin6quate (?), v. i. [L. appropinquatus, p. p. of
appropinquare; ad + prope near.] To approach. [Archaic]
Ld. Lytton.
Ap7proOpinOqua6tion (?), n. [L. appropinquatio.] A drawing
nigh; approach. [R.]
Bp. Hall.
Ap7proOpin6quiOty (?), n. [Pref. adO + propinquity.]
Nearness; propinquity. [R.]
J. Gregory.
ApOpro6pre (?), v. t. [OE. appropren, apropren, OF.
approprier, fr. L. appropriare. See Appropriate.] To
appropriate. [Obs.]
ApOpro6priOaOble (?), a. [See Appropriate.] Capable of being
appropriated, set apart, sequestered, or assigned
exclusively to a particular use.
Sir T. Browne.
ApOpro6priOaOment (?), n. What is peculiarly one's own;
peculiar qualification.[Obs.]
If you can neglect
Your own appropriaments.
ApOpro6priOate (?), a. [L. appropriatus, p. p. of
appropriare; ad + propriare to appropriate, fr. proprius
one's own, proper. See Proper.] Set apart for a particular
use or person. Hence: Belonging peculiarly; peculiar;
suitable; fit; proper.
In its strict and appropriate meaning.
Appropriate acts of divine worship.
It is not at all times easy to find words appropriate to
express our ideas.
ApOpro6priOat? (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Appropriated (?); p.
pr. & vb. n. Appropriating (?).] 1. To take to one's self in
exclusion of others; to claim or use as by an exclusive
right; as, let no man appropriate the use of a common
2. To set apart for, or assign to, a particular person or
use, in exclusion of all others; P with to or for; as, a
spot of ground is appropriated for a garden; to appropriate
money for the increase of the navy.
3. To make suitable; to suit. [Archaic]
4. (Eng. Eccl. Law) To annex, as a benefice, to a spiritual
corporation, as its property.
ApOpro6priOate (?), n. A property; attribute. [Obs.]
ApOpro6priOateOly, adv. In an appropriate or proper manner;
fitly; properly.
ApOpro6priOateOness, n. The state or quality of being
appropriate; peculiar fitness.
ApOpro7priOa6tion (?), n. [L. appropriatio: cf. F.
appropriation.] 1. The act of setting apart or assigning to
a particular use or person, or of taking to one's self, in
exclusion of all others; application to a special use or
purpose, as of a piece of ground for a park, or of money to
carry out some object.
2. Anything, especially money, thus set apart.
The Commons watched carefully over the appropriation.
3. (Law) (a) The severing or sequestering of a benefice to
the perpetual use of a spiritual corporation. Blackstone.
(b) The application of payment of money by a debtor to his
creditor, to one of several debts which are due from the
former to the latter.
ApOpro6priOaOtive (?), a. Appropriating; making, or tending
to, appropriation; as, an appropriative act. P
ApOpro6priOaOtiveOness, n.
ApOpro6priOa7tor (?), n. 1. One who appropriates.
2. (Law) A spiritual corporation possessed of an
appropriated benefice; also, an impropriator.
ApOprov6aOble (?), a. Worthy o? be?? approved; meritorious.
P ApOprov6aObleOness, n.
ApOprov6al (?), n. Approbation; sanction.
A censor... without whose approval n? capital sentences are
to be executed.
Syn. - See Approbation.
ApOprov6ance (?), n. Approval. [Archaic]
A parents... deign approvance.
ApOprove6 (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Approved (?); p. pr. &
vb. n. Approving.] [OE. aproven, appreven, to prove, OF.
aprover, F. approuver, to ~, fr. L. approbare; ad + probare
to esteem as good, ~, prove. See Prove, and cf. Approbate.]
1. To show to be real or true; to prove. [Obs.]
Wouldst thou approve thy constancy? Approve
First thy obedience.
2. To make proof of; to demonstrate; to prove or show
Opportunities to approve... worth.
He had approved himself a great warrior.
'T is an old lesson; Time approves it true.
His account... approves him a man of thought.
3. To sanction officially; to ratify; to confirm; as, to
approve the decision of a courtPmartial.
4. To regard as good; to commend; to be pleased with; to
think well of; as, we approve the measured of the
5. To make or show to be worthy of approbation or
The first care and concern must be to approve himself to
5 This word, when it signifies to be pleased with, to think
favorably (of), is often followed by of.
They had not approved of the deposition of James.
They approved of the political institutions.
W. Black.
<-- p. 75 -->

ApOprove6 (?), v. t. [OF. aprouer; ? (L. ad) + a form
apparently derived fr. the pro, prod, in L. prodest it is
useful or profitable, properly the preposition pro for. Cf.
Improve.] (Eng. Law) To make profit of; to convert to one's
own profit; said esp. of waste or common land appropriated
by the lord of the manor.
ApOprov6edOly (?), adv. So as to secure approbation; in an
approved manner.
ApOprove6ment (?), n. [Obs.] 1. Approbation.
I did nothing without your approvement.
2. (Eng. Law) a confession of guilt by a prisoner charged
with treason or felony, together with an accusation of his
accomplish and a giving evidence against them in order to
obtain his own pardon. The term is no longer in use; it
corresponded to what is now known as turning king's (or
queen's) evidence in England, and state's evidence in the
United States.
Burrill. Bouvier.
ApOprove6ment, n. (Old Eng. Law) Improvement of common
lands, by inclosing and converting them to the uses of
husbandry for the advantage of the lord of the manor.
ApOprov6er (?), n. 1. One who approves. Formerly, one who
made proof or trial.
2. An informer; an accuser. [Obs.]
3.(Eng. Law) One who confesses a crime and accuses another.
See 1st Approvement, 2.
ApOprov6er, n. [See 2d Approve, v. t.] (Eng. Law) A bailiff
or steward; an agent. [Obs.]
ApOprov6ing, a. Expressing approbation; commending; as, an
approving smile. P ApOprov6ingOly, adv.
ApOprox6iOmate (?), a. [L. approximatus, p. p. of
approximare to approach; ad + proximare to come near. See
Proximate.] 1. Approaching; proximate; nearly resembling.
2. Near correctness; nearly exact; not perfectly accurate;
as, approximate results or values.
w quantities (Math.), those which are nearly, but not,
ApOprox6iOmate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Approximated (?); p.
pr. & vb. n. Approximating.] 1. To carry or advance near; to
cause to approach.
To approximate the inequality of riches to the level of
2. To come near to; to approach.
The telescope approximates perfection.
J. Morse.
ApOprox6iOmate, v. i. To draw; to approach.
ApOprox6iOmateOly (?), adv. With approximation; so as to
approximate; nearly.
ApOprox7iOma6tion (?). n. [Cf. F. approximation, LL.
approximatio.] 1. The act of approximating; a drawing,
advancing or being near; approach; also, the result of
The largest capacity and the most noble dispositions are but
an approximation to the proper standard and true symmetry of
human nature.
I. Taylor.
2. An approach to a correct estimate, calculation, or
conception, or to a given quantity, quality, etc.
3. (Math.) (a) A continual approach or coming nearer to a
result; as, to solve an equation by approximation. (b) A
value that is nearly but not exactly correct.
ApOprox6iOmaOtive (?), a. [Cf. F. approximatif.]
Approaching; approximate. P ApOprox6iOmaOtiveOly, adv. P
ApOprox6iOmaOtiveOness, n.
ApOprox6iOma7tor (?), n. One who, or that which,
X Ap7pui6 (?), n. [F., fr. L. ad + podium foothold, Gr. ?,
dim. of ?, ?, foot.] A support or supporter; a stay; a prop.
If a be to climb trees that are of any great height, there
would be stays and appuies set to it.
Point d'appui (?). [F., a point of support.] (Mil.) (a) A
given point or body, upon which troops are formed, or by
which are marched in line or column. (b) An advantageous
defensive support, as a castle, morass, wood, declivity,
Ap6pulse (?; 277), n. [L. appulsus, fr. appellere, appulsum,
to drive to; ad + pellere to drive: cf. F. appulse.] 1. A
driving or running towards; approach; impulse; also, the act
of striking against.
In all consonants there is an appulse of the organs.
2. (Astron.) The near approach of one heavenly body to
another, or to the meridian; a coming into conjunction; as,
the appulse of the moon to a star, or of a star to the
ApOpul6sion (?), n. A driving or striking against; an
ApOpul6sive (?), a. Striking against; impinging; as, the
appulsive influence of the planets.
P. Cyc.
ApOpul6siveOly, adv. By appulsion.
ApOpur6teOnance (?), n. [OF. apurtenaunce, apartenance, F.
appartenance, LL. appartenentia, from L. appertinere. See
Appertain.] That which belongs to something else; an
adjunct; an appendage; an accessory; something annexed to
another thing more worthy; in common parlance and legal
acceptation, something belonging to another thing as
principal, and which passes as incident to it, as a right of
way, or other easement to land; a right of common to
pasture, an outhouse, barn, garden, or orchard, to a house
or messuage. In a strict legal sense, land can never pass as
an appurtenance to land.
Tomlins. Bouvier. Burrill.
Globes... provided as appurtenances to astronomy.
The structure of the eye, and of its appurtenances.
ApOpur6teOnant (?), a. [F. appartenant, p. pr. of
appartenir. See Appurtenance.] Annexed or pertaining to some
more important thing; accessory; inc?dent; as, a right of
way appurtenant to land or buildings.
Common ~. (Law) See under Common, n.
ApOpur6teOnant, n, Something which belongs or appertains to
another thing; an appurtenance.
Mysterious appurtenants and symbols of redemption.
Ap6riOcate (?), v. t. & i. [ L. apricatus, p. p. of
apricare, fr. apricus exposed to the sun, fr. aperire to
uncover, open.] To bask in the sun.
Ap7riOca6tion , n. Basking in the sun. [R.]
A6priOcot , n. [OE. apricock, abricot, F. abricot, fr. Sp.
albaricoque or Pg. albricoque, fr. Ar. albirq?q, alPburq?q.
Though the E. and F. form abricot is derived from the Arabic
through the Spanish, yet the Arabic word itself was formed
from the Gr. ?, pl. (Diosc. c. 1000) fr. L. praecoquus,
praecox, early ripe. The older E. form apricock was prob.
taken direct from Pg. See Precocious, Cook.] (Bot.) A fruit
allied to the plum, of an orange color, oval shape, and
delicious taste; also, the tree (Prunus Armeniaca of
Linnus) which bears this fruit. By cultivation it has been
introduced throughout the temperate zone.
A6pril (?), n. [L. Aprilis. OE. also Averil, F. Avril, fr.
L. Aprilis.] 1. The fourth month of the year.
2. Fig.: With reference to April being the month in which
vegetation begins to put forth, the variableness of its
weather, etc.
The April's her eyes; it is love's spring.
w fool, one who is sportively imposed upon by others on the
first day of w.
X A7 priOo6ri (?). [L. a (ab) + prior former.] 1. (Logic)
Characterizing that kind of reasoning which deduces
consequences from definitions formed, or principles assumed,
or which infers effects from causes previously known;
deductive or deductively. The reverse of a posteriori.
2. Presumptive; presumptively; without examination.
3.(Philos.) Applied to knowledge and conceptions assumed, or
presupposed, as prior to experience, in order to make
experience rational or possible.
A priori, that is, form these necessities of the mind or
forms of thinking, which, though first revealed to us by
experience, must yet have pre xisted in order to make
experience possible.
A7priOo6rism (?), n. [Cf. F. apriorisme.] An a priori
A7priOor6iOty (?), n. The quality of being innate in the
mind, or prior to experience; a priori reasoning.
X AOproc6ta (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. ? priv. + ? anus.]
(Zol.) A group of Turbellaria in which there is no anal
AOproc6tous (?), a.(Zol.) Without an anal office.
A6pron (?; 277), n. [OE. napron, OF. naperon, F. napperon,
dim. of OF. nape, F. nappe, cloth, tablecloth, LL. napa, fr.
L. mappa, napkin, table napkin. See Map.] 1. An article of
dress, of cloth, leather, or other stuff, worn on the fore
part of the body, to keep the clothes clean, to defend them
from injury, or as a covering. It is commonly tied at the
waist by strings.
2. Something which by its shape or use suggests an ~; as,
(a) The fat skin covering the belly of a goose or duck.
[Prov. Eng.] Halliwell. (b) A piece of leather, or other
material, to be spread before a person riding on an outside
seat of a vehicle, to defend him from the rain, snow, or
dust; a boot. =The weather being too hot for the apron.8
Hughes. (c) (Gun.) A leaden plate that covers the vent of a
cannon. (d) (Shipbuilding) A piece of carved timber, just
above the foremost end of the keel. Totten. (e) A platform,
or flooring of plank, at the entrance of a dock, against
which the dock gates are shut. (f) A flooring of plank
before a dam to cause the water to make a gradual descent.
(g) (Mech.) The piece that holds the cutting tool of a
planer. (h) (Plumbing) A strip of lead which leads the drip
of a wall into a gutter; a flashing. (i) (Zol.) The
infolded abdomen of a crab.
A6proned (?), a. Wearing an apron.
A cobbler aproned, and a parson gowned.
A6pronOful (?), n.; pl. Apronfuls (?). The quality an apron
can hold.
A6pronOless, a. Without an apron.
A6pron man7 (?). A man who wears an apron; a laboring man; a
mechanic. [Obs.]
A6pron string7 (?). The string of an apron.
To be tied to a wife's or mother's apron strings, to be
unduly controlled by a wife or mother.
He was so made that he could not submit to be tied to the
apron strings even of the best of wives.

Ap6roOsos7 (?), a. & adv. [F. ? propos; ? (L. ad) + propos
purpose, L. proposium plan, purpose, fr. proponere to
propose. See Propound.] 1. Opportunely or opportune;
seasonably or seasonable.
A tale extremely apropos.
2. By the way; to the purpose; suitably to the place or
subject; P a word used to introduce an incidental
observation, suited to the occasion? though not strictly
belonging to the narration.
Apse (?), n. pl. Apses (?). See Apsis.] 1. (Arch.) (a) A
projecting part of a building, esp. of a church, having in
the plan a polygonal or semicircular termination, and, most
often, projecting from the east end. In early churches the
Eastern ~ was occupied by seats for the bishop and clergy.
Hence: (b) The bishop's seat or throne, in ancient churches.
2. A reliquary, or case in which the relics of saints were
5 This word is also written apsis and absis.
Ap6siOdal (?), a. 1. (Astron.) Of or pertaining to the
apsides of an orbit.
2. (Arch.) Of or pertaining to the apse of a church; as, the
apsidal termination of the chancel.
Ap6siOdes (?), n. pl. See Apsis.
X Ap6sis (?), n. pl. Apsides (?). See Apse. [L. apsis,
absis, Gr. ?, ?, a tying, fastening, the hoop of a wheel,
the wheel, a bow, arch, vault, fr. ? to fasten.] 1.
(Astron.) One of the two points of an orbit, as of a planet
or satellite, which are at the greatest and least distance
from the central body, corresponding to the aphelion and
perihelion of a planet, or to the apogee and perigee of the
moon. The more distant is called the higher apsis; the
other, the lower apsis; and the line joining them, the line
of apsides.
2. (Math.) In a curve referred to polar cordinates, any
point for which the radius vector is a maximum or minimum.
3. (Arch.) Same as Apse.
Apt (?), a [F. apte, L. aptus, fr. obsolete apere to fasten,
to join, to fit, akin to apisci to reach, attain: cf. Gr. ?
to fasten, Skr. >pta fit, fr. >p to reach attain.]
1. Fit or fitted; suited; suitable; appropriate.
They have always apt instruments.
A river... apt to be forded by a lamb.
Jer. Taylor.
2. Having an habitual tendency; habitually liable or likely;
P used of things.
My vines and peaches... were apt to have a soot or
smuttiness upon their leaves and fruit.
This tree, if unprotected, is apt to be stripped of the
leaves by a leafPcutting ant.
3. Inclined; disposed customarily; given; ready; P used of
Apter to give than thou wit be to ask.
Beau. & Fl.
That lofty pity with which prosperous folk are apt to
remember their grandfathers.
F. Harrison.
4. Ready; especially fitted or qualified (to do something);
quick to learn; prompt; expert; as, a pupil apt to learn; an
apt scholar. =An apt wit.8
Live a thousand years,
I shall not find myself so apt to die.
I find thee apt... Now, Hamlet, hear.
Syn. - Fit; meet; suitable; qualified; ???line?; disposed;
liable; ready; quick; prompt.
Apt, v. t. [L. aptare. See Aptate.] To fit; to suit; to
adapt. [Obs.] =To apt their places.8
B. Jonson.
That our speech be apted to edification.
Jer. Taylor.
Apt6aOble (?), a. [LL. aptabilis, fr. L. aptare.] Capable of
being adapted. [Obs.]
Ap6tate (?), v. t. [L. aptatus, p. p. of aptare. See Apt.]
To make fit. [Obs.]
X Ap6teOra (?), n. pl. [NL. aptera, fr. Gr. ? without wings;
? priv. + ? wing, ? to fly.] (Zol.) Insects without wings,
constituting the seventh Linnn order of insects, an
artificial group, which included Crustacea, spiders,
centipeds, and even worms. These animals are now placed in
several distinct classes and orders.
Ap6terOal (?), a. 1. (Zol.) Apterous.
2. (Arch.) Without lateral columns; P applied to buildings
which have no series of columns along their sides, but are
either prostyle or amphiprostyle, and opposed to peripteral.
R. Cyc.
Ap6terOan (?), n. (Zol.) One of the Aptera.
X ApOte6riOa (?), n. pl. [NL. See Aptera.] (Zol.) Naked
spaces between the feathered areas of birds. See Pteryli.
Ap6terOous (?), a. 1. (Zol.) Destitute of wings; apteral;
as, apterous insects.
2. (Bot.) Destitute of winglike membranous expansions, as a
stem or petiole; P opposed to atate.
X ApOter6yOges (?), n. pl. [NL. See Apteryx.] (Zol.) An
order of birds, including the genus Apteryx.
X Ap6teOryx (?), n. [Gr. ? priv. + ? wing. Cf. Aptera.]
(Zol.) A genus of New Zealand birds about the size of a
hen, with only short rudiments of wings, armed with a claw
and without a tail; the kiwi. It is allied to the gigantic
extinct moas of the same country Five species are known.
Apt6iOtude (?), n. [F. aptitude, LL. aptitudo, fr. L. aptus.
See Apt, and cf. Attitude.] 1. A natural or acquired
disposition or capacity for a particular purpose, or
tendency to a particular action or effect; as, oil has an
aptitude to burn.
He seems to have had a peculiar aptitude for the management
of irregular troops.
2. A general fitness or suitableness; adaptation.
That sociable and helpful aptitude which God implanted
between man and woman.
3. Readiness in learning; docility; aptness.
He was a boy of remarkable aptitude.
Apt7iOtu6diOnal (?), a. Suitable; fit. [Obs.]
Apt6ly (?), adv. In an apt or suitable manner; fitly;
properly; pertinently; appropriately; readily.
Apt6ness, n. 1. Fitness; suitableness; appropriateness; as,
the aptness of things to their end.
The aptness of his quotations.
J. R. Green.
<-- p. 76 -->

2. Disposition of the mind; propensity; as, the aptness of
men to follow example.
3. Quickness of apprehension; readiness in learning;
d?cility; as, an aptness to learn is more observable in some
children than in others.
4. Proneness; tendency; as, the aptness of iron to rust.
Ap6tote (?), n. [L. aptotum, Gr. ? indeclinable; ? priv. + ?
fallen, declined, ? to fall.] (Gram.) A noun which has no
distinction of cases; an indeclinable noun.
ApOtot6ic (?), a. Pertaining to, or characterized by,
aptotes; uninflected; as, aptotic languages.
X Ap6tyOchus (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. ? priv. + ?, ?, fold.]
(Zol.) A shelly plate found in the terminal chambers of
ammonite shells. Some authors consider them to be jaws;
others, opercula.
X A6pus (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. ?. See Apode, n.] (Zol.) A
genus of freshPwater phyllopod crustaceans. See Phyllopod.
Ap7yOret6ic (?), a. [Pref. a? not + pyretic.] (Med.) Without
fever; P applied to days when there is an intermission of
X Ap7yOrex6iOa (?), Ap7yOrex7y (?), } n. [NL. apyrexia, fr.
Gr. ?; ? priv. + ? to be feverish, fr. ? fire: cf. F.
apyrexie.] (Med.) The absence of intermission of fever.
Ap7yOrex6iOal (?), a. (Med.) Relating to apyrexy. =Apyrexial
Brande & C.
Ap6yOrous (?), a. [Gr. ?; ? priv. + ? fire.] Incombustible;
capable of sustaining a strong heat without alteration of
form or properties.
X A6qua (?), n. [L. See Ewer.] Water; P a word much used in
pharmacy and the old chemistry, in various signification,
determined by the word or words annexed.
w ammoni, the aqueous solution of ammonia; liquid ammonia;
often called aqua ammonia. P w marine (?), or w marina (?).
Same as Aquamarine. P w regia (?). [L., royal water]
(Chem.), a very corrosive fuming yellow liquid consisting of
nitric and hydrochloric acids. It has the power of
dissolving gold, the =royal8 metal. P w Tofana (?), a fluid
containing arsenic, and used for secret poisoning, made by
an Italian woman named Tofana, in the middle of the 17th
century, who is said to have poisoned more than 600 persons.
Francis. P w vit (?) [L., water of life. Cf. Eau de vie,
Usquebaugh], a name given to brandy and some other ardent
X A7qua for6tis (?). [L., strong water.] (Chem.) Nitric
acid. [Archaic]
A7quaOmaOrine6 (?), n. (Min.) A transparent, pale green
variety of beryl, used as a gem. See Beryl.
A7quaOpunc6ture (?), n. [L. aqua water, + punctura puncture,
pungere, punctum, to, prick.] (Med.) The introduction of
water subcutaneously for the relief of pain.
X Aq7uaOrelle6 (?), n. [F., fr. Ital acquerello, fr. acqua
water, L. aqua.] A design or painting in thin transparent
water colors; also, the mode of painting in such colors.
Aq7uaOrel6list (?), n. A painter in thin transparent water
AOqua6riOal (?), AOqua6riOan (?), } a. Of or performance to
an aquarium.
AOqua6riOan, n. [L. (assumed) Aquarianus, fr. aqua: cf. F.
Aquarien. See Aqua.] (Eccl. Hist.) One of a sect of
Christian in the primitive church who used water instead of
wine in the Lord's Supper.
AOqua6riOum (?), n.; pl. E. Aquariums (?), L. Aquaria (?).
[L. See Aquarius, Ewer.] An artificial pond, or a globe or
tank (usually with glass sides), in which living specimens
of aquatic animals or plants are kept.
X AOqua6riOus (?), n. [L. aquarius, adj., relating to water,
and n., a waterPcarrier, fr. aqua. See Aqua.] (Astron.) (a)
The WaterPbearer; the eleventh sign in the zodiac, which the
sun enters about the 20th of January; P so called from the
rains which prevail at that season in Italy and the East.
(b) A constellation south of Pegasus.
AOquat6ic (?), a. [L. aquaticus: cf. F. aquatique. See
Aqua.] Pertaining to water growing in water; living in,
swimming in, or frequenting the margins of waters; as,
aquatic plants and fowls.
AOquat7ic, n. 1. An ~ animal plant.
2. pl. Sports or exercises practiced in or on the water.
AOquat6icOal (?), a. Aquatic. [R.]
Aq6uaOtile (?), a. [L. aquatilis: cf. F. aquatile.]
Inhabiting the water. [R.]
Sir T. Browne.
A6quaOtint (?), A7quaOtin6ta (?), } n. [It. acquatinta dyed
water; acqua (L. aqua) water + tinto, fem. tinta, dyed. See
Tint.] A kind of etching in which spaces are bitten by the
use of aqua fortis, by which an effect is produced
resembling a drawing in water colors or India ink; also, the
engraving produced by this method.
Aq6ueOduct (?), n. [F. aqueduc, OF. aqueduct (Cotgr.), fr.
L. aquaeductus; aquae, gen. of aqua water + ductus a
leading, ducere to lead. See Aqua, Duke.] 1. A conductor,
conduit, or artificial channel for conveying water,
especially one for supplying large cities with water.
5 The term is also applied to a structure (similar to the
ancient aqueducts), for conveying a canal over a river or
hollow; more properly called an aqueduct bridge.
2. (Anat.) A canal or passage; as, the aqueduct of Sylvius,
a channel connecting the third and fourth ventricles of the
AOque6iOty (?), n. Wateriness. [Obs.]
A6queOous (?), a. [Cf. F. aqueux, L. aquosus, fr. aqua. See
Aqua, Aquose.] 1. Partaking of the nature of water, or
abounding with it; watery.
The aqueous vapor of the air.
2. Made from, or by means of, water.
An aqueous deposit.
w extract, an extract obtained from a vegetable substance by
steeping it in water. P w humor (Anat.), one the humors of
the eye; a limpid fluid, occupying the space between the
crystalline lens and the cornea. (See Eye.) P w rocks
(Geol.), those which are deposited from water and lie in
strata, as opposed to volcanic rocks, which are of igneous
origin; P called also sedimentary rocks.
A7queOousOness, n. Wateriness.
AOquif6erOous (?), a. [L. aqua water + Oferous.] Consisting
or conveying water or a watery fluid; as, aquiferous
vessels; the aquiferous system.
A6quiOform (?), a. [L. aqua water + Oform.] Having the form
of water.
X Aq6uiOla (?), n; pl. Aquil (?). [L., an eagle.] 1.
(Zol.) A genus of eagles.
2. (Astron.) A northern constellation southerly from Lyra
and Cygnus and preceding the Dolphin; the Eagle.
w alba [L., white eagle], an alchemical name of calomel.
Brande & C.
Aq6uiOla7ted (?), a. (Her.) Adorned with eagles' heads.
Aq6uiOline (?; 277), a. [L. aquilinus, fr. aquila eagle: cf.
F. aquilin. See Eagle. ] 1. Belonging to or like an eagle.
2. Curving; hooked; prominent, like the beak of an eagle; P
applied particularly to the nose
Terribly arched and aquiline his nose.
Aq6uiOlon (?), n. [L. aquilo, Olonis: cf. F. aquilon.] The
north wind. [Obs.]
AOquip6aOrous (?), a. [L. aqua water + parere to bring
forth.] (Med.) Secreting water; P applied to certain glands.
Aq7uiOta6niOan (?), a. Of or pertaining to Aquitania, now
called Gascony.
AOquose6 (?), a. [L. aquosus watery, fr. aqua. See Aqua,
Aqueous.] Watery; aqueous. [R.]
AOquos6iOty (?), n. [LL. aquositas.] The condition of being
wet or watery; wateriness.
Very little water or aquosity is found in their belly.
Ar (?), conj. Ere; before. [Obs.]
X A6ra (?), n. [L.] (Astron.) The Altar; a southern
constellation, south of the tail of the Scorpion.
X A6ra (?), n. [Native Indian name.] (Zol.) A name of the
great blue and yellow macaw (Ara ararauna), native of South
Ar6ab (?; 277), n. [Prob. ultimately fr. Heb. arabah a
desert, the name employed, in the Old Testament, to denote
the valley of the Jordan and Dead Sea. Ar. Arab, Heb. arabi,
arbi, arbim: cf. F. Arabe, L. Arabs, Gr. ?.] One of a
swarthy race occupying Arabia, and numerous in Syria,
Northern Africa, etc.
Street w, a homeless vagabond in the streets of a city,
particularly and outcast boy or girl.
The ragged outcasts and street Arabs who are shivering in
damp doorways.
Lond. Sat. Rev.
Ar7aObesque6 (?), n. [F. arabesque, fr. It. arabesco, fr.
Arabo Arab.] A style of ornamentation either painted,
inlaid, or carved in low relief. It consists of a pattern in
which plants, fruits, foliage, etc., as well as figures of
men and animals, real or imaginary, are fantastically
interlaced or put together.
5 It was employed in Roman imperial ornamentation, and
appeared, without the animal figures, in Moorish and Arabic
decorative art. (See Moresque.) The arabesques of the
Renaissance were founded on GrecoPRoman work.
Ar7aObesque6, a. 1. Arabian. [Obs.]
2. Relating to, or exhibiting, the style of ornament called
arabesque; as, arabesque frescoes.
Ar7aObesqued6 (?), a. Ornamented in the style of arabesques.
AOra6biOan (?), a. Of or pertaining to Arabia or its
w bird, the phenix.
AOra6biOan, n. A native of Arabia; an Arab.
Ar6aObic (?), a. [L. Arabicus, fr. Arabia.] Of or pertaining
to Arabia or the Arabians.
w numerals or figures, the nine digits, 1, 2, 3, etc., and
the cipher 0. P Gum ~. See under Gum.
Ar6aObic, n. The language of the Arabians.
5 The Arabic is a Semitic language, allied to the Hebrew. It
is very widely diffused, being the language in which all
Mohammedans must read the Koran, and is spoken as a
vernacular tongue in Arabia, Syria, and Northern Africa.
AOrab6icOal (?), a. Relating to Arabia; Arabic. P
AOrab6icOalOly, adv.
Ar6aObin (?), n. 1. (Chem.) A carbohydrate, isomeric with
cane sugar, contained in gum arabic, from which it is
extracted as a white, amorphous substance.
2. Mucilage, especially that made of gum arabic.
Ar6aObinOose7 (?), n. (Chem.) A sugar of the composition
C5H10O5, obtained from cherry gum by boiling it with dilute
sulphuric acid.
Ar6aObism (?), n. [Cf. F. Arabisme.] An Arabic idiom
peculiarly of language.
Ar7aObist (?), n. [Cf. F. Arabiste.] One well versed in the
Arabic language or literature; also, formerly, one who
followed the Arabic system of surgery.
Ar6aOble (?), a. [F. arable, L. arabilis, fr. arare to plow,
akin to Gr. ?, E. ear, to plow. See Earable.] Fit for
plowing or tillage; P hence, often applied to land which has
been plowed or tilled.
Ar6aOble, n. w land; plow land.
Ar6aOby (?), n. The country of Arabia. [Archaic & Poetic]
X Ar7aOcaOnese6 (?), a. Of or pertaining to Aracan, a
province of British Burmah. P n. sing. & pl. A native or
natives of Aracan.
X A7raO?a6ri (?), n. (Zol.) A South American bird, of the
genus Pleroglossius, allied to the toucans. There are
several species.
AOrace6 (?), v. t. [OE. aracen, arasen, OF. arachier,
esracier, F. arracher, fr. L. exradicare, eradicare. The
prefix aO is perh. due to L. ab. See Eradicate.] To tear up
by the roots; to draw away. [Obs.]
AOra6ceous (?), a. [L. arum a genus of plants, fr. Gr. ?.]
(Bot.) Of or pertaining to an order of plants, of which the
genus Arum is the type.
AOrach6nid (?), n. An arachnidan.
X AOrach6niOda (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. ? spider.] (Zol.)
One of the classes of Arthropoda. See Illustration in
5 They have four pairs of legs, no antenn nor wings, a pair
of mandibles, and one pair of maxill or palpi. The head is
usually consolidated with the thorax. The respiration is
either by tranche or by pulmonary sacs, or by both. The
class includes three principal orders: Araneina, or spiders;
Arthrogastra, including scorpions, etc.; and Acarina, or
mites and ticks.
AOrach6niOdan (?), n. [Gr. ? spider.] (Zol.) One of the
Ar7achOnid6iOal (?), a. (Zol.) (a) Of or pertaining to the
Arachnida. (b) Pertaining to the arachnidium.
X Ar7achOnid6iOum (?), n. [NL. See Arachnida.] (Zol.) The
glandular organ in which the material for the web of spiders
is secreted.
X Ar7achOni6tis (?), n. [Gr. ? + ?.] (Med.) Inflammation of
the arachnoid membrane.
AOrach6noid (?), a. [Gr. ? like a cobweb; ? spider, spider's
web + ? form.] 1. Resembling a spider's web; cobweblike.
2. (Anat.) Pertaining to a thin membrane of the brain and
spinal cord, between the dura mater and pia mater.
3. (Bot.) Covered with, or composed of, soft, loose hairs or
fibers, so as to resemble a cobweb; cobwebby.
AOrach6noid, n. 1. (Anat.) The ~ membrane.
2. (Zol.) One of the Arachnoidea.
Ar7achOnoid6al (?), a. (Anat.) Pertaining to the arachnoid
membrane; arachnoid.
X Ar7achOnoid6eOa (?), n. pl. [NL.] (Zol.) Same as
AOrach7noOlog6icOal (?), a. Of or pertaining to arachnology.
Ar7achOnol6oOgist (?), n. One who is versed in, or studies,
Ar7achOnol6oOgy (?), n. [Gr. ? spider + Ology.] The
department of zology which treats of spiders and other
A7rOom6eOter (?; 277). See Areometer.
AOr6oOstyle (?), a. & n. [L. araeostylos, Gr. ?; ? at
intervals + ? pillar, column.] (Arch.) See
AOr7oOsys6tyle (?), a. & n. [Gr. ? as intervals + ?. See
Systyle.] (Arch.) See Intercolumniation.
Ar7aOgoOnese (?), a. Of or pertaining to Aragon, in Spain,
or to its inhabitants. P n. sing. & pl. A native or natives
of Aragon, in Spain.
AOrag6oOnite (?), n. [From Aragon, in Spain.] (Min.) A
mineral identical in composition with calcite or carbonate
of lime, but differing from it in its crystalline form and
some of its physical characters.
X A7raOgua6to (?), n. [Native name.] (Zol.) A South
American monkey, the ursine howler (Mycetes ursinus). See
Howler, n., 2.
AOraise66 (?), v. t. To raise. [Obs.]
Ar6ak (?), n. Same as Arrack.
Ar7aOman, Ar7aOme6an } (?), a. [L. Aramaeus, Gr. ?, fr.
Heb. Ar>m, i. e. Highland, a name given to Syria and
Mesopotamia.] Of or pertaining to the Syrians and Chaldeans,
or to their language; Aramaic. P n. A native of Aram.
Ar7aOma6ic (?), a. [See Araman, a.] Pertaining to Aram, or
to the territory, inhabitants, language, or literature of
Syria and Mesopotamia; Araman; P specifically applied to
the northern branch of the Semitic family of languages,
including Syriac and Chaldee. P n. The Aramaic language.
Ar7aOma6ism (?), n. An idiom of the Aramaic.
X Ar7aOne6iOda (?), X Ar7aOneOoid6eOa (?), } n. pl. [NL.]
(Zol.) See Araneina.
Ar7aOne6iOdan (?), a. (Zol.) Of or pertaining to the
Araneina or spiders. P n. One of the Araneina; a spider.
Ar7aOne6iOform (?)(?) a. [L. aranea spider + Oform.] (Zol.)
Having the form of a spider.
X AOra7neOi6na (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. L. aranea spider.]
(Zol.) The order of Arachnida that includes the spiders.
5 They have mandibles, modified a poison fa?gs, leglike
palpi, simple eyes, abdomen without segments, and spinnerets
for spinning a web. They breathe by pulmonary sacs and
trache in the abdomen. See Illustration in Appendix.
AOra6neOose7 , a. [L. araneous.] Of the aspect of a spider's
web; arachnoid.
AOra6neOous (?), a. [L. araneosus, fr. aranea spider,
spider6s web.] Cobweblike; extremely thin and delicate, like
a cobweb; as, the araneous membrane of the eye. See

<-- p. 77 -->

X AOran6go (?), n. pl. Arangoes (?). [The native name.] A
bead of rough carnelian. Arangoes were formerly imported
from Bombay for use in the African slave trade.
X A7raOpai6ma (?), n. [Prob. native name.] (Zol.) A large
freshPwater food fish of South America.
X AOra6ra (?), n. [Native name.] (Zol.) The palm (or great
black) cockatoo, of Australia (Microglossus aterrimus).
AOra6tion (?), n. [L. aratio, fr. arare to plow.] Plowing;
tillage. [R.]
Lands are said to be in a state of aration when they are
under tillage.
Ar6aOtoOry (?), a. [LL. aratorius: cf. F. aratoire.]
Contributing to tillage.
X Ar7auOca6riOa (?), n. [Araucania, a territory south of
Chili.] (Bot.) A genus of tall conifers of the pine family.
The species are confined mostly to South America and
Australia. ?he wood cells differ from those of other in
having the dots in their lateral surfaces in two or three
rows, and the dots of contiguous rows alternating. The seeds
are edible.
Ar7auOca6riOan (?), a. Relating to, or of the nature of, the
Araucaria. The earliest conifers in geological history were
mostly w.
Ar6baOlest (?), Ar6baOlist (?), } n. [OF. arbaleste, LL.
arbalista, for L. arcuballista; arcus bow + ballista a
military engine. See Ballista.] (Antiq.) A crossbow,
consisting of a steel bow set in a shaft of wood, furnished
with a string and a trigger, and a mechanical device for
bending the bow. It served to throw arrows, darts, bullets,
etc. [Written also arbalet and arblast.]
Ar6baOlest7er (?), Ar6baOlist7er (?), } n. [OF. arblastere,
OF. arbalestier. See Arbalest.] A crossbowman. [Obs.]
Ar6biOter (?), n. [L. arbiter; arO (for ad) + the root of
betere to go; hence properly, one who comes up to look on.]
1. A person appointed, or chosen, by parties to determine a
controversy between them.
5 In modern usage, arbitrator is the technical word.
2. Any person who has the power of judging and determining,
or ordaining, without control; one whose power of deciding
and governing is not limited.
For Jove is arbiter of both to man.
Syn. - Arbitrator; umpire; director; referee; controller;
ruler; governor.
Ar6biOter, v. t. To act as ~ between. [Obs.]
Ar6biOtraOble (?), a. [Cf. F. arbitrable, fr. L. arbitrari.
See Arbitrate, v. t.] Capable of being decided by
arbitration; determinable. [Archaic]
Bp. Hall.
Ar6biOtrage (?), n. [F., fr. arbiter to give judgment, L.
arbitrari.] 1. Judgment by an arbiter; authoritative
determination. [Archaic]
2. (Com) A traffic in bills of exchange (see Arbitration of
Exchange); also, a traffic in stocks which bear differing
values at the same time in different markets.
Ar6biOtral (?), a. [L. arbitralis.] Of or relating to an
arbiter or an arbitration. [R.]
ArObit6raOment (?), n. [LL. arbitramentum.] 1.
Determination; decision; arbitration.
The arbitrament of time.
Gladly at this moment would MacIvor have put their quarrel
to personal arbitrament.
Sir W. Scott.
2. The award of arbitrators.
Ar6biOtraOriOly (?), adv. In an arbitrary manner; by will
only; despotically; absolutely.
Ar6biOtraOriOness, n. The quality of being arbitrary;
despoticalness; tyranny.
Bp. Hall.
Ar7biOtra6riOous (?), a. [L. arbitrarius. See Arbitrary.]
Arbitrary; despotic. [Obs.] P Ar7biOtra6OriOousOly, adv.
Ar6biOtraOry (?), a. [L. arbitrarius, fr. arbiter: cf. F.
arbitraire. See Arbiter.] 1. Depending on will or
discretion; not governed by any fixed rules; as, an
arbitrary decision; an arbitrary punishment.
It was wholly arbitrary in them to do so.
Jer. Taylor.
Rank pretends to fix the value of every one, and is the most
arbitrary of all things.
2. Exercised according to one's own will or caprice, and
therefore conveying a notion of a tendency to abuse the
possession of power.
Arbitrary power is most easily established on the ruins of
liberty abused licentiousness.
3. Despotic; absolute in power; bound by no law; harsh and
unforbearing; tyrannical; as, an arbitrary prince or

w constant, w function (Math.), a quantity of function that
is introduced into the solution of a problem, and to which
any value or form may at will be given, so that the solution
may be made to meet special requirements. P w quantity
(Math.), one to which any value can be assigned at pleasure.
Ar6biOtrate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Arbitrated (?); p. pr.
& vb. n. Arbitrating (?).] [L. arbitratus, p. p. of
arbitrari to be a hearer or beholder of something, to make a
decision, to give judgment, fr. arbiter. See Arbiter.] 1. To
hear and decide, as arbitrators; as, to choose to arbitrate
a disputed case.
2. To decide, or determine generally.
There shall your swords and lances arbitrate
The swelling difference of your settled hate.
Ar6biOtrate (?), v. i. 1. To decide; to determine.
2. To act as arbitrator or judge; as, to arbitrate upon
several reports;; to arbitrate in disputes among heighbors;
to arbitrate between parties to a suit.
Ar7biOtra6tion (?), n. [F. arbitration, L. arbitratio, fr.
arbitrari.] The hearing and determination of a cause between
parties in controversy, by a person or persons chosen by the
5 This may be done by one person; but it is usual to choose
two or three called arbitrators; or for each party to choose
one, and these to name a third, who is called the umpire.
Their determination is called the award.
w bond, a bond which obliges one to abide by the award of an
~. P w of Exchange, the operation of converting the currency
of one country into that of another, or determining the rate
of exchange between such countries or currencies. An
arbitrated rate is one determined by such ~ through the
medium of one or more intervening currencies.
Ar6biOtra7tor (?), n. [L., fr. arbitrari: cf. F.
arbitrateur.] 1. A person, or one of two or more persons,
chosen by parties who have a controversy, to determine their
differences. See Arbitration.
2. One who has the power of deciding or prescribing without
control; a ruler; a governor.
Though Heaven be shut,
And Heaven's high Arbitrators sit secure.
Masters of their own terms and arbitrators of a peace.
Syn. - Judge; umpire; referee; arbiter. See Judge.
Ar6biOtra7trix (?), n. [L., fem. of arbitrator.] A female
who arbitrates or judges.
Ar6biOtress (?), n. [From Arbiter.] A female arbiter; an

Ar6blast (?), n. A crossbow. See Arbalest.
Ar6bor (?), n. [OE. herber, herbere, properly a garden of
herbs, F. herbier, fr. L. herbarium. See Herb, and cf.
Herbarium.] A kind of latticework formed of, or covered
with, vines, branches of trees, or other plants, for shade;
a bower.
Sir P. Sidney.
Ar6bor, n. [Written also arbour.] [L., a tree, a beam.] 1.
(Bot.) A tree, as distinguished from a shrub.
2. [Cf. F. arbre.] (Mech.) (a) An axle or spindle of a wheel
or opinion. (b) A mandrel in lathe turning.
w Day, a day appointed for planting trees and shrubs. [U.S.]
Ar6boOraOry (?), a. [L. arborarius, fr. arbor tree.] Of or
pertaining to trees; arboreal.
Ar6boOra7tor (?), n. [L., fr. arbor tree.] One who plants or
who prunes trees. [Obs.]
X Ar6bor DiOa6n (?). [L., the tree of Diana, or silver.]
(Chem.) A precipitation of silver, in a beautiful
arborescent form.
ArObo6reOal (?), a. 1. Of or pertaining to a tree, or to
trees; of nature of trees.
2. Attached to, found in or upon, or frequenting, woods or
trees; as, arboreal animals.
Woodpeckers are eminently arboreal.
Ar6bored (?), a. Furnished with an arbor; lined with trees.
=An arboreal walk.8
ArObo6reOous (?), a. [L. arboreous, fr. arbor tree.] 1.
Having the form, constitution, or habits, of a proper tree,
in distinction from a shrub.
2. Pertaining to, or growing on, trees; as, arboreous moss.
Ar7boOres6cence (?), n. The state of being arborescent; the
resemblance to a tree in minerals, or crystallizations, or
groups of crystals in that form; as, the arborescence
produced by precipitating silver.
Ar7boOres6cent (?), a. [L. arborescens, p. pr. of
arborescere to become a tree, fr. arbor tree.] Resembling a
tree; becoming woody in stalk; dendritic; having
crystallizations disposed like the branches and twigs of a
tree. =Arborescent hollyhocks.8
Ar6boOret (?), n. [OF. arboret, dim. of arbre tree, L.
arbor] A small tree or shrub. [Obs.]
Among thickPwoven arborets, and flowers
Imbordered on each bank.
X Ar7boOre6tum (?), n.; pl. Arboreta (?). [L., a place grown
with trees.] A place in which a collection of rare trees and
shrubs is cultivated for scientific or educational purposes.
ArObor6icOal (?), a. Relating to trees. [Obs.]
ArObor6iOcole (?), a. [L. arbor + colere to inhabit.]
(Zol.) TreePinhabiting; P said of certain birds.
Ar7borOiOcul6turOal (?), a. Pertaining to arboriculture.
Ar7borOiOcul6ture (?; 135), n. [L. arbor tree + cultura. See
Culture.] The cultivation of trees and shrubs, chiefly for
timber or for ornamental purposes.
Ar7borOiOcul6turOist, n. One who cultivates trees.
ArObor6iOform (?), a. Treelike in shape.
Ar6borOist (?), n. [F. arboriste, fr. L. arbor tree.] One
who makes trees his study, or who is versed in the knowledge
of trees.
Ar7borOiOza6tion (?), n. [Cf. F. arborisation, fr. L. arbor
tree.] The appearance or figure of a tree or plant, as in
minerals or fossils; a dendrite.
Ar6borOized (?), a. Having a treelike appearance. =An
arborized or moss agate.8
Ar6borOous (?), a. Formed by trees. [Obs.]
From under shady, arborous roof.
Ar6bor vine7 (?). A species of bindweed.
X Ar6bor vi6t (?). [L., tree of life.] 1. (Bot.) An
evergreen tree of the cypress tribe, genus Thuja. The
American species is the T. occidentalis.
2. (Anat.) The treelike disposition of the gray and white
nerve tissues in the cerebellum, as seen in a vertical
Ar6busOcle (?), n. [L. arbuscula small tree, shrub, dim. of
arbor tree.] A dwarf tree, one in size between a shrub and a
tree; a treelike shrub.
ArObus6cuOlar (?), a. Of or pertaining to a dwarf tree;
Da Costa.
ArObus6tive (?), a. [L. arbustivus, fr. arbustum place where
trees are planted.] Containing copses of trees or shrubs;
covered with shrubs.
Ar6buOtus (?), Ar6bute (?), } n. [L. arbutus, akin to arbor
tree.] The strawberry tree, a genus of evergreen shrubs, of
the Heath family. It has a berry externally resembling the
strawberry; the arbute tree.
Trailing arbutus (Bot.), a creeping or trailing plant of the
Heath family (Epiga repens), having white or usually
rosePcolored flowers with a delicate fragrance, growing in
small axillary clusters, and appearing early in the spring;
in New England known as mayflower; P called also ground
Arc (?), n. [F. arc, L. arcus bow, ~. See Arch, n.] 1.
(Geom.) A portion of a curved line; as, the arc of a circle
or of an ellipse.
2. A curvature in the shape of a circular ~ or an arch; as,
the colored arc (the rainbow); the arc of Hadley's quadrant.
3. An arch. [Obs.]
Statues and trophies, and triumphal arcs.
4. The apparent ~ described, above or below the horizon, by
the sun or other celestial body. The diurnal arc is
described during the daytime, the nocturnal arc during the
Electric ~, Voltaic ~. See under Voltaic.
ArOcade6 (?), n. [F. arcade, Sp. arcada, LL. arcata, fr. L.
arcus bow, arch.] 1. (Arch.) (a) A series of arches with
the columns or piers which support them, the spandrels
above, and other necessary appurtenances; sometimes open,
serving as an entrance or to give light; sometimes closed at
the back (as in the cut) and forming a decorative feature.
(b) A long, arched building or gallery.
2. An arched or covered passageway or avenue.
ArOcad6ed (?), a. Furnished with an arcade.
ArOca6diOa (?), n. [L. Arcadia, Gr. ?.] 1. A mountainous and
picturesque district of Greece, in the heart of the
Peloponnesus, whose people were distinguished for
contentment and rural happiness.
2. Fig.: Any region or scene of simple pleasure and
untroubled quiet.
Where the cow is, there is Arcadia.
J. Burroughs.
ArOca6diOan (?), ArOca6dic (?), } a. [L. Arcadius,
Arcadicus, fr. Arcadia: cf. F. Arcadien, Arcadique.] Of or
pertaining to Arcadia; pastoral; ideally rural; as, Arcadian
simplicity or scenery.
ArOcane6 (?), a. [L. arcanus.] Hidden; secret. [Obs.] =The
arcane part of divine wisdom.8
X ArOca6num (?), n.; pl. Arcana (?). [L., fr. arcanus
closed, secret, fr. arca chest, box, fr. arcere to inclose.
See Ark.] 1. A secret; a mystery; P generally used in the
Inquiries into the arcana of the Godhead.
2. (Med.) A secret remedy; an elixir.
X Arc7Obou7tant6 (?), n. [F.] (Arch.) A flying buttress.
Arch (?), n. [F. arche, fr. LL. arca, for arcus. See Arc.]
1. (Geom.) Any part of a curved line.
2. (Arch.) (a) Usually a curved member made up of separate
wedgePshaped solids, with the joints between them disposed
in the direction of the radii of the curve; used to support
the wall or other weight above an opening. In this sense
arches are segmental, round (i. e., semicircular), or
pointed. (b) A flat arch is a member constructed of stones
cut into wedges or other shapes so as to support each other
without rising a curve.
5 Scientifically considered, the ~ is a means of spanning an
opening by resolving vertical pressure into horizontal or
diagonal thrust.
3. Any place covered by an ~; an archway; as, to pass into
the arch of a bridge.
4. Any curvature in the form of an ~; as, the arch of the
aorta. =Colors of the showery arch.8
Triumphal ~, a monumental structure resembling an arched
gateway, with one or more passages, erected to commemorate a
Arch, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Arched (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
Arching.] 1. To cover with an ~ or arches.
2. To form or bend into the shape of an ~.
The horse arched his neck.
Arch, v. i. To form into an arch; to curve.

<-- p. 78 -->

ArchO (rchO, except in archangel and one or two other
words). [L. archO, Gr. ???. See ArchO.] A prefix signifying
chief, as in archbuilder, archfiend.
Arch (?), a. [See ArchO, pref.] 1. Chief; eminent; greatest
; principal.
The most arch act of piteous massacre.
2. Cunning or sly; sportively mischievous; roguish; as, an
arch look, word, lad.
[He] spoke his request with so arch a leer.
Arch, n. [See ArchO, pref.] A chief. [Obs.]
My worthy arch and patron comes toPnight.
Oarch (?). [Gr. ? chief, commander, ? to rule. See Arch, a.]
A suffix meaning a ruler, as in monarch (a sole ruler).
ArOch6an (?), a. [Gr. ? ancient, fr. ? beginning.] Ancient;
pertaining to the earliest period in geological history.
ArOch6an, n. (Geol.) The earliest period in geological
period, extending up to the Lower Silurian. It includes an
Azoic age, previous to the appearance of life, and an Eozoic
age, including the earliest forms of life.
5 This is equivalent to the formerly accepted term Azoic,
and to the Eozoic of Dawson.
Ar7chOog6raOphy (?), n. [Gr. ? ancient + Ography.] A
description of, or a treatise on, antiquity or antiquities.
Ar7chOoOlith6ic (?), a. [Gr. ? ancient + ? pertaining to a
stone.] (Archol.) Of or pertaining to the earliest Stone
age; P applied to a prehistoric period preceding the
Paleolithic age.
Ar7chOoOlo6giOan (?), n. An archologist.
Ar7chOoOlog6ic (?), Ar7chOoOlog6icOal (?), } Relating to
archology, or antiquities; as, archological researches. P
Ar7OchOoOlog6icOalOly, adv.
Ar7chOol6oOgist (?), n. One versed in archology; an
Ar7chOol6oOgy (?), n. [Gr. ?; ? ancient (fr. ? beginning) +
? discourse, ? to speak.] The science or study of
antiquities, esp. prehistoric antiquities, such as the
remains of buildings or monuments of an early epoch,
inscriptions, implements, and other relics, written
manuscripts, etc.
X Ar7chOop6teOryx (?), n. [Gr. ? ancient + ? wing.]
(Paleon.) A fossil bird, of the Jurassic period, remarkable
for having a long tapering tail of many vertebr with
feathers along each side, and jaws armed with teeth, with
other reptilian characteristics.
Ar7chOoOstom6aOtous (?), a. [Gr. ? ancient + ? mouth.]
(Biol.) Applied to a gastrula when the blastorope does not
entirely up.
Ar7chOoOzo6ic (?), a. [Gr. ? ancient + ? animal.] (Zol.)
Like or belonging to the earliest forms of animal life.
ArOcha6ic (?), a. [Gr. ? oldPfashioned, fr. ? ancient.] Of
or characterized by antiquity or archaism; antiquated;
ArOcha6icOal (?), a. Archaic. [R.] P ArOcha6icOalOly, adv.
Ar6chaOism (?), n. [Gr. ?, fr. ? ancient, fr. ? beginning:
cf. F. archa sme. See Arch, a.] 1. An ancient, antiquated,
or oldPfashioned, word, expression, or idiom; a word or form
of speech no longer in common use.
2. Antiquity of style or use; obsoleteness.
A select vocabulary corresponding (in point of archaism and
remoteness from ordinary use) to our Scriptural vocabulary.
De Quincey.
Ar6chaOist, n. 1. Am antiquary.
2. One who uses archaisms.
Ar7chaOis6tic (?), a. Like, or imitative of, anything
archaic; pertaining to an archaism.
Ar6chaOize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Archaized (?); p. pr. &
vb. n. Archaizing.] [Gr. ?.] To make appear archaic or
Arch7an6gel (?), n. [L. archangelus, Gr. ?: cf. OF.
archangel, F. archange. See ArchO, pref., and Angel.] 1. A
chief angel; one high in the celestial hierarchy.
2. (Bot.) A term applied to several different species of
plants (Angelica archangelica, Lamium album, etc.).
Arch7anOgel6ic (?), a. [Cf. F. archanglique.] Of or
pertaining to archangels; of the nature of, or resembling,
an archangel.

Arch7bish6op (?), n. [AS. arcebisceop, arcebiscop, L.
archiepiscopus, fr. Gr. ?. See Bishop.] A chief bishop; a
church dignitary of the first class (often called a
metropolitan or primate) who superintends the conduct of the
suffragan bishops in his province, and also exercises
episcopal authority in his own diocese.
Arch7bish6opOric (?), n. [AS. arcebiscoprFce. See Oric.] The
jurisdiction or office of an archbishop; the see or province
over which archbishop exercises archiepiscopal authority.
Arch6 brick7 (?). A wedgePshaped brick used in the building
of an arch.
Arch7but6ler (?), n. [Pref. archO + butler.] A chief butler;
P an officer of the German empire.
Arch7cham6berOlain (?), n. [Cf. G. erzkmmerer. See ArchO,
pref.] A chief chamberlain; P an officer of the old German
empire, whose office was similar to that of the great
chamberlain in England.
Arch7chan6celOlor (?), n. [Cf. Ger. erzkanzler. See ArchO,
pref.] A chief chancellor; P an officer in the old German
empire, who presided over the secretaries of the court.
Arch7chem6ic (?), a. Of supreme chemical powers. [R.] =The
archchemic sun.8

Arch7dea6con (?), n. [AS. arcediacon, archidiacon, L.
archidiaconus, fr. Gr. ?. See ArchO, pref., and Deacon.] In
England, an ecclesiastical dignitary, next in rank below a
bishop, whom he assists, and by whom he is appointed, though
with independent authority.
Arch7dea6conOry, n. The district, office, or residence of an
archdeacon. See Benefice.
Every diocese is divided into archdeaconries.
Arch7dea6conOship, n. The office of an archdeacon.
Arch7di6oOcese (?), n. [Pref. archO + diocese.] The diocese
of an archbishop.
Arch7du6cal (?), a. Of or pertaining to an archduke or
Arch7duch6ess (?), n. [Pref. archO + duchess.] The consort
of an archduke; also, a princess of the imperial family of
Austria. See Archduke.
Arch7duch6y, n. The territory of an archduke or archduchess.
Arch7duke6 (?), n. [Pref. archO + duke.] A prince of the
imperial family of Austria.
5 Formerly this title was assumed by the rulers of Lorraine,
Brabant, Austria, etc. It is now appropriated to the
descendants of the imperial family of Austria through the
make line, all such male descendants being styled archduke,
and all such female descendants archduchesses.
Arch7duke6dom (?), n. An archduchy.
X Ar7cheObiOo6sis (?), n. [Pref. archeO ? archiO + Gr. ?, ?,
life.] To origination of living matter from nonPliving. See
Arched (?), a. Made with an arch or curve; covered with an
arch; as, an arched door.
Ar7cheOgo6niOal (?), a. Relating to the archegonium.
X Ar7cheOgo6niOum (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. ? the first of a
race.] (Bot.) The pistillidium or female organ in the higher
cryptogamic plants, corresponding to the pistil in flowering
ArOcheg6oOny (?), n. [See Archegonium.] (Biol.) Spontaneous
generation; abiogenesis.
ArOchel6oOgy (?), n. [Gr. ? an element or first principle +
Ology.] The science of, or a treatise on, first principles.
X Ar7chenOceph6aOla (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. pref. ? + ?
the brain.] (Zol.) The division that includes man alone.
R. Owen.
Arch7en6eOmy (?), n. [Pref. archO = enemy.] A principal
enemy. Specifically, Satan, the grand adversary of mankind.
Arch7enOter6ic (?), a. (Biol.) Relating ? the archenteron;
as, archenteric invagination.
X Arch7en6terOon , n. [Pref. archO + Gr. ? intestine.]
(Biol.) The primitive enteron or undifferentiated digestive
sac of a gastrula or other embryo. See Illust. under
Ar7cheOol6oOgy (?), n., Ar7cheOoOlog7icOal (?), a. Same as
Archology, etc.
Arch6er (?), n. [OF. archier, F. archer, LL. arcarius, fr.
L. arcus bow. See Arc, Arch, n.] A bowman, one skilled in
the use of the bow and arrow.
Arch6erOess (?), n. A female archer.
Arch6er fish7 (?). (Zol.) A small fish (Toxotes jaculator),
of the East Indies; P so called from ?? ejecting drops of
water from its mouth at its prey. The name is also applied
to Chtodon rostratus.
Arch6erOship, n. The art or skill of an archer.
Arch6erOy (?), n. [OE. archerie.] 1. The use of the bow and
arrows in battle, hunting, etc.; the art, practice, or skill
of shooting with a bow and arrows.
2. Archers, or bowmen, collectively.
Let all our archery fall off
In wings of shot aPboth sides of the van.
Webster (1607).
Arch6es (?), pl. of Arch, n.
Court of w, or w Court (Eng. Law), the court of appeal of
the Archbishop of Canterbury, whereof the judge, who sits as
deputy to the archbishop, is called the Dean of the Arches,
because he anciently held his court in the church of St.
MaryPlePBow (de arcubus). It is now held in Westminster.
Mozley & W.
Ar6cheOty7pal (?), a. Of or pertaining to an archetype;
consisting a model (real or ideal) or pattern; original.
=One archetypal mind.8
5 Among Platonists, the archetypal world is the world as it
existed as an idea of God before the creation.
Ar6cheOty7palOly, adv. With reference to the archetype;
originally. =Parts archetypally distinct.=
Ar6cheOtype (?), n. [L. archetypum, Gr. ?, fr. ? stamped
first and as model; ? ? + ? stamp, figure, pattern, ? to
strike: cf. F. archtype. See ArchO, pref.] 1. The original
pattern or model of a work; or the model from which a thing
is made or formed.
The House of Commons, the archetype of all the
representative assemblies which now meet.
Types and shadows of that glorious archetype that was to
come into the world.
2. (Coinage) The standard weight or coin by which others are
3. (Biol.) The plan or fundamental structure on which a
natural group of animals or plants or their systems of
organs are assumed to have been constructed; as, the
vertebrate archetype.
Ar7cheOtyp6icOal (?), a. Relating to an archetype;
X ArOche6us (?), n. [LL. arch?us, Gr. ? ancient, primeval,
fr. ? beginning. See ArchiO, pref.] The vital principle or
force which (according to the Paracelsians) presides over
the growth and continuation of living beings; the anima
mundi or plastic power of the old philosophers. [Obs.]
Ar6chiO (?). [L., archiO, Gr. ?, a prefix which is from the
same root as ? to be first, to begin; ? the first place,
beginning; ? chief. Cf. AS. arceO, erceO, OHG. erziO.] A
prefix signifying chief, arch; as, architect,
archiepiscopal. In Biol. and Anat. it usually means
primitive, original, ancestral; as, archipterygium, the
primitive fin or wing.
X Ar7chiOanOnel6iOda (?), n. pl. [NL.; pref. archiO +
annelida.] (Zol.) A group of Annelida remarkable for having
no external segments or distinct ventral nerve ganglions.
Ar6chiOa7ter (?), n. [L. archiatrus, Gr. ?; pref. ? + ?
physician, ? to heal.] Chief physician; P a term applied, on
the continent of Europe, to the first or body physician of
princes and to the first physician of some cities.
P. Cyc.
X Ar7chiOblas6tuOla (?), n. [Pref. archi + blastula.]
(Biol.) A hollow blastula, supposed to be the primitive
form; a c?loblastula.
Ar6chiOcal (?), a. [Gr. ? able to govern, fr. ? beginning,
government. See ArchO, pref.] Chief; primary; primordi?.]
Ar7chiOdiOac6oOnal (?), a. [L. archidiaconus, Gr. ?, equiv.
to E. archdeacon.] Of or pertaining to an archdeacon.
This offense is liable to be censured in an archidiaconal
Ar7chiOeOpis6coOpaOcy (?), n. [Pref. archiO + episcopacy.]
1. That form of episcopacy in which the chief power is in
the hands of archbishops.
2. The state or dignity of an archbishop.
Ar7chiOeOpis6coOpal (?), a. [Pref. archiO + episcopal.] Of
or pertaining to an archbishop; as, Canterbury is an
archiepiscopal see.
Ar7chiOeOpis7coOpal6iOty (?), n. The station or dignity of
an archbishop; archiepiscopacy.
Ar7chiOeOpis6coOpate (?), n. [Pref. archiO + episcopate.]
The office of an archbishop; an archbishopric.
X ArOchi6eOrey (?), n. [Russ. archieri, fr. Gr. ?; pref. ?
(E. archO) + 5 priest.] The higher order of clergy in
Russia, including metropolitans, archbishops, and bishops.
Ar6chil (?; 277), n. [OF. orchel, orcheil, It. orcella,
oricello, or OSp. orchillo. Cf. Orchil.] 1. A viole?dye
obtained from several species of lichen (Roccella tinctoria,
etc.), which grow on maritime rocks in the Canary and Cape
Verd Islands, etc.
2. The plant from which the dye is obtained.
[Written also orchal and orchil.]
Ar7chiOlo6chiOan (?), a. [L. Archilochius.] Of or pertaining
to the satiric Greek poet Archilochus; as, Archilochian
Ar6chiOmage (?), X Ar7chiOma6gus (?), } n. [NL.; pref.
archiO + L. magus, Gr. ?, a Magian.] 1. The high priest of
the Persian Magi, or worshipers of fire.
2. A great magician, wizard, or enchanter.
Ar7chiOman6drite (?), n. [L. archimandrita, LGr. ?; pref. ?
(E. archO) + ? an inclosed space, esp. for cattle, a fold, a
monastery.] (Gr. Church) (a) A chief of a monastery,
corresponding to abbot in the Roman Catholic church. (b) A
superintendent of several monasteries, corresponding to
superior abbot, or father provincial, in the Roman Catholic
Ar7chiOmeOde6an (?), a. [L. Archimedeus.] Of or pertaining
to Archimedes, a celebrated Greek philosopher; constructed
on the principle of Archimedes' screw; as, Archimedean
drill, propeller, etc.
w screw, or Archimedes' screw, an instrument, said to have
been invented by Archimedes, for raising water, formed by
winding a flexible tube round a cylinder in the form of a
screw. When the screw is placed in an inclined position, and
the lower end immersed in water, by causing the screw to
revolve, the water is raised to the upper end.
X Ar7chiOme6des (?), n. (Paleon.) An extinct genus of Bryzoa
characteristic of the subcarboniferous rocks. Its form is
that of a screw.
Arch6ing (?), n. 1. The arched part of a structure.
2. (Naut.) Hogging; P opposed to sagging.
Ar7chiOpeOlag6ic (?), a. Of or pertaining to an archipelago.
Ar7chiOpel6aOgo , n.; pl. Ogoes or Ogos (?). [It.
arcipelago, properly, chief sea; Gr. pref ? + ? sea, perh.
akin to ? blow, and expressing the beating of the waves. See
1. The Grecian Archipelago, or gean Sea, separating Greece
from Asia Minor. It is studded with a vast number of small
2. Hence: Any sea or broad sheet of water interspersed with
many islands or with a group of islands.

<-- p. 79 -->

X ArOchip7teOryg6iOum (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. pref. ? (E.
archO) + ? wing, fin.] (Anat.) The primitive form of fin,
like that of Ceratodus.
Ar6chiOtect (?), n. [L. architectus, architecton, Gr. ?
chief artificer, master builder; pref. ? (E. archiO) + ?
workman, akin to ? art, skill, ? to produce: cf. F.
architecte, It. architetto. See Technical.] 1. A person
skilled in the art of building; one who understands
architecture, or makes it his occupation to form plans and
designs of buildings, and to superintend the artificers
2. A contriver, designer, or maker.
The architects of their own happiness.
A French woman is a perfect architect in dress.
Ar7chiOtec6tive (?), a. Used in building; proper for
Ar7chiOtecOton6ic (?), Ar7chiOtecOton6icOal (?), } a. [L.
architectonicus, Gr. ?. See Architect.] 1. Pertaining to a
master builder, or to architecture; evincing skill in
designing or construction; constructive. =Architectonic
These architectonic functions which we had hitherto thought
J. C. Shairp.
2. Relating to the systemizing of knowledge.
Ar7chiOtecOton6ic, n. [Cf. F. architectonique.] 1. The
science of architecture.
2. The act of arranging knowledge into a system.
Ar7chiOtecOton6ics, n. The science of architecture.
Ar6chiOtec7tor (?), n. An architect. [Obs.]
Ar6chiOtec7tress (?), n. A female architect.
Ar7chiOtec6turOal (?), a. Of or pertaining to the art of
building; conformed to the rules of architecture. P
Ar7chiOtec6turOalOly, adv.
Ar6chiOtec7ture (?; 135), n. [L. architectura, fr.
architectus: cf. F. architecture. See Architect.] 1. The art
or science of building; especially, the art of building
houses, churches, bridges, and other structures, for the
purposes of civil life; P often called civil architecture.
2. A method or style of building, characterized by certain
peculiarities of structure, ornamentation, etc.
Many other architectures besides Gothic.
3. Construction, in a more general sense; frame or
structure; workmanship.
The architecture of grasses, plants, and trees.
The formation of the first earth being a piece of divine
Military ~, the art of fortifications. P Naval ~, the art of
building ships.
X Ar7chiOteu6this (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. pref. ? + ?, ?, a
kind of squid.] (Zol.) A genus of gigantic cephalopods,
allied to the squids, found esp. in the North Atlantic and
about New Zealand.
Ar6chiOtrave (?), n. [F. architrave, fr. It. architrave;
pref. archiO + trave beam, L. trabs.] (Arch.) (a) The lower
division of an entablature, or that part which rests
immediately on the column, esp. in classical architecture.
See Column. (b) The group of moldings, or other
architectural member, above and on both sides of a door or
other opening, especially if square in form.
Ar6chiOtraved (?), a. Furnished with an architrave.
Ar6chiOval (?), a. Pertaining to, or contained in, archives
or records.
Ar6chive (?), n. ; pl. Archives (?). [F. archives, pl., L.
archivum, archium, fr. Gr. ? government house, ? ? archives,
fr. ? the first place, government. See ArchiO, pref.] 1. pl.
The place in which public records or historic documents are
Our words.... become records in God's court, and are ?aid up
in his archives as witnesses.
Gov. of Tongue.
2. pl. Public records or documents preserved as evidence of
facts; as, the archives of a country or family.
[Rarely used in sing.]
Some rotten archive, rummaged out of some seldom explored
Syn. - Registers; records; chronicles.
Ar6chiOvist (?), n. [F. archiviste.] A keeper of archives or
records. [R.]
Ar6chiOvolt (?), n. [F. archivolte, fr. It. archivolto;
pref. archiO + volto vault, arch. See Vault.] (Arch.) (a)
The architectural member surrounding the curved opening of
an arch, corresponding to the architrave in the case of a
square opening. (b) More commonly, the molding or other
ornaments with which the wall face of the voussoirs of an
arch is charged.
Arch6lute (?), Arch6iOlute (?), } n. [Cf. F. archiluth, It.
arciliuto.] (Mus.) A large theorbo, or doublePnecked lute,
formerly in use, having the bass strings doubled with an
octave, and the higher strings with a unison.
Arch6ly (?), adv. In an arch manner; with attractive slyness
or roguishness; slyly; waggishly.
Archly the maiden smiled.
Arch7mar6shal (?), n. [G. erzmarschall. See ArchO, pref.]
The grand marshal of the old German empire, a dignity that
to the Elector of Saxony.
Arch6ness, n. The quality of being arch; cleverness; sly
humor free from malice; waggishness.
Ar6chon (?), n. [L. archon, Gr. ?, ?, ruler, chief
magistrate, p. pr. of ? to be first, to rule.] (Antiq.) One
of the chief magistrates in ancient Athens, especially, by
pre minence, the first of the nine chief magistrates. P
ArOchon6tic (?), a.
Ar6chonOship, n. The office of an archon.
Ar6chonOtate (?), n. [Cf. F. archontat.] An archon's term of
Ar6chonts (?), n. pl. [Gr. ?, p. pr. See Archon.] (Zol.)
The group including man alone.
Arch7prel6ate (?), n. [Pref. archO + prelate.] An archbishop
or other chief prelate.
Arch7pres6byOter (?), n. Same as Archpriest.
Arch7pres6byOterOy (?), n. [Pref. archO + presbutery.] The
absolute dominion of presbytery.
Arch7priest6 (?), n. A chief priest; also, a kind of vicar,
or a rural dean.
Arch7pri6mate (?), n. [Pref. archO + primate.] The chief
Arch6 stone7 (?). A wedgePshaped stone used in an arch; a
Arch7trai6tor (?), n. [Pref. archO + traitor.] A chief or
transcendent traitor.
I. Watts.
Arch7treas6urOer (?; 135), n. [Pref. archO + treasurer.] A
chief treasurer. Specifically, the great treasurer of the
German empire.
Arch6way (?), n. A way or passage under an arch.
Arch7wife6 (?), n. [Pref. archO + wife.] A big, masculine
wife. [Obs.]
Arch6wise (?), adv. ArchPshaped.
Arch6y (?), a. Arched; as, archy brows.
Oar6chy (?). [Gr. ?, fr. ? chief. See ArchO, pref.] A suffix
properly meaning a rule, ruling, as in monarchy, the rule of
one only. Cf. Oarch.
Ar6ciOform (?), a. [L. arcus bow + Oform.] Having the form
of an arch; curved.
Arc6oOgraph (?), n. [L. arcus (E. arc) + Ograph.] An
instrument for drawing a circular arc without the use of a
central point; a cyclograph.
ArcOta6tion (?), n. [L. arctus shut in, narrow, p. p. of
arcere to shut in: cf. F. arctation.] (Med.) Constriction or
contraction of some natural passage, as in constipation from
Arc6tic (?), a. [OE. artik, OF. artique, F. arctique, L.
arcticus, fr. Gr. ?, fr. ? a bear, also a northern
constellation so called; akin to L. ursus bear, Skr. ?ksha.]
Pertaining to, or situated under, the northern constellation
called the Bear; northern; frigid; as, the arctic pole,
circle, region, ocean; an arctic expedition, night,
5 The arctic circle is a lesser circle, parallel to the
equator, 23o 287
from the north pole. This and the antarctic circle are
called the polar circles, and between these and the poles
lie the frigid zones. See Zone.
Arc6tic, n. 1. The arctic circle.
2. A warm waterproof overshoe. [U.S.]
X ArcOtis6ca (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. ? bear.] (Zol.) A
group of Arachnida. See Illust. in Appendix.
Arc7toOge6al (?), a. [Gr. ? the north + ?, ?, country.]
(Zol.) Of or pertaining to arctic lands; as, the arctogeal
X ArcOtoid6eOa (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. ? bear + Ooid.]
(Zol.) A group of the Carnivora, that includes the bears,
weasels, etc.
ArcOtu6rus (?), n. [L. Arcturus, Gr. ? bearward, equiv. to
?; ? bear + ? ward, guard. See Arctic.] (Anat.) A fixed star
of the first magnitude in the constellation Botes.
5 Arcturus has sometimes been incorrectly used as the name
of the constellation, or even of Ursa Major.
Canst thou guide Arcturus with his sons [Rev. Ver.: =the
Bear with her train8].
Job xxxviii. 32.
Arc6uOal (?), a. Of or pertaining to an arc.
w measure of an angle (Math.), that which the unit angle has
its measuring arc equal to the radius of the circle.
Arc6uOate (?), Arc6uOa7ted (?)(?), } a. [L. arcuatus, p. p.
of arcuare to shape like a bow, fr. arcus. See Arc.] Bent or
curved in the form of a bow. =Arcuate stalks.8
Arc6uOateOly (?), adv. In the form of a bow.
Arc7uOa6tion (?), n. [L. arcuatio.] 1. The act of bending or
curving; incurvation; the state of being bent; crookedness.
2. (Hort.) A mode of propagating trees by bending branches
to the ground, and covering the small shoots with earth;
Ar6cuObaOlist (?), n. [See Arbalist.] A crossbow.
Ar7cuObal6istOer (?), n. [L. arcuballistarius. Cf.
Arbalister.] A crossbowman; one who used the arcubalist.
Ar6cuObus (?), n. See Arquebus. [Obs.]
Oard, Oart. The termination of many English words; as,
coward, reynard, drunkard, mostly from the French, in which
language this ending is of German origin, being orig. the
same word as English hard. It usually has the sense of one
who has to a high or excessive degree the quality expressed
by the root; as, braggart, sluggard.
X ArOdas6sine (?), n. [F. (cf. Sp. ardacina), fr. ardasse a
kind of silk thread, fr. Ar. & Per. ardan a kind of raw
silk.] A very fine sort of Persian silk.
Ar6denOcy (?), n. 1. Heat. [R.]
Sir T. Herbert.
2. Warmth of passion or affection; ardor; vehemence;
eagerness; as, the ardency of love or zeal.
Ar6dent (?), a. [OE. ardaunt, F. ardant, p. pr. of arder to
burn, fr. L. ardere.] 1. Hot or burning; causing a sensation
of burning; fiery; as, ardent spirits, that is, distilled
liquors; an ardent fever.
2.Having the appearance or quality of fire; fierce;
glowing; shining; as, ardent eyes.
3. Warm, applied to the passions and affections; passionate;
fervent; zealous; vehement; as, ardent love, feelings, zeal,
hope, temper.
An ardent and impetuous race.
Syn. - Burning; hot; fiery; glowing; intense; fierce;
vehement; eager; zealous; keen; fervid; fervent; passionate;
Ar6dentOly (?), adv. In an ardent manner; eagerly; with
warmth; affectionately; passionately.
Ar6dentOness, n. Ardency. [R.]
Ar6dor (?), n. [L. ardor, fr. ardere to burn: cf. OF. ardor,
ardur, F. ardeur.] [Spelt also ardour.] 1. Heat, in a
literal sense; as, the ardor of the sun's rays.
2. Warmth or heat of passion or affection; eagerness; zeal;
as, he pursues study with ardor; the fought with ardor;
martial ardor.
3. pl. Bright and effulgent spirits; seraphim. [Thus used by
Syn. - Fervor; warmth; eagerness. See Fervor.
Ar6duOous (?; 135), a. [L. arduus steep, high; akin to Ir.
ard high, height.] 1. Steep and lofty, in a literal sense;
hard to climb.
Those arduous pats they trod.
2. Attended with great labor, like the ascending of
acclivities; difficult; laborious; as, an arduous
employment, task, or enterprise.
Syn. - Difficult; trying; laborious; painful; exhausting. P
Arduous, Hard, Difficult. Hard is simpler, blunter, and more
general in sense than difficult; as, a hard duty to perform,
hard work, a hard task, one which requires much bodily
effort and perseverance to do. Difficult commonly implies
more skill and sagacity than hard, as when there is
disproportion between the means and the end. A work may be
hard but not difficult. We call a thing arduous when it
requires strenuous and persevering exertion, like that of
one who is climbing a precipice; as, an arduous task, an
arduous duty. =It is often difficult to control our
feelings; it is still harder to subdue our will; but it is
an arduous undertaking to control the unruly and contending
will of others.8
Ar6duOousOly, adv. In an arduous manner; with difficulty or
Ar6duOousOness, n. The quality of being arduous; difficulty
of execution.
Ar6duOrous (?), a. Burning; ardent. [R.]
Lo! further on,
Where flames the arduous Spirit of Isidore.
Are (?). [AS. (Northumbrian) aron, akin to the 1st pers. pl.
forms, Icel. erum, Goth. sijum, L. sumus, Gr. ?, Skr. smas;
all from a root as. ? See Am and Is, and cf. Be.] The
present indicative plural of the substantive verb to be; but
etymologically a different word from be, or was. Am, art,
are, and is, all come from the root as.
Are (?), n. [F., fr. L. area. See Area.] (Metric system) The
unit of superficial measure, being a square of which each
side is ten meters in length; 100 square meters, or about
119.6 square yards.
A6reOa (?; 277), n. pl. Areas (?). [L. area a broad piece of
level gro???. Cf. Are, n.] 1. Any plane surface, as of the
floor of a room or church, or of the ground within an
inclosure; an open space in a building.
The Alban lake... looks like the area of some vast
2. The inclosed space on which a building stands.
3. The sunken space or court, giving ingress and affording
light to the basement of a building.
4. An extent of surface; a tract of the earth's surface; a
region; as, vast uncultivated areas.
5. (Geom.) The superficial contents of any figure; the
surface included within any given lines; superficial extent;
as, the area of a square or a triangle.
6. (Biol.) A spot or small marked space; as, the germinative
7. Extent; scope; range; as, a wide area of thought.
The largest area of human history and man's common nature.
F. Harrison.
Dry ~. See under Dry.
AOread6, AOreed6 } (?), v. t. [OE. areden, AS. >r?dan to
interpret. See Read.] 1. To tell, declare, explain, or
interpret; to divine; to guess; as, to aread a riddle or a
dream. [Obs.]
Therefore more plain aread this doubtful case.
2. To read. [Obs.]
3. To counsel, advise, warn, or direct.
But mark what I aread thee now. Avaunt!
4. To decree; to adjudge. [Archaic]
Ld. Lytton.
A6reOal (?), a. [Cf. L. arealis, fr. area.] Of or pertaining
to an area; as, areal interstices (the areas or spaces
inclosed by the reticulate vessels of leaves).
AOrear6 (?), v. t. & i. [AS. >r?ran. See Rear.] To raise; to
set up; to stir up. [Obs.]
AOrear6, adv. [See Arrear, adv.] Backward; in or to the
rear; behindhand.
X AOre6ca (?), n. [Canarese adiki: cf. Pg. & Sp. areca.]
(Bot.) A genus of palms, one species of which produces the ~
nut, or betel nut, which is chewed in India with the leaf of
the Piper Betle and lime.
AOreek6 (?), adv. & a. [Pref. aO + reek.] In a reeking
Ar7eOfac6tion (?), n. [L. arefacere to dry.] The act of
drying, or the state of growing dry.
The arefaction of the earth.
Sir M. Hale.
Ar6eOfy (?), v. t. [L. arere to be dry + Ofly.] To dry, or
make dry.
AOre6na (?), n.; pl. E. Arenas (?); L. Aren (?). [L. arena,
harena, sand, a sandy place.] 1. (Rom. Antiq.) The area in
the central part of an amphitheater, in which the gladiators
fought and other shows were exhibited; P so called because
it was covered with sand.

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